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Low-cost, Small Mars Sample Return Mission Using Multifunctional Design, Consumable Structures and In-Situ Propellant Production

(ISPP) without Mars Orbit Rendezvous.


Csaba Boros University of Defence Department of Aerospace and Rocket Technology Brno Smetanov hj 288/17, 92901 Dunajsk Streda - Slovakia, Europe borospace@yahoo.com

Abstract
The goal of this mission is the direct transport of various surface and subsurface samples from the Mars to the Earth using a lander. It is to be launched using only one launch vehicle, for example Delta 7925, in the year 2016, and return directly back to Earth in 2020. The primary landing area is Elysium Planitia near Athabasca Vallis. This is territory with high scientific potential possible frozen sea protected by a layer of volcanic ash, with occurrence of methane and ancient volcanic or geo/hydrothermal activity. The back-up landing sites are Meridiani Planum and Melas Chasma. Those sites are interesting for possible past life in a microfossils form and sedimentary layers research. Consisting of the cruise stage and the lander, the spacecraft will be deduced from the two successful missions MER. The entry, descent and landing of the unit are practically copying the landing of the probes MER, but without the use of airbags. The new element is the Sky crane taken from the project MSL, but which is to be without precision landing, with simple hazard avoidance system and equipped with three penetrators with ropes to secure the lander in safe and stable position. With this system we could eliminate the dynamic problems which may be quite significant when the unit is flying unsupported with the load on its rope, taking in account the strong winds over the surface of the planet. This unique and robust system will allow the landing on more rough landing sites than with recent MER missions. Certain units of the backshell gun barrels for shooting the penetrators out, would be in fact elements of a self-consumable hybrid rocket engine, meaning that their structure will be used as solid fuel for the hybrid engine of the Sky crane during the last phase of the landing. The whole conception of the mission is characterized with the revolutionary approach of the multi-functionality of the units. For example, the penetrators can be used as anchors, to provide subsurface samples from various depths, to hold the tightened ropes which help to lay out the solar panels, but also to serve as the path for spider-like robots. These robots can collect samples from the surface, transport the ones taken by the penetrators to the Mars Ascent and Return Vehicle (MARV), clean the solar panels from the dust, etc. The MARV will propelled with hybrid engines - the oxidizer will be LOX from the atmosphere produced with the help of CO2 sorption compressor, oxygen generator system and the refrigerator, while the CO2 absorbent will serve as solid fuel for the hybrid engine too, etc. Key technologies: Landing hazard avoidance system, penetrator/anchor equipment, hybrid rocket consumable structures, LOX production, spider-like robot, sampling, MARV, navigation, avionics, Planetary and sample protection.

INTRODUTION
The next challenge for the mankind in this century will be beyond doubt the landing of the first people on Mars and the consecutive colonization of the planet. The biggest problem is with the resources. Without available resources on Mars, this mission will be costly, slow and in case of unexpected situations much bigger troubles can be expected and the solubility of such will be determined with the long distance from the Earth and also in the impossibility of any improvisation because the limited presence of resources. Unlike the ancient and brave sailors/colonists, we must know what we are going into, we have to know if there is any exploitable, mainly watery resource on the Mars and of the presence of life on the planet. The positive answers would make the very first expeditions much simpler also from the technical point of view, but nevertheless from the view of public interest. The vanguards of this great mission would be the reception of the samples from the areas of the planet previously considered as suitable, at best with the use of the local resources. Such project would greatly help us to answer the critical questions mentioned above and might speed the preparations for the first manned Mars expedition.

SCIENTIFIC GOALS OF THIS MISSION


The primer objective of this mission is the transport of mineral samples weighting max.0, 5kg from the landing area to the Earth together with the exploration of the landing area with help of various scientific devices. The next priority is to test the ISPP right on the surface of the Mars, e.g. production of sufficient amount of liquid oxygen for the MARV module from the carbon dioxide taken from the planets atmosphere. The above mentioned sampling shall cover the landing area completely, taking the first ones already during the approach in a specified height from the surface of the planet together with the recording of the pressure and the temperature values. The next sampling of the atmosphere will be provided at the place of the landing during the sol and also during the night. The reason for that approach is for example the recording of the distribution of the dust particles in the sol/night cycle. On the surface a small meteorological station will be installed to measure and record the temperature and the speed of the wind in different heights over the surface of the planet, like at the MPF mission. There will be delivered to the Earth surface and subsurface samples also from the ground of the landing area. The surface sampling will be provided by SLR robots, undersurface sampling by the penetrators. The penetrators will be equipped with accelerometers to define the depth of the penetration and the mechanical properties of the ground which will be important for the further manned missions, and with seismometers and heat sensors to measure the heat flows.

LANDING SITES
Mars is a dry and windy planet for the first sight, showing no visible remarks of water to be present, respectively signs of ongoing or ancient life. For the robotic mission with the hope of success, the landing site must present a compromise between such factors as the brokenness of terrain, the usable amount of the solar energy, the appearance of the dust storms and the needed precision of the landing. Because of such, the possible landing sites must meet the following sometimes even antagonistic criteria:

Engineering Constraints: the landing site must be located in between -15 to +35 latitude because of sufficient sunshine for the solar cells the landing must be done long enough before beginning of the global sand storms the terrain must be flat enough to allow the easy landing of the non controlled probe on the elliptical surface approximately for semi-major axis and semi-minor axis of 95 to 155 and 16 to 20km respectively( it will be depend on latitude and launch window), with the appearance of undulations max 0.5m. the landing must be done at the clearest possible weather conditions as for the later more precise evaluation of the landing area also for the recharging of the batteries using solar panels the landing area shouldnt be too dusty, because of the sensible devices and the solar panels for the correct operation of the MARV, the lander shall not land on a terrain with bigger inclination than 15 - 20 for the most effective use of the landing weight of the lander, the landing area must lay at least 1km under the MOLA level, the landing parachutes are working much more effective in more dense atmosphere (this constrain would be unnecessary, if we will be accepted shorter time of sky crane rocket motors function for safe landing see below)

Science Constraints: A key objective of this mission is collect samples for return to Earth. First step in the process is to target sites where liquid water was present and could have provided a clement environment for possible life. Idea prefers of possible current life finding for primary landing zone and possible past life in fossils form in ancient layers for back-up zones where aqueous sediments were deposited.

Primary Landing Site


The primary landing site will be Elysium Planitia (Fig.1). This area is the second largest volcanic region on Mars after Tharsis Montes. It is measuring about 1700 by 2400 km in size. Located on Elysium Planitia are the volcanoes Elysium Mons, Hecates Tholus and Albor Tholus. For the first time was this region studying by geologists through images returned by Mars Express spacecraft in 2005. They suggested that a frozen sea once existed on Elysium Planitia. This was determined from patterns seen in the ground near Athabasca Vallis a region at 5N and 150E about 1180 km south of Elysium Mons. Presumption is that there was an eruption of water from deep underground and a subsequent catastrophic flood that covered a wide area. This frozen see is roughly 45 m deep. This is suggested by plate-like surface features and may still harbor buried blocks of ice, protected by a layer of volcanic ash (see Fig.2).

Fig.1 Primary landing site location map showing the location of the image below

Fig.2 Mars water in frozen form may be located on this flat plain that is part of
Elysium Planitia. The above image was taken by the Mars Express spacecraft this scene is approximately a few tens of kilometers across (rectangle on map above on latitude 5N and longitude 150E, image: ESA/DLR/F U Berlin/G Neukum) Figure below was taken by HIRISE camera of MRO spacecraft the image is centered at 5, 5N and 152, 2E.

The next recent finding by Mars Express has increased the interest of this region the spacecrafts Planetary Fourier Spectrometer has detected elevated concentrations of methane in the atmosphere over the Elysium Planitia. The similar Fourier Transform Spectrometer at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope by Vladimir A.Krasnopolsky team1observed a spectrum of Mars and discovered the methane in the Martian atmosphere and next two more teams had measured similar results. This suggested the most likely interpretation is that the methane is a product of the metabolism of indigenous microbes. On the other hand, alternative explanation is that the methane is a product of geothermal activity or comets. This region is near Athabasca Valles which was the candidate landing site for MER missions3. Lot of flood channels emanate from the Cerberus Fossae contain the best-preserved examples of streamlined mesas, terraces and aqueous bedforms known on Mars. Such features can be interpreted as due the floods of water. The myriad channels of this site display distinctive thermal signatures despite the presence of a bright layer of dust covering the region this will be important constraint for feasibility of lander`s dust sensitive equipments. For those reasons this region would be a good candidate as a primary landing site for the first MSR mission.

Back-up landing site


The best candidate of possible past life finding is Meridiani Planum region see Fig.3. Sedimentary rocks exposed in this site record aqueous and eolian deposition in ancient dune environment that were arid acidic, and oxidizing 2.Orbital observations suggest that the combination of sulfate minerals and hematite found in Meridiani rocks may be unusual on the Martian surface. Because sulfates and iron oxides can preserve detailed geochemical records of environmental history as well as chemical, textural and microfossils4 signatures of biological activity, Meridiani Planum is an attractive candidate for Mars sample return mission.

Fig.3

Meridiani Planum image is centered at 0, 2N and 5, 8E (MRO)

Next interesting back-up landing zone is Melas Chasma (Fig.4), a rugged canyon region in the central part of Valles Marineris, contains various interior deposits and other features whose origin in some cases remains enigmatic3. Unfortunately, those sites were cancelled for recent MER missions due the potential very rough Martian surface on those places. From this point of view we need more robust landing systems which may allow these sites to be visited by future spacecraft this MSR mission may be a solution for this problem (see below).

Fig.4

Layers in Melas Chasma location is 11, 3S and 286, 3E (MRO)

Those two landing sites (Elysium Planitia and Meridiani Planum) was chosen because of communication if this MSR concept would be more cheap than other concept, it will be copied the recent MER missions two spacecraft will be send to a red planet in same time for higher redundancy Mars sample mission. This Deep Space Network coverage requires the two landing sites to be separated by a minimum central angle of 37on the surface5.

LAUNCH VEHICLE
The preferred launch vehicle is Boeing Delta II 7925 (Heavy) launch vehicle which was usually used in lot of earlier missions (Mars Pathfinder, MPL, MCO, Mars Surveyor, or MER). This rocket was developed in Boeing which offering a 13 percent increase in capability by using larger strap-on graphite epoxy motors (GEMs) from Delta III. The first threestage Delta II 7925H rocket successfully deployed the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on 7 July 20037. The payload capacity of this rocket are 5815 kg/LEO, 2064 kg/GTO and to Mars 1062 kg for 7 July 2003. For MER-A used launch energy was C3 = 9, 2510 km2s-2 7 for 5 June 2003(Delta 7925).

MISSION OVERVIEW
In order of cost saving for the whole mission, I decided to choose the well know procedure of the transport of the MSR probe to the Mars using the carrier rocket Delta 7925(H) together with the common logistical infrastructure and mission control used with the missions MER for example. The starting window may opens at 17th to 23rd March 2016, with Mars arrival date from 16th to 22nd January 2017. The given year of the start opens the possibility of the flight with the minimum of the energy needed for the start (therefore to rise the payload weight) and provides enough time to prepare the whole mission. The required launch energy C3 = 7, 99 km2s-2, outbound flight time is 305 days on II type of trajectory, TMI v = 3, 63 kms-1 6 . Upon arrival at Mars, MSR aeroshell with lander enters directly into the atmosphere like recent MPF and MER missions. No portion of this vehicle is placed into orbit around Mars hence, there is no expense for the design, construction and operation of an orbiter. An aeroshell with outer diameter 2, 65 m provides aerodynamic braking down to a velocity where a parachute can be deployed the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) of this vehicle is practically copying the landing of the probes MER, but without use of airbags. The new element is the Sky crane taken from the project MSL, but which is to be without precision landing, with simple hazard avoidance system and equipped with three harpoons/penetrators/anchors with ropes to secure the lander in safe and stable position. A simple hazard avoidance system uses descent imagery to ensure that the touchdown occurs on a relatively safe place. After landing, the vehicle transmits the nested descent images back to Earth, collect an atmosphere sample( after descent atmosphere sampling), deploys the high-gain antenna, opens the three garage doors with stowed spider(or scorpion)- like robots for the first time they must immediately help to solar panels deploys ( see the Fig.5). The spider like robots (SLR see fig.39) will be operated during minimally next ninety days helping the Earth-based scientist to analyze many rock and soil samples with the instrument set the SLR carries. In this time the SLR will transport the subsurface samples from penetrators to Mars and Return Vehicle (MARV). Approximately 0, 5 kg of subsurface and surface samples will be collected. Each sample will be separately containerized and deposited into the SLR sample canister. 8

Fig. 5 Lander after landing 9

During the SLR`s and penetrators Mars exploration, upon landing will be starting the LOX production for first and second stage of MARV. The MARV stages are based on hybrid rocket engines with consumable structures as a solid fuel. This In-Situ Propellant Production system must producing approximately 350 kg of liquid oxygen (LOX) for first stage and 100 kg for second stage of MARV during lander operations it will take nearly 500 sols. For ten hours each sol, on those landing sites is sufficient sunlight to fully power the propellant production plant. We will have a lot of opportunities to Mars-Earth return transfer it will be depend on ISPP production efficiency, dust storms and other unexpected events. Basically, we have two possibilities direct transfer and delayed transfer. In first case the departure from red planet will start 06/03/2020 with arrival period to Earth 12/13/2020 12/15/2020. In the second case, if the transfer is delayed, the departure will take place in the period from 03/21/2019 03/27/2019 with the arrival to Earth in 05/25/20218.

