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Name : Gina Marcela Prez Romero/ 20092165009/ March 27 th 2012 What is the best way to speak English?

1) Title: Teaching public speaking skills to ESOL students: with proper planning, says Doug Evans, teachers can help students develop their verbal English skills and confidence Author(s): Doug Evans Source: ESL Magazine. .73 (January-February 2010): p9. Document Type: Article Full Text:

One of the most important skills that students can learn is to speak effectively in front of an audience. For many people it is also one of the most intimidating. As ESOL teachers, we are in a powerful position to help our students learn critical skills such as public speaking while simultaneously becoming proficient in other areas of their language development. In spite of the advantages (both social and business) of being able to speak well to an audience, in many cultures this is something that is rarely if ever addressed directly in school There are two main challenges to overcome: First, students are not proficient in English. It is difficult enough to address an audience in your native tongue but the challenge becomes even greater when speaking in an additional language. A natural lack of confidence in using it can interfere with fluency and poise when confronting an audience. Second, many students come from cultures where they have never been taught to speak in front of an audience. Public speaking practice and expectations may be different from country to country and students may think it natural and correct to use few gestures or display minimal voice inflection.

Title: The role of developmental levels in examining the effect of subject types on the production of auxiliary is in young English-speaking children Author(s): Ling-Yu Guo , J. Bruce Tomblin and Amanda J. Owen Van Horne Source: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 54.6 (Dec. 2011): p1658. Document Type: Report DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2011/10-0140) Abstract:

Purpose: Prior work (Guo, Owen, & Tomblin, 2010) has shown that at the group level, auxiliary is production by young English-speaking children was symmetrical across lexical noun and pronominal subjects. Individual data did not uniformly reflect these patterns. On the basis of the framework of the gradual morphosyntactic learning (GML) hypothesis, the authors tested whether the addition of a theoretically motivated developmental measure, tense productivity (TP), could assist in explaining these individual differences.

Method: Using archival data from 20 children between age 2;8 and 3;4 (years;months), the authors tested the ability of 3 developmental measures (TP; finite verb morphology composite, FVMC; mean length of utterance, MLU) to predict use of auxiliary is with different subject types.

Results: TP, but not MLU or FVMC, significantly improved model fit. Children with low TP scores produced auxiliary is more accurately with pronominal subjects than with lexical subjects. The facilitative effect of pronominal subjects on the production of auxiliary is, however, was not found in children with high TP scores.

Conclusion: The finding that the effect of subject types on the production accuracy of auxiliary is changed with children's TP is consistent with the GML hypothesis.

Title: Formulaic sequences and L2 oral proficiency: does the type of target language influence the association? Author(s): Frank Boers , June Eyckmans , Alex Housen and Helene Stengers Source: IRAL - International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching. 49.4 (Nov. 2011): p321. Document Type: Report DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/iral.2011.017 Abstract:

This paper investigates the extent to which productive use of formulaic sequences by intermediate students of two typologically different languages, i.e., English and Spanish, is associated with their oral proficiency in these languages. Previous research (e.g., Boers et al. 2006) has shown that appropriate use of formulaic sequences helps learners of English come across as fluent and idiomatic speakers. The evidence from the present study, which was conducted with the participation of Dutch-speaking students of English and Spanish, confirms that finding, as oral proficiency assessments based on re-tell tasks correlated positively with the number of formulaic sequences the students used in these tasks. The correlations were strongest in the English language samples, however. It seems that the greater incidence of morphological-inflectional errors in our participants' spoken Spanish dampens the contribution that using formulaic sequences tends to make to their oral proficiency (as perceived by our assessors). The findings are discussed with reference to typological differences between L1 and L2