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Tischer:

Reson ante

Properties

of

Ring

Circuifs

51

g14 .
4gr?
Since gls gO, all to Just
holvever,

If

one

sets the radius

go= gl =g for both is center

and the

CO= Cl = C, i.e., capacitance is at Thus, cutoff 0,5 in for circle

maximum and g, 0.5 this conaC

nonlinearity ductance, circle this can be shown to and case the there

barrier

of the

points negative

inside

the

0.5~gz+&Cz. low-frequency

special IF

correspond ceptable. IF
~Tote,

ga, and broad-band obtained of the

is physically case, then32

unacnegative

is no

negative

as in the is not
that one

conductance. When by g6 is not negative, W is of interest and is given

conductance

with a linear capacitor. ~onditiolls, which is Cer. the

tainly form more there

not be

met

in practice, To has not

is that the been

LO voltage
knowledge,

wavethe

symmetrical. case

authors

TV = (go +

g.) + (b. +
gag12

@co) ..

(47)

general

investigated, that picture. relaxation

although of this

is experimental will not

evidence33 change the

restriction

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

w Ibid
{3 H. Q. North, et al., IVelcled Germanium Contract OEMsr-262, Order No. DIC 178554; Crystals, GE Rep., September 20, 1945.

The

author

wishes and

to thank

A.

Brodzinsky

for

his

en-

couragement

helpful

discussions.

Resonance

Properties
FRIEDRICH J.

of Ring
TISCHER~

Circuits*

Summarg-The consisting annular cavities. ring, Wave has

ring

guide

or ring the similar

circuit, ends

a microwave connected of ordinary circuit were

device an with circuit found to resonant

the tion

form with

of wave

propagation to which

within it

the

ring,

interacand its

of a waveguide properties propagation in this guide

having within

to form

a waveguide are to with investigated.

is coupled, performance in one

to those

Q-value, excited compared waves


WAVE

Circuit waves when

wlhen is produce

the ring

guide,

its interaction of a prototype

a waveguide consisting agree with

to which of a ring theory.

it is coupled, report. The

and its resonant properties cross

properties

produce that

traveling obtained

direction to

are investigated

excited

of rectangular

section

in both

directions.
IN TIIE RING

PROPAGATION

@tculr

WHEN

INTRODUCTION

COUPLED walls have, at wavethe cirThe guide matically in one used. types coupling and In cept, consists of a wavein which This within coupling flected symmetry The those form describe tion and ferent are the ports of the a ring the the system to which in Fig. direction When under a ring only

TO A WAVEGUIDE investigation guide consists of a wavescheis

c
cuits circuits They circuited lates waves cance guide waves circuit

AWTI lengths same

ES

with

conducting order of their

of the

geometrical

sizes,

is coupled to obtain ring, directional

as shown waves coupling

electromagnetic of capacitances Therefore,

properties and are at

as resonant

1. In order in the

progressing

consisting and can

inductances useful

at lower as resonant frequencies.

frequencies.

cavities

nondirectional in both directions are holes shown spaced

coupling are in by Fig.

is applied, obtained. 2, i.e., hole. the to wave toward These

waves two apart

filter

elements end. The

microwave

progressing by

also be considered at each the electric and

as waveguide electromagnetic magnetic vector Poynting cavity. circuitl to form onlv Poynting of the

sections energy states. are

short oscil-

of coupling two nondirectional the following element, and traveling plane of the are wave

directional

a distance a single based on progressing

of &/4

between and

Standing of signifi-

coupling derivation the while from Fig. guide main 3 and waves

an imaginary point the in the ends

conthe reThe

at any type having

h indicates

.4 new

of microwave

Y corresponds the coupling are will 2, is used which other in the

waves

connected by a real

a ring vector circuit,

element. 1 and

progressing guide

in one direction Properties

are excited,

AA.,

as phase

reference. 2, while to juncports difwhich

is characterized cavity.

waveguide 4. The coefficients coefficients

the ring

including

secondary

be connected of the four the

parameters region the

* Manuscript received by the PGMTT, June 14, 1956. The reported work was performed under Contract Tu 1-9004. t Dept. of Elec. En<., Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio. Formerly at Res. Labs., Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Ala. 1 F. J. Tischer, Swedish Patent No. 152,491; August 26, 1952.

propagation

reflection . . transmission with

p~~ at

T~,,, between AA.

ports

reference

to plane

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IRE TRANSACTIONS

ON MICROWAVE

THEORY

AND

TECHNIQUES

January

h3 = v4.e~
lz4 = Y3. e~.