Fig.6

MARV lift-off

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SPACECRAFT
The Mars Sample Return Vehicle consists of the cruise stage and a lander out coming from the missions MER-A and B and it will have similar weight and identical size.

Fig.7 MER preparation to launch similar shape will have the MSR spacecraft of current project
(JPL/NASA).

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Cruise Stage This part of spacecraft provides the full range of necessary services during the ten-month passage to Mars included propulsion system for trajectory correction maneuvers, solar panels, star and Sun scanners and heat exchangers for the MARV control computer inside the aeroshell structure . The cruise stage measures 2,65m in diameter and stands 1,6m tall, weight is 183kg plus 52kg hydrazine. Solar cell produces 180 Watts of electric power9.

Fig.8

Cruise stage of MER spacecraft (JPL/NASA).

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ENTRY, DESCENT AND LANDING SYSTEM (EDL)


The objective of this system is getting the MARV with ISPP and sampling devices safely onto the surface of the Mars. This system includes five stages to meet this requirement: Aeroshell Re-Entry Capsule Deceleration System Parachute Deployment system Harpoons/Penetrators/Anchors shooting systems Sky Crane the simplified lifting system application Landing legs Estimated weight of whole EDL system is 280 kg. After further development, the system described above, with a highly precise landing control, will be able to land on places so far unthinkable, for example on the shoulders of craters so-called Gullies, where presence of liquid water is probable and so the presence of life. Aeroshell Re-entry Capsule Deceleration System It consists of two main parts Heatshield and Backshell. The heatshield is a carbon/epoxide composite and aluminum honeycomb sandwich construction with SLA561V ablator. The weight of the shield is 65kg10. The backshell is generally less heat loaded as the heatshield, but it bears the main part of the loads at the start of the carrying rocket and also at the landing of the Lander unit on the Mars. Mostly at the launch of the three pentrators when the landing motors are working while the lander is hanging on the landing rope. It weights 60kg.

Fig.9

Aeroshell before entry to the Mars atmosphere (after cruise stage separation)

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Parachute - taken from the project MER-A, B without modifications. It is Disc-Gap Band type and has 14.1m diameter. It weights 15.4kg.

Harpoons / Penetrators / Anchors The penetrators(3) introduced below are to eliminate the horizontal elements of the speed of the landing, to anchor the landing system to the surface of the Mars and at the same time for the random sampling from depths 0.5-3m from places laying on a imagine circular line of 80-100m diameter divided to three segments of 120. The next objective of the penetrators is to safely anchor the bearing ropes for the landing system, for spider like robots and solar panels. The penetrators will contain various scientific equipments as seismometers, temperature sensors to measure the temperature of the subsurface layers in different depths. Because the penetrator at the impact will generate large amount of heat and causing significant mechanical shock at the same time in the ground of the impact area, the sampling will be provided with the two possible following procedures: right after touching the ground the front of the penetrator will open with help of a drive which turns the potential energy of a torsional spring to a rotational movement (similar system as it is used in the hand borers to tighten the drill ) this mechanical energy is further used to shift the attachment in the back end of the penetrator to hold the end of the rope in a certain height above the surface and to release the drilling mechanism of the penetrator from the transporting position through the opened front end of the penetrator an ultrasonic borer will shift out with a hollow drill which is the shell for the sample at the same time once the drilling is finished the sample is shifted upwards to the rope of the penetrator (together with its shell) where the SLRs can transport it to the returning case in the MARV with the procedure described above all the gaseous and volatile products shall remain in the sample too

Or the sampling procedure will be same as DS-2 penetrators with miniature drilling equipment in a perpendicular position related to the main longitudinal axis of the harpoon/penetrator/anchor system see the Fig.10, 11. This solution would be working without some mechanical energy (torsional spring) but will employing some inflatable/rigidizable structure for beam inflating for end of rope holding in a certain height above the surface. The inflatable beam for our purpose shall be composites structure with aramid/carbon fabrics with ultraviolet (UV) - cured matrix 11. Gas generator will be situated in the aftbody of this harpoon, and will be initiated by mechanical force due the impact deceleration (like airbag in cars).

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Fig. 10

DS-2 Probe with penetrator

The penetrators are also consisting accelerometers, so from the data of the deceleration will be possible to judge the mechanical and the physical properties of the ground at the place of the impact. Each penetrator weights 5kg. The given penetrator (harpoons) has to behave stabile during launch, flight and also at the impact. Therefore the body of the penetrator will be slimmer as it was at the mission DS-2. To avoid the breakage of the body at the impact (and so the inclination of the body to the vector of the impact to more than 6), we will need to ensure that the movement vector lays on the longitudinal axis of the flying body. This is possible when in the same time with the launch we will give certain rotation, which give the needed stability in each phase of the flight. After all the rotation will have beneficial effect also to penetration itself while the flying body may have the shape of a drill and so the impact will be smoother. The fixing of the rope to the body of the penetrator will be solved in a similar way as it is on the common, whaler harpoons sliding rope fixing ring situated on the front end of the penetrator (when the body of the penetrator is settling in the barrel), which remains in place in the moment of the shot, starting to move with the penetrator only when it clicks into the special ledge at the back end of the body. Only after that will the penetrator pull the anchoring rope with. To ensure the most stabile flight, the given

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sliding ring will have small aerodynamic plates stabilizators. Their secondary objective is to eliminate the rotational movement for the rope to prevent its entanglement. The systems primary objective is to anchor the lander Sky Crane unit. This objective will be reached with the help of the so called tide gates situated at the front end of the penetrator . These gates will help hold the anchoring ropes tightened in the wide scale of loadings caused by the winding system of the lander and by the shocks which may occur while stabilizing of the 600kg weighting lander ( 540 kg calculated plus 60 kg margin) at various weather conditions in the given landing area. The next task for the penetrators is to hold the tightened rope so the SLRs will be able to move on the rope and the solar panels can be spread on that. To ensure the SLRs free movement, the anchoring rope has to have a minimal height over the penetrator, which is to be solved with a distance holder slides out with a help of a torsion spring, or inflatable/rigidizable beam. (See description above). Since the anchoring ropes wont lead the electrical energy, nor used as transport cable because of mechanical problems different tensile modulus of the rope and the lead cable (although it can be an option for the future development), in the first phase the penetrators will use their own sources of electrical energy, which are subjects to regular recharge using solar panels later transported to the penetrators by the SLRs. The communication between the penetrators, the lander and the SLRs will be done by radio signals using different frequencies.

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Fig.11 Harpoon/Penetrator/Anchor sketch design

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Those three penetrators/harpoons consist from four main parts: forebody parts with gopher or drilling instruments, sampling device, temperature sensors, decelerators main body with spiral nuts on outer surface for rotational stabilization after penetrator/harpoon shooting out from high-pressure barrel (like bullet) and with back hooks whose are activated by forebody separating shortly after impact to Martian surface. Those back hooks are necessary for anchor fastening in subsurface soil. Aftbody with lithium batteries, electronics package, communication antenna Inflatable/rigidizable beam for rope tightening and support in minimal height above Martian surface (or mechanical spring activated attachment body). This minimal height is necessary for moveability of robotic equipments SLR. Sky Crane Lifting System Taking its difficulty in account we can position the given system somewhere between the systems RAD of the MER project and the Sky craneof the project MSL. But, instead of using rocket engines for solid (RAD) or liquid fuel (MSL) for this system hybrid engines will be used, which will characterize the situation of this new system in-between the border systems taken over. The three combustion chambers of the hybrid rocket engine (HRE) are situated on the inner side of the backshell in 120 pitch with their traction vectors in 40 inclination from the vertical axis of the backshell, as the RAD braking motors of the mission MER. The interesting point is the use of the combustion chambers made of UHMWPE (Dyneema) composite as firing chambers for the penetrator units, which as the part of the consumable structure will be used as solid fuel for the HRE. The medium thrust of the individual chambers is 1100N for 40s. The oxidizer is the 40kg of nitrogen tetra oxide N2O4(NTO) stored in cylinder pressure tanks on the inner side of the backshell which at the same time carries all the combustion chambers e.g. barrels for the penetrator units see Fig.12.

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a)

b) Fig.12 Lander inside of Aeroshell structure,


a) b) second stage of MARV is at stowed position second stage of MARV is at push out position

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Lifter and cable stabilization unit . Consisting of four bearing ropes/cables (e.g. from Dyneema) the main rope, which is connecting the lander with the Sky crane and three others connecting the lander with the penetrators mentioned earlier above, this system is responsible for the easy settling of the lander to the surface of the planet and at the same time acts as stabilizing element during the landing process. The system also contains capstan units mounted with breaking and suspension systems to eliminate the oscillation of the ropes. Each unit is also equipped with control computers, the needed electronics and accumulators as energy sources for the capstan motors. To ensure the full control of the landing process, to the above mentioned system belongs a landing radar for the continuous measuring of the distance over the terrain and landing camera scanning the terrain at the probable site of landing (similar to MARDI camera from Mars Polar Mission and Phoenix), focusing on the trouble free touch-down of each landing leg. This optical device mentioned above, are linked with SHAS (simple hazard avoidance system), which is designated to find a safe place to land, in the area of the previously shot penetrators, using each capstan unit separately (there is a possibility of move in three directions , 120 between each other). Together with that, the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) pictures taken by this camera can be useful at the later evaluation of the actual place of landing. All above, the given landing system was designed, that in case of the malfunction of the SHAS, the lander is still able to land on a difficult terrain without any possibility of turning over (with helping by ropes). Landing legs The lander is equipped with four landing legs, designated to anchor the lander firmly to the landing position. Common landing systems using rocket engines mounted to the lander directly are working on the principle, that the touch of one of legs with the surface immediately deactivates the engines, which may cause significant shocks to the probe when settling while the rest of the legs are in certain distance from the surface. In our case the sensors may still detect the presence of the surface, but the difference is that this will activate the fine approach mode until all the legs are in touch with the surface. In that moment the main rope is to be cut off so this part may fall in a certain distance from the lander. The landers position can be leveled with the use of the ropes from the penetrators when landing on unstable surface, too see Fig. 13, 14 and 15.

