Reson ante
Properties
of
Ring
Circuifs
51
g14 .
4gr?
Since gls gO, all to Just
holvever,
If
one
and the
nonlinearity ductance, circle this can be shown to and case the there
barrier
of the
points negative
inside
the
0.5~gz+&Cz. lowfrequency
special IF
correspond ceptable. IF
~Tote,
unacnegative
is no
negative
as in the is not
that one
conductance
not be
met
LO voltage
knowledge,
wavethe
symmetrical. case
authors
TV = (go +
g.) + (b. +
gag12
@co) ..
(47)
general
although of this
restriction
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
w Ibid
{3 H. Q. North, et al., IVelcled Germanium Contract OEMsr262, Order No. DIC 178554; Crystals, GE Rep., September 20, 1945.
The
author
wishes and
to thank
A.
Brodzinsky
for
his
en
couragement
helpful
discussions.
Resonance
Properties
FRIEDRICH J.
of Ring
TISCHER~
Circuits*
ring
guide
circuit, ends
the tion
form with
of wave
propagation to which
within it
the
ring,
interacand its
having within
to form
to those
wlhen is produce
the ring
guide,
properties
produce that
traveling obtained
direction to
are investigated
excited
of rectangular
section
in both
directions.
IN TIIE RING
PROPAGATION
@tculr
WHEN
INTRODUCTION
COUPLED walls have, at wavethe cirThe guide matically in one used. types coupling and In cept, consists of a wavein which This within coupling flected symmetry The those form describe tion and ferent are the ports of the a ring the the system to which in Fig. direction When under a ring only
c
cuits circuits They circuited lates waves cance guide waves circuit
ES
with
of the
geometrical
sizes,
as resonant
1. In order in the
progressing
inductances useful
frequencies.
cavities
filter
microwave
progressing by
as waveguide electromagnetic magnetic vector Poynting cavity. circuitl to form onlv Poynting of the
short oscil
of coupling two nondirectional the following element, and traveling plane of the are wave
directional
of &/4
between and
Standing of signifi
coupling derivation the while from Fig. guide main 3 and waves
conthe reThe
h indicates
.4 new
of microwave
waves
connected by a real
element. 1 and
progressing guide
are excited,
AA.,
as phase
is characterized cavity.
the ring
including
secondary
* Manuscript received by the PGMTT, June 14, 1956. The reported work was performed under Contract Tu 19004. t Dept. of Elec. En<., Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio. Formerly at Res. Labs., Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Ala. 1 F. J. Tischer, Swedish Patent No. 152,491; August 26, 1952.
propagation
p~~ at
ports
reference
to plane
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IRE TRANSACTIONS
ON MICROWAVE
THEORY
AND
TECHNIQUES
January
h3 = v4.e~
lz4 = Y3. e~.
(3)
part the Thus, (4) P are the attenureal being part the the
~ is a complex
phase delay attenuation
@= where ation
L is the circumference
and phase (3) constants and (2) yields:
of the ring
guide,
respectively.
Combining
?3(1
kh(l
r3 = hl
and
Te~) + k,poe~
(6)
(1 Te@)2 p02e2@
(7)
(1
(b) coupling.
Te$)2 po2e2@
VI and rz may pi. guide be found. and are the From trans
are these
obtained. values,
coefficient main
mission The can wave propagation in general in the by region the of the junction equation be described following
coefficient ?1
T12 in the
~in==po+ hl
(9)
cir
of de
progressing
only
po,
and
conditions by
T ~m = Tmn
and TIZ =
where
coupling. coupling
be expressed
for
k,= O
directional
kfi = k, = k
nondirectional
coupling. T~4 =
and
T,
k,
T14 = T2Z = k,
for the obtains the with waves elethese
For
directional
coupling,
kfi
in
in the
the
two
coupling
(lo)
secondary
describes
the
complex for
wave
in the
ring
guide. element.
