Sie sind auf Seite 1von 17

1.What is Semantic Network? How frames can be regarded as an extension to Semantic nets?

ANS :Semantic Nets Semantic networks are an alternative to predicate logic as a form of knowledge representation. The idea is that we can store our knowledge in the form of a graph, with nodes representing objects in the world, and arcs representing relationships between those objects. The major idea is that: The meaning of a concept comes from its relationship to other concepts, and that, The information is stored by interconnecting nodes with labeled arcs. Frames Frames can also be regarded as an extension to Semantic nets. Indeed it is not clear where the distinction between a semantic net and a frame ends. Semantic nets were initially used to represent labeled connections between objects. As tasks became more complex the representation needs to be more structured. The more structured the system, it becomes more beneficial to use frames. A frame is a collection of attributes or slots and associated values that describe some real world entity. Frames on their own are not particularly helpful but frame systems are a powerful way of encoding information to support reasoning. Set theory provides a good basis for understanding frame systems. A basic idea of frames is that people make use of stereotyped information about typical features of objects, images, and situations; such information is assumed to be structured in large units representing the stereotypes, and these units are what are referred to as frames. Frames (or something similar) are important because they allow deep understanding of new situations about which only minimal information is directly available. They represent our understanding of regularities in the universe that allow intelligent action based on minimal clues. Each frame represents: a class (set), or an instance (an element of a class).

2. Name and explain the action in Conceptual Dependency which refers to a transfer of possession. ANS :Conceptual Dependency (CD) Conceptual Dependency originally developed to represent knowledge acquired from natural language input. CD is a content theory of how to represent simple sentences. Since it was created by Roger Schank (1972), CD has gone through various incarnations different sets of primitive actions, different types of states, and different theories of inference. We'll consider a cleaned-up, "canonical" CD theory which is fairly close to Schank's original conception but includes a cleaned-up theory of states, relations, and inferences. At its core, CD is a theory of how to represent sentences. It has two basic axioms: For any two sentences that are identical in meaning, regardless of language, there should be only one representation. Any information in a sentence that is implicit must be made explicit in the representation of the meaning of that sentence." From these axioms, Schank built a theory based on a primary set of conceptualizations, which come in two kinds: active and stative. ACTIONS In order to represent identical meanings in an identical way, CD theory breaks actions down in two fashions: a core set of primitive acts which define the basic types of actions that occur, and a set of conceptual cases that add meaning to the basic action types. While the canonical list of primitive acts has changed as CD theory has evolved, the original core set was: ATRANS ATRANS refers to a transfer of possession - the abstract transfer of possession from one person to another, as in a give or a buy. No physical transfer need take place; the transfer occurs purely on the plane of ownership.

PTRANS PTRANS refers to a transfer of physical location - some objects moved from place to place, as in a go or a move. Ownership need not transfer; possession - the abstract transfer of possession from one person to another. No physical transfer need take place; the transfer occurs purely on the plane of ownership.

MTRANS MTRANS refers to the transmission of an IDEA - some conceptualization is transmitted from one head to another (or within the same head). Tell, forget and remember can all be expressed with MTRANS. An idea is represented by an MOBJECT slot in CD, which is superficially like OBJECT except that it contains a whole concept as its value: MOVE MOVE refers to the movement of a body part, not the movement of an object. Normally MOVE is instrumental to some other action (such as a kick or a throw), but sometimes it is used by itself, as in kiss, raise a hand, and scratch. PROPEL PROPEL refers to the application of force to an object. Normally PROPEL is instrumental to some other action, but sometimes it is used by itself. PROPEL verbs include pushing, pulling, throwing and kicking.

GRASP GRASP refers to the gripping of some object by a person. Normally GRASP is instrumental to some other action, but sometimes it is used by itself. Note that FROM and TO in general have little meaning with respect to GRASP. GRASP verbs include hold, grab, grasp and let go. INGEST INGEST refers to a person taking something inside his or her body: eating, drinking, breathing, etc. EXPEL EXPEL refers to a person taking something outside his or her body: spitting, crying, sweating, etc. ATTEND ATTEND refers to a person attending or focusing a sense organ towards a stimulus look, listen, feel, and so on. SPEAK SPEAK is an instrumental action that refers to the production of sound: say, play music, scream, and so on. MBUILD