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Fig.13 Landing legs in stowed position

Fig.14 Landing legs in opened position

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Fig.15 Lander in stowed position (without Aeroshell structure) 22

Gun and Rocket Motor (GARM) It is a multifunctional hybrid rocket engine for shooting the penetrators to the Martian surface to anchor the lander and also serves as rocket descent engine for the last phase of landing. Gun barrel phase At first, the equipment will serve as the gun barrel for the harpoon/penetrator/anchor to be shot out in the last phase of landing. This barrel will be loaded with high pressure in the shooting time approximately 300 MPa for a few 0,1s. Instantly after shooting the NTO will be injected to this barrel and it will work as a hybrid rocket motor to slow down the lander. For the first approach we would calculate the exit velocity vexit. We will consider the calculations without friction between gun-barrel and projectile (and for energy losses due the rotational spiral path of projectile for rotational stabilization), without pressure and temperature decrease with the projectile movement and atmosphere drag will be zero. For the next calculations we need the next parameters: Pressure pbarrel Projectile movement in gun-barrel S Cross section area of projectile A Projectile weight m Then the exit velocity will be Vexit =
2 pbarrel A S 1 = m

300MPa 1m 0, 00126 m2 5 kg

388 m/s

If we would consider the friction, expansion, atmospheric drag and flight instability of this penetrator we should calculate with the half of this value approx. 194 m/s. Next, we have to include the velocity of the lander in the moment of the shot this is approximately 85 m/s 100 m/s. With those corrections we will get the final exit velocity vexit = 279-294 m/s, which is slightly bigger than the value for DS-2 entry probe for the impact to the Martian surface. Stress analysis of the gun-barrel As far as this is a thick walled tube, for very rough calculation we may consider the long tube (barrel) where is only a simple tangential stress (without axial stress): R2 = R1

max (2 k pbarrel )

max

where max = 2250 MPa (Dyneema) , k is safety factor for example 1,5 and R1=0,02m

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Then R2 = 0,026 m ( outer diameter of barrel is 0,052m ) we see, that we would have a big safety factor due to the thick wall of our gun-barrel for the 45 seconds of burning we need minimally 40 mm thick wall (the outer diameter of barrel will be roughly 0,120m ) GARM performance As it is visible on the figure 16, 17, this module consists of three gunbarrel/hybrid rocket motors (combustion chambers) each has length of 1100 mm and 128 mm in diameter to be mounted to the backshell with NTO (with NO additive) pressure fed tank and nitrogen pressurization system. Each motor will be producing average thrust of 3 times 1100N for 40-45 seconds. The weight of this system is 83 kg. These hybrid rocket motors will be igniting simultaneously at the time calculated by the onboard altimeter based computer code. There are four phases of the motoric descent phase: I. II. Ignition and shooting the penetrators out in the same time, from the gunbarrel/combustion chambers. Hybrid motor descent phase. In this phase the algorithm is designed so that the active GARM system will reduce the landers vertical velocity to zero at the nominal altitude of 20 m above the Martian surface. In this time the penetrators are already under the ground and the reel equipments are activated for ropes tightening by the hazard avoidance optical control system. Sky Cranesystem activation. The lander is slowly pushed down to the ground. This procedure takes minimally 20-25 seconds. Sky Craneis flying away from the landing site with enough impulse.

III. VI.

Those engines are with throttle control because of this system must be flexible and operational also in case of some failures, for example penetrators or anchors malfunction (only one, two, three or no penetrator is fixing the lander). Therefore this system needs some control device with the connection to the MARV avionics for lander attitude determination in this critical last phase of landing.

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Fig.16 Gun-barrel positioning in backshell structure

Fig.17 Detail of cross-section of gun-barrel with harpoon (penetrator) 25

Thermo chemical calculations The rocket propellant is consists of UHMWPE (Ultra - High Molecular Weight Polyethylene, for example Dyneema) as a fuel and of NTO as oxidizer. The thermo chemical calculations were determined with REAL 2.1 version code the gas outflow from the nozzle has been considered as balanced with polytrophic exponent. Therefore these values are the peaks of the possible specific impulse of this propellant combination. Naturally the other calculations were corriged with various values of efficiency (of the combustion, of the engine...). On the figure 18 we shall see the specific impulse of this propellant relative to the mixture ratio with various chamber pressures.
3500

3300 p=0.5MPa p=1.0MPa 3100 p=1.5MPa p=2MPa p=2.5MPa p=3.0MPa 2900 Specific Impulse [Ns/kg] p=3.5MPa p=4.0MPa p=4.5MPa 2700 p=5.0MPa p=5.5MPa p=6.0MPa p=6.5MPa 2500 p=7.0MPa p=7.5MPa p=8.0MPa p=8.5MPa 2300 p=9.0MPa p=9.5 MPa p=10.0MPa 2100

1900 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mixture Ratio O/F

Figure 18: Specific impulse of UHMWPE/NTO propellant relative to the mixture ratio for various chamber pressures.

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DESIGN PHILOSOPHY
We can express the main philosophy of the design with a few words: TOtal uTilization of structurE Material TOTEM which stands for the total use/utilization of each gram of material deployed to the Mars. In the same way as the ancient cultures expressed their honor to such approach, this philosophy is the headstone of the whole construction philosophy of this MSR mission. In general the practice follows the main ideas: - Each of the structure elements have to withstand some load or have some function - After finishing the activities in certain functional dependence, the given structure will serve as solid fuel in the HRE Naturally not all of the structures will end as solid fuel, but they may have multifunctional character. The given approach was tested at mission Deep Space 1 for example. This philosophy has its argument in the fact that each kg of material deployed to the Mars surface costs in average 1 million USD. We will further distinguish if the use of mechanical and chemical parameters of the material will be done in one step or in series (one after another): Serial Utilization of Material (SUM) the use of the material will be done in series, e.g. first we use the mechanical properties of the given element and later its chemical energy Parallel Utilization of Material (PUM) when the use of the mechanical properties and the chemical energy of the element happens at the same time

Ideally each element will be multifunctional or used in many ways. We can express the given property with the so called coefficient of utility - kutility . The given coefficient will have its definition field from 1 to infinity. It still remains a question what effect will this approach have on the reliability of the whole system. At first we may consider that each element of the system with higher value of kutility will have to be more reliable, which puts enormous demand on the quality of certain components of the probe. We may consider the given facts as the basic approach in this new field.

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Hybrid Rocket Consumables Structures (HRCS) 20

Since the time I have been involved in the field of hybrid rockets, a certain negative trend towards recognizing these types of propulsions could be observed. This seems to be caused by the relative novelty of these engines as well as by the fairly low specific impulse they can provide (high-performance solid fuel rockets can offer the same specific impulse but at lower complexity of construction. On the other hand, advantages, such as the low cost of the fuel, the non-explosiveness or the ecology of the combustion process appear to be ignored. I believe, however, that the drawbacks, which hybrid rocket engines are generally associated with (imperfect combustion of the solid fuel, need for large solid fuel burning area because of the small burning velocity, low value of the optimal mixing and specific impulse at the polymer/LOX combinations, can actually be turned to advantages. In order to illustrate this point, I have transformed the well-known Tsiolkovskij formula on the characteristic velocity of a rocket to a graphical form (Fig.19). The graph shows the parameter C for various exit velocities. For the calculations, a hypothetical one-stage rocket launcher capable to carry a prescribed load to the Earths orbit was considered. For the sake of simplicity, the lower boundary of the velocity was limited to U=10,000m/s (without considering losses).

12000 Characteristics Velocity [m/s] 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Design Parameter C=start weight/empty weight(without fuel)

Isp=4500m/s Isp=2556m/s

Fig.19: Graphical representation of Tsiolkovskijs equation for the characteristic velocity of a rocket.

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It is evident from the above graph that the two extreme possibilities of achieving the objective are: the use of a multiply usable vehicle equipped with an LH2/LOX rocket (Isp=4,500m/s) for C=10, or The use of a propulsion unit with smaller specific impulse but with the possibility of using its solid fuel as part of the rocket structure. The latter option, however, appears to be an extremely demanding, if not impossible, task. For example, for the exit velocity of 2,556 m/s a construction parameter of C=50 should be achieved, which would mean an as low as 20kg weight after the burn out (including the load itself) for a 1,000kg starting weight rocket. Although I have no knowledge of any research dealing with such option of hybrid propulsion, I believe that the design of such rocket is possible. Although the above parameters could not be maintained, further improvement/sophistication would be feasible. Such a craft could be used for the first or the flying phase of a small rocket booster, for which the design characteristics are not too good anyway. This is due to the fact, that the design parameter C cannot be linearly decreased simply according to the rockets starting weight as it should be seen for example on solid rocket motors see the figure 20:
Design Number[Structure Weight/Total Weight] 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 0 500 1000 1500 Total Weight of motor [kg] 2000 2500 3000

y = -0,0522Ln(x) + 0,4447 R2 = 0,5567

300 250 Weight of Structure [kg] 200 150 100 50 0 0 500 1000 1500 Total Weight of Motor [kg] 2000 2500 3000 y = 0,5785x 0,7256 R2 = 0,8924

Fig.20 Solid rocket motors statistical parameters (from Tab.1) 29

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Type of solid rocket motor STAR 5A TE-M-863-1 Thiokol STAR 5C/CB TE-M-344-15 Thiokol STAR 5CB TE-M-344-16 Thiokol STAR 6B TE-M-790-1 Thiokol STAR 10 TE-M-195 Thiokol STAR 13 TE-M-458 Thiokol STAR STAR 12 TE-M-236 Thiokol STAR 13A TE-M-516 Thiokol STAR 12A TE-M-236-3 Thiokol STAR 17 TE-M-479 Thiokol STAR 17A TE-M-521-5 Thiokol STAR 24 TE-M-604 Thiokol STAR 24C TE-M-604-4 Thiokol STAR 20B Thiokol STAR 30BP TE-700-20 Thiokol STAR 20 TE-M-640-1 Thiokol STAR 30C TE-M-700-18 Thiokol STAR 48AS TE-M-799-1 Thiokol STAR 48Bs TE-M-711-17 Thiokol STAR 48B TE-M-799 Thiokol STAR 27 TE-M-616 Thiokol STAR 26 TE-M-442 Thiokol STAR 26B TE-M-442-1 Thiokol STAR 26C TE-M-442-2 Thiokol STAR 30E TE-M-700-19 Thiokol STAR 37XFP TE-M-714-16/17 Thiokol STAR 37 TE-M-364-1 Thiokol STAR 37FM TE-M-783 Thiokol

Weight[kg] 5 4 5 10 18 36 28 38 34 79 126 218 239 307 543 301 630 2574 2134 2137 361 268 261 264 667 955 621 1147

Weight of structure[kg] 2 2 2 4 6 5 10 5 11 9 14 18 19 33 38 28 39 144 124 126 27 37 23 32 45 71 63 81

Design Number 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.33 0.139 0.357 0.132 0.324 0.114 0.111 0.083 0.0795 0.107 0.07 0.093 0.062 0.056 0.058 0.059 0.075 0.138 0.088 0.121 0.067 0.074 0.101 0,0706

Thrustvac.[kN] 0.167 1.951 1.991 2.51 3.354 3.795 5.56 5.874 7.247 10.944 16.014 18.544 21.466 24.47 27 27.13 32.65 77.108 77.108 78.88 26.73 33.36 34.63 35.01 35.38 38.03 43.55 47.26

Ispvac.[Nskg-1] 2452 2608.5 2677.2 2461.4 2677.2 2471.2 2814.5 2647.7 2804.6 2814.5 2775.2 2765.4 2834 2863.5 2814.5 2814.5 2775.2 2804.6 2804.6 2824.3 2657.5 2667.4 2667.4 2853.7 2843.9 2550 2843.9

Total Impulse[kNs] 5.727 5.56 5.5 16.387 29.341 83.59 46.02 93.59 61.11 197.86 319.26 560.26 613.619 776.23 1459.4 771.5 1676.9 5672.65 5797 951.09 615.845 634.78 621.621 1786.9 2536.5 1583.9 3050.2

Time[s] 32 3 3 6 9 22 8 15 8 18 19 30 28 30 54 28 51 87 87 87 34 18 18 17 49 66 42 63

30

No. 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

Type of solid rocket motor STAR 37X TE-M-714-1 Thiokol STAR 31 TE-M-762 Thiokol Orbus-1 UTC Martlet 4-3 MAGE-1 SEP IRIS BPD Black Arrow-3 Orion-38 Hercules Mage-2 SEP Cetus (NOTS-100A) P0.6 SEP Lambda-3 Nissan Lambda-4 Nissan Mi-4S-4 (M40) Nissan

Weight[kg] 1150 1384 476 45 369 1830 397 875 530 50 950 832 100 521

Weight of structure[kg] 83 98 53.2 10 34 256 87 104 40 10 265 284 12 146

Design Number 0.072 0.071 0.112 0.22 0.092 0.14 0.219 0.119 0.075 0.2 0.279 0.34 0.136 0.28

Thrustvac.[kN] 51.15 82.29 30.38 5.39 19.4 29.4 29.4 34.57 45.48 4 40 64.55 7.95 31.4

Ispvac.[Nskg-1] 2902.7 2883.1 2876.2 2942 2892.9 2853.7 2726.2 2814.5 2873.3 2726

Total Impulse[kNs] 3046.6 3735.1 1190

Time[s] 60 45 39 19 50 150 28 68 44 20 44 27 31.5 32

2678

Tab.1 Values of several solid rocket motors for comparison of weights of structures

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Description of the Design Concept Fig.21 shows the conceptual design of the above highlighted option of hybrid propulsion. The entire unit, apart from the internal LOX tank, is made of non-metal materials only(inner surface contacted with LOX will be from metal layer only), such as epoxymatrix enforced with carbon and aramid fibers rolled around and also cut to the length of 2-4mm to improve ablation and strength during burning. The nozzle is made from pyrolitic graphite. The body of the rocket is in fact formed by the hybrid engine itself along with the LOX tank and the ring-shaped combustion chamber. The outer surface of the LOX tank and the internal surface of the combustion chamber together with the ribs form the combustion area of the hybrid rocket with 24 fuel channels.

