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WELDING

Introduction Welded joints are used where parts are to be joined permanently. Welding is also used to fabricate parts instead of casting or gorging. Parts produced like this are light, strong and economical also. To form a welded joint, the part to be joined are heated to a high temperature either by electric arc or gas, up to fusion temperature and then a filler material is used to fuse along with the base parts. The high temperature fuses the metals completely with each other. On cooling, the joint is formed that is as strong as the base part. Specifying a Welded joint A weld symbol shows only the groove shape, while a welding symbol consists of many other elements as described and shown in fig 1(A) and 1(B) for arrow towards right and left respectively. For example, the welding symbol shown in fig 1(C) gives the following information: Weld size is 8 mm (The left most element on reference line). Groove shape is double V with groove angle 60. Root opening not indicated hence taken as zero. Welding is on both sides as the weld symbol is on top and bottom of the reference line. Weld metal forms convex surface and letter M indicates that the weld surface is to be machined. Welding is done for 20 mm length leaving a blank length of 10 mm.

WELDING JOINTS

WELD SYMBOLS

WELDING SPECIFICATIONS
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RIVETED JOINTS Introduction 3

Riveted joints are used for making permanent joints of rolled sections in bridges, joining plates for boilers, tanks, etc. Once a joints is made, the parts cannot be separated unless and until the rivet is destroyed. Welding is slowly replacing riveted joints but still where welding cannot be done, riveting is still done. RIVITES A rivet consists of cylinder part called shank and has a circular head at one end. Rivets are available in many sizes. They are made of wrought iron. Aluminum rivets are also used for light weight and domestic applications. Fig.2 shows various shapes of heads and the proportions of the head in terms of shank diameter. Length of rivet is about 3 to 4 times the shank diameter. The shank diameter (d) of the rivets to be used for the joint depends upon the thickness (t) of the plates to be joined. The plates are generally of equal size. The two parameters, i.e. (d) and (t) are related to Uniwin's formula as: d =6 t d = 1.2 t if d and t are in millimeters if d and t are in inches

Making a Riveted Joint The plates to be joined are drilled with holes of size slightly more than the shank diameter of the rivet at places where the rivt is desired. The pitch has to be necessarily the same for both the plates that are to be joined together (step 1). The two plates are overlapped over each other as shown in step 2 and the rivet whose length is more than the thickness of both the plates is inserted in each hole. Plates are put upside down such that the head is down (step 3). See that the extra length of the rivet projects outside the plat. The joint is now placed on a firm support and the extra length is hammered to form a head. A hollow tool that has a hollow cavity similar to the head, is used to shape the hammered head of the same shape (step 4). The extra length, therefore, should have the same volume as that of the head. If the volume of extra length is lesser than the head, the joint may be loose and if more, the size of the head formed will be bigger than the head on the other side.

Classification of Riveted Joints Riveted joints can be classified as under: Riveted Joint

Lap Joint

Butt Joint Single cover plate or double cover plate

Single riveted

Double riveted

Tripple riveted

Single riveted

Double riveted

Tripple riveted

Chain

Zigzag Chain

Zigzag

Chain

Zigzag

Chain

Zigzag

TYPES OF RIVET HEADS

BOLTS AND NUTS


Introduction All machines are composed of separate parts which are held together by some joint. The joint may be permanent like welding, riveting or temporary using bolts and nuts. This later provides the advantage that the parts can be separated whenever required. Bolts and nuts are mostly used for temporary fastenings. Standardization of such widely used product is necessary for interchangeability. A bolt is a cylindrical part having a hexagonal or square head on one side and threads, partially or completely on the cylindrical part. The counter part of the bolt is a nut that is also either hexagonal or square and his internal threads with same pitch as that of the bolt. The part to be joined together are drilled with a hole of the same size as the body diameter of the bolt or slightly more for easy insertion. The bolt is then passed through the part to be joined and then the nut is tightened on the threads of the bolt. When the nut is rotated, it advances on the threaded body of the bolt and clamps the parts. A washer is placed below the nut so that the surface of the part is not spoiled due to tightening of the nut. It also increases the contact area, thereby reducing the local intensity of stress. Fig14.1 shows an assembly of to parts with bolt, nut and washer. Lock Nut A lock nut is an additional nut placed theoretically below the main nut (fig14.9A). Its thickness is 2/3rd of the standard nut. The arrangement of placing lock nut below the main nut causes problems while tightening, if head thickness is lesser than thickness of spanner. Therefore, sometimes lock nut is placed above the main nut (14.9B). For a lock nut, both the surfaces, i.e top and bottom are chamfered. While using, first tighten the lock nut. Then holding the lock nut by a spanner, tighten the main nut with another spanner. This causes tension at the threaded surfaces. This force keeps both the nuts tight and thus they are prevented from loosening.

