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Check Point QoS

NGX (R60)

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Part No.: 700726 April 2005

2003-2005 Check Point Software Technologies Ltd.


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Table Of Contents
Chapter 1 Overview
Summary of Contents 11 What is Quality of Service 12 Internet Bandwidth Management Technologies 12 Overview 12 Superior QoS Solution Requirements 13 Benefits of a Policy-Based Solution 13 How Does Check Point Deliver QoS 14 Features and Benefits 15 Traditional Check Point QoS vs. Check Point QoS Express 16 Workflow 17

Chapter 2

Whats New in Check Point QoS


Whats New in Check Point QoS 19 Support of Windows Groups Using Authenticated QoS 19 Citrix ICA Support 19 Performance Enhancements 19 Load Sharing 20 VPN-1 Net Support 20

Chapter 3

Introduction to Check Point QoS


Check Point QoSs Innovative Technology 21 Technology Overview 22 Check Point QoS Architecture 24 Basic Architecture 24 Check Point QoS Configuration 27 Concurrent Sessions 29 Interaction with VPN-1Pro and VPN-1 Net 29 Interoperability 29

Chapter 4

Basic QoS Policy Management


Overview 31 Rule Base Management 31 Overview 32 Connection Classification 33 Network Objects 33 Services and Resources 34 Time Objects 34 Bandwidth Allocation and Rules 34 Default Rule 35 QoS Action Properties 36 5

Example of a Rule Matching VPN Traffic 37 Bandwidth Allocation and Sub-Rules 37 Implementing the Rule Base 39 To Verify and View the QoS Policy 39 To Install and Enforce the Policy 39 To Uninstall the QoS Policy 40 To Monitor the QoS Policy 40

Chapter 5

Check Point QoS Tutorial


Introduction 41 Building and Installing a QoS Policy 43 Step 1: Installing Check Point Modules 44 Step 2: Starting SmartDashboard 44 To Start SmartDashboard 45 Step 3: Determining QoS Policy 48 Step 4: Defining the Network Objects 48 To Define the Gateway London 49 To Define the Interfaces on Gateway London 52 To Define the QoS Properties for the Interfaces on Gateway London 58 Step 5: Defining the Services 59 Step 6: Creating a Rule Base 59 To Create a New Policy Package 60 To Create a New Rules 60 To Modify New Rules 62 Step 7: Installing a QoS Policy 67 Conclusion 68

Chapter 6

Advanced QoS Policy Management


Overview 69 Examples: Guarantees and Limits 69 Per Rule Guarantees 70 Per Connections Guarantees 73 Limits 74 Guarantee - Limit Interaction 74 Differentiated Services (DiffServ) 75 Overview 76 DiffServ Markings for IPSec Packets 76 Interaction Between DiffServ Rules and Other Rules 76 Low Latency Queuing 77 Overview 77 Low Latency Classes 78 Interaction between Low Latency and Other Rule Properties 82 When to Use Low Latency Queuing 83 Low Latency versus DiffServ 83 Authenticated QoS 84 Citrix MetaFrame Support 85 Overview 85 Limitations 85

6 Table of Contents

Load Sharing 86 Overview 86 Check Point QoS Cluster Infrastructure 87

Chapter 7

Managing Check Point QoS


Defining QoS Global Properties 92 To Modify the QoS Global Properties 92 Specifying Interface QoS Properties 94 To Define the Interface QoS Properties 94 Editing QoS Rule Bases 98 To Create a New Policy Package 98 To Open an Existing Policy Package 99 To Add a Rule 99 To Rename a Rule 101 To Copy, Cut or Paste a Rule 101 To Delete a Rule 101 Modifying Rules 103 Modifying Sources in a Rule 104 Modifying Destinations in a Rule 107 Modifying Services in a Rule 109 Modifying Rule Actions 112 Modifying Tracking for a Rule 117 Modifying Install On for a Rule 118 Modifying Time in a Rule 121 Adding Comments to a Rule 124 Defining Sub-Rules 125 Working with Differentiated Services (DiffServ) 126 To Define a DiffServ Class of Service 127 To Define a DiffServ Class of Service Group 128 To Add QoS Class Properties for Expedited Forwarding 129 To Add QoS Class Properties for Non Expedited Forwarding 130 Working with Low Latency Classes 131 To Implement Low Latency Queuing 132 To Define Low Latency Classes of Service 133 To Define Class of Service Properties for Low Latency Queuing 133 Working with Authenticated QoS 134 To Use Authenticated QoS 134 Managing QoS for Citrix ICA Applications 135 Disabling Session Sharing 136 Modifying your Security Policy 137 Discovering Citrix ICA Application Names 137 Defining a New Citrix TCP Service 140 Adding a Citrix TCP Service to a Rule (Traditional Mode Only) 140 Installing the Security and QoS Policies 141 Managing QoS for Citrix Printing 141 Configuring a Citrix Printing Rule (Traditional Mode Only) 142 Configuring Check Point QoS Topology 142 Viewing the Check Point QoS Modules Status 143

Table of Contents 7

To Display the Status of Check Point QoS Modules Controlled by the SmartCenter Server 143 Enabling Log Collection 143 To Turn on QoS Logging 143 To Confirm that the Rule is Marked for Logging 144 To Start the SmartView Tracker 144

Chapter 8

SmartView Tracker
Overview of Logging 147 Examples of Log Events 150 Connection Reject Log 150 LLQ Drop Log 150 Pool Exceeded Log 151 Examples of Account Statistics Logs 152 General Statistics Data 152 Drop Policy Statistics Data 153 LLQ Statistics Data 153

Chapter 9

Command Line Interface


Check Point QoS Commands 155 Setup 156 fgate Menu 156 Control 157 Monitor 158 Utilities 160

Chapter 10

Check Point QoS FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)


Questions and Answers 163 Introduction 164 Check Point QoS Basics 164 Other Check Point Products - Support and Management 167 Hardware Support 169 Policy Creation 169 Capacity Planning 171 Protocol Support 172 Installation/Backward Compatibility/Licensing/Versions 173 How do I? 173 General Issues 176