(3)
part the Thus, (4) P are the attenureal being part the the

~ is a complex
phase delay attenuation

quantity, around along the this

the ring path (a+

imaginary guide and

in nepers. ifl)L and a and

@= where ation

L is the circumference
and phase (3) constants and (2) yields:

of the ring

guide,

respectively.

Combining

?-3(1

Te~) = kkhl + pO~4e@ (5)

?l(l Te@) = k,hl + porse$.


Solving for r~ and r4,

kh(l

r3 = hl
and

Te~) + k,poe~

(6)

(1 Te-@)2 p02e-2@

k,,(l Te@)+ k~poe~


94 = Izl

(7)
(1

(a) Fig. 2Coupling conditions. (b) Non-directional (a) Directional coupling.

(b) coupling.

Te-$)2 po2e-2@
VI and rz may pi. guide be found. and are the From trans-

are these

obtained. values,

Similarly, the reflection

coefficient main

mission The can wave propagation in general in the by region the of the junction equation be described following

coefficient ?1

T12 in the

systems: rl = y2 = pllhl + Tlzk?z + T13h3 + T14h4 and

~in==po+ hl

2krkfi(l Te@)e@+(kr2+k~2)poe2~ (8) (1 Te-~) 2Po2e-~

T21h1+ p2zh2+ TZ3h~+ T24h4 (1) T12=:=T+


These elements cuit It wave Pll = P22 = P33 = p44 = one pend for relations as a resonant is necessary propagation, direction, on the

73 = T31h1+ T32h2+ p3~h3+ T34h4 ~4 = T41h1 + T42h2+ T4ah3+ p44h4,


The yields assumption of symmetry of the coupling

2k.kfiPOe-2~+ (kr2+ kk2)(1 Te@)e-@ . (1 Te-@)po2e-2@


describe filter. to distinguish namely, standing They and waves waves. can between These two cases in the properties of the ring

(9)
cir-

of de-

progressing

only

po,

and

conditions by

T ~m = Tmn
and TIZ =
where

coupling. coupling

be expressed
for

k,= O

directional

kfi = k, = k

nondirectional

coupling. T~4 =
and

T,
k,

T13 = TZ4 = kh,


are coupling .directions guide. factors from One

T14 = T2Z = k,
for the obtains the with waves elethese

For

directional

coupling,

kfi
in

traveling ment values

in the

the

two

coupling

(lo)

secondary

describes

the

complex for

wave

in the

ring

guide. element.

This follow

relafrom There-

?1= p~hl + khhs + k,hd YZ= Thl + krh3 + k@l


Y3 =

tion the

is obtained properties

k,=

O and p.= O which


coupling

of a directional

khhl + poh3 + Th4 Ths + poh~

(2)

fore,
r4 =

Y4 = krhl +
where The with

o,

pin = O

(11)

and

h2 is made
ring a length guide

O by reflectionless is formed by so that:

termination connecting ports

of port 3 and

2. 4 k~e~

of guide

T12=T+

1 Te6

(12)

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1957
Consideration gives of

Tischer:
thenondirectional~case~

Resonance
(k~=k. =k)

Properties

of Ring

Circuifs
Legend I . Dkectional

53

II andllI

Coupling (q= O) Semi Directional Coupling (q=l )

Coupling (q=O.3,06)

RN=:=;=
1 and

1
(13)

Ek.Non

- Directional

(po+

T)e-$

182

1,0

#\ ~ ,

1 pi. = pO + 2k2e@ 1 (PO+ T)e-4 1


(14)

