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Design Example 3 Rectangular Silo

Design a single rectangular concrete silo for storing peas. The bottom is a symmetrical

pyramidal Hopper. The silo walls rest on the Hopper base which is supported by four

columns. The Roof load ( DL = 150 kg/m 2 and LL= 100 kg/m 2 ).

'2
2
Use
f
=
350
kg
/
cm
,
f
=
4200
kg
/
cm
c
y
30m
5m
3m
7m
Openning0.5x0.5m
φ50cm

Solution

For Peas

γ

φ

µ

'

=

=

800

25

kg

o

= 0.296

/

m

3

b=6m

a=4m

An Above Hopper

b=6m

a=6m

Assume angle of response

ρ φ

=

=25

 h s = 3tan 25 = 1.4 m k 1 =− sin 25 = 0.577 a 4 R = = = 1.0 m a 4 a ' 4 R = = 1.0 m b 4

a

'

246 × ×

=

4

+

6

=

4.8

2

⇒≅ hm 1.0

3 s

R

b

=

a

'

4

Overpressure Factor C

D =

upper H c lower 2/3 H Hooper

H

/

40 /10

1

=

d

=

1.5

4

c

d

=

c

d

=

1.5

1.85

d

=

1.2

m

At the bottom of the silos

At the bottom of the silos

q

=

p

=

For

For

γ

R

µ

' k

 

1

e

kq

short wall

long wall

(

µ

' kY

R

)  

(

R

(

R

=

=

1.0)

1.2)

Y

=

30 -1.0

=

29.0

2

q

p

q

p == kq

=

4.65 t/m

== kq

=

0.577

0.577

5.53t/m

2

m

×

×

4.65

5.53

Friction

V

(

=γ Y

q

)

R

=

=

2.7 t/m

3.2 t/m

2

2

25cm

 Short Wall V ( = ×− 30 0.8 4.65 ) × 1 = 19.35 ton Long Wall V ( = ×− 30 0.8 5.53 ) × 1.2 = 22.16ton

Wall tension and bending moment

Short Wall

Long Wall

F

a

F

b

,

,

u

u

=

=

(

1.7 1.85

(

1.7 1.85

××=
3.2
)
6 2
×
2.7
)
×=
4 2

30.2 ton/m

17.0ton/m

Frame action analysis using moment distribution Analysis

Assume wall thickness h=30cm

The moment distribution is computed for an idealized rectangular frame 6.3 by 4.4 m

Using symmetry

2

I

2

I

4.3m
3.2 t/m 2
6.3m
2.7 t/m 2

Short Wall

Long Wall

DF

K

a

b

=

L

2

a

I

L

b

=

0.6

4.3

2

I

6.3

K

=

=

=0.465I

=0.317I

a

=

0.465

0.465

+

0.317

DF

b

0.4

 Short Wall Long Wall DF 0.6 0.4 FEM 4.16 -10.6 Balancing 3.86 2.58 FINAL 8.0 -8.0

7.9 t.m

-8.0
-1.5

-8.0

Assume fillit (hunch) at the corner =25cm

Negative moment will be calculated at the face of the hunch

M

b,-ve

=+×

8.0

3.2

M

a,-ve

= +×

8.0

2.7

0.4

0.4

2

2

Check for thickness

/ 2

/ 2

−× =

10.1

5.8

0.4

×=

4.2

5.9

t m

.

t m

.

0.4

 f =+ T 6 M 2 ' f c = 2 350 = 37.4 kg / 2 cm t , b 2 ≤= f r bt For long Wall bt = 1   17 × 10 3 ) + 6 ( 4.2 × 10 5  =< 11 / 2 f t , b 1.7 × 1.85   ( 30 )( 100 ) ( 30 2 )( 100 )   kg cm f r For short Wall = 1   30.2 × 10 3 ) + 6 ( 5.9 × 10 5  =< 15.7 / 2 f t , b 1.7 × 1.85   ( 30 )( 100 ) ( 30 2 )( 100 )   kg cm f

The wall thicknes sis oK

Design for Reinforcement

Long Wall

negative moment M

Check for small eccentricity

-ve

r

25cm

e

=

M

u

4.2(100)

=

F

u

17

=

24.7

h

>− =− =

d

''

15

5.7

2

Small eccentricity approach can not be used

e

15

Direct tension reinforcement

h

=− =− =

2

d ''

5.7

9.3

A

 = T = 17 × 10 3 st φf y 0.9 × 4200

=

4.5

2

cm

/

m

9.3

Bending Moment Reinforcement

'
M
=
4.2
−×
17
9.3/100
=
2.6
t m
.
u
,
ve
d=30-5.7=24.3
5
0.85
⋅ 350
2.61 10
(
2.6
)
=
−−
1
1
=
ρ − ve
2
4200
100
(
24.3
)
350
= (
2
A
0.00117 )(
100
)(
24.3
)
=
2.85
cm
s (
− ve
)
A
=+
4.5
2.85
=
7.35
cm
2 /
m
s
, total
use
φ 14@ 20 cm