Chapter 11

Deploying Check Point QoS


Deploying Check Point QoS 177 Check Point QoS Topology Restrictions 177 Sample Bandwidth Allocations 179 Frame Relay Network 179

Appendix A
8 Table of Contents

Debug Flags

fw ctl debug -m FG-1 Error Codes for Check Point QoS 183

Table of Contents 9

10 Table of Contents

CHAPTER

Overview
In This Chapter
Summary of Contents What is Quality of Service Internet Bandwidth Management Technologies How Does Check Point Deliver QoS Features and Benefits Traditional Check Point QoS vs. Check Point QoS Express Workflow page 11 page 12 page 12 page 14 page 15 page 16 page 17

Summary of Contents
Chapter 1 Overview, presents an overview of Quality of Service and how it is delivered by Check Point QoS. Chapter 2 Whats New in Check Point QoS, presents an overview of the new features of FloodGate-1. Chapter 3 Introduction to Check Point QoS, presents an overview of FloodGate-1, including technologies and architecture. Chapter 4 Basic QoS Policy Management, describes how to manage a basic FloodGate-1 QoS Policy Rule Base. Chapter 5 Check Point QoS Tutorial, is a short tutorial describing how to define a QoS Policy. Chapter 6 Advanced QoS Policy Management describes the more advanced policy management features of Check Point QoS that enable you to refine basic QoS policies.

11

What is Quality of Service

Chapter 7 Managing Check Point QoS, describes how to manage FloodGate-1, including modifying and changing policies and rules. Chapter 8 SmartView Tracker, describes the features and tools that are available for monitoring Check Point QoS. Chapter 9 Command Line Interface, discusses how to work with Check Point QoS via the Command Line. Chapter 10 Check Point QoS FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions), is a compilation of frequently asked questions and their answers. Appendix A, Debug Flags is a list of debugging error codes.

What is Quality of Service


Quality of Service is a set of intelligent network protocols and services that are used to efficiently manage the movement of information through a local or wide area networks. QoS services sort and classify flows into different traffic classes, and allocate resources to network traffic flows based on user or application ID, source or destination IP address, time of day, application specific parameters, and other user-specified variables. Fundamentally, QoS enables you to provide better service to certain flows. This is done by either raising the priority of a flow or limiting the priority of another flow.

Internet Bandwidth Management Technologies


In This Section

Overview Superior QoS Solution Requirements Benefits of a Policy-Based Solution

page 12 page 13 page 13

Overview
When you connect your network to the Internet, it is most important to make efficient use of the available bandwidth. An effective bandwidth management policy ensures that even at times of network congestion, bandwidth is allocated in accordance with enterprise priorities. In the past, network bandwidth problems have been addressed either by adding more bandwidth (an expensive and usually short term solution) or by router queuing, which is ineffective for complex modern Internet protocols.

12

Superior QoS Solution Requirements

Superior QoS Solution Requirements


In order to provide effective bandwidth management, a bandwidth management tool must track and control the flow of communication passing through, based on information derived from all communication layers and from other applications. An effective bandwidth management tool must address all of the following issues: Fair Prioritization It is not sufficient to simply prioritize communications, for example, to specify a higher priority for HTTP than for SMTP. The result may well be that all bandwidth resources are allocated to one service and none to another. A bandwidth management tool must be able to divide the available resources so that more important services are allocated more bandwidth, but all services are allocated some bandwidth. Minimum Bandwidth A bandwidth management tool must be able to guarantee a services minimum required bandwidth. It must also be able to allocate bandwidth preferentially, for example, to move a companys video conference to the head of the line in preference to all other internet traffic. Classification A bandwidth management tool must be able to accurately classify communications. However, simply examining a packet in isolation does not provide all the information needed to make an informed decision. State information derived from past communications and other applications is also required. A packets contents, the communication state and the application state (derived from other applications) must all be considered when making control decisions.

Benefits of a Policy-Based Solution


Based on the principles discussed in the previous section, there are basically three ways to improve the existing best-effort service that enterprise networks and ISPs deliver today: Add more bandwidth to the network. Prioritize network traffic at the edges of the network. Guarantee QoS by enforcing a set of policies that are based on business priorities (policy-based network management) throughout the network. Of these, only policy-based network management provides a comprehensive QoS solution by: Using policies to determine the level of service that applications or customers need.
Chapter 1 Overview 13

How Does Check Point Deliver QoS

Prioritizing network requests. Guaranteeing levels of service.

How Does Check Point Deliver QoS


Check Point QoS (previously called FloodGate-1), a policy-based QoS management solution from Check Point Software Technologies Ltd., satisfies your needs for a bandwidth management solution. Check Point QoS is a unique, software-only based application that manages traffic end-to-end across networks, by distributing enforcement throughout network hardware and software. Check Point QoS enables you to prioritize business-critical traffic, such as ERP, database and Web services traffic, over less time-critical traffic. Check Point QoS allows you to guarantee bandwidth and control latency for streaming applications, such as Voice over IP (VoIP) and video conferencing. With highly granular controls, Check Point QoS also enables guaranteed or priority access to specific employees, even if they are remotely accessing network resources through a VPN tunnel. Check Point QoS is deployed with VPN-1 Pro. These integrated solutions provide QoS for both VPN and unencrypted traffic to maximize the benefit of a secure, reliable, low-cost VPN network.
FIGURE 1-1 Check Point QoS Deployment

14

Benefits of a Policy-Based Solution

Check Point QoS leverages the industry's most advanced traffic inspection and bandwidth control technologies. Check Point-patented Stateful Inspection technology captures and dynamically updates detailed state information on all network traffic. This state information is used to classify traffic by service or application. After a packet has been classified, Check Point QoS applies QoS to the packet by means of an innovative, hierarchical, Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) algorithm to precisely control bandwidth allocation.