This follow
relafrom There
tion the
is obtained properties
k,=
of a directional
(2)
fore,
r4 =
Y4 = krhl +
where The with
o,
pin = O
(11)
and
h2 is made
ring a length guide
of port 3 and
2. 4 k~e~
of guide
T12=T+
1 Te6
(12)
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1957
Consideration gives of
Tischer:
thenondirectional~case~
Resonance
(k~=k. =k)
Properties
of Ring
Circuifs
Legend I . Dkectional
53
II andllI
Coupling (q=O.3,06)
RN=:=;=
1 and
1
(13)
Ek.Non
 Directional
(po+
T)e$
182
1,0
#\ ~ ,
Q a
$ ae $ ~ 0,6
L z ~ ijj 0,.4 cc t / / / t 1 I
I I I
I
TM = T + 2kze@
1 (PO+ T)e$
be seen wave They and a part the main that the
(15)
(15),
relaby in all
of the
is coupled to the
8
6
4
2
main the
guide, properties
interaction
determines
FREQIJENCY
DEPENDENCE IN THE
WAVE
AMPLITUDE
Calculation directional
r~onshows
The
resonance the
be
obtained guide
by as a values of
that
it is small
in magnitude
and
approximately
a pure mainly in
ring
RN were
frequencies.
CASE OF SEMIDIRECTIONAL COUPLING
determined. constants,
b = 2~/h~ Interesting the two relations are defined obtained by the if the coupling factors in directions, coupling
gives 1
kh
RD =
1 _
and (16)
directional.
semi
TeaLei ? A,,
73= 1k7A [1 _ (T+
and
1
l(T$ipO)e
,19,
Po)ed][l
(T
p~e+]
RAT=
1
(17)
Eq.
(19)
has
two
poles
and
a zero the
plane. with
equations
show results
a form (19)
of
containing I through
condition for didouble shown. when coupled direction. wherein coefficient (Fig by 4). introa a
resented conditions
l~o~..l =3(1 I TI ). Ordinary rectional and nondirectional peak A response similar circuit analyze for double is with this semidirectional peak waves case, the to can
resonance coupling
coupling
(18)
discontinuity ring To
introduced
a directionally is made
the x equals
value
I R]
vs frequency
3. Resonance A,.
deviation occurs
symmetrical
discontinuity opposite
a resonance a. multiple
as I in Fig. guide
pl is placed
The ducing
L then
discontinuity
be taken
of the
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54
IRE TRANSACTIONS
ON
MICROWAVE
THEORY
AND
TECHNIQUES
series for frequencies near
January
resonance.
terms This
of a Taylors yields 1
a +
iae{x
AL
(25)
R
Use AAI,2 of by this simplified real relation and allows imaginary determination parts of of (25).
equating
Therefore, la = a 1 (26)
+Akl,t
dx
&
h, ~
r, +circuit
\
;A
with
where
Introduction
r2
~ (PJ.. ~
//L
Ahl,z
+=
la a
A,., () A Q res
(27)
Fig, 4Ring
disconti.n.uity//
+ +
n >

A,,s
~L
[r3m
r~(l r,(l
p,)
]e$
[r4p~
pJe@
(20) + pl)e~] +
+
kh[l
pOple~ T(l
Tple*]
(21)
[1
pople+ T(I
pJe]2
Tp~e]
The
corresponding
relation
for
rh can For
be the
by
is valid to
for the
both coupling
coupling
conditions the
of the following
ring correre
kk and where
k, in (21).
of direcbe sim
If a is replaced conditions,
by the values
T(l
Directional
a=l
a = ] TI eL
Tl(laL)
= I TI (1 aL)
k]
[1 of (22)
Te$] and
[1 (19)
shows
that
similar circuits.
*.
Ares
Nondirectional
AA1,2
l+cYL ITI
)(
a = I T+po
22
)
\ eL
28)
coupling:
deviations symmetrical.
THE
*= A res
@VALUE OF RESONANT RING CIRCUITS
1+.L
( ] +pO/ 1 )( ~:::, ) 2 ;,
where qual
~ is
the
resonant (28)
phase and
constant. (29)
The
the
circuit be
is used by by of
the
are measures
values
by reducing condition,
I T] 1).
decreases
according
(30)
is valid for both types of coupling, giving for the Q value
R is
Uei..