SCREWS
A screw is smaller in size both for diameter and length than a bolt, and has threads for the entire length of the shank. The head is not hexagonal but circular. The various shapes of the heads used for the screws are shown in Fig14.7. There are many types of screws as follows 1. Cap screw 2. Machine screw 3. Set screw 4. Wooden screw

KEYS
A shaft is used to transmit power but generally not alone. Power is transmitted through pulleys and belts, gear or sprokets. These machine components are to be fixed on the shaft such that they do not slip while transmitting torque. To fix these components on shafts, a key is used. Keys are made of steel to withstand both shear and compressive stresses caused during power transmission. Key is a machine component, inserted between shaft and hub of the rotor to prevent circumferential relative movement between them. It is shown in fig.16.3. keyway is the groove milled on the shaft and its mating part. Key is inserted in these grooves after aligning them. Keyway can be made either by a vertical milling machine (fig. 16.4A) or by horizontal milling machine (fig. 16.4B. A vertical milling machine gives constant depth for the whole length but the ends are semi-circular. A horizontal milling machine gives variable depth at the ends of the keyway.

Saddle Keys
Saddle keys are only in hub and not in shaft. They are likely to slip and hence used only for light work. They transmit torque only by friction between the metallic surfaces. It thickness is kept D/12 and width as D/4 where D is the shaft diameter (Fig 16.5). A taper of 1:100 is given on thickness. Only frictional force is used to keep them in position. Their bottom face can be flat or hollow. Thickness at the thicker end is called nominal thickness. For a flat key, the shaft is also made flat at the position of key (Fig. 16.5A). A Hollow key (concave key) has the same curvature at the bottom as the shaft. The shaft is not modified at all (Fig16.5B). Flat key is slightly superior to hollow keys as the flat surface of the shaft resists relative motion. Sometimes a set screw is also used for light applications to tighten the hub on the shaft (Fig.16.5C), e.g. ratio knobs are tightened with a screw on its side.

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FIT AND TOLERANCE


TOLERANCE: A tolerance is the total amount by which a specific dimension may vary; thus, the tolerance is the difference between the maximum and minimum limits. Types of Tolerance: 1. Unilateral Tolerance: A unilateral tolerance is a tolerance in which variation is permitted only in one direction from the specified dimension. Example: 1.400 +0.000/-0.006 2. Bilateral Tolerance: A bilateral tolerance is a tolerance in which variation is permitted in both directions from a specified dimension (example 0.005) Fit: Fit is general term used to signify the range of tightness or looseness, which may result from the application of a specific combination of allowances and tolerance in the design of mating part features. Fits are four general types: Interference, transition, line and clearance. 1. Interference Fit: An interference fit is one having limits of size so prescribed that an interference always results when mating parts are assembled. 2. Transition Fit: A transition fit is one having limits of size so prescribed that either a clearance or an interference mat result when mating parts as assembled. 3. Line Fit: A line fit is one having limits of size so prescribed that surface contact or clearance may result when mating parts as assembled. 4. Clearance Fit: A clearance fit is one having limits of size defined such that a clearance always results when mating parts are assembled.

