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Summary Chemistry Magnetic Attraction Magnetic Attraction can be used to separate magnetic materials from those that are

not attracted by a magnet . Uses of magnetic attraction Food Processing Sometimes during food processing, metal contaminants may accidentally get into the food products. Magnets can be used to detect and remove the metal contaminants along the food processing line. To salvage scrap iron and steel To reduce the strain on Earths resources, used iron and steel are recycled. Discarded iron and steel are usually sold as scrap metal and brought to the junkyard for recycling. To separate the iron and steel from the other materials, strong magnets are used. Filtration To make a light and fluffy sponge cake, the flour used must be very fine. Bakers use a sieve to remove lumps from the flour mixture. The sieve has small holes that allow the fine particles of flour through, but not the large particles that have clu,ped together. Similarly, filtration works by allowing small liquid particles through, but not large solid particles. Filtration can be used to separate an insoluble solid from the liquid in a liquid-solid mixture. Evaporation Sea water contains dissolved mineral salts such as common salt that is useful as a food preservative and seasoning. How then can we obtain these useful salts from sea water? Filtration would not be effective as salt is soluble in water and would be able to pass through the pores in the filter paper. Instead, we can use evaporation to separate them. Evaporation is used to separate a dissolved solid from a liquid. The dissolved solid must be stable to heat and not decompose.

Distillation Distillation is used to separate a pure liquid from a solid-liquid or liquidliquid mixture. The pure liquid collected from distillation is called the distillate. Paper Chromatography One method that is used to separate small amounts of mixtures is paper chromatography Uses of paper chromatography To find the dyes used To find the dyes used in food Solutions and Suspensions The Solute is the substance that dissolves in a solvent. The Solvent is the substance that dissolves the solute. The Solution is the mixture of the solute and the solvent. Solute + Solvent = Solution Homogeneous = This means that colour,density,physical and chemical properties are the same throughout the solution. A suspension is a mixture in which insoluble particles are suspended in a liquid or gas. Solubility is the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in 100 g of solvent at a given temperature. The rate of dissolving is how fast a substance dissolves in a fixed volume of solvent.