Features and Benefits


Check Point QoS provides the following features and benefits: Flexible QoS policies with weights, limits and guarantees: Check Point QoS enables you to develop basic policies specific to your requirements. These basic policies can be modified at any time to incorporate any of the Advanced Check Point QoS features described in this section. Integration with VPN-1 Pro or VPN-1 Net: Optimize network performance for VPN and unencrypted traffic: The integration of an organizations security and bandwidth management policies enables easier policy definition and system configuration. Performance analysis through SmartView Tracker: monitor the performance of your system by means of log entries recorded in SmartView Tracker. Integrated DiffServ support: add one or more Diffserv Classes of Service to the QoS Policy Rule Base. Integrated Low Latency Queuing: define special classes of service for delay sensitive applications like voice and video to the QoS Policy Rule Base. Integrated Authenticated QoS: provide QoS for end-users in dynamic IP environments, such as remote access and DHCP environments. Integrated Citrix MetaFrame support: deliver a QoS solution for the Citrix ICA protocol. No need to deploy separate VPN, Firewall and QoS devices: Check Point QoS and VPN-1 Pro share a similar architecture and many core technology components, therefore users can utilize the same user-defined network objects in both solutions. Proactive management of network costs: Check Point QoSs monitoring systems enable you to be proactive in managing your network and thus controlling network costs. Support for end-to-end QoS for IP networks: Check Point QoS offers complete support for end-to-end QoS for IP networks by distributing enforcement throughout network hardware and software.

Chapter 1

Overview

15

Traditional Check Point QoS vs. Check Point QoS Express

Traditional Check Point QoS vs. Check Point QoS Express


Both Traditional and Express modes of Check Point QoS are included in every product installation. Express mode enables you to define basic policies quickly and easily and thus get up and running without delay. Traditional mode incorporates the more advanced features of Check Point QoS. You can specify whether you choose Traditional over Express or vice versa, each time you install a new policy. TABLE 1-1 shows a comparative table of the features of the Traditional and Express modes of Check Point QoS.
TABLE 1-1 Check Point QoS Traditional Features vs. Check Point QoS Express Features

Feature

Check Point QoS Traditional

Check Point QoS Express

Find out more on page...

Weights Limits (whole rule) Guarantees (whole rule) Authenticated QoS Logging Accounting Support of platforms and HW accelerator High Availability and Load Sharing Guarantee (Per connection) Limit (Per connection) LLQ (controlling packet delay in Check Point QoS) DiffServ

* * * * * * * * * * * *

* * *

Weight on page 34 Limits on page 35 Guarantees on page 35 Authenticated QoS on page 84

* * * *

Overview of Logging on page 147

Per Connections Guarantees on page 73 Limits on page 35 Low Latency Queuing on page 77 Differentiated Services (DiffServ) on page 75

16

Benefits of a Policy-Based Solution

TABLE 1-1 Check Point QoS Traditional Features vs. Check Point QoS Express Features

Feature

Check Point QoS Traditional

Check Point QoS Express

Find out more on page...

Sub-rules Matching by URI resources Matching by DNS string TCP Retransmission Detection Mechanism (RDED) Matching Citrix ICA Applications

* * * * *

Workflow
The following workflow shows both the basic and advanced steps that the System Administrator may follow in the installation, setup and operational procedures of Check Point QoS:
FIGURE 1-2 Workflow Steps

1 2 3 4

Verify that Check Point QoS is installed on top of VPN-1Pro or VPN-1 Net. Start SmartDashboard. See Step 2: Starting SmartDashboard on page 44. Define the Global Properties of Check Point QoS. See Defining QoS Global Properties on page 92. Define the Check Point Gateways Network Objects. See the SmartCenter Guide.

Chapter 1

Overview

17

Workflow

Setup the basic rules and sub-rules governing the allocation of QoS flows on the network. See Editing QoS Rule Bases on page 98. After the basic rules have been defined, you may modify these rules to add any of the more advanced features described in step 8. Implement the Rule Base. See Implementing the Rule Base on page 39. Enable log collection and monitor the system. See Enabling Log Collection on page 143. Modify the rules defined in step 4 by adding any of the following advanced features: DiffServ Markings. See Working with Differentiated Services (DiffServ) on page 126. Define Low Latency Queuing. See Working with Low Latency Classes on page 131. Define Authenticated QoS. See Working with Authenticated QoS on page 134 Define Citrix ICA Applications. See Managing QoS for Citrix ICA Applications on page 135.

6 7 8

18

CHAPTER

Whats New in Check Point QoS


In This Chapter
Whats New in Check Point QoS page 19

Whats New in Check Point QoS


Support of Windows Groups Using Authenticated QoS
This new feature allows QoS where the QoS module uses already defined Windows Groups. It does so by querying the UserAuthority Server. Consult the UserAuthority Guide section of the SecureAgent for more technical information.

Citrix ICA Support


Introducing the QoS solution for Citrix ICA protocol: Classifying all ICA applications running over Citrix through layer 7. Differentiating between the Citrix traffic based on ICA published applications to ICA printing traffic.

Performance Enhancements

NGX R60 includes enhanced throughput capabilities. The maximum throughput supported by Check Point QoS (depending on the type of traffic): Long UDP packets have increased: more than 1.1Gbps in Express Mode, or up to 890Mbps in Traditional Mode Real-world traffic has increased:
19

Whats New in Check Point QoS

up to 330Mbps in Express Mode, or up to 255Mbps in Traditional Mode

These numbers were measured on a high performance SecurePlatform server.

Load Sharing
We present the first QoS fault-tolerant solution for cluster load sharing that deploys a unique distributed WFQ bandwidth management technology. You can specify a unified QoS policy per virtual interface of the cluster. The resulting bandwidth allocation will be identical to that obtained by installing the same policy on a single server.

VPN-1 Net Support


Check Point QoS can be installed along with the VPN-1 Net product.

20

CHAPTER

Introduction to Check Point QoS


In This Chapter
Check Point QoSs Innovative Technology Check Point QoS Architecture Interaction with VPN-1Pro and VPN-1 Net page 21 page 24 page 29

Check Point QoSs Innovative Technology


FloodGate-1 is a bandwidth management solution for Internet and Intranet gateways that enables network administrators to set bandwidth policies to solve or alleviate network problems like the bandwidth congestion at network access points. The overall mix of traffic is dynamically controlled by managing bandwidth usage for entire classes of traffic, as well as individual connections. FloodGate-1 controls both inbound and outbound traffic flows. Network traffic can be classified by Internet service, source or destination IP address, Internet resource (for example, specific URL designators), user or traffic direction (inbound or outbound). A Check Point QoS Policy consists of rules that specify the weights, limits and guarantees that are applied to the different classifications of traffic. A rule can have multiple sub-rules, enabling an administrator to define highly granular Bandwidth Policies. FloodGate-1 provides its real benefits when the network lines become congested. Instead of allowing all traffic to flow arbitrarily, FloodGate-1 ensures that important traffic takes precedence over less important traffic so that the enterprise can continue to function with minimum disruption, despite network congestion. FloodGate-1 ensures that an enterprise can make the most efficient use of a congested network.