0.00117

Design for Positive Moment at Midspan

'
M
= 7.9
−×
17
9.3/100
=
6.32
t m
.
u
, +
ve
d=30-5.7=24.3
5
0.85
⋅ 350
2.61 10
(
6.32
)
=
−−
1
1
=
ρ + ve
2
4200
100
(
24.3
)
350
(
2
A
=
0.00289 )(
100
)(
24.3
)
=
7.0
cm
s (
+ ve
)
A
= +=
4.5
7
11.5
cm
2 /
m
s
, total
use
φ 16@15
cm

0.00289

Design for Short Wall

negative moment M

Check for small eccentricity

-ve

e

M

u

5.9(100)

= =

F

u

30.2

=

19.5

h

>− =− =

d

''

15

5.7

2

9.3

Small eccentricity approach can not be used

h

e

15

Direct tension reinforcement

=− =− =

2

d ''

5.7

9.3

A

st

=

T

30.2

×

10

3

=

φf

y

0.9

×

4200

=

8.0

2

cm

/

m

Bending Moment Reinforcement

'
M
=−
5.9
30.2
×
9.3/100
=
3.0
t m
.
u
, − ve
d=30-5.7=24.3
5
0.85 350
(
3.0
)
2.61 10
=
−− 1 1
=
ρ − ve
2
4200
100
(
24.3
)
350
)(
)(
)
2
A
=
( 0.00137
100
24.3
=
303
cm
s
(
− ve
)
=+=
8.0
3.3
11.3
cm
2 /
m
A s total
,
use
φ 16@15
cm

Design at Mid-span

0.00137

Design of the Hopper Walls

The pressure changes very little with depth of the hopper, so use the pressure at the top of the hopper with Cd=1.35

q

p

q

q

a

,

a

b

b

,

,

des

,

des

des

des

=×=

1.35

1.35

4.65

0.577

6.28 t/m

2

×= 4.65

3.6 t/m

1.35

1.35

=×=

5.53

0.577

7.47 t/m

×= 5.53

2

4.3t/m

Angleof slopes

3

α  

α

=

tan

1

a 3

a

=

tan

1

0.3

3

2

0.3

=

=

48

60.5

2

2

q

q

a des

α

,

b des

α

,

2

=+ 3.6sin 48

6.28cos 48

22

=

4.8t/m

2

=+ 4.3sin 60.5

7.47 cos 60.5

22

=

5.0 t/m

Horizontal Ultimate tensile forces

F tau

F tbu

= 1.7

= 1.7

(

(

5.0

4.8

)(

)(

6/2 sin 48 =19.0t/m 4/2 sin 60.5 =14.2t/m

)

(

)

)

(

)

2

2

The own weight of the Hopper and its contents

W

W

L

L

π
3
(
4
=
π
3
( 4
×

6

6

)()( )

)()(

3

3

0.8

0.2

=

60

2.5

ton

)

×= 38 ton

For simplicity neglect the opening area at the bottom of the hopper. Hopper side A a and A b can be calculated as:

 1 ( ( A m A ×= a 2 1 = 6 62 b ×= 2 m = 6 43 ) ) 2 2 AA = = 6 2 m a b c a F = c b = = 1/4 1.7 ( cW a L + A q a a des , ) + 1.4 cW b g mau F = 1.7 ( cW b L + a sin α a A q b b des , ) + 1.4 cW b g mbu b sin α b
 = 1.7 ( 0.25 × +× 60 6 6.28 ) + ( 1.4 0.25 )( 38 ) = 1.7 ( 0.25 4sin 48 × +× 60 6 7.47 ) + ( 1.4 0.25 )( 38 )

6sin 60.5

= 34.6

ton

= 22

ton

Hopper wall bending can be computed using Tables for triangular slabs:

For Hopper wall A
a
= 4.3
m
2
=
(
6.3/ 2
)
2
c
+= 3
a
/
c ≅
1.0

4.35

m

From table 16.4 in Appendix At the centre of the top edge n x = -0.209 and n y =-1.255

M

M

xau

yau

=

=

1.7

1.7

(

(

0.209 4.8 4.3 / 64

(

)

2

1.255 4.8 4.3

(

)

2

/ 64

)

)

=

=

0.493 .

2.89

t m

t m

.

This slab is to be designed for bending and tensile force similarly as shown above.

Design of the edge beam

Dowels are provided to transfer the vertical loads from hopper edge beam into the vertical walls

T

=

F

sin

α =

a

25.7

×

34.6sin 48

10

=

25.7

cm

2

/

m

ton

/

m

A

mau

st dowels

,

3

=

0.9

×

4200

= 6.8

Since the edge beam is to be joining the vertical wall using dowels. The upper wall shear and horizontal components of the hopper are assumed to be in equilibrium. Thus no horizontal load is carried by the edge beam. Its only purpose is to simplify construction. Minimum longitudinal steel and shear stirrups are provided

Vertical Wall

The vertical walls are analyzed as deep girder (strut and tie analysis can be used) to carry vertical the following vertical loads:

From dowel

Friction 1.7(19.35) = 32.9 ton/m

Wall weight,

25.7 ton/m

 1.4(2.5)(0.3)(30)= 31.5 ton/m Total = 90 ton/m