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Complements for SPSIR

BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory (BarOn EQ-i) BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (BarOn EQ-i: YV) Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) Help-Assert for Windows Internalized Shame Scale (ISS) Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) Social Effectiveness Therapy (SET) Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children (SETC) Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report (SASSR) Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI)

Social Problem-Solving InventoryRevised

Assesses an individuals problem-solving style and ability to generate solutions

For pricing and ordering information:
Website: Email: In the U.S.: 1-800-456-3003 In Canada: 1-800-268-6011 International: +1-416-492-2627 Fax: 1-888-540-4484 or +1-416-492-3343

T. J. DZurilla, Ph.D., A. M. Nezu, Ph.D., ABBP, & A. Mayeu-Olivares, Ph.D. Self-Report, 52 items; 25 items for SPSI-R: Short Ages 13 years and older 1520 minutes administration time; 10 minutes for SPSIR: Short B-Level User Qualification 2002 MHS Inc.

For research: r& For site licensing, software delivery applications, and workshop information: For translations: Additional copies of this document and sample reports of available software versions may be obtained from our web site. SPSI-R 06 02 Printed in Canada

Social Problem-Solving InventoryRevised

Thomas J. DZurilla, Ph.D., Albert M. Nezu, Ph.D., ABBP, & Arthur Mayeu-Olivares, Ph.D.
The term social problem solving refers to problem solving as it occurs in the real world. It has been defined as the self-directed cognitivebehavioral process by which a person attempts to identify or discover effective or adaptive ways of coping with problematic situations encountered in the course of everyday living. The adjective social is not meant to limit the study of problem solving to any particular type of real-life problem; it is used only to highlight the fact that the focus is on problem solving that occurs within the natural social environment. Therefore, social problem solving plays a role in many areas of life including personal and intrapersonal situations (e.g., cognitive, behavioral, emotional, health), impersonal situations (e.g., insufficient finances, property damage), interpersonal situations (e.g., relationship issues, family conflicts), and broader community and societal situations. In response to the need for a reliable and valid theory-based measure of social problem solving for use in research and clinical assessment, DZurilla and Nezu developed the Social ProblemSolving Inventory (SPSI), a 70, item self-report measure specifically linked to the model of social problem solving originally introduced by DZurilla and Golfried in 1971 and later expanded and refined by DZurilla and Nezu. A series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses led to the present revision containing 52 items. SPSIR satisfies the need for an instrument that measures how people solve problems and evaluates different problem-solving styles. It breaks down the problem-solving process so that deficits in specific areas, such as implementing solutions, can be defined and addressed. SPSIR is useful in a variety of settings including clinical, counseling, medical, educational, corporate, government, military, and research. When the purpose of administration is to understand, explain, predict, and/or manage (decrease/increase) maladaptive/adaptive functioning. The scores and interpretive information obtained through SPSIR are valuable to mental health professionals, medical doctors, educators, corporate managers, military officers, and other professionals who are responsible for personnel selection or the management of everyday functioning and psychological well-being of individuals. This information may also be useful to researchers who are interested in studying the relationship between social problem-solving abilities 708 1,020 100 100 100 63 156 43 61 Adolescents Young Adults Middle-aged Adult Community Residents Elderly Community Residents Adult Psychiatric Inpatients Adolescent Psychiatric Patients Medical Patients with Cancer Clinically Depressed Adult Outpatients Suicidal Inpatient Adults Avoidance Style (AS) The AS scale assesses another defective problem-solving pattern characterized by procrastination, passivity or inaction, and The Spanish norming of SPSI-R has produced additional data. The Spanish sample consists of 777 participants and is detailed in the SPSIR Technical Manual. SPSIR: Long further breaks down the Rational Problem Solving (RPO) scale into subscales representing four problem-solving skills, namely, Problem Definition and Formulation, Generation of Alternative Solutions, Decision Making, and Solution Implementation and Verification. (Please note that while SPSIR:S incorporates items from each of the RPO subscales, only SPSIR:L provides a complete breakdown of these subscales.) As measured by SPSIR, higher scores on the two adaptive scales (PPO and RPS) indicate more constructive or effective problem dependency. and adjustment or effective functioning, as well as the efficacy of problem-solving training and therapy programs. tories in a larger battery of tests, or other similar situations. A total SPSIR score provides a global indicator of the level of a persons social problem-solving ability, but it is equally important to examine the five scale scores to evaluate specific strengths and weaknesses across the different dimensions. The model of social problem solving focuses on five different, albeit related, dimensions. Two of these dimensions are constructive or adaptive: Positive Problem Orientation (PPO) The PPO scale taps into a constructive, problem solving cognitive set. Rational Problem Solving (RPS) The RPS scale assesses the rational, deliberate, and systematic application of effective problem-solving strategies and techniques. Three of the dimensions are dysfunctional: Negative Problem Orientation (NPO) The NPO scale measures a dysfunctional or inhibitive cognitiveemotional set. Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS) The ICS scale evaluates a deficient problem-solving pattern characterized by active attempts to apply problem-solving strategies and techniques that are narrow, impulsive, careless, hurried, and incomplete. solving. Higher scores on the three dysfunctional scales (NPO, ICS, and AS) indicate more defective problem solving. Lower social problem-solving ability is related to such forms of maladaptive functioning as psychological distress and symptomatology, poor interpersonal relationships, inadequate/ineffective performance, and risky, unhealthy or self-defeating behaviors. On the other hand, higher problem-solving ability is related to positive or adaptive functioning such as psychological well-being (e.g., selfesteem, life satisfaction), good interpersonal relationships, competent performance, and safe, healthy, or self-enhancing behaviors. A readability analysis of SPSIR using the Dale-Chall formula indicates that SPSIR requires a North American fourth-grade reading level.

User Qualifications
SPSIR can be easily administered and scored by counselors, nurses, physicians, psychologists, social workers, and other trained professionals and paraprofessionals. A professional with advanced training in psychological assessment or a related discipline that adheres to relevant professional standards must assume responsibility for the use, interpretation, and communication of results. B- Level qualifications require that, as a minimum, the user has completed courses in tests and measurement at a postsecondary level or has equivalent documented training.

Normative data for SPSIR includes both normal and distressed samples, yielding a total of 2,351 individuals. The samples include:

The MHS QuikScore paper-and-pencil format is designed for easy recording, scoring, and profiling of responses. No scoring templates are necessary and because the respondents answers automatically transfer through to the concealed scoring page, the scores can be calculated quickly.

Using our worldwide network of over 400 qualified translators with backgrounds in psychology and medicine, MHS develops accurate translations of assessments published by MHS as well as by other publishers. SPSIR is currently available in English and Spanish. For more information about the availability of SPSIR in other languages, please contact the MHS Translations Department.

The five psychiatric or distressed samples include:

Scientific Validation
SPSIR was developed following rigorous test-development procedures. The manual covers the historical foundation upon which SPSIR is based and offers five case studies that illustrate the interpretation and use of SPSIR results in different situations. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of SPSIR among various diverse populations suggests that it is characterized by strong internal consistency and is stable over time. Further, it has strong structural, concurrent, predictive, convergent, and discriminant validity. Detailed data is presented in the SPSIR Technical Manual.

SPSIR consists of 52 items and asks respondents to report how they typically respond to current problems on a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from not at all true of me to extremely true of me. Likewise, SPSIR: Short (SPSIR:S) contains 25 items and can be used when a quick screening measure is desired, when time is limited, when SPSIR is one of several inven-