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INTRODUCTION TO SOFTWARE
DWGeditor is designed for anyone who wants a fast and efficient CAD program with all the power and versatility of standard programs such as AutoCAD by Autodesk, Inc., or MicroStation by Bentley Systems, Inc., at an affordable price. Using today's advanced technology, DWGeditor integrates the Microsoft Windows interface with a powerful CAD engine. DWGeditor provides unparalleled compatibility with AutoCAD, using most of the same file formats including those for drawings (.dwg files), linetypes, hatch patterns, and text styles. You can also use AutoCAD menu files and run AutoLISP by Autodesk, Inc., programs. If you have written your own ADS (AutoCAD Development System by Autodesk) programs, simply recompile them to link with the DWGeditor libraries provided on your compact disc. Many third-party ADS programs already support DWGeditor. If you have a program that is not already supported, ask your software vendor to provide an IntelliCAD-compatible version of their program. DWGeditor is more compatible with the AutoCAD program than any other CAD product, delivers additional tools with advanced CAD features, and has a seamless Microsoft Windows integration. This powerful program provides a superb combination of features for CAD users like architects, engineers, and designers. DWGeditor incorporates all the standard features found in other CAD programs, along with features and capabilities you won't find anywhere else. Its multiple-document interface (MDI) lets you open and work with several drawings at the same time. You can easily copy drawing entities between drawings. In addition, the powerful Drawing Explorer lets you manage information and settings and quickly copy layers, linetypes, and other information between drawings. When you start DWGeditor, the program automatically creates a new drawing based on a template drawing, DWGeditor.dwg. This template includes predefined settings such as drawing units, text size, and drawing area. You can either use these settings or change them according to your needs. There is nothing unique about a template drawing. You can use any drawing as a template for future drawings. You can save many steps by basing a new drawing on an existing template. By doing this, a new drawing will contain all the settings and entities you need. When you open a new drawing from your custom template, you can modify existing settings and delete any entities that you don't need.

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Ex.No:1 Date:

Plummer Block
To draw the assembled view of the plummer block using given part drawing.

Aim:

Software Used:
Solidworks2009 DWG editer

Tools used:
1. 2. 3. A system loaded with Solidworks DWG editer an a printing device. Sketch of the plummer block with dimension indicated. Make a hard copy using printer.

Command used:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Limits Zoom Line Circle Offset Arc Trim Polygon Copy Move Mirror Hatching Dimension Linear, radius command.

Procedure:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Open Solidworks DWG editer and select the new from file menu. Set the limits as per the required space of given plummer block. Set the grid required from the plummer block. Drawn the assembled view of plummer block using above said commands. Mark the dimensions and gave the orthographic views before making a hard copy.

Result:
Thus the assembled views of the plummer block were drawn from given part drawing and hard copy was taken using printer.

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Ex.No:2 Date:

Flanged Coupling
To draw the assembled view of the Flanged Coupling using given part drawing.

Aim:

Software Used:
Solidworks2009 DWG editer

Tools used:
1. 2. 3. A system loaded with Solidworks DWG editer an a printing device. Sketch of the flanged coupling with dimension indicated. Make a hard copy using printer.

Command used:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Limits Zoom Line Circle Offset Arc Trim 8. 9. Polygon Copy

10. Move 11. Mirror 12. Hatching 13. Dimension Linear, radius command.

Procedure:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Open Solidworks DWG editer and select the new from file menu. Set the limits as per the required space of given flanged coupling. Set the grid required from the flanged coupling Drawn the assembled view of flanged coupling using above said commands. Mark the dimensions and gave the orthographic views before making a hard copy.

Result:
Thus the assembled views of the flanged coupling were drawn from given part drawing and hard copy was taken using printer.

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Ex.No:3 Date:

Machine vice

Aim:
To draw the

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assembled view of the machine vice using given part drawing.

Software Used:
Solidworks2009 DWG editer

Tools used:
1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. A system loaded with Solidworks DWG editer an a printing device. Sketch of the machine vice with dimension indicated. Make a hard copy using printer.

Command used:
Limits Zoom Line Circle Offset Arc Trim 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Polygon Copy Move Mirror Hatching Dimension Linear, radius

command.

Procedure:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Open Solidworks DWG editer and select the new from file menu. Set the limits as per the required space of given machine vice. Set the grid required from the machine vice Drawn the assembled view of machine vice using above said commands. Mark the dimensions and gave the orthographic views before making a hard copy.