21

Check Point QoSs Innovative Technology

FloodGate-1 is completely transparent to both users and applications. FloodGate-1 implements four innovative technologies: Stateful Inspection: FloodGate-1 incorporates Check Points patented Stateful Inspection technology to derive complete state and context information for all network traffic. Intelligent Queuing Engine: This traffic information derived by the Stateful Inspection technology is used by FloodGate-1s Intelligent Queuing Engine (IQ EngineTM) to accurately classify traffic and place it in the proper transmission queue. The network traffic is then scheduled for transmission based on the QoS Policy. The IQ Engine includes an enhanced, hierarchical Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) algorithm to precisely control the allocation of available bandwidth and ensure efficient line utilization. WFRED (Weighted Flow Random Early Drop): FloodGate-1 makes use of WFRED, a mechanism for managing packet buffers that is transparent to the user and requires no pre-configuration. RDED (Retransmission Detection Early Drop): FloodGate-1 makes use of RDED, a mechanism for reducing the number of retransmits and retransmit storms. This Check Point mechanism, drastically reduces retransmit counts, greatly improving the efficiency of the enterprises existing lines. The increased bandwidth that FloodGate-1 makes available to important applications comes at the expense of less important (or completely unimportant) applications. As a result purchasing more bandwidth can be significantly delayed.

Technology Overview
FloodGate-1s four innovative technologies are discussed in more detail in this section. Stateful Inspection Employing Stateful Inspection technology, FloodGate-1 accesses and analyzes data derived from all communication layers. This state and context data is stored and updated dynamically, providing virtual session information for tracking both connection-oriented and connectionless protocols (for example, UDP-based applications). Cumulative data from the communication and application states, network configuration and bandwidth allocation rules are used to classify communications. Stateful Inspection enables FloodGate-1 to parse URLs and set priority levels based on file types. For example, FloodGate-1 can identify HTTP file downloads with *.exe or *.zip extensions and allocates bandwidth accordingly.

22

Technology Overview

Intelligent Queuing Engine FloodGate-1 uses an enhanced WFQ algorithm to manage bandwidth allocation. A FloodGate-1 packet scheduler moves packets through a dynamically changing scheduling tree at different rates in accordance with the QoS Policy. High priority packets move through the scheduling tree more quickly than low priority packets. Check Point QoS leverages TCPs throttling mechanism to automatically adjust bandwidth consumption per individual connections or classes of traffic. Traffic bursts are delayed and smoothed by FloodGate-1s packet scheduler, holding back the traffic and forcing the application to fit the traffic to the QoS Policy. By intelligently delaying traffic, the IQ Engine effectively controls the bandwidth of all IP traffic. The preemptive IQ Engine responds immediately to changing traffic conditions and guarantees that high priority traffic always takes precedence over low priority traffic. Accurate bandwidth allocation is achieved even when there are large differences in the weighted priorities (for example 50:1). In addition, since packets are always available for immediate transmission, the IQ Engine provides precise bandwidth control for both inbound and outbound traffic, and ensures 100% bandwidth utilization during periods of congestion. In addition, in Traditional mode it uses per connection queuing to ensure that every connection receives its fair share of bandwidth. WFRED (Weighted Flow Random Early Drop) WFRED is a mechanism for managing the packet buffers of FloodGate-1. WFRED does not need any preconfiguring. It adjusts automatically and dynamically to the situation and is transparent to the user. Because the connection of a LAN to the WAN creates a bottleneck, packets that arrive from the LAN are queued before being retransmitted to the WAN. When traffic in the LAN is very intense, queues may become full and packets may be dropped arbitrarily. Dropped packets may reduce the throughput of TCP connections, and the quality of streaming media. WFRED prevents FloodGate-1s buffers from being filled by sensing when traffic becomes intense and dropping packets selectively. The mechanism considers every connection separately, and drops packets according to the connection characteristics and overall state of the buffer. Unlike mechanisms such as RED/WRED, which rely on the TOS byte in the IP header (which is seldom used), WFRED queries FloodGate-1 as to the priority of the connection, and then uses this information. WFRED protects fragile connections from more aggressive ones, whether they are TCP or UDP, and always leaves some buffer space for new connections to open.

Chapter 3

Introduction to Check Point QoS

23

Check Point QoS Architecture

RDED (Retransmit Detect Early Drop) TCP exhibits extreme inefficiency under certain bandwidth and latency conditions. For example, the bottleneck that results from the connection of a LAN to the WAN causes TCP to retransmit packets. RDED prevents inefficiencies by detecting retransmits in TCP streams and preventing the transmission of redundant packets when multiple copies of a packet are concurrently queued on the same flow. The result is a dramatic reduction of retransmit counts and positive feedback retransmit loops. Implementing RDED requires the combination of intelligent queuing and full reconstruction of TCP streams, capabilities that exist together only in FloodGate-1.

Check Point QoS Architecture


In This Section

Basic Architecture Check Point QoS Configuration Concurrent Sessions

page 24 page 27 page 29

Basic Architecture
The architecture and flow control of Check Point QoS is similar to Firewall. Check Point QoS has three components: SmartConsole SmartCenter Server Module The components can be installed on one machine or in a distributed configuration on a number of machines. Bandwidth policy is created using SmartDashboard. The policy is downloaded to the SmartCenter Server where it is verified and downloaded to the QoS Modules using CPD (Check Point Daemon), which is run on the module and the SmartCenter Server. The QoS module uses the Firewall chaining mechanism (see below) to receive, process and send packets. QoS uses a proprietary classifying and rule-matching infrastructure to examine a packet. Logging information is provided using Firewall kernel API.