MBUILD refers to the construction of a mental concept: realize, decide, imagine, conclude, etc. MBUILD frequently uses ATTEND as an instrumental action. DO DO catches all the things that the first 11 primitive actions don't. It's also useful when we know something happened, but we don't precisely know what or how:

3.What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a script? ANS :Scripts A script is a structure that prescribes a set of circumstances which could be expected to follow on from one another. It is similar to a thought sequence or a chain of situations which could be anticipated. It could be considered to consist of a number of slots or frames but with more specialized roles. Scripts were developed in the early AI work by Roger Schank, Robert P. Abelson and their research group, and are a method of representing procedural knowledge. They are very much like frames, except that the values that fill the slots must be ordered. The sequence of sentences mentions only the parts of the story that are different from what might otherwise be expected. Understanding such a sequence requires knowledge of a restaurant script that specifies typical sequences of actions involved in going to a restaurant. In contrast to the relatively static slots of a Frame, a Script may have a directed graph of events composing the script. Thus Scripts is: collection of slots active type information Advantages of Scripts: Scripts can predict events and answer questions Provide means for detecting unusual events A single coherent interpretation may be built up from a collection of observations. Disadvantages: Less general than frames. May not be suitable to represent all kinds of knowledge. Ad hoc Scripts either only account for details in a restricted domain so they are not interesting or they apply everywhere which is not likely.

Why are Scripts beneficial? Scripts are beneficial because: Events tend to occur in known runs or patterns. Causal relationships between events exist. Entry conditions exist which allow an event to take place Prerequisites exist upon events taking place. E.g. when a student progresses through a degree scheme or when a purchaser buys a house.

4.What are the advantages and disadvantages of Expert Systems (ES)? ANS :Expert systems attempt to capture the knowledge of a human expert and make it available through a computer system. Expert systems are expected to achieve significant actual performance in a specialized area that normally requires a human expert for successful performance, e.g., medicine, geology, investment counseling. expert systems are meant to solve real problems which normally would require a specialized human expert (such as a doctor or a mineralogist). Building an expert system, therefore, first involves extracting the relevant knowledge from the human expert. Such knowledge is often heuristic in nature, based on useful rules of thumb rather than absolute certainties. Extracting it from the expert in a way that can be used by a computer is generally a difficult task, requiring its own expertise. A knowledge engineer has the job of extracting this knowledge and building the expert system knowledge base. Advantages of ES Provides consistent answers for repetitive decisions, processes and tasks Holds and maintains significant levels of information Encourages organizations to clarify the logic of their decision-making Never "forgets" to ask a question, as a human might Disadvantages of ES Lacks common sense needed in some decision making Cannot make creative responses as a human expert would in unusual circumstances Domain experts not always able to explain their logic and reasoning Errors may occur in the knowledge base, and lead to wrong decisions Cannot adapt to changing environments, unless knowledge base is changed

5. What are the expert systems architectural principles? Explain briefly ANS :Architectural Principles for Expert Systems 1. Knowledge is power 2. Knowledge is often inexact & incomplete 3. Knowledge is often poorly specified 4. Expert systems need to be flexible 5. Expert systems need to be transparent 6. Separate inference engine and knowledge base level 7. Use uniform "fact" representation 8. Keep inference engine simple 9. Explicit redundancy 10. Amateurs experts slowly Expert systems are most valuable to organizations that have a high-level of know-how experience and expertise that cannot be easily transferred to other members. They are designed to carry the intelligence and information found in the intellect of experts and provide this knowledge to other members of the organization for problem-solving purposes. Typically, the problems to be solved are of the sort that would normally be tackled by a medical or other professional. Real experts in the problem domain (which will typically be very narrow, for instance "diagnosing skin conditions in human teenagers") are asked to provide "rules of thumb" on how they evaluate the problems, either explicitly with the aid of experienced systems developers, or sometimes implicitly, by getting such experts to evaluate test cases and using computer programs to examine the test data and (in a strictly limited manner) derive rules from that. Generally, expert systems are used for problems for which there is no single "correct" solution which can be encoded in a conventional algorithm one would not write an expert system to find shortest paths through graphs, or sort data, as there are simply easier ways to do these tasks.