Q a

$ ae $ ~ 0,6
L z ~ ijj 0,.4 cc t / / / t 1 I

I I I
I

TM = T + 2kze-@

1 (PO+ T)e-$
be seen wave They and a part the main that the

(15)

From tions for

(10) the for

through amplitude the This

(15),

it can ring important. reflection since into in the

relaby in all

of the

represented appear transmission of the guide. and of

R~ and RN are the most


relations coefficients. in the ring adds over-all

is expected back energy

energy This the the

is coupled to the

-8

-6

-4

-2

energy resultant circuit.

main the

guide, properties

interaction

determines

RELATIVE FREQUENCY DEVIATION


Fig. 3Frequency response.

FREQIJENCY

DEPENDENCE IN THE

OF THE RING GUIDE

WAVE

AMPLITUDE

Calculation directional

of the case RD for and

reflection small and

coefficient Iossless found to

po in the coupling differ

r~onshows

The

resonance the

characteristics wave amplitude Accordingly, be phase

can in the the

be

obtained guide

by as a values of

that

it is small

in magnitude

and

approximately

a pure mainly in

representing function I R~] the into

ring

imaginary. their resonant


THE

RN were

of frequency. and \ RATI must and (13)

absolute Introduction a and

frequencies.
CASE OF SEMIDIRECTIONAL COUPLING

determined. constants,

attenuation (10) and

b = 2~/h~ Interesting the two relations are defined obtained by the if the coupling factors in directions, coupling

gives 1

kh

RD =
1 _

and (16)

directional.

k,, is unequal. This type of coupling is called in (6), If k./k~ = g is introduced

semi-

TeaLei ? A,,
73= 1k7A [1 _ (T+

and
1

l-(T-$ipO)e-
,19,
Po)e-d][l

(T

p~e-+]

RAT=
1

(17)

is obtained. them in the

Eq.

(19)

has

two

poles

and

a zero the

between frequency coupling

(p. + T)eLei ~~: il


that mainly near resonance, variation of the complex of both the same can both relations. law for be repcoupling of

complex circuit is two IV,

plane. with

Therefore, semidirectional to circuits. 3 for q=O, under that

response has filters Eq. curves

of a ring which is plotted

The terms The both

equations

show results

a form (19)

analogous resonant in Fig. respectively,

of

band-pass 1,, for

the frec{uency frequency coupling in

in a rotation follows This form

containing I through

T and po + T in the denominators dependence conditions. a normalized by 1 R= 1 _ ~eix -

0..3~, 0.6&, the

condition for didouble shown. when coupled direction. wherein coefficient (Fig by 4). introa a

dependence valid for

resented conditions

l~o~..l =3(1 -I TI ). Ordinary rectional and nondirectional peak A response similar circuit analyze for double is with this semidirectional peak waves case, the to can

resonance coupling

curves and the are

coupling

response in traveling assumption with the coupling into

is observed in only a reflection element account one

(18)

discontinuity ring To

introduced

a directionally is made

Plotting gives when being

the x equals

absolute curve a multiple

value

I R]

vs frequency
3. Resonance A,.

deviation occurs

symmetrical

discontinuity opposite

a resonance a. multiple

as I in Fig. guide

pl is placed
The ducing

of 27r, the circumference wavelength

L then

discontinuity

be taken

of the

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54

IRE TRANSACTIONS

ON

MICROWAVE

THEORY

AND

TECHNIQUES
series for frequencies near

January
resonance.

terms This

of a Taylors yields 1

a +

iae{x

AL

(25)

R
Use AAI,2 of by this simplified real relation and allows imaginary determination parts of of (25).

equating

Therefore, la = a 1 (26)

+Akl,t

dx
&

h, ~
r, +circuit

\
;A
with

where

eix = 1 at resonance. of x = 2~L/A, and differentiation 2 1 gives

Introduction

r2

~ (PJ.. ~
//L

Ahl,z
+=

la a

A,., () A Q res

(27)