24

Basic Architecture

QoS Module The major role of the QoS module is to implement a QoS policy at network access points and control the flow of inbound and outbound traffic. It includes two main parts: QoS kernel driver QoS daemon
QoS Kernel Driver

The kernel driver is the heart of QoS operations. It is in the kernel driver that IP packets are examined, queued, scheduled and released, enabling QoS traffic control abilities. Utilizing Firewall kernel module services, QoS functionality is a part of the cookie chain, a Check Point infrastructure mechanism that allows modules to operate on each packet as it travels from the link layer (the machine network card driver) to the network layer (its IP stack), or vice versa.
QoS Daemon (fgd50)

The QoS daemon is a user mode process used to perform tasks that are difficult for the kernel. It currently performs 2 tasks for the kernel (using Traps): Resolving DNS for the kernel (used for Rule Base matching). Resolving Authenticated Data for an IP (using UserAuthority - again for Rule Base matching). In CPLS configuration, the daemon updates the kernel of any change in the cluster status. For example, if a cluster member goes down the daemon recalculates the relative loads of the modules and updates the kernel. QoS SmartCenter Server The QoS SmartCenter Server is an add-on to the SmartCenter Server (fwm). The SmartCenter Server, which is controlled by Check Point SmartConsole clients, provides general services to Check Point QoS and is capable of issuing QoS functions by running QoS command line utilities. It is used to configure the bandwidth policy and control QoS modules. A single SmartCenter Server can control multiple QoS modules running either on the same machine as the SmartCenter Server or on remote machines. The SmartCenter Server also manages the Check Point Log Repository and acts as a log server for the SmartView Tracker. The SmartCenter server is a user mode process that communicates with the module using CPD.

Chapter 3

Introduction to Check Point QoS

25

Check Point QoS Architecture

QoS SmartConsole The main SmartConsole application is Check Point SmartDashboard. By creating "bandwidth rules" the SmartDashboard allows system administrators to define a network QoS policy to be enforced by Check Point QoS. Other SmartConsole clients are the SmartView Tracker - a log entries browser; and SmartView Status which displays status information about active QoS modules and their policies.
FIGURE 3-1 Basic Architecture - Check Point QoS Components

Check Point QoS in SmartDashboard Check Point SmartDashboard is used to create and modify the QoS Policy and define the network objects and services. If both VPN-1Pro and Check Point QoS are licensed, they each have a tab in SmartDashboard.
FIGURE 3-2 QoS Rules in SmartDashboard

The QoS Policy rules are displayed in both the SmartDashboard Rule Base, on the right side of the window, and the QoS tree, on the left (see FIGURE 3-2).

26

Check Point QoS Configuration

Check Point QoS Configuration


The SmartCenter Server and the QoS Module can be installed on the same machine or on two different machines. When they are installed on different machines, the configuration is known as distributed (see FIGURE 3-3).
FIGURE 3-3 Distributed FloodGate-1 Configuration

FIGURE 3-3 shows a distributed configuration, in which one SmartCenter Server (consisting of a SmartCenter Server and a SmartConsole) controls four QoS Modules, which in turn manage bandwidth allocation on three FloodGated lines. A single SmartCenter Server can control and monitor multiple QoS Modules. The QoS Module operates independently of the SmartCenter Server. QoS Modules can operate on additional Internet gateways and interdepartmental gateways.

Chapter 3

Introduction to Check Point QoS

27

Check Point QoS Architecture

Client/Server Interaction The SmartConsole and the SmartCenter Server can be installed on the same machine or on two different machines. When they are installed on two different machines, FloodGate-1 implements the Client/Server model, in which a SmartConsole controls a SmartCenter Server running on another workstation.
FIGURE 3-4 QoS Client/Server Configuration

In the configuration depicted in FIGURE 3-4, the functionality of the SmartCenter Server is divided between two workstations (Tower and Bridge). The SmartCenter Server, including the database, is on Tower. The SmartConsole is on Bridge. The user, working on Bridge, maintains the QoS Policy and database, which reside on Tower. The QoS Module on London enforces the QoS Policy on the FloodGated line. The SmartCenter Server is started with the cpstart command, and must be running if you wish to use the SmartConsole on one of the client machines. A SmartConsole can manage the Server (that is, run the SmartConsole to communicate with a SmartCenter Server) only if both the administrator running the SmartConsole and the machine on which the SmartConsole is running have been authorized to access the SmartCenter Server. In practice, this means that the following conditions must be met: The machine on which the Client is running is listed in the $FWDIR/conf/gui-clients file. You can add or delete SmartConsoles using the Check Point configuration application (cpconfig). The administrator (user) running the GUI has been defined for the SmartCenter Server. You can add or delete administrators using the Check Point configuration application (cpconfig).

28

Concurrent Sessions

Concurrent Sessions
In order to prevent more than one administrator from modifying a QoS Policy at the same time, FloodGate-1 implements a locking mechanism. All but one open policy is Read Only.

Interaction with VPN-1Pro and VPN-1 Net


In This Section

Interoperability

page 29

Interoperability
FloodGate-1 must be installed together with VPN-1 Pro or VPN-1 Net on the same system. FloodGate-1 is installed on top of a VPN-1 Pro or VPN-1 Net. Because FloodGate-1 and VPN-1 Pro or VPN-1 Net share a similar architecture and many core technology components, users can utilize the same user-defined network objects in both solutions. This integration of an organizations security and bandwidth management policies enables easier policy definition and system configuration. Both products can also share state table information which provides efficient traffic inspection and enhanced product performance. FloodGate-1s tight integration with VPN-1 Pro or VPN-1 Net provides the unique ability to enable users that deploy the solutions in tandem to define bandwidth allocation rules for encrypted and network-address-translated traffic. SmartCenter Server If FloodGate-1 is installed on a machine on which VPN-1 Pro or VPN-1 Net is also installed, FloodGate-1 uses the VPN-1 Pro or VPN-1 Net SmartCenter Server and shares the same objects database (network objects, services and resources) with VPN-1 Pro or VPN-1 Net. Some types of objects have properties which are product specific. For example, a VPN-1 Pro has encryption properties which are not relevant to FloodGate-1, and a FloodGate-1 network interface has speed properties which are not relevant to VPN-1 Pro.