(23)
(31)
R
For resonance, x = 2r, 47r, . . . n27r,
1 =Ia
This (24)
unloaded
Q value concept
can
also applied
be obtained to the
directly of
R rea
is obtained attenuation (1 a) <<1, where in (23) a = I TI eL the can ring be or \ T+po and I eL. loose by the For first small
energy According
definition
to this
definition
guide
coupling two
(32)
approximated
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195?
where tent power u = 2nj, of the
Tischer:
Resonance
energy
Properties
conThe
of Ring
Circuits
55
Wtot corresponds
and
to the power
total
circuit,
Pd to the
dissip~ted.
dissipated F~ =
in a guide
of length e)
are
L is
~
2aLPin
(33)
for
small
crL, where
the input by
the
powers The
cross
as the in the
Vg,. Thus
Fig.
5Prototype
wavegui,~e
introducing
gives which the ring bending from which neglected. The Q value of a and of a ring guide is given by (31). are The values ~ for a rectangular waveguide relates guide. of the resonant Eq. (33) wavelength to the dimensions in which of the slots of the are
guides
(35)
By both
of ~ = 27r/&, the
(31)
In the
assumption
attenuation nance.
insignificantly
of reso
and EXPERIMENTAL WITH The ring guide INVESTIGATION RECTANGULAR permits design without type of in the OF A RING WAVEGUIDE of a circuit use of sliding of ring variable form circuit width of a ring section disks. is with shorts comprising shown consists variaand a in of into groove radial in the rotation thus The The the form factor of the of with choice the m showing ring guide. normalized the In dependence Fig. in diagram Q value be noted of Q on the the as a guide permits which that circular corresponds waves. in Fig. in Fig. values The .5 are 7. geometry function ho/h, the
J
4
CIRCUIT
ble resonant capacity rectangular Fig. two .5. The grooves walls half
a is the and
width, (31)
b the
yields
constant related
height to that
of of
plungers.
guide,
conductivity
Introduction
cross metallic
adjacent forms
thick
of the
E vector
axial
are excited. The head results a change of width guide h~, and
is movable by
direction.
(38)
in a variation be expressed
wavelength
6, m is shown
wavelength.
wavelength
Ao/b as the
of dimensions proportional
comparable
dimensions low loss using that the TEO1 shown (38) circuit
a form
where and
a is the n the
width, of with
L the
respect
of the
guide,
number
wavelengths
circumference.
Normalization
into
account
measured
.
IRE TRANSACTIONS
ON
MICROWAVE
THEORY
AND
TECHNIQUES
CONCLUSION
January
8
m
the The essential conventional with
between cavity
the
ring
circuit
and to the
directionally
standing
waves.
Interesting
introduction coupled
directionally is
ring. by
0,2 ~
Fig. 6Dependence
0/4 J?& Ag
0,6
0,8
the
characterized
a doublepeaked as a microwave
nance. The resonant whereby Thus variation the ring multiple width uniformly
it is useful immediate
application
is accomplished length may be of the electrical at of guide length resonance. the employed,
changed. around
permitting
wavelength can An be
made
41
adjusting
the guide of the tuning. ring, Since higher Multiple for for two the used of the frequency form at extremely
over
attenuation, Q values.
higher
when
guide of
is adjusted
41
T
I
L@~lld
those
standingwave adjustable
1,,Calculated Volues TI. Meosured Volues,Nm43irectkwl OYJ@irq III Measured VOIUW.,Oirechonql Coupling
application The
stabilization.
KMC
10
fabrication, quencies.
especially
FREQUENCY
and measured values of the halfpower for prototype shown in Fig. 5. The W. J. author Lindberg in checking work. model. for
ACKNOWLEDGMENT wishes his the J. to express in the his thanks and and to Capt. of in the tested this exthe
help derived
composition
to the unloaded
loaded Q, the
Q while agreement
the
calculation is considered
is
paper,
relations, designed
perimental experimental
Copeland
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