Fig. 21: Concept of a self-combustion hybrid rocket engine.

The LOX tank is supported only at the upper and the lower sides of the combustion chamber and its wall is only touched by the rib tips. This solution was chosen to count for the heat expansion and also to minimize the heat transfer into the LOX tank. Thus, the entire body of the rocket could also serve as a transport tool for LOX, since it enables to keep it in the tank for the time required for transport or waiting for the start, etc. The space between the tanks is evacuated to minimize heat transfer (advantageous for launching the rocket from an airplane), which thus effectively becomes a Dewars vessel. The lower cover of the evacuated space is thrown away during the ignition. The LOX injector to the combustion chamber and the heater plug (hydrogen-peroxide) are located at the upper part of the tank. At the lower part, a ring-shaped nozzle with external expansion can be found, which throat is made of pyrolitic graphite. Further below, a 32

pressure vessel from epoxy-carbon fibers is situated. The wall of this vessel forms the internal surface of the ring-shaped nozzle. By such nozzle configuration, the exit gases are deflected at an angle ensuring the resultant thrust to pass through the rockets center of gravity. The vessel contains the high-pressure (cca 20-30MPa) Helium. During the engines operation, the vessels wall sublimates in accordance with the decreasing pressure of the Helium. For the late phases of this process, the Helium is pre-heated by the exit gases so the rate of the pressure decrease can be lowered. In the very lowest part of the propulsion unit, the control system is located. This utilizes the energy of the pressurized Helium for the deflection of the control surfaces. Placing these surfaces so far from the center of gravity enables to achieve a minimum effect of the radiation on them (smaller area is needed) while also yields low loss rates. Operational Issues This, thus far imaginary, propulsion unit cannot be universal because of the predetermined time-dependence of the thrust by the geometry of the fuel configuration - the body of the rocket. If an optimal mixing ratio is to be maintained for the entire period of operation, then the thrust of the engine (and thus the pressure in the combustion chamber as well) will continuously decrease. Thus, a system of equations with a number of variables is obtained, for which some acceptable solutions should be found. Problems to be solved There we have not dealt yet with the problem of the burning pressure tanks residual strength or with the extreme temperature difference on its both sides. Such analysis should take into account the pressure in the tank, which, however, is expected to remain relatively small due to a pressure load arising from both sides of the tank wall during the operation. It is likely, that the tank has to be cooled, especially if one considers the wall thickness will take on a quite small value for the majority of the runtime. The most obvious coolant could be the LOX itself, although it can be presumed, that such cooling would be a combined one: both regenerative and ablative. The cooling of the lower pressure tank containing the compressed Helium remains a question. Conclusions The conclusion of the above study can be summarized in the following points: The issue of the solid fuel residual can be transformed to a component of the rocket structure itself (2-6% from solid fuel). The problem of low optimal mixing ratio at polymer/LOX combination becomes unimportant in this case. Instead, a lower mixing ratio is desired to achieve longer operational time. This means, that the ratio of the solid fuel area and that involving the LOX (in the cross-sectional) should equal to the value of the optimal mixing ratio. A too low mixing ratio should be avoided, since by this the weight of the unused fuel

33

would remain too large at the end of the runtime, affecting negatively the construction parameter C. As large as possible burning area would be desired by the concept. The initial thickness of the LOX tank wall and that of the combustion chamber enables the use of a quite high initial pressure in the combustion chamber (around 7-10MPa). If the condition of optimal mixing ratio should be maintained for the entire runtime, a pressure (and other values as well) decrease will appear in the combustion chamber. This could be in accordance with the strength loss of the LOX tank and the combustion chamber. It is clear, however, that the primary aim should remain the time-dependency of the thrust prescribed by the flight trajectory and the required total impulse. During the operation, the LOX tank will be loaded by the pressure difference between the combustion chamber and the tank itself. The concept of the propulsion unit enables to use it as a Dewar vessel for LOX, allowing its transport in the rocket itself. The concept of the rocket is simple, while the value of the specific impulse is comparable with the ones achieved by high-performance rocket engines with solid fuels. At the same time, the fuel cost is also relatively lower. It is apparent, that beside the above advantages, a number of problems will also emerge. The most important ones are: An appropriate solid fuel should be chosen, with the desired characteristics being quite contradictory: high strength but good burning ability, low heat expansion and transfer rates, good endurance of both high and low temperatures. Modeling of the solid fuel burning in a curved channel. Exact determination of the solid fuel burning details. The issue of tank wall cooling. Stress differences in the walls due to the loads from the pressure and temperature. Regulation of the oxygenizer supply, etc.

34

MARS ASCENT AND RETURN VEHICLE (MARV)


The most important component of the whole mission is the MARV. It presents a unique challenge it is to be the smaller carrier rocket so far, together with the fact, that it will be the first automatically launched rocket from the surface of an alien planet. The above mentioned facts will be cardinal for design, testing and running of the given device. The whole system is in fact in contrast with the present trends of the development of carrier rockets on the Earth, when decreasing the useful weight! The common design tends for continuous increase of the useful weight, although there are sign of the increasing need for smaller rockets to transport nano satellites to LEO -...... Therefore we can finish the introduction with the thought, that the development of the MARV will have great impact not just to the planetary research, but also to the small carrier rocket development here on Earth. The characteristics of the rocket The landing module introduced below, will not contain fuel in the conventional way before landing on the Mars except producing LOX from the Marss atmosphere as oxidizer, the construction of the pressure pots for the liquid oxygen and for the sorbent of the adsorption compressor itself will be used as fuel including the Li-ion battery, which is to be the secondary source of the electrical energy for the ISPP module for the LOX production. The MARV is a two stage carrier rocket, fully controlled in each of its axis with starting weight of 835kg. The objective of the given carrier is the transport of the ERV returning cage with the cruise stage to the trajectory leading to the Earth. See the Fig.22. of the MARV with the description of its main parts.

35

Fig.22 Cross section of MARV

36

First Stage Consisting of the great Dewars vessel in general, functioning at the same time as burning space for the first stage of HRM the here introduced type of the Hybrid consumable structure is the one, where the chemical and the mechanical properties of the solid fuel are used at the same time it means that the tank with the LOX is to be burned from outside in the way the mechanical toughness of the pot walls remains. As the pressure of the helium above the LOX is decreasing together with the thickness of the wall, caused by the burning, will the tension of the construction remain almost on a constant level? (However other factors, like temperature stress and others were not considered in advance.) The capacity of this tank is approx 350kg of LOX at -196K while its density is 1140kgm-3. During the LOX production the tank is well insulated with the high vacuum between the walls of the burning chamber and with good thermal insulation above that. The main issue is to prevent the losses of LOX due to its evaporation while storing. When the rocket is working will consume 350kg of LOX and 167kg of solid fuel, the construction material of the Dewar pot, as previously introduced. In sectional view the first stage reminds us the shape of the letter S it is in fact a jacket like burning chamber of the HRM, where the solid fuel is the construction of the Dewar vessel with the LOX, but also the carbon based sorbent material CFCMS21 and CMS of 25kg together with the nanolaminate aluminum honeycomb (5kg) which binds the granulates into one functional unit. The aluminum honeycomb has multifunctional acts as reinforcement, but at the same time is solid fuel for the hybrid engine and nevertheless due to its good thermal conductivity used for the heating or cooling of the sorbent material respectively. This nanolaminate (honeycomb for us) structure for adsorbent heat exchanger bed was originally invented by Sigma Technologies, Tucson, Arizona 12 as Aluminum-Polymer nanolaminate panel. This type of high-strength Aluminum-Polymer Nanolaminate panel has a excellent mechanical properties- depending on a aluminum content and layer thickness, the nanolaminate material can be significantly stronger that conventional aluminum sheet. Thermal and electric conductivity is similar that of bulk aluminum. This material is stable at least up to 250C and may be modified for various properties of this material. On the other hand this nanolaminate panel content nanoflakes of aluminum which is better solid metal rocket fuel than conventional metal powder. For this reason this material will be burn with better efficiency in this hybrid rocket motor see Fig.23.

Fig.23 Bulk Nano-Composite Material 1000S of Polymer and Metal Layers (right), and Nano-composite for Energetic Pigment Applications (100-500nm Al) left figure 37

These adsorbents are mainly used to compress the CO2 gas from the Martian atmosphere to the OGS for LOX production, but also as solid fuel as previously mentioned. As burnable construction material for the given stage will be used Dyneema fiber (UHMWPE, for example SK-75, DSM The Netherlands22) with its long molecule chain structure together with Dicumyl Peroxide (DCP) as cross linking agent. Other materials for this function will be aramid/epoxy based composite (Kevlar for example). We can consider other carbon/epoxy based composites too, but here the requirement is the very fine carbon fiber structure in order to be oxidized in the highly oxidative environment of the LOX. The Dyneema fiber itself has 15 times higher tensile strength as the common steel, but only at lower temperatures being thermoplastic. At the same time it has higher thermal conductivity, so the unnecessary heat has to be led away (in regenerative way for example) while the engine is working. Other factor is the lower side of the range of the working temperature of this excellent material which is -150C and which is colliding with temperature of the LOX with its evaporating temperature of -198C and so eliminating its possible use as construction material for the pressure pot. At this temperature the material became fragile with higher inclination to brittle failures. Detail view of this rocket motor structure is visible on Fig. 24.

Fig. 24

Detail view to design of consumable solid fuel/structure of I. Stage

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Polymer Material Type

Trade Name, Manufacture r LDPE Dyneema SK 75 Spectra 1000 Delrin Aldrich

Chemical Formula

Heat Release Capacity J/g-K 1676

Total Heat Release kJ/g 41,6

Char

Molecular Weight g/mol 28,06

Thermal Expansion K-1 1-5 x10-6

Glass Transition Temperature Tg K

Melting point Tm K 378-388 417-425

Tensile Modulus MPa 102-310 68000118000

Tensile strength MPa 17-25 22503800

Thermal conductivi ty Wm-1K-1

Limiting Oxygen Index LOI

Density kgm-3 910935 970

Polyethylene PE Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene UHMW-PE Polyoxymethylen e POM Polypropylene PP Polyisobutylene Polymethylmetha crylate PMMA Polystyrene PS Polyethylene Terephthalate PET Poly Methyl styrene Polyacrylonitrile ButadieneStyrene ABS Poly(p-phenylene Terephthalamide) Bisphenol-A Epoxy, Catalytic cure Phenoxy-A Polylaurolactam Polyhexamethyle ne Sebacamide

C2H4 (C2H4)n=100000

% 0

18-19

CH2O C3H6 C4H8 C5H8O2 C8H8 C10H8O4

169 1571 1002 323-514 880-927 332 730 669 302 657 743 878

14 41,4 44,4 22,6-24,3 38,8-39,9 15,3 35,5 36,6 14,8 26,0 33,2 35,7

0 0 0 0-0,3 0 5,1 0 0 36,1 3,9 0 0

30,03 42,08 56,11 100,12 104,15 192,17 118,18 211,31 238,25240,2 340,42 197,32 282,43 -2 to 4x10-6 698 827 83165x103 30005000 20003000 28-90 20-30 0,19 27-29 14401470 12001300 9,1x10-5 342-388 538 1700 50 1410

Aldrich

C9H10 C15H17N

KEVLAR DER-332 Dow Chemical Nylon 12 Nylon 6/10

C14H10O2N2 C21H24O4 C12H23O C16H30O2N2

Tab.2 Potential polymer solid materials for hybrid consumable structures

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The thermo dynamical characteristics of fuel materials of the 1st stage The 1st stages oxidizer will be LOX. The solid fuel will be the combination of UHMWPE, aramid, epoxy resin and FCMS with CMS, Al. The thermodynamic calculations were done with REAL 2.1 version code the gas flow through the jet were considered as balanced with polytrophic exponent, so these are the theoretical peak values of the possibly reachable specific impulse. Naturally the other calculations were corriged with various values of efficiency (of the combustion, of the engine...). The results are on the Fig .25, 26 and they are in fact the two extremes of the 1st stage HRE function. The first diagram is showing the conditions at the first phase of the engines function the highly porous materials of the sorption compressor (FCMS and CMS) are also burning, which are characterized with higher combustion speed, and the second diagram, characterizing more the final phase only the walls of the LOX tank are burning.