Chapter 3

Introduction to Check Point QoS

29

Interaction with VPN-1Pro and VPN-1 Net

30

CHAPTER

Basic QoS Policy Management


In This Chapter
Overview Rule Base Management Implementing the Rule Base page 31 page 31 page 39

Overview
This chapter describes the basic QoS policy management that is required to enable you to define and implement a working QoS Rule Base. More advanced QoS policy management features are discussed in Chapter 6 Advanced QoS Policy Management.

Rule Base Management


In This Section

Overview Connection Classification Network Objects Services and Resources Time Objects Bandwidth Allocation and Rules Default Rule

page 32 page 33 page 33 page 34 page 34 page 34 page 35

31

Rule Base Management

QoS Action Properties Example of a Rule Matching VPN Traffic Bandwidth Allocation and Sub-Rules

page 36 page 37 page 37

Overview
QoS policy is implemented by defining an ordered set of rules in the Rule Base. The Rule Base specifies what actions are to be taken with the data packets. It specifies the source and destination of the communication, what services can be used, and at what times, whether to log the connection and the logging level. The Rule Base comprises the rules you create and a default rule (see Default Rule page 35). The default rule is automatically created with the Rule Base. It can be modified but cannot be deleted. The fundamental concept of the Rule Base is that unless other rules apply, the default rule is applied to all data packets. The default rule is therefore always the last rule in the Rule Base. A very important aspect of Rule Base management is reviewing SmartView Tracker traffic logs and particular attention should be paid to this aspect of management. Check Point QoS works by inspecting packets in a sequential manner. When Check Point QoS receives a packet belonging to a connection, it compares it against the first rule in the Rule Base, then the second, then the third, and so on. When it finds a rule that matches, it stops checking and applies that rule. If the matching rule has sub-rules the packets are then compared against the first sub-rule, then the second and so on until it finds a match. If the packet goes through all the rules or sub-rules without finding a match, then the default rule or default sub-rule is applied. It is important to understand that the first rule that matches is applied to the packet, not the rule that best matches. After you have defined your network objects, services and resources, you can use them in building a Rule Base. For installation instructions and instructions on building a Rule Base, see Editing QoS Rule Bases on page 98. The QoS Policy Rule Base concept is similar to the Security Policy Rule Base. General information about Policy Rule Bases can be found in the SmartCenter Guide.

32

Connection Classification

FIGURE 4-1 SmartDashboard Rule Base Window

Note - It is best to organize lists of objects (network objects and services) in groups rather than in long lists. Using groups gives you a better overview of your QoS Policy and leads to a more readable Rule Base. In addition, objects added to groups are automatically included in the rules.

Connection Classification
A connection is classified according to four criteria: Source: A set of network objects, including specific computers, entire networks, user groups or domains. Destination: A set of network objects, including specific computers, entire networks or domains. Service: A set of IP services, TCP, UDP, ICMP or URLs. Time: Specified days or time periods.

Network Objects
Network objects serve as the sources and destinations that are defined in QoS Policy rules. The network objects that can be used in FloodGate-1 rules include workstations, networks, domains, and groups. Information about network objects can be found in the SmartCenter Guide. User Groups Check Point QoS allows you to define User Groups that are comprised of predefined users. For example, all the users in the marketing department can be grouped together in a User Group called Marketing. when defining a Source in a rule you can then use this group as a possible Source, instead of adding individual users to the Source of the rule.

Chapter 4

Basic QoS Policy Management

33

Rule Base Management

Services and Resources


FloodGate-1 allows you to define QoS rules, not only based on the source and destination of each communication, but also according to the service requested. The services that can be used in FloodGate-1 rules include TCP, Compound TCP, UDP, ICMP and Citrix TCP services, IP services Resources can also be used in a FloodGate-1 Rule Base. They must be of type QoS.
URI for

Time Objects
Check Point QoS allows you to define Time objects that are used is defining the time that a rule is operational. Time objects can be defined for specific times and/or for specific days. The days can further be divided into days of the month or specific days of the week.

Bandwidth Allocation and Rules


A rule can specify three factors to be applied to bandwidth allocation for classified connections: Weight Weight is the relative portion of the available bandwidth that is allocated to a rule. To calculate what portion of the bandwidth the connections matched to a rule receive, use the following formula: this rules portion = this rules weight / total weight of all rules with open connections For example, if this rules weight is 12 and the total weight of all the rules under which connections are currently open is 120, then all the connections open under this rule are allocated 12/120 (or 10%) of the available bandwidth. In practice, a rule may get more than the bandwidth allocated by this formula, if other rules are not using their maximum allocated bandwidth. Unless a per connection limit or guarantee is defined for a rule, all connections under a rule receive equal weight. Allocating bandwidth according to weights ensures full utilization of the line even if a specific class is not using all of its bandwidth. In such a case, the left over bandwidth is divided among the remaining classes in accordance with their relative weights. Units are configurable, see Defining QoS Global Properties on page 92.

34

Default Rule

Guarantees A guarantee allocates a minimum bandwidth to the connections matched with a rule. Guarantees can be defined for: the sum of all connections within a rule A total rule guarantee reserves a minimum bandwidth for all the connections under a rule combined. The actual bandwidth allocated to each connection depends on the number of open connections that match the rule. The total bandwidth allocated to the rule can be no less than the guarantee, but the more connections that are open, the less bandwidth each one receives. individual connections within a rule

A per connection guarantee means that each connection that matches the particular rule is guaranteed a minimum bandwidth. Although weights do in fact guarantee the bandwidth share for specific connections, only a guarantee allows you to specify an absolute bandwidth value. Limits A limit specifies the maximum bandwidth that is assigned to all the connections together. A limit defines a point beyond which connections under a rule are not allocated bandwidth, even if there is unused bandwidth available. Limits can also be defined for the sum of all connections within a rule or for individual connections within a rule. For more information on weights, guarantees and limits, see Action Type on page 36.
Note - Bandwidth allocation is not fixed. As connections are opened and closed, FloodGate-1 continuously changes the bandwidth allocation to accommodate competing connections, in accordance with the QoS Policy.