Result:
Thus the assembled view of the machine vice was drawn from given part drawing and hard copy was taken using printer.

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Ex.No:4 Date:

Universal Coupling
To draw the assembled view of the universal coupling using given part drawing.

Aim:

Software Used:
Solidworks2009 DWG editer

Tools used:
1. A system loaded with Solidworks DWG editer an a printing device. 2. Sketch of the universal coupling with dimension indicated. 3. Make a hard copy using printer.

Command used:
1. Limits 2. Zoom 3. Line 4. Circle 5. Offset 6. Arc 7. Trim 8. Polygon 9. Copy 10. Move 11. Mirror 12. Hatching 13. Dimension Linear, radius command.

Procedure:
1. Open Solidworks DWG editer and select the new from file menu. 2. Set the limits as per the required space of given universal joint. 3. Set the grid required from the universal coupling 4. Drawn the assembled view of universal coupling using above said commands. 5. Mark the dimensions and gave the orthographic views before making a hard copy.

Result:
Thus the assembled views of the universal coupling were drawn from given part drawing and hard copy was taken using printer.

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Ex.No:5 Date:

Horizontal Stuffing Box


To draw the assembled view of the horizontal stuffing box using given part drawing.

Aim:

Software Used:
Solidworks2009 DWG editer

Tools used:
2. 3. Sketch of the horizontal stuffing box.with dimension indicated. Make a hard copy using printer.

Command used:
1. Limits 2. Zoom 3. Line 4. Circle 5. Offset 6. Arc 7. Trim 8. Polygon 9. Copy 10. 11. 12. 13. Move Mirror Hatching

Dimension Linear, radius

command.

Procedure:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Open Solidworks DWG editer and select the new from file menu. Set the limits as per the required space of given horizontal stuffing box. Set the grid required from the horizontal stuffing box. Drawn the assembled view of horizontal stuffing box. using above said commands. Mark the dimensions and gave the orthographic views before making a hard copy.

Result:
Thus the assembled view of the horizontal stuffing box was drawn from given part drawing and hard copy was taken using printer.

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KNUCKLE JOINT

1.

A system loaded with Solidworks DWG editer an a printing device.

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Ex.No:6 Date:

Lathe Tail Stock


To draw the assembled view of the lathe tail stock using given part drawing.

Aim:

Software Used:
Solidworks2009 DWG editer.

Tools used:
1. 2. 3. A system loaded with Solidworks DWG editer an a printing device. Sketch of the lathe tail stock.with dimension indicated. Make a hard copy using printer.

Command used:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Limits Zoom Line Circle Offset Arc Trim 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Polygon Copy Move Mirror Hatching Dimension Linear, radius

command.

Procedure:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Open Solidworks DWG editer and select the new from file menu. Set the limits as per the required space of given lathe tail stock. Set the grid required from the lathe tail stock. Drawn the assembled view of lathe tail stock using above said commands. Mark the dimensions and gave the orthographic views before making a hard copy.

Result:
Thus the assembled view of the lathe tail stock was drawn from given part drawing and hard copy was taken using printer.

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Ex.No:7 Date:

Connecting Rod
To draw the assembled view of the connecting rod using given part drawing.

Aim:

Software Used:
Solidworks2009 DWG editer.

Tools used:
1. 2. 3. A system loaded with Solidworks DWG editer an a printing device. Sketch of the connecting rod.with dimension indicated. Make a hard copy using printer.

Command used:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Limits Zoom Line Circle Offset Arc Trim 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Polygon Copy Move Mirror Hatching Dimension Linear, radius command.

Procedure:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Open Solidworks DWG editer and select the new from file menu. Set the limits as per the required space of given piston and connecting rod. Set the grid required from the connecting rod. Drawn the assembled view of connecting rod using above said commands. Mark the dimensions and gave the orthographic views before making a hard copy.

Result:
Thus the assembled views of the connecting rod were drawn from given part drawing and hard copy was taken using printer.

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Ex.No:8 Date:

Screw jack

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Ex.No:9 Date:

Multi plate clutch

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Ex.No:10 Date:

Safety Valves

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Ex.No:11 Date:

Non-return valve

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