3600

3400

Specific Impulse [ Nskg ]

-1

3200

3000

2800

2600

p=2MPa p=2.5MPa p=3.0MPa p=3.5MPa p=4.0MPa p=4.5MPa p=5.0MPa p=5.5MPa p=6.0MPa p=6.5MPa p=7.0MPa p=7.5MPa p=8.0MPa p=8.5MPa p=9.0MPa p=9.5 MPa p=10.0MPa

2400 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5


Mixture Ratio O/F

Fig.25 UHMWPE, Aramid, Epoxy, CFCMS, CMS and Al/ LOX Specific impulse of the
propellant relative to the mixture ratio for various chamber pressures.

40

3800

3600 p=0.5MPa p=1.0MPa 3400 p=1.5MPa p=2MPa p=2.5MPa 3200 Specific Impulse [Ns/kg] p=3.0MPa p=3.5MPa p=4.0MPa 3000 p=4.5MPa p=5.0MPa p=5.5MPa 2800 p=6.0MPa p=6.5MPa p=7.0MPa 2600 p=7.5MPa p=8.0MPa p=8.5MPa 2400 p=9.0MPa p=9.5 MPa p=10.0MPa 2200

2000 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 Mixture Ratio O/F

Fig.26 UHMWPE, Aramid, Epoxy / LOX Specific impulse of the propellant relative to the
mixture ratio for various chamber pressures.

In my opinion the given limitation will be possible to eliminate with bigger safety coefficient for the construction above, where the wall thickness from this material will be several times bigger like the needed minimum. Because of the quite low density of the material, such approach wont lead to massive weight increase of the given part. For these reasons of Vis major the outer walls of the pressure pot for LOX will be this material, while its strength will be used right before of the ignition of the first stage only. Then the LOX tank with the use of compressed He will be continuously pressurized up to 15MPa and so the walls loaded. The given load will change when the engine starts working, because the 10MPa of pressure in the combustion chamber (between the given walls) will decrease the differential pressure to 5MPa. In this phase the temperature of the burning will reach approximately to 3600C so the inner thin walled pot from carbon/epoxy composite with Al alloy (or Titanium, respectively stainless steel) liner, will take over the mentioned load, as the Dyneema loses its mechanical properties at this temperature. Resuming all this we can conclude, that the mechanical

41

properties of the Dyneema will be used right before the ignition only and later it will be used as solid fuel for the 1st stage. Because of the high thermal conductivity of the UHMWPE, inner part of the LOX tank will be solved as thermal exchanger, where the gaseous He will pressing itself from the lower to the upper half of the tank, above the LOX level. Therefore the liquid oxygen wont be in direct contact with the very hot surface of the metal liner (especially at the final phase of the engines function), but there will be a layer of inert gas flow He, which will have two functions: working as cooling medium will be used to press the LOX into the combustion chamber of the HRE, where the heat taken from the tank walls will be also used to pre heat the He itself and so for the given amount of oxidizer smaller amount of gas will be necessary The outer pot of the LOX tank will be made of aramid/epoxy composite this material will be slowly burned, but also taking the pressure over load from the combustion chamber of the HRE. We can find the further properties of the polymer materials, which can be used as hybrid rocket consumable structure, in the table 2 above. In certain places of the construction temperature sensors are monitoring the thermal field during the HRE is functioning. The LOX injector together with the main LOX valve is situated at the lowest part of the tank, so the intake for the 1st stages HRE shall be problem free for the whole functional period. The ignition will be pyrotechnical (pyrogenic type) with backup charges and independent electrical igniting circle to increase the reliability of the ignition. The pressurizing He will be stacked in a toroidal tank at 40 - 60MPa of pressure, situated between the spherical LOX tank and the ring like part of the combustion chamber with the adsorption compressor see the picture nr.22, 24. In the lower parts of this stage is the secondary LOX distribution to each jet respectively the mixing chambers. The ring of the nozzles bottom will consist of 28 nozzles and 28 injectors of the secondary LOX distribution see the attached picture.22, 24. As it is to be seen on the picture nr.22 and 24, the control of the 1st stage is done with the vectorization of 4 jets using deflection flaps in the stream of the exhaust gases. The rotational movement of these gas vanes is to be done by servos, which are supplied with electrical energy from the consumable Li-ion batteries, situated in the 2nd stage of the MARV.

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The functional and geometrical characteristics of the 1st stage HRE The given engine will work at the following conditions: pSK=var., mOX=const. an O/F=const. (pSK=pressure in combustion chamber, mOX= oxygen feed rate and O/F= Oxidizer to fuel ratio). This means that during the function of the HRE the pressure in the combustion chamber will gradually decrease, the oxidizer supply together with the mixing ratio of the oxidizer and the fuel will remain constant. The condition pSK=var means decrease of the pressure during the functional period of the HRE in order to keep the condition of the consumability of the material of the tank as consumable structure, so the burning down of the inner side of the tank will be linked with the pressure decrease and so the tension in the material remain constant. To maintain the given decrease, it is enough to consider the erosion of the critical inserts of all the 28 nozzles of the engine. The conditions mOX=const. a O/F=const will be met with the help of the functional scheme of the given HRE, where the LOX is to be led as to the frontal section of the combustion chamber (primal circuit) as to the mixing chamber (secondary circuit) situated before the jets of the HRE. The LOX supply to the primal as to the secondary part will be redistributed with the help of the main valve in the lower section of the LOX tank (changing the flow trough rate in these circuits, while keeping the LOX supply constant). The reason for the given scheme is mainly the fact, that the S shape fuel channel, see Fig.22, 24, is very slim approximately 1:80, meaning that this HRE will work at large oversupplies of the fuel materials which are to be burned additionally in the additional combustion chamber near to the jet of the engine. The procedure described here has an another advantage too when taking in account the wall thicknesses of the tanks and the needed length of the working period of the engine because the given MARV at lower structural height has quite big outer diameter 1.5m, will have bigger aerodynamic drag when descending trough the atmosphere (also if the Martian atmosphere is approx.100x less dense than on the Earth) so it will be more beneficial to use lower traction at longer working period. Although the optimalization of the MARVs trajectory is not the part of this work, we may designate the engine working time to 120-200 sec. It is clear from this, that when using appropriate wall thicknesses, the burning rate of the solid fuel must be very low, approximately 0.1-0.15mms-1. This is only possible, at very low GO values in the diffusion area of the given solid fuels burning law. The advantage of the given diffusion area, is that the burning rate is independent of the pressure in the combustion chamber and so the calculation model of the HRE combustion will be simpler. The thrust control of the 1st stage is not considered the trajectory changes will be fine tuned with the help of the 2nd stage. The parameters of the MARVs 1st and 2nd stages are in the table 3. Despite the complicatedness of this conception for the first sight, the advantage will be the relatively high initial pressure (10MPa) in the combustion chamber maintaining the optimal mix ratio for the whole range of functioning and also the very sound engines construction number of 0.87. Within the given parameters this engine overcomes even the most modern engines for TPH, particularly in its specific impulse Ispmax= 3440Nskg-1.

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The 2nd stage The 2nd stage is interesting because it is multifunctional. It has five main functions - Acts as heavy duty Li-ion accumulator for the operating of the lander on the Mars surface and for the systems of the MARV during the flight until the 2nd stage starts to operate - Works as pressure vessel for the highly compressed He as pressure gas for the 2nd stage HRE (the pressure at the beginning in the pot reaches approximately 60MPa) - After finishing all other vis. major functions its construction will be burned in the HRE as solid fuel (serial and parallel self consumable structure) - After having the given stage burned the remains, the inner pressure vessel for the compressed He, will act as returning capsule for the samples. It means that we will have to use bigger wall thickness for this to handle the high pressure of the stored He, but it is to be used as heat shield for the ERV and also acts as safety cover in case of eventual parachute system malfunction, so at the end the big wall thickness is beneficial - And finally, at the high pressure and temperature during the combustion of solid fuel/construction of the pressure pot, all the possible microbiological life forms situated on the surface of the returning capsule will be most probably destroyed The construction is consisting of two concentric and one cylindrical, thermally insulated pressure pots for the LOX see the Fig.28. The innermost is the pressure pot for the compressed He, although at the same time serves as returning capsule ERV with the samples from the Marss litho - and atmosphere and also as heavy duty Li-ion accumulator (as power source for ISPP and for the systems of the MARVs 1st stage during the flight). Having its functions finished later it is to be burned with LOX. The next item is the outer section of the HRMs burning space which serves as supporting material for the He pressure pot and at the same time co creating the combustion area for the 2nd stage HRM. Finally the last spherical pressure pot serves as hydrazine tank for the stabilization of the 2nd stage HRMs function. The thermo chemical characteristics of the fuels of 2nd stage In beginning, lithium polymer battery will be burning as a solid fuel with LOX in hybrid rocket engine of second stage of MARV. This lithium polymer battery consist from Lithium metal (anode)/ Ethylene Carbonate (EC) +Propylene Carbonate (PC) +LiClO4 as an electrolyte with TiS2 (composite Cathode) 13. Otherwise, we have a lot of possibilities for other Li-ion batteries combination as a potential solid fuel for Hybrid Consumable Structures (various solvents, electrolytes, anodes and cathodes). This combination is example only. The gramatomic content of 1kg lithium battery fuel will be C7,325H10,419O10,106Al3,704Cl0,94Li36,963Ti3,124S6,248. The aluminum will be as a conductive element between battery cells. Specific impulse calculation is the same like above (first stage) see the figure 27.

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Specific Impulse of IIst Stage of MARV (battery consuming - Al+Li+EC+PC+LiClO4 +TiS2 /LOX) related to Mixture Ratio O/F with various pressures in combustion chamber. Ambient pressure is 0,0001MPa.

3400

3300

p=0.5MPa 3200 p=1.0MPa p=1.5MPa p=2MPa p=2.5MPa p=3.0MPa Specific Impulse [Ns/kg] p=3.5MPa 3100 p=4.0MPa p=4.5MPa p=5.0MPa p=5.5MPa p=6.0MPa 3000 p=6.5MPa p=7.0MPa p=7.5MPa p=8.0MPa p=8.5MPa 2900 p=9.0MPa p=9.5 MPa p=10.0MPa

2800

2700 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 Mixture Ratio O/F

Fig.27

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Fig.28 Second Stage with Earth Return Capsule (ERC) Guidance and Control of the MARV during ascent The guidance system for MARV shall bring this vehicle onto the desired direct hyperbolic path to Earth within a given accuracy (while minimizing the fuel consumption) and ensuring that the path constraints are well met during the flight. During the first stage function is vehicle designed for the 3-axes attitude control by the four vanes in rocket motor exhausts see the Fig.22, 24. like military rockets (for example SPARROW). The second stage will be managed similarly (see Fig.28) for the pitch and yaw will be employed the thrust vector control by LOX injecting to a divergent part of nozzle and roll will be control by the hydrazine RCS thrusters. The guidance may be based on a calculus of variations approach similar to that used for the final phase of the Apollo Earth return guidance14. Navigation Since the spacecraft does not land with great precision (cca 150 x 20 km), it will be necessary to determine its exact position with some navigation system. If we consider the lander to be absolutely on its own on the Mars, i.e. with no other spacecraft close by, which could be used to determine its exact position, it becomes clear that navigation will be a responsibility of the lander itself. Since Mars has negligible magnetic field, we will have to use for navigation only celestial bodies, stars or radio signals from Earth. 46

Phobos and Deimos These moons of Mars are useful to determine the landing position with greater accuracy. Their observation can take place at night, when the atmospheric particles are more settled and the moons better detectable. Sun The angular velocity of Sun when viewed from the Mars is less than that from the Earth, this means that when using the Sun as a reference point, the error is less. Even so, the Sun can be used only as a secondary reference to quickly determine the location of the spacecraft. Planets The same rules apply for these than for navigation via the moons Phobos and Deimos. Radio signals Radio signals originating from the Earth can be used via Doppler Effect and orientation of electromagnetic radiation. Another option is to use the combination of some of the above methods.