Default Rule
A default rule is automatically added to each QoS Policy Rule Base, and assigned the weight specified in the QoS (FloodGate-1) page of the Global Properties window. You can modify the weight, but you cannot delete the default rule (see Weight on page 34). The default rule applies to all connections not matched by the other rules or sub-rules in the Rule Base.

Chapter 4

Basic QoS Policy Management

35

Rule Base Management

In addition, a default rule is automatically added to each group of sub-rules, and applies to connections not classified by the other sub-rules in the group (see To Verify and View the QoS Policy on page 39).

QoS Action Properties


The restrictions on bandwidth for connections to which a rule applies are defined in the QoS Action Properties window. Action Type By this stage, you should already have decided whether your policy is Traditional mode or Express mode, see Traditional Check Point QoS vs. Check Point QoS Express on page 16. You can select one of the following Action Types: Simple Advanced TABLE 4-1 shows which Action Types you can select in Traditional or Express modes.
TABLE 4-1 Action Types Available

Action Type Simple Advanced Simple

Traditional Mode

Express Mode

Yes Yes

Yes No

The following actions are available: Apply rule to encrypted traffic only Rule weight Rule limit Rule guarantee
Advanced

The same actions that are available in Simple mode are available in Advanced mode with the addition of the following: Per connection limit Per rule guarantee Per connection guarantee Number of permanent connections
36

Example of a Rule Matching VPN Traffic

Accept additional connections

Example of a Rule Matching VPN Traffic


VPN traffic is traffic that is encrypted in the same gateway by Check Point VPN. VPN traffic does not refer to traffic that was encrypted by a non-Check Point product prior to arriving at this gateway. This type of traffic can be matched using the IPSec service. When Apply rule only to encrypted traffic is checked in the QoS Action Properties window, only VPN traffic is matched to the rule. If this field is not checked, all types of traffic (both VPN and non-VPN) are matched to the rule. Use the Apply rule only to encrypted traffic field to build a Rule Base in which you define QoS actions for VPN traffic which are different than the actions that are applied to non-VPN traffic. Since Check Point QoS uses the First Rule Match concept, the VPN traffic rules should be defined as the top rules in the Rule Base. Below them rules which apply to all types of traffic should be defined. Other types of traffic skip the top rules and match to one of the non-VPN rules defined below the VPN traffic rules. In order to completely separate VPN traffic from non-VPN traffic, define the following rule at the top of the QoS Rule Base:
TABLE 4-2 VPN Traffic Rule

Name

Source

Dest

Service

Action

VPN rule

Any

Any

Any

VPN Encrypt, and other configured actions

All the VPN traffic is matched to this rule. The rules following this VPN Traffic Rule are then matched only by non-VPN traffic. You can define sub-rules below the VPN Traffic rule that classify the VPN traffic more granularly.

Bandwidth Allocation and Sub-Rules


When a connection is matched to a rule with sub-rules, a further match is sought among the sub-rules. If none of the sub-rules apply, the default rule for the specific group of sub-rules is applied (see Default Rule on page 35). Sub-rules can be nested, meaning that sub-rules themselves can have sub-rules. The same rules then apply to the nested sub-rules. If the connection matches a sub-rule that has sub-rules itself, a further match is sought among the nested sub-rules. Again if none of the sub-rules apply, the default rule for the specific group of sub-rules is applied.

Chapter 4

Basic QoS Policy Management

37

Rule Base Management

Bandwidth is allocated on a top/down approach. This means that sub-rules cannot allocate more bandwidth to a matching rule, than the rule in which the sub-rule is located. A nested sub-rule, therefore, cannot allocate more bandwidth than the sub-rule in which it is located. A Rule Guarantee must likewise always be greater than or equal to the Rule Guarantee of any sub-rule within that rule. The same applies to Rule Guarantees in sub-rules and their nested sub-rules., as shown in the following example.
Example: TABLE 4-3 Bandwidth Allocation in Nested Sub-Rules

Rule Name

Source

Destination

Service

Action

Rule A

Any

Any

ftp

Rule Guarantee 100KBps Weight 10 Rule Guarantee 100KBps Weight 10 Rule Guarantee 80KBps Weight 10 Weight 10

Start of Sub-Rule A

Rule A1

Client-1

Any

ftp

Start of Sub-Rule A1

Rule A1.1

Any

Any

ftp

Rule A1.2
End of SubRule A1

Any

Any

ftp

Rule A2
End of SubRule A

Client-2

Any

ftp

Weight 10

Rule B

Any

Any

http

Weight 30

In this example any extra bandwidth from the application of Rule A1.1 is applied to Rule A2 before it is applied to Rule A1.2.

38

To Verify and View the QoS Policy

Implementing the Rule Base


When you have defined the desired rules, you should perform a heuristic check on the Rule Base to check that the rules are consistent. If a Rule Base fails the verification, an appropriate message is displayed. You must save the Policy Package before verifying. Otherwise, changes made since the last save will not be checked. After verifying the correctness of the Rule Base, it must be installed on the FloodGate-1 Modules that will enforce it. When you install a QoS Policy, the policy is downloaded to these QoS Modules. There must be a QoS Module running on the object which receives the QoS Policy.
Note - The QoS Module machine and the SmartCenter module machine must be properly configured before a QoS Policy can be installed.

In This Section

To Verify and View the QoS Policy To Install and Enforce the Policy To Uninstall the QoS Policy To Monitor the QoS Policy

page 39 page 39 page 40 page 40

To Verify and View the QoS Policy


1 2

Select Policy>Verify to perform a heuristic check on the Rule Base to check that the rules are consistent. Select
Policy>View

to view the generated rules as ASCII text.

To Install and Enforce the Policy


Perform the following steps in order to install and enforce the QoS policy:
1

Once the rule base is complete, select Install from the Policy menu. The Install window is displayed. Specify the QoS modules on which you would like to install your new QoS policy. By default, all QoS modules are already selected. (In order for an object to be a QoS module, it needs to have FloodGate-1 checked under Check Point Products in the Object Properties window).
Policy

The objects in the list are those that have FloodGate-1 Installed checked in their definition (see Specifying Interface QoS Properties on page 94).
Chapter 4 Basic QoS Policy Management 39

Implementing the Rule Base

You may deselect and reselect specific items, if you wish. The QoS Policy is not installed on unselected items.
2

Click OK to install the QoS Policy on all selected hosts. The installation progress window is displayed.