Fig, 4Ring

disconti.n.uity//

+ +

n ->
-

A,,s

~L

[r3m

r~(l r,(l

p,)

]e-$

[r4p~

pJe-@

(20) + pl)e~] +
+

kh[l

pOple~ T(l

k, [PO(1 + pJe-~ + [PO(I + pJe- +

Tple*]
(21)

[1

pople-+ T(I

pJe-]2

Tp~e-]

The

corresponding

relation

for

rh can For

be the

obtained case can

by

which circuits sponding sults

is valid to

for the

both coupling

coupling

conditions the

of the following

ring correre-

interchanging tional plified coupling to:

kk and where

k, in (21).

of direcbe sim-

at resonance. are obtained: coupling:


Tle-L=l
AAI,2

If a is replaced conditions,

by the values

k,= O and PO= O, (21)

T(l

pl)e$ T(I + 2pJe-@] both 22)

Directional
a=l

a = ] TI e-L
Tl(l-aL)

= I TI (1 aL)

3= Comparison have with gives

k]

[1 of (22)

Te-$] and

[1 (19)

shows

that

relations filter (22)

characteristics two resonant

similar circuits.

to those A difference having poles

of a band-pass exists, equal while since

*.

Ares
Nondirectional
AA1,2

l+cYL ITI--

)(
a = I T+po

22

)
\ eL

28)

a symmetrical from the

response zero to the

frequency (19) is non-

coupling:

deviations symmetrical.
THE

*= A res
@VALUE OF RESONANT RING CIRCUITS

1+.L
( ] +pO/ 1 )( ~:::, ) 2 ;,

(29) relative of the

where qual-

~ is

the

resonant (28)

phase and

constant. (29)

The

When ity factor

the

ring can waves

circuit be

is used by by of

as a resonator, finding for which a factor response, the the l/w@.

the

wavelength Q values. the coupling

deviations The unloaded zero (po+O,

are measures

obtained resonance frequency value


1 _ =

frequency amplitude Starting to

values

are obtained Under this

by reducing condition,

deviations of the from (18), ring the the

AA1,! from normalized reciprocal

I T] -1).

decreases

according

(30)
is valid for both types of coupling, giving for the Q value

R is
Uei..

(23)
(31)

R
For resonance, x = 2r, 47r, . . . n27r,
1 =Ia

This (24)

unloaded

Q value concept

can

also applied

be obtained to the

directly of

R rea
is obtained attenuation (1 a) <<1, where in (23) a = I TI eL the can ring be or \ T+po and I eL. loose by the For first small

by use of the the Q value.

energy According

definition

to this

definition

guide

coupling two

(32)

approximated

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195?
where tent power u = 2n-j, of the

Tischer:

Resonance
energy

Properties
conThe

of Ring

Circuits

55

Wtot corresponds
and

to the power

total

circuit,

Pd to the

dissip~ted.

dissipated -F~ =

in a guide

of length e-)
are

L is
~

Pin Pout = Pin(l Pin and PO.,


and the output waves

2aLPin

(33)

for

small

crL, where
the input by

the

powers The

passing power seccongroup

through transported tion tained velocity can

cross

sections. the input

through product guide

cross energy the

be expressed per unit length

as the in the

of the Wtot and

Vg,. Thus

Fig.

5Prototype

of a ring circuit with rectangular and variable resonance frequency.

wavegui,~e

introducing

gives which the ring bending from which neglected. The Q value of a and of a ring guide is given by (31). are The values ~ for a rectangular waveguide relates guide. of the resonant Eq. (33) wavelength to the dimensions in which of the slots of the are

is an approximation and the influence

guides

(35)

By both

introduction derivations, varies

of ~ = 27r/&, the

(31)

maybe was in the

obtained. made region that

In the

assumption

attenuation nance.