Mars Ascent and Return Vehicle Flight Analysis


The basic reference aerodynamic shape for the Mars Ascent and Return Vehicle (MARV) is dictated primarily by packaging and volumetric constraints imposed by the MER (or MPF) like aeroshell. This two stage launch vehicle is compound inside the aeroshell in a retractable position (from Earth launch to Mars EDL phase). After backshell jettisoning the second stage is push out due gravitational force of chute phase (and additional internal pressure by inert gas) from the first stage-from LOX tank, exactly. After this procedure we will get like the Discoverer capsule shape. The references 15, 16 give some aerodynamic parameters of this shape of reentry probes. The tests16 were made at Mach numbers from about 0.8 to 1, 2 through an angle-of-attack range that generally varied from 0 to 180. The aerodynamic parameters from higher Mach numbers are in15work. The static pitch stability problems in subsonic regime of flight are out of this work. In this first approach I calculated the trajectories without using of angle-of-attack related to trajectory path only with single drag coefficient CD= 0,7 were taken (of Discoverer blunt-body shape zero angle of attack). The trajectory shape is given only by initial elevation angle of the MARV lift-off without active control and no coast between stages burning. This trajectory simulation is based on numerically integrating the equations of motion. The Mars atmospheric density model is based on Mars-GRAM (Clancy and hydrostatic equilibrium models) 17and Mars Pathfinder measured atmospheric density data10 see diagram 29:

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0.02 0.018 0.016 0.014 Density [kg/m3] 0.012 0.01 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Altitude H [km] y = 0.0303e-0.1216x R2 = 0.9963 atm[MPF] atm[Clancy] atm[GRAM] Exponenciln (atm[GRAM])

Figure 29 Mars atmosphere density related to altitude model. The insisted equation on this figure is more strict to atmospheric density in low altitude (05km) but it is on the safely side of next trajectory calculations. The stage masses of MARV are determined through geometrical and maximum LOX mass requirements related to a strict volume utilizing in MER-like aeroshell body from this point of view distribution of stage masses are not optimal(to optimal trajectory). It would be need some optimalizations in the future work. Mass and rocket motor properties of MARV are in Table 3. Stage 1 dry mass [kg] Stage 1 propellant mass [kg] Stage 2 dry mass [kg] Stage 2 propellant mass [kg] ERC+cruise stage mass [kg] Total MARV lift-off mass [kg] Stage 1 average engine Isp [Ns/kg] Stage 2 average engine Isp [Ns/kg] Stage 1 time of function [s] Stage 2 time of function [s] Referential MARV cross area [m2] MARV characteristical velocity [m/s] 79,6 517,4 18 180 40 835 3310 3003 200 60 1.767 7439,3

Table 3 Mass and rocket motor properties of MARV stages. As shown on figures 30-31, the maximum inertial velocity of second stage is to be reached with elevation angle of MARV lift-off equal 70 - 6880,5 m/s. The difference between characteristical velocity is -558,8 m/s due the atmospheric drag and gravitational losses.

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500 450 400 350 Altitude H [km] 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 50 100 150 Time [s] 200 250 300 89 80 75 70 65

Figure 30 MARV reached altitudes related to time with various angle of lift-off.
8000 7000 6000 Velocity [m/s] 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 50 100 150 Time [s] 200 250 300 89 80 75 70 65

Figure 31MARV ascent velocities with various elevation angle of lift-off.

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50 45 40 Acceleration x g [-] 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 50 100 150 Time [s] 200 250 300 89 80 75 70 65

Figure 32 MARV acceleration with various elevation angles of lift-offs


10 9 Drag Force Q, Thrust Pc[kN] 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 50 100 150 Time [s] 200 250 300 PC[kN] 65 70 75 80 89

Figure 33 Drag force, Thrust profile with various elevation angle of lift-off.

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8000 7000 6000 Velocity [m/s] 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 Altitude H [km] 65 70 75 80 89

Figure 34 Velocities profile with various elevation angle of lift-off.

500 450 400 350 Altitude H [km] 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 89 80 75 70 65

Distance S [km]

Figure 35 Trajectories profile with various elevation angle of lift-off. As we seen on Figure 32 the first stage acceleration is very slow in comparison with second stage where acceleration is more aggressive due the lack of Martian atmosphere in this altitude. Direct ascent to hyperbolical return trajectory through Mars atmosphere will have aerothermodynamical effect approximately 0,1-0,25 W/cm2 predicted stagnation value (0,1W/cm2 15). Hence, for first linear approximation the predicted maximum temperature will be slightly 2,5 times more on the order of the boiling point of water at sea level on Earth. This presumption we would take from maximum dynamic pressure experienced during the ascent is 925 N/m2 in T+64 s after lift-off (in15 this value is 361N/m2). For this reason the front part of MARV will consist from ultra light composite cap with thin ablating layer.

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We have a several possibilities to increase the terminal velocity of second stage of MARV for example increasing of time of function of 1 stage with lower average thrust profile (This is limited by thickness of LOX tank see chapter MARV), mass distributions between stages and optimizing the flight path trajectory, or with better aerodynamic shape with precise control of angle of attack during ascent. This will be very important factor due the wide range of required escape velocities from Mars approx. 2,5-3,4 km/s in 2019-2020 opportunities see Table 4 8 . 2020 2019 2019 Direct Delayed Delayed Short Late Optimum Launch window 03/21 05/01 06/03 start Launch window 03/27 05/07 06/09 end Max.departure 2,59 2,96 3,39 vinf[km/s] Max.escape 2043 2232 2468 v1)[m/s] Arrival year 2021 2021 2020 Arrival start 05/25 05/14 12/13 Arrival end 05/25 05/15 12/15 Max.arrival 5,40 7,60 3,32 vinf[km/s] Max.trip duration 796 744 194 [d] 1) The Mars escape maneuver does not include gravity losses The escape velocity for hypervelocity reaching will start on 500km Mars orbit (MOI) Tab.4
1400 1200 1000 Altitude H [km] 800 600 400 200 0 0 200 400 600 800 Time [s] 1000 1200 1400 1600

Fig.36 MARV Trajectory path relative to time

EARTH RETURN VEHICLE


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The returning capsule or Earth Entry Capsule (ERC)


Consist from structure, SLR`s garage doors as a solar panels, avionics, RCS hydrazine thrusters, low-gain antenna, rechargeable battery, remainder parts of combustion chamber and Earth Return Capsule (ERC) see the fig. 37. The returning capsule (ERC) belongs to the most important part of the MSR mission it has to provide suitable environment for the Mars samples pressure of 6 to 10 Torr and temperature of -10C ( or more, without refrigerator system) at least. It has to be absolute sterile in order to prevent any accidental contamination of the samples with microorganisms for the Earth (also at very low concentrations they might multiply themselves for 3-4 years). For these reason would be more suitable to have each sample hermetically closed right on the Mars surface. The minimum weight of the samples taken will be 0.5kg.

Fig. 37

Earth Return Vehicle configuration

The shape of the returning capsule will be spherical first it is a conception demand and on the other hand it is advantageous when returning to the Earth atmosphere, because the spherical shape allows the stepping in at various positions while the inclined position of the weight center after few oscillations provides the needed static and dynamic stability for the whole speed range of the flight. After short hesitation I come up to the use of parachute system to break the returning capsule, but considering the possible malfunction of this system. With this, the capsule will survive 53

even the not decelerated fall without dehermetization (e.g. case of survivalibility of Delta II`s rocket pressure tank after stage impact to Earth). The philosophy of this approach is that we will receive the samples in original state with no or very small mechanical destruction as the effect of large deceleration when the parachute system is working, but also in case of the parachute malfunction, not risking the contamination of the Earth biosphere. During the flight of the capsule from the Mars to the Earth the monitoring of the inner pressure and temperature will be also necessary, so in case of having the capsule dehermetized, it will be possible to modify its trajectory in order to avoid the samples getting in touch with the Earths biosphere. The landing capsule will contain the following: container with the samples, parachute, radio transmitter, telemetries, batteries (for one use, with chemical activation), and inflatable safety float in case of landing on water surface, plus radio and light beacon. The possible landing areas will be northern or southern polar regions where the population density is lower with large opened areas, low temperature (in case of surface contamination the micro organisms will have smaller chance to spread away) and on the other hand if the search for the samples would take longer as predicted, the low temperatures are also more suitable to store the samples. The low temperature has its further advantages too for example because of the higher air density, in the event of parachute malfunction, the free fall of the capsule will be decelerated more intensively by the air the capsule will have lower impact speed. The snow cover might also soften the impact. On the other hand the environmental and meteorological factors may hinder the search for the capsule too. Avionics It serves the precise navigation of the returning section of the MARV to the Earth direction. It is a highly sophisticated autonomous control system, without such, the whole mission would be unthinkable. If we add the weight restrictions together with the fact that it has to contain the navigation equipment for the inertial plane justification it is clear that this is an another key element of the probe. The avionics of the MARVs landing section has to contain the following: Equipment to designate the local horizon serves for the precise setting of the inertial system at the place of the landing Optical devices to detect the position of the referential heavenly bodies and also to take pictures in given time intervals (in three directions) during the take-off for the later evaluation of the real trajectory of the MARV relative to the Mars (example only) Inertial plane laser gyroscopes Flight computer Telemetry multiplexer Telemetry transmitter Reaction Control System (RCS) Battery Sensors (for Sun, stars), or Star Trackers

The guidance, navigation and control (GNC) system may be based for example on Orbital`s highly proven Pegasus and Taurus launch vehicles. The lightweight booster avionics hardware derives extensive heritage from Orbital`s spacecraft programs18. In 19 work has a

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half-scale Pegasus and Taurus rocket the GNC system (avionics and ACS) weight is 36 kg- it is else too much for our ascent vehicle- it must be light-weight advanced and integrated avionics module. It is in fact the 2nd stage of the MARV. It will contain the combustion chamber burned down together with the inner jacket (the ERV, in fact), outer jacket for the oxidizer, positioning engines RCS with hydrazine, avionics, batteries, sensors for the Sun and the stars, antennas and solar panels. The main issue for this cruise stage is to get the ERV capsule to the right trajectory approaching the Earth. It will also contain separating engines for solid fuel, which will have to decline the rest of the cruise stage from the approaching trajectory to an evasive one. (It is to be done, because of the possible contamination of the Earth with possible Martian microorganisms.) The basic configuration of the MARVs 2nd stage remains without change only some hours after hyperbolical trajectory reaching. In that moment the explosive joint will tear the 2nd stage to multiple parts the inner and the outer jacket of the rocket stage will divide to two halves, which using the above mentioned small rocket engines will got to an evasive trajectory from the Earth and only the spherical returning capsule with ERV will keep on. In case of malfunction of the operation described above, it might happen that the given rest of the 2nd stage will get into the Earth atmosphere. Taking in account the approaching speed: approximately 12 kms-1 and the weight of these parts, it should be totally destroyed in the atmosphere without being the contamination of the planet possible. In order to find the ERV on the Earth with the highest probability, the detection of the arrival with radar, with the use of the optical devices (whole-sky photographical chambers for example) and mainly with the help of GPS will be necessary. With the same importance there must be obtained the most precise weather forecasts for the probable landing areas. MARS PROTECTION According to the COSPAR agreement, it is necessary to prevent the contamination of Mars with possible Earth microorganisms. The most ideal solution would be the sterilization of the lander via heating, as on the Viking spacecrafts. However, it has been shown since that in the lack of planetary magnetic field the Mars surface is bombarded by heavy cosmic and infrared radiation, hence Earth microorganism have very little chance of survival in these conditions. There is no direct evidence on this, so the use of sterilization would be still desirable. To avoid the possibility of bringing back to Earth samples contaminated with microorganisms originating from our planet, the following rigorous measures have to be taken: Heating sterilization has to be employed, just like for the Viking missions, however, not for the entire lander but only of those parts, which have the slightest chance of getting into direct contact with the samples. In addition, those parts have to be sterilized too, which are able to withstand such heating load (130 C for about 40 hrs in a Nitrogenic atmosphere). The given sterilization will affect the requirements especially on the electronics of the spacecraft, the various sensors and other equipments getting into contact with the samples or the atmosphere. A question remains the sterilization of the propulsion fuels and exit gases, solar panels, optics and other heat sensitive equipment.

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After sterilization, the entire aeroshell with the lander will be covered with a bioshield, which will protect the landing module from contamination with Earth microorganisms, and which will only be removed before the launch to Mars.

