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Lewin Planned Change Model Kurt Lewin proposed a three stage theory of change commonly referred to as Unfreeze, Change,

Freeze (or Refreeze). A lot has changed since the theory was originally presented in 1947

Lewin viewed this change process as consisting of three steps.

1. Unfreezing. ready to change

The Unfreezing stage is probably one of the more important stages to understand in the world of change we live in today. This stage is about getting ready to change. It involves getting to a point of understanding that change is necessary, and getting ready to move away from our current comfort zone.

2. Moving or Change. implementation

Kurt Lewin was aware that change is not an event, but rather a process. He called that process a transition. Transition is the inner movement or journey we make in reaction to a change. This second stage occurs as we make the changes that are needed. People are 'unfrozen' and moving towards a new way of being.

3. Refreezing. making it stick

Kurt Lewin refers to this stage as freezing although a lot of people refer to it as 'refreezing'. As the name suggests this stage is about establishing stability once the changes have been made. The changes are accepted and become the new norm. People form new relationships and become comfortable with their routines. Force field analysis According to Lewin for a change to happen force of change must be stronger then force against change otherwise the change will not be successful. They act like a barrier between the change process and Lewin says that the entire barriers has to be removed. A change cannot take place or the unfreezing will not happen if force against is stronger.

Kotters 8 steps
In 1995, Kotter, a professor at Harvard Business School and world-renowned change expert, introduced his eight-step change process.

1. Create Urgency
For change to happen, the whole company must really wants it. In some cases there is no choice, from a purely business point of view it has to come or else.....Therefore, develop a sense of urgency around the need for change. This may help you spark the initial motivation to get things moving.

2. Form a Powerful Coalition Who Can Guide the Process

Convince people that change is necessary. This often takes strong leadership and visible support from key people within the organization. Change needs leadership. This comes from influential people throughout the organisation, not necessarily the senior people. They need to work together as a team to build momentum around the change 3. Create a Vision for Change - Scan the Horizon but dont try to catch all the Blue Sky We need to understand and remember why we are doing the change. A vision helps us to understand what we are trying to achieve. The vision must be inspirational and achievable.

4. Communicate the Vision

The vision needs to be shared frequently and powerfully. It should be part of all communication. We need to see that leaders are practising what the vision says. Behaviour is more powerful than words.

5. Remove Obstacles - Fire Deadwood.....

There will be some processes and structures that get in the way of change. Some people will also resist it. We need to be rewarded and recognised for change, and supported to overcome barriers. Where there is resistance, honest discussion is needed.

6. Create and Celebrate Short-term Wins

Look for things that you can achieve as you go along, set goals that can be met in the shortterm so that everyone is motivated by the early successes and is rewarded for their effort. This makes everyone more positive and optimistic.

7. Build on the Change

Evaluate as you go along to see what is working and what needs to improve. Keep on building on the successes. Keep sharing the vision and get more and more people involved.

8. Make it stick
The change needs to be based on values that can be seen in day-to-day work. The change should be visible in all that you do. Culture change comes last, not first and happens because people can see the new way is better than the old.

Change happens in an organisation and covers three elements

Structural change If a change is to happen some physical structure or the organisational structure of a company may act like a barrier for e.g.- gym wants to extend its area so that it can have more workout machines which will help its business to increase but the physical structure of the gym is very small and it cannot have more machines. So the barrier is physical structure which has to be removed Technological change-if any upgrade is required in technology for e.g. Upgraded computers are require in a company to increase its profit but currently old version of computers are been used People change-Any change a company wants people of that company should be ready for the change. They night not have the skills so give them skills give them vision Lewins view on the three elements If competition, environment, and situation is forcing a company to have a change and structural and technological are acting as a barrier then Lewins say that remove that barrier which is coming on the way of change. People must understand the importance of change and if they dont then they are also the barrier in between the change Kotters view on the three elements

According to Kotters whatever structural and technological change happen it will affect the people. So he emphasize on people change because he believes that structural and technological change will affect people so Kotters 8 steps of change management are for the people. People covers individual, individual makes a team, team makes a organisation

If an individual is against the change then he is a barrier and has to be removed. But removing the barrier means that finding out why the individual is resisting the change. If he is not happy, why he is not happy, if he does not have the skills, give him skills. Why team is not supporting the change, why they are not happy. Individual makes a team if individual is happy team is happy. If individual support the change team support the change. So understand the individual and resolve the problem and in terms or organisation, team makes an organisation.

Planned (proactive) and Reactive change Proactive change- Is a change where the company goes out of its boundaries to
understand the market and customers demand so that they can bring out a change in there organisation to gain the profits . The best example for proactive change is MacDonalds. MacDonalds did a market research and came to now that now days customers are more concerned about the healthy food so they changed the menu of there food products and add some healthy diet due to which there market as well as profit increased.

Reactive change- Is a change there company do not want to change itself but it is forced
for a change. The best example for reactive change is the Tobacco companies. Tobacco companies do not wanted to change themselves but they were forced by the NGOs and the government to have a change in there selling policies.

Lewins- he say that weather its Proactive or Reactive change and if there are individual,
structural or technological barriers. You have to remove those barriers and if the barriers are removed the change will happen.

Reference list?

Kotter International, 2012. The 8-Step Process for Leading Change. Retrieved from Mindtool, 2012. Kotter's 8-Step Change Model Implementing Change Powerfully and Successfully. Retrieved from

Change management coach, 2012. Kurt Lewin Change Management Model. Retrieved from