6.Discuss on the typological of MYCIN rules. ANS :The typology of MYCIN Rules CULRULES Rules that may be applied to any culture (CURCULS or PRIORCULS) (CURCULS)


Rules that may be applied only to current cultures Rules that may be applied to any antimicrobial agent that has been administered to combat a specific organism Rules that may be applied to operative procedures Rules that are used to order the list of possible therapeutic recommendations Rules that may be applied to any organism










Rules that may be applied to the patient

Rules that may be applied only to drugs given (PRIORDRGS) to combat prior organisms Rules that may be applied only to prior cultures Rules that may be applied only to organism isolated from prior cultures (PRIORORGS) Rules that store information regarding drugs of choice (PRIORCULS)




Typology of Mycin Rules

7. With necessary diagram, explain how MYCINES works. How Mycin works MONITOR (for MYCIN rules) attempts to evaluate the premise of the current rule, condition by condition. If any of the conditions is false, or indeterminate due to lack of information, the rule is rejected, and the next rule on the list of applicable rules pending in the current context is tried. The rule application succeeds when all of the conditions in the premise are deemed to be true, and the conclusion of the rule is added to the record of the current consultation:

Flow chart for How Mycin ES works

8. Explain different factors which affect the learning performance. Factors affecting Learning Performance

There are several important factors which influence a systems ability to learn in addition to the form of representation used. They include the types of training provided, the form and extent of any initial background knowledge, the type of feedback provided, and the learning algorithm used. It is shown in Figure 10.2. The type of training used in a system can have a strong effect on performance, much the same as it does for humans. Training may consist of randomly selected instances or examples that have been carefully selected and ordered for presentation. The instances may be positive examples of some concept or task being learned, they may be negative, or may be a mixture of both positive and negative. The instances may be well focused using only relevant information, or they may contain a variety of facts and details including irrelevant data. Many forms of learning can be characterized as a search through a space of possible hypotheses or solutions. To make learning more efficient, it is necessary to constrain this search process or reduce the search space. One method of achieving this is through the use of background knowledge which can be used to constrain the search space or exercise control operations which limit the search process. Feedback is essential to the learner component since otherwise it would never know if the knowledge structures in the knowledge base were improving or if they were adequate for the performance of the given tasks. The feedback may be a simple yes or no type of evaluation, or it may contain more useful information describing why a particular action was good or bad. Also, the feedback may be completely reliable, providing an accurate assessment of the performance or it may contain noise; that is, the feedback may actually be incorrect some of the time. Intuitively, the feedback must be accurate more than 50% of the time; otherwise the system would never learn. If the feedback is always reliable and carries useful information, the learner should be able to build up a useful corpus of knowledge quickly. On the other hand, if the feedback is noisy or unreliable, the learning process may be very slow and the resultant knowledge incorrect. Finally, the learning algorithms themselves determine to a large extent how successful a learning system will be. The algorithms control the search to find and build the knowledge structures. We then expect that the algorithm that extract much of the useful information from training examples and take advantage of any background knowledge outperform those that do not.

Factors affecting learning performance

9.Explain the different hardware components used for Robot briefly.

Sensors Sensors are the perceptual interface between robots and their environment. On the one hand we have passive sensors like cameras, which capture signals that are generated by other sources in the environment. On the other hand we have active sensors (for example sonar, radar, laser) which emit energy into the environment. This energy is reflected by objects in the environment. These reflections can then be used to gather the information needed. Generally active sensors provide more information than passive sensors. But they also consume more power. This can lead to a problem on mobile robots which need to take their energy with them in batteries. We have three types of sensors (no matter whether sensors are active or passive). These are sensors that either record distances to objects or generate an entire image of the environment or measure a property of the robot itself. Many mobile robots make use of range finders, which measure distance to nearby objects. A common type is the sonar sensor. Alternatives to sonar include radar and laser. Some range sensors measure very short or very long distances. Close-range sensors are often tactile sensors such as whiskers, bump panels and touch-sensitive skin. The other extreme are long-range sensors like the Global Positioning System (GPS). The second important class of sensors are imaging sensors. These are cameras that provide images of the environment that can then be analyzed using computer vision and image recognition techniques. The third important class are proprioceptive sensors. These inform the robot of its own state. To measure the exact configuration of a robotic joint motors are often equipped