For the other parts of the spacecraft, the classical methods of cleaning via isopropane and/or heavy UV radiation will be used. EARTH PROTECTION During the return to the return capsule to the Earth, it is imperative to avoid the possible transfer of contamination (found on the outer surface of the capsule) to the Earth. This problem will be solved by taking the following measures: The return capsule itself is found in the combustion chamber of the 2nd stage of the HRM, which is thus perfectly (hermetically) isolated from the Mars environment, i.e. it serves effectively as a bioshield. The removal of the external parts occurs deep within the interplanetary space between the two planets this provides the first stage of protection. The previous type of protection is of theoretical kind only, since the above mentioned internal space also serves as a reservoir for the electrolysis of the batteries, hence this space is protected chemically too. The next stage of protection occurs during the operation of the 2nd stage during which the burning of the given capsules surface layers takes place at high pressure and temperature, so any microorganisms surviving the previous two stages of protection, would be destroyed here. The only place where microorganisms could possibly survive is the location of the oxidizer injector (See Fig 28). This, however, is located in the front part of the heat shield, so the rest of the possible microorganisms will be surely killed during the aero braking in the Earths atmosphere. ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM The main sources of electric energy are the solar panels. There will be three, azimuthally equally (i.e. 120 apart) distributed solar panels on the lander. Their area will be 3x13 m2, with the max. power of 3 kW, which will be used mainly to produce LOX form the Martian atmosphere. To minimize their weight, the extraction will take place via the tension ropes from the penetrator. For the cases of higher power consumption rates and/or operations at night, the Li batteries installed on the lander will be used. This forms a structural part of the 2nd stage of the MARV see section .MARV. .The lander is also equipped with singleuse batteries, which are activated in emergency regimes (after landing, in safety modes, etc.). Furthermore, the landers electronic box is also equipped with small Plutonium Oxide based radioisotope heat sources, which maintain the temperatures in the operational ranges mainly at night. The MSR mission will imply high demands of power for the spacecraft. This is why both the primary and secondary landing sites are located close to the Mars equator daylight conditions will be sufficient for running the main systems of the spacecraft as well as storing electrical energy in the batteries for night. Modern solar cells, used for the Deep Space 1 and MER-A, B missions, will be used. These are capable of producing cca 15-20 % more energy than conventional solar cells. They are assembled from 3 layers: Gallium-Indium-Phosphate,

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Gallium-Arsenide and Germanium. On the surface of the solar cells, cylindrical Fresnel lenses may be used to maximize the effect of solar radiation.

Rechargeable battery Four types of lithium cells are presently under development in the US, Europe and Japan. These are: 1) lithium metal with liquid electrolyte, 2) lithium metal with polymer electrolyte, 3) lithium ion containing liquid electrolyte, and 4) lithium-ion containing polymer electrolyte23. The use of polymer or gel electrolytes promises to further enhance the applicability of Li-ion electrochemistry to the space program in two important ways: 1) polymer electrolytes and electrodes allow for the fabrication of thin, flexible cells acceptable for hybrid consumable structures, different shapes (sphere) which can be fitted to various forms thus allowing batteries to be installed in any available space no regardless its shape; 2) Solid electrolytes eliminate the possibility of electrolyte leakage. The batteries will be an integral part of the 2nd stage of MARV. Its elements, such as the Li anode, the electrolyte and cathode will all be serving as solid propellant for the HRM. Since the surface of the combustion chamber is sufficiently large, the battery can have quite large capacity. Considering a specific energy of 165 Whkg-1 24 and 60 kg mass for the active elements, the battery could provide about 9,9 kWh useful energy. The actual capacity of the battery will depend on the amount of energy produced by the solar panels during 1 sol at given light/thermal conditions of the atmosphere. Another question will concern the thermal regulation of the cells their temperature during power download should not be lower than 40C and at charging the minimum temperature should be no less than 0C. This type of cells is not suitable for sterilization by heating, because at higher temperatures, such as 100C, the cells can become destructed. The cells are advantageous both due to their combusteable nature as well as due to the high capacity and low mass. In addition, the discharge power of the cells is quite high, about 3.6V.

IN SITU PROPELLANT PRODUCTION SYSTEM (ISPP) This system serves to produce the individual components of fuel directly in the Mars surface by using local sources. Most likely, the atmosphere of the planet will be used, which consists mostly of CO2 and/or the use of the possible water sources of the planet these are though linked to a certain location on the surface. Even if it is clear, that in the case of a manned mission to Mars a methane/LOX fuel combination would be more suitable, for the small robotic mission MSR this fuel combination means unnecessary complexity and as such quite high unreliability in comparison to an Earthbased pre-filled propulsion unit. In some literature, there is compromise solutions considered, such as one component of the fuel of the return module produced on Mars, such as the liquid oxygen. The other component, for example propane, will be carried from Earth. Such compromise-based solutions have the disadvantage that the mass of the LOX producing equipment has to be several orders of magnitude smaller than the amount of LOX produced to keep the concept meaningful. The question of the scaling factor becomes quite

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disadvantageous for a small robotic mission, where the mass of the LOX producing equipment will be nearly equal to the amount of oxygen (or other oxidizer) produced. A solution to the above problem could be a Hybrid Rocket Consumable Structure (HRCS). This has the advantage that the dead mass can be completely utilized as solid propellant in the hybrid rocket motor (HRM) see above. Adsorption Compressor Adsorb compressor has a double utilization first, it is the adsorbent one and secondly, after ISPP process will be using as a solid fuel to the hybrid rocket engine of first stage of MARV. It has a shape like double centering cones (without vertex) see the fig.38. Effective surface of this sorbent is approximately 3,25 m2 (without consideration of nanocomposite honeycomb structure).

Fig. 38

CFCMS and CMS based adsorbent bed

Functionally, the honeycomb structure will be distributing heat between surrounding Martian atmosphere and sorbent bed (night/sol cycle 180K to 420K). After ISPP process will be very good solid fuel for MARV`s I. Stage hybrid rocket motor. In this case means that 58

25 kg of CMS adsorbent can store at least 3 kg/sol of CO2. This, in turn will produce 1,2 kg of gaseous oxygen/sol by the zirconia process25. Whole MARV system will need for I stage 350 kg LOX and for II stage 100 kg one. Because of low boiling point of LOX we may assume the complete weight of LOX on 585 kg (30% contingency). The ISPP process will take 500 sols. Hence, the CFCMS/CMS sorbent bed will be protect by vacuum jacket, thermal switches (dont see on figures) and other details. For example, thermal switches may be equipped with NiTinol actuators (element driven only with temperature). The absorption compressor serves for the collection of CO2 form the Martian atmosphere and its successive compression so that it can be distributed to the OGS system for the production of oxygen. To be able to utilize the absorbent as solid propellant for the HRM booster, a carbon based CMS and CFCMS absorber was selected. Even if recent tests showed shortcomings of such carbon-based absorbents (higher sensitivity of CO2 absorption with changing pressure, smaller absorption in comparison to Zeolyt 5A and 13X), it is expected that in the near future it would be possible to develop carbon-based absorbents with more uniform pores and pore distribution. Other unresolved problems concern the other gases in the Martian atmosphere, N2 and Ar, which will most likely create a diffusive layer on the absorbent surface, thus deteriorating the absorption ratio. For this reason, the following CO2 absorption strategy has been selected: At the night temperatures of cca 200K, the CO2 will first penetrate through the CFCMS layer, which has larger primary pores for the transfer of CO2 (through the individual layers) and smaller pores (on the fibers), which will capture the Nitrogen and Argon molecules. When using CFCMS, it is possible to utilize the so-called ESA (Electrical Swing Absorption) method, which means that in certain time-intervals (cca 15 min) the sorbent of the CFCMS is linked to a low-voltage DC circuit of 8V (note, that CFCMS is electrically conductive). By this, the gases are instantaneously desorped from the sorbent. However, to avoid the transfer of these freed-up gases to the absorbent designated for CO2 only, it will be necessary to ionize them via high-voltage discharge between CFCMS and another cathode, which will be located in the space between the sorbtion compressor and the combustion chamber of the HRM booster. By this, after the ionization of these gases it will be possible to concentrate them around this electrode. Immediately after this operation, the space will have to be flushed by compressed CO2 so that the undesired N2 and Ar gases are pushed back to the Martian atmosphere. To facilitate the above process, a fairly high capacity condenser will have to be employed, which will be located in the inter-space of the combustion chamber of the 1st stage of HRM (see Fig 22, 24). Since the internal surface of the individual walls will have to be coated for radiation insulation of the LOX tank, we only have the chance to use this huge surface as the capacitor for the above purposes.

The given system must be self-contained and very reliable. Even if it incorporates minimum number of moving parts, it will still contain some valves, heating elements and sensors which can all malfunction. Hence, another independent system with smaller power will be installed, which can provide additional power to the primary unit, or can serve as a secondary unit in case of redundancy. It is true that at the malfunction of any of the unites, the launch date back to the Earth might be endangered, but in the case of all other systems sufficient operation, the spacecraft can

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survive long enough on the surface to wait for another launch window, maybe even with longer flight time back to the Earth. Hence, the LOX production unit must include such control unit, which makes the system able to react flexibly to unforeseen events and it also must have sufficient autonomy, for example in the case of loss of contact with the Earth. Zirconia Solid State Electrolysis Oxygen Generation System (OGS) In the zirconia process, a solid state yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) ion conductor is used, which unlike a typical metal which conduct electrons, conduct electricity by means of negatively charged ions. The basic equation for this process is 2CO2 + electricity ---zirconia----- 2CO + O2 Problems of this process are the big amount of cycles, high operational temperature (800 C) 26. In work27 suggested more elegantly utilizing of the waste heat from Sabatier reactor/RWGS reactor placing this one into the sorption pump to heat this adsorption bed to minimally 420K because the outgassing of CO2 in higher pressures (55-200 kPA) to next device Oxygen Generator System (OGS). Similar solution will be applied in this ISPP system we will have 24 zirconia electrolysis generator they would be placed directly inside all of the nozzles of I. stage MARV situated below the sorption bed see fig. 22. (except the four nozzles for the MARVs attitude control). Those generators will heat the sorbent compressor from bottom side like kitchen range. The sorbent bed area inside the I. stages combustion chamber will be isolated from the vacuum in the LOX tank by a metal membrane (on whole perimeter situated in the solid fuel channel turned out by nearly 180), which will perforated when the hybrid rocket motor ignited. For this process will be the next key subsystems the separators to separate CO from the byproduct stream and cryo cooler to liquefy and store the oxygen and CO. The CO will be used to clean the solar panels and together with CO2 may be utilized for sorbent bed cleaning (for ionized N2 and Ar gases removing see above). The support subsystems includes an electronic package to manage the LOX production, electrostatic and ionizing purge devices to blow the inert gas accumulations from the sorption bed, battery(II stage) for thermo control or pump power, and cryo-cooler operation at night, and radiator panels to radiate waste heat from the sorption pump and cryocooler. The OGS systems are adapted from the elements developed for the use on the MIP experiment prepared on Mars Surveyor lander, but it was canceled 28.

Measurement of produced LOX

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For the control unit (the brain of the spacecraft) it has to be clear, that how much liquid oxygen has the ISPP already produced for the MARV. This value will monitored on a daily basis and the actual return trajectory updated in real-time in the case of emergency (sudden malfunction in the energy system of the spacecraft, dust storm, etc.). For this reason, the mass of produced LOX will have to be monitored. The control unit of the spacecraft will have to have all possible configurations and return trajectories stored in the memory, so that the most optimum return trajectory can be determined in real time.

Power requirements Using data acquired from test of the stack of 3 wafers by AlliedSignal,26, we make following estimates assuming a production rate of 1 kg oxygen per 7 hours requires a production rate 143g/hr of oxygen. This requires 440 A, or a power level of 4401,7V = = 748W. For thermal losses we need additional 60 W. Therefore the total power input to the zirconia stacks is estimated at 748 W (Voltage across each zirconia wafer). For sorption compressor we shall estimate (if we thermal losses will include), it is likely that the total electrical power for the sorption compressor will take approximately 120W during the day. We shall assume the additional 50W/m2 of power input per MARV LOX tank (we will on a safe side) surface area is required to maintain the in-situ produced LOX. For this requirement we may estimate additional 200 W of power. The whole ISPP system roughly will need 1068W daytime power. If we assuming an average solar incidence of 600W/m2 on Mars during the course of missions, and 18% collector efficiency27, an 10,5 m2 solar array can generate an average daytime power of 1134W. But we have three ones we have higher redundancy, because if all panels will deploy, those will produce roughly 3 1134 = 3402W! I think this is necessary see problems with energy of past missions enough electrical power is mandatory.