insignificantly

of reso-

and EXPERIMENTAL WITH The ring guide INVESTIGATION RECTANGULAR permits design without type of in the OF A RING WAVEGUIDE of a circuit use of sliding of ring variable form circuit width of a ring section disks. is with shorts comprising shown consists variaand a in of into groove radial in the rotation thus The The the form factor of the of with choice the m showing ring guide. normalized the In dependence Fig. in diagram Q value be noted of Q on the the as a guide permits which that circular corresponds waves. in Fig. in Fig. values The .5 are 7. geometry function ho/h, the
J
4

CIRCUIT

ble resonant capacity rectangular Fig. two .5. The grooves walls half

frequency One waveguide waveguide of rectangular of two guide

where the copper,

a is the and

variable u/uc. the in

width, (31)

b the
yields

constant related

height to that

of of

plungers.

guide,

conductivity

Introduction

cross metallic

machined Each with

adjacent forms

thick

of the

in which One of the

T1301 waves disks

E vector
axial

are excited. The head results a change of width guide h~, and

is movable by

direction.

movement to which of of can the the

is obtained one disk width resonant of the

(38)

of a micrometer permitting change in the resonant

is attached, guide. of the by

in a variation be expressed

wavelength

6, m is shown

wavelength.

wavelength The It a a high should

wavelength

Ao/b as the
of dimensions proportional

parameter. to obtain to Aj. of

is inversely the cavity to half-power in the

bandwidth case of optimized m = 1.5 for of the ring those

comparable

dimensions low loss using that the TEO1 shown (38) circuit

a form

factor Q values with

where and

a is the n the

width, of with

L the
respect

circumference per to L yields

of the

guide,

measured compared Taking

number

wavelengths

circumference.

obtained the fact

Normalization

into

account

measured

-.

IRE TRANSACTIONS

ON

MICROWAVE

THEORY

AND

TECHNIQUES
CONCLUSION

January

8
m
the The essential conventional with

difference microwave unidirectional

between cavity

the

ring

circuit

and to the

lies in its capacity waves the circuit in either main in

resonate ring When when

progressive coupled to the with

directionally

guide. the the the

nondirectionally of an ordinary curves by properties or the resonance differing effects.

coupled, cavity are only

assumes case, due to

behavior The Q values

standing

waves.

similar a small result of

amount from a small In

coupling coupling into the circuit

Interesting

semidirectional discontinuity either instance, resofilter.

introduction coupled

directionally is

ring. by

0,2 ~
Fig. 6Dependence

0/4 J?& Ag

0,6

0,8

the

characterized

a double-peaked as a microwave

nance. The resonant whereby Thus variation the ring multiple width uniformly

Accordingly, device circuit, the a phase in so of ring, the that has

it is useful immediate

application

as a tunable by ring any is means a

Tuning electrical shifter phase its

is accomplished length may be of the electrical at of guide length resonance. the employed,

changed. around

of the form factor m on the geometry of rectangular waveguide.

permitting

wavelength can An be

made

41

a wavelength which allows the

adjustable wavelength is a means increasing modes resonance of

adjusting

the guide of the tuning. ring, Since higher Multiple for for two the used of the frequency form at extremely

over

circumference low-loss the

of performing the ring width will

simple, reduces have the fields as The its

attenuation, Q values.

resonance occurs wavelengths. Possible

higher

when

guide of

is adjusted

or more ring circuit

guide are width

application of high commonly Q values for

41
T

I
L@~lld

the type circuit and

same cavities. favor

those

standing-wave adjustable

1,,-Calculated Volues TI. Meosured Volues,Nm43irectkwl OYJ@irq III Measured VOIUW.,Oirechonql Coupling

application The

measurement permits high easy fre-

stabilization.

geometrical for use

KMC

10

fabrication, quencies.

especially

Fig. 7Calculated bandwidth

FREQUENCY

and measured values of the half-power for prototype shown in Fig. 5. The W. J. author Lindberg in checking work. model. for

ACKNOWLEDGMENT wishes his the J. to express in the his thanks and and to Capt. of in the tested this exthe

help derived

composition

of A~ correspond based on the satisfactory.

to the unloaded

loaded Q, the

Q while agreement

the

calculation is considered

is

paper,

relations, designed

perimental experimental

Copeland

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