with shaft decoders that count the revolution of motors in small increments. Another way of measuring the state of the robot is to use force and torque sensors. These are especially needed when the robot handles fragile objects or objects whose exact shape and location is unknown. Imagine a ton robot manipulator screwing in a light bulb. Effectors Effectors are the means by which robots manipulate the environment, move and change the shape of their bodies. To understand the ability of a robot to interact with the physical world we will use the abstract concept of a degree of freedom (DOF). We count one degree of freedom for each independent direction in which a robot, or one of its effectors can move. As an example lets contemplate a rigid robot like an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). It has six degrees of freedom, three for its (x;y; z) location in space and three for its angular orientation (also known as yaw, roll and pitch). These DOFs define the kinematic state of the robot. This can be extended with another dimension that gives the rate of change of each kinematic dimension. This is called dynamic state. Robots with nonrigid bodies may have additional DOFs. For example a human wrist has three degrees of freedom it can move up and down, side to side and can also rotate. Robot joints have 1, 2, or 3 degrees of freedom each. Six degrees of freedom are required to place an object, such as a hand, at a particular point in a particular orientation. Movement For mobile robots a special group of effectors are the mechanisms the robot uses for locomotion, including wheels, tracks, and legs. The differential drive consists of two independently actuated wheels one on each side. If both wheels move at the same velocity, the robot moves on a straight line. If they move in opposite directions, the robot turns on the spot. An alternative is thesynchro drive, in which each wheel can move and turn around its own axis. This could easily lead to chaos. But if you assure the constraint that all wheels always point in the same direction and move with the same speed your robot is save. Both differential and synchro drives are nonholonomic. Some more expensive robots use holonomic drives, which usually involve three or more wheels and can be oriented and moved independently. Power Sources Robots need a power source to drive their effectors. The most popular mechanism for both manipulator actuation and locomotion is the electric motor. Other possible ways are pneumatic actuation using compressed gas and hydraulic actuation using pressurized fluids. They have their application niches but are not widely used. Bits and Pieces Most robots have some kind of digital communication like wireless networks. Especially today those modules get cheaper. They can be used for communication between robots or

for some kind of back link to the robots home station. Finally you need a body frame to hang all the bits and pieces

10. Explain the meaning of the following Rule in Prolog: grandparent(X, Y) :-

parent(X, Z), parent(Z, Y). grandparent(X, Y) :parent(X, Z), parent(Z, Y). You should read the prolog operator :- as ``if'', while , can be read as meaning and. So the first rule says that X is a bird if X is an animal and X has feathers, while the second rule says that Y is X's grandparent if Z is X's parent and Y is Z's parent. All arguments beginning with a capital letter (such as X and Y) are variables. (Note that variables are NOT treated in the same manner as in conventional programming languages - for example, they don't have to have values). Any constant should NOT begin with a capital letter else it will be treated as a variable. So, given the fact capital(India, Delhi) both arguments would be treated as unbound variables. Running a prolog program involves asking Prolog questions (having loaded in your set of facts and rules). For example, you could ask: ?- lectures(amita, ai). And prolog would give the answer yes. If we ask a sequence of questions we might get: ?- lectures(amita, ai). yes ?- lectures(amita, databases). no Questions can have variables in them, which may get instantiated (i.e., get bound to particular values) when prolog tries to answer the question. Prolog will display the resulting bindings/instantiations of all the variables in the question. So we might have: ?- lectures(amita, Course). Course = ai We can also ask the question the other way around, like: ?- lectures(Someone, ai). Someone = amita Note that the variables Course and Someone can both take values of any type. We can find out who lectures what by asking: ?- lectures(Someone, Something). Someone = amita Something = ai ; Someone = john Something = databases ;

no By typing a semicolon (or, in Mac Prolog, clicking on next) after Prolog prints out the first set of bindings, we can see if there are any other possible bindings. Prolog systematically goes through all its facts and rules and tries to find all the ways it can associate variables with particular values so that the initial query is satisfied. However, as an example of how rules are used, suppose we ask the question: ?- bird(B). and we have the facts and rule: animal(lion). animal(sparrow). has_feathers(sparrow). bird(X) :animal(X), has_feathers(X). Prolog will respond with B = sparrow. Prolog matches bird(B) against the head of the rule (bird(X)), and sets as new questions first animal(B) and then has_feathers(B). Animal(B) can be satisfied by binding B to lion. However, has_feathers(lion) isn't true, so that doesn't work. Prolog goes back (backtracks) and tries B = sparrow. has_feathers(sparrow) is true, so that all works and prolog returns with B = sparrow as a possible solution.