SPIDER LIKE ROBOTS (SLR) The lander will not use conventional rovers for the collection of mineral samples. Instead, it will employ three spider-like robots, which will make use of the stretched landing ropes for moving in the given directions and given altitude over the Mars surface. These will have multiple roles: extraction of the solar panels collection and documentation of various samples, and their insertion into the ERV return capsule of MARV. Transport of the deep samples from the penetrators to the ERV Cleaning of the solar panels from dust via pressurized CO Service of other scientific equipment In the closing stages of the mission, the SLRs will observe and document the launch of MARV from a sufficient distance from the launch site (around the penetrators). In a triangular location of SLRs, it will be possible to evaluate the initial flight path of the

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MARV in the local coordinate system. They will essentially replace the conventional kinoteodolits, which are normally used for launches from Earth (idea only!). The advantages of the above system are: The sample is taken straight to the return capsule without the need for other manipulation devices. Motion of the robots (even if it happens in a prescribed zone) is not limited by terrain obstacles. The ability to move fast and safely along the stretched cables. In the case of more rugged terrain, it can approach the interested area from the top, which might be impossible with a classical rover. The SLR can operate on the surface after releasing the cables in a relatively wide strip along the cable. It is clear that this system will have higher reliability; - the collection of samples will have 3-times redundancy.

Requirements: The robots will have to be able to think themselves, i.e. to be autonomous and capable of making decisions on the basis of the actual information. They shall be self-sustainable from power and information point of view. They shall be able to communicate with the mother ship (lander) They shall be mobile, handy in operating the samples and other instruments and scientific equipment.

It is clear from the above, that SLR robots will have to fulfill a multitude of important tasks so they have to be very robust and reliable.

Design of SLRs The SLR will resemble mostly a spider: it will move along a cable, it will follow it on the surface, and it will have legs and main body just like a spider. Of course, it should, be just as skillful as a spider. It will consist of the following parts: Warm Box this is where control unit (computer), secondary battery, distributors, Plutonium tablets for internal heating during night, etc, will be located. Driving unit this will drive the SLR along the cable. Manipulation unit this part will have the task to manipulate with the samples and with other instruments. Panel with solar cells (the robot will clean them itself) Deposit box with collected samples (External Geological Gain EGG) will ensure the cleanness of the samples and protect them from internal contamination from other samples. Head will contain a stereo and panoramatic camera PANCAM, macro, and/or micro imager and various other sensors. Surface motion unit it will ensure the motion on the Mars surface, as well as anchoring during scientific operations.

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Fig. 39 Spider (Scorpion) - like robot SLR

Cleaning of solar panels This task will be performed by the SLRs. The control command will be given either by the control centre of the lander or made autonomously by the robot. The solar panels will be cleaned of dust via jetting stored CO (CO2) gas. These gases could be created by the OGS system as a side-product of oxygen generation, or the secondary system (sorbtion compressor), which can be occasionally activated even during the operation of the primary system. The produced CO will be stored in a separate tank, from which the SLR robots will tank on gas for the cleaning of the solar panels. To avoid the need for the robots to transport heavy pressure tanks filled with gas, they will be equipped with long, light, spiral tubes of the length of about 15 m, with a valve and little nozzle at the end of each tube. Each robot will contain subprograms for the cleaning of the solar panels. The system for the cleaning of the solar panels will be possible to use for purely scientific purposes too it will be for example possible to blow away the top layers of soil (or the certain prescribed parts of minerals and stones), so that the SLR will be able to access specific under-surface cavities at a given location.

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SAMPLING The given MSR mission will have the possibility of collecting various samples from the landing site: samples from the atmosphere, ranging from the upper layers to the surface. The number of these samples will be limited by the number of little vacuum chambers on the probe. The internal surface of the chambers will be super clean. When a chamber is activated, the temperature and pressure of the atmosphere will be recorded. The atmospheric samples will allow the research of the atmosphere structure, distribution of aerosols, various gases and dust particles. The experiment will be incorporated directly in the return probe, in its extendable part. Direct collection of surface samples via the SLR robots. These robots will be capable of collecting either smaller sample from the surface, or via an operating arm in the form of an ultrasonic gopher, core samples from various geological forms. At the same time, each sample will be associated with a picture taken in the environment of the sample as well as the macro-photo. Collection of surface samples via penetrators. This method allows taking samples from the layers just below the planet surface (0.5 3 m) from 3 different locations equidistant from each other, in a circle of about 100 m. These samples will be inserted into the return capsule also via the SLR robots. As an addition to these samples, again pictures of the surroundings will be recorded, as well as data about the temperature distribution and eventual seismic activities will be recorded at the sample depth. There may be astrobiological experiments conducted here too research into the presence of water and carbon compounds (amino-acids and methane). By this, we will be able to distinguish between the sedimentation of under-surface layers, perhaps with the discovery of microfossils. The penetrator will contain equipment for the measurement of radiation form the space, which will provide useful information on the absorbtivity of the Martian surface, which will be important for the future manned missions to Mars.

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Fig.40

Sampling device 66

Astrobiology Experiment Package In order to obtain realistic and truth information about delivered samples from Martian surface, respectively subsurface, we will need some preliminary sample analyzing equipment similar can be easily adopted from ACP/HUYGHENS or cometary COSAC/ROSETTA missions. We would analyze some volatile possible products e.g. methane, hydrogen peroxide, water, or organic and inorganic compounds (mainly depletion of 13C in the isotopic composition of the collected organic matter). It may be based on MSL project SAM package (SAM Sample Analysis on Mars) 29.

TELECOMMUNICATION Like all of NASA`s interplanetary missions, the Mars Sample return Project will rely on the agencys Deep Space Network to track and communicate with spacecraft30. During cruise phase, a low-gain antenna mounted on a cruise stage provided the communication link with Earth. Later on the cruise toward Mars, the angle between the Sun and Earth shrank, making it possible for the spacecraft to switch to a more directional medium-gain antenna, also mounted on a cruise stage. During the EDL maneuver, the spacecraft will transmit essential spacecraftstatus information in order to diagnose any potential problems that may occur. Before its first night on the surface of Mars, the lander will deploy its high-gain antenna for use the following Martian morning the lander will be able to communicate directly with Earth. Of course, it may be able to communicate or rely through possible active some Mars orbiter spacecraft wit higher transmissions rates (UHF link). During arrival to Earth, it will be communicate similar then cruise part of flight, but we will need the information through the very important maneuver the MARV ascent phase. MISSION COST The total, complete mission cost is consisting from several parts: Spacecraft Mission operations after launch Headquarters support Launch vehicle

This MSR mission will use only one spacecraft and one launch vehicle. In fact, this reality will simplify the whole design and reduce the risk and cost. The spacecraft utilize the same design for cruise stage, aeroshell (with some modifications), but with similar geometrics, aerodynamics and flight mechanics and has a similar weight (but little bit heavier) than the very successful MER missions. This fact meaning the cost reducing of spacecraft and simplify the development process. Of course, this mission is consisting of several new parts, as a Landing hazard avoidance system, penetrator/anchor equipment, hybrid rocket consumable structures, LOX production, spider-like robot, sampling, MARV, navigation, avionics, Planetary and sample protection. Those will need new technology development, thus higher costs. Because my person is far away from exact costs sources, I have only one possibility for costs estimating the statistical methods. See the table 5:

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Spacecraft Flight Systems Science and Instruments Project Management Integration and pre launch operation Other Subtotal Rover Mission Operations after launch Headquarters support Launch vehicle Total Launch vehicle type Spacecraft weight (kg)

MPF 135,3 13,7 7,1 10,0 4,6 170,7 25,0 14,6 4,8 50,3 265,4 Delta II 7925 895

MPL

MER A,B

NEAR 79,1 15,4 2,4 9,8 6,8 113,5 60,8 2,7

GENESIS

DS-1

DEEP IMPACT

STARDUST

MARS ODYSSEY

MGS

3,7

645 75

164 50

91,1 10,3

128,4 40

165 79

148 46,4

100 Delta II 7425 576 820 Delta II 7925(H) 1062 (~2x)

43,5 220,5 Delta II 7925 805

50 264 Delta II 7326 636

43,5 152,3 Delta II 7326 490 333 Delta II 7925 601 Delta II 7426 385

53 Delta II 7925 729,7

52,6 Delta II 7925 767

Tab. 5 Selected Spacecraft Development Costs (practically same type of launch vehicle) sources from internet

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Preliminary MSR spacecraft cost will based on average statistical data (e.g. classical hardware, propulsion, telecommunication, power, etc.) plus required new development, technology. It will be a little bit of an intuitive access it is limited by inaccessible sources for author of this article. The developments cost of spacecraft I would put between the development cost of Mars Pathfinder and Mars Exploration Rover I prefer small development team with some universities participate (from exact science point of view) to private sectors, small companies (lot of experience on practical base): Flight Systems: Science and instruments Project management Integration and pre launch op. Other Mission operations after launch Headquarters support Launch vehicle Subtotal 150 million dollars 5 million dollars 3 million dollars 15 million dollars 10milion dollars 100 millions dollars 4 millions dollars 55 millions dollars 342 million dollars

New technologies needed: Simple Hazard Avoidance system Sky crane with harpoon/penetrator/anchor System Lander legs Solar panels SLR Lithium-ion consumable battery MARV ISPP ERV/ERC Subtotal 5 million dollars 50 million dollars 5 million dollars 2 million dollars 20 million dollars 10 million dollars 250 million dollars 25 million dollars 20 million dollars 387 million dollars

Total The cost margin will be 271 million dollars. 69

729 million dollars

CONCLUSION The goal of current work is to present the very useful technology of ISPP regarding the Mars explorations. If we look at the other designs for the Mars sample return missions, it is evident that we need additional new technologies, which help us to a breakthrough from the contradictive requirements of those very complex missions. With the new Hybrid Rocket Consumables Structures (HRCS and other multifunctional, modular technologies we would be able to create very unique spacecraft structures, allowing us the use of a low-weight spacecraft for Mars sample return mission. This means that the use of smaller launch vehicle, in comparison with other MSR project, will be the first step towards the low-cost missions. Other technologies, such as biorobotics and the very nice examples from the nature (e.g. nest and egg chain with workers- spiders) may be the key technologies to the future space missions.

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List of Acronyms and Abbreviations


CFCMS CMS CO COSPAR DC DCP DLR DS-2 DSM EC EDL EGG ERC ESA ERV GARM GEM GNC GPS GRAM HIRISE HRE HRM HRCS JPL LEO LH2 ISPP LOX MARDI MARV MER MOI MOLA MRO MSL MPF MPL MSR NASA NO NTO OGS O/F RAD RCS REAL PANCAM Carbon Fiber Molecular Sieve Carbon Molecular Sieve Carbon oxide Commitee On Space Research Direct Current Dicumyl Peroxide Deutsche Luft und Raum Deep Space 2 Nutritional and pharma ingredients Company Ethylene Carbonate Entry, Descent and Landing External Geological Gain Earth Return Vehicle European Space Agency Earth Return Vehicle Gun and Rocket Motor Graphite Epoxy Motor Guidance Navigation and Control Global Positioning System Global Reference Atmospheric Model High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment Hybrid Rocket Engine Hybrid Rocket Motor Hybrid Rocket Consumable Structures Jet Propulsion Laboratory Low Earth Orbit Liquid Hydrogen In Situ Propellant Production Liquid Oxygen Mars Descent Imager Mars Ascent and Return Vehicle Mars Exploration Rover Mars Orbit Injection Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Science Laboratory Mars Pathfinder Mars Polar Lander Mars Sample Return National Aeronautics and Space Administration Nitric Oxide Nitrogen TetraOxide Oxygen Generator System Oxidizer Fuel Ratio Rocket Assisted Descent Reaction Control System Computer Code Panoramatic Camera 71

PC PUM SAM SHAS SLR SUM TiS2 TMI TOTEM UHF UHMWPE UV

Polypropylene Carbonate Paralel Utilization of Material Sample Analysis on Mars Simple Hazard Avoidance System Spider-Like Robot Serial Utilization of Material Titanium Sulfide Trans-Mars Injection TOtal uTilization of structurE of Material Ultra High Frequency Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Ultra Violet

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