To Uninstall the QoS Policy


You can uninstall QoS Policy from any or all of the QoS Modules in which it is installed.
1 2 3

Choose Uninstall from the Policy menu to remove the QoS Policy from the selected QoS Module. The Install Policy window is displayed. Deselect those QoS Modules from which you would like to uninstall the QoS policy. Click
OK.

To Monitor the QoS Policy


Check Point SmartView Monitor allows you to monitor traffic through a floodgated interface. For more information, see SmartView Monitor Guide.

40

CHAPTER

Check Point QoS Tutorial


In This Chapter
Introduction Building and Installing a QoS Policy Conclusion page 41 page 43 page 68

Introduction
This chapter presents a step by step guide to building and installing a QoS Policy in Check Point QoS. This tutorial is based on the network configuration shown in FIGURE 5-1 on page 42. This tutorial is based on a simple network configuration, but working through it will familiarize you with the many issues involved in building and installing a FloodGate-1 QoS Policy. Each step in the process is described in detail so that by the end of this tutorial you will have developed a practical knowledge of building and installing a usable QoS policy. The tutorial walks you through the steps involved in physically installing a network, and then introduces you to SmartDashboard and Check Point QoS, in which you configure the network and implement QoS policy.

41

Introduction

FIGURE 5-1 Example Network Configuration

This example shows a typical network configuration for an organization with offices located in London, Oxford and Cambridge. The Check Point QoS Module is located in London where the gateway to the Internet will comprise 3 interfaces. The SmartCenter Server is located at Oxford while the SmartConsole is installed at Cambridge. Within the private local network there are the Marketing and Engineering departments. In this tutorial you are shown how a QoS policy is implemented to regulate and optimize the flow in Internet traffic to these departments.

42

Building and Installing a QoS Policy


The following steps represent the workflow that must be followed in order to build and install a QoS Policy on the network shown in FIGURE 5-1. Each of these steps is then described in detail in the sections that follow:
1

Install the appropriate Check Point Modules on each machine, as needed (see TABLE 5-1).
TABLE 5-1 Check Point Modules to Install on Each Machine

Computer

Function

Check Point Module to install

London Oxford Cambridge

QoS Module; the Gateway to the Internet SmartCenter Server SmartConsole

QoS Module VPN-1 Pro Module (required) SmartCenter Server, QoS Addon SmartDashboard

Note - In order to manage QoS modules, you need to install Check Point QoS on the SmartCenter Server as well as on the module.

2 3 4

Start SmartDashboard and display the QoS tab. Determine the type of QoS Policy you want to implement. Define the network objects to be used in the Rule Base. You define only those objects that are explicitly used in the Rule Base and do not have to define the entire network.

Define any proprietary services used in your network. You do not have to define the commonly used services. These are already defined for you in FloodGate-1. In most cases, you need only specify a name, for network objects and services because Check Point QoS obtains the objects properties from the appropriate databases (DNS, YP. hosts file).

6 7

Create a new QoS Rule Base and the rules that comprise that Rule Base. Install the Rule Base on the QoS Module machine, which will enforce the QoS Policy.

Each of these steps are described in detail in the sections that follow.

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In This Section

Step 1: Installing Check Point Modules Step 2: Starting SmartDashboard Step 3: Determining QoS Policy Step 4: Defining the Network Objects Step 5: Defining the Services Step 6: Creating a Rule Base Step 7: Installing a QoS Policy

page 44 page 44 page 48 page 48 page 59 page 59 page 67

Step 1: Installing Check Point Modules


This step describes the physical installation of the Check Point Products at the various locations in the example on page 42. In this tutorial you do not physically install the network but you do run the QoS Module on SmartDashboard. Detailed installation instructions are available in the Getting Started Guide. Install QoS in the following sequence:
1 2 3 4 5 6

Install QoS and VPN-1 Pro or VPN-1 Net modules on London. Install SmartConsole on Cambridge. Install SmartCenter Server on Oxford. On Oxford, define Cambridge as a SmartConsole. On Oxford, define the administrators who will be allowed to manage the QoS Policy. Establish a secure connection (SIC) between the SmartCenter Server at Oxford and the QoS Module at London.

Step 2: Starting SmartDashboard


You must start SmartDashboard in order to be able to access Check Point QoS. For the purposes of this tutorial, and although all the regular log on procedures are described in this section, you must run SmartDashboard in Demo Mode, selecting the Advanced option. This section describes how to start SmartDashboard and access its QoS tab to be able to enter and install the QoS Policy you are defining.

44

To Start SmartDashboard

To Start SmartDashboard
1

menu, select Programs > Check Point SmartConsole R60 > The Welcome to Check Point SmartDashboard window (FIGURE 5-2) is displayed:
Start SmartDashboard. FIGURE 5-2SmartDashboard Login Window

From the

You can log in using either your: User Name and Password
a Select User Name. b Enter your user name and password in the designated field.

Certificate
a Select Certificate. b Select the name of your certificate file from the dropdown list. c You can browse for the file using by clicking

d Enter the password you used to create the certificate in the Password field. 3

Enter the name of the machine on which the SmartCenter Server is running. You can enter one of the following: A resolvable machine name A dotted IP address

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Building and Installing a QoS Policy

4 5 6

To work in local mode, check drop-down list. (Optional) Check (Optional) Click
Advanced Options Read Only

Demo Mode

and select

Advanced

from the

if you do not wish to modify a policy, to display the


Certificate Management

More Options >>

and

(FIGURE 5-3).

FIGURE 5-3(SmartDashboard Login Window - More Options

7 8

(Optional) Click

Change Password

to change the certificate password. to compress the connection to the

(Optional) Check Use SmartCenter Server.

compressed connection

46

To Start SmartDashboard

(Optional) Enter the text describing why the administrator wants to make a change in the security policy in the Session Description field. The text appears as a log entry in the SmartView Tracker in the Session Description column (in Audit mode only).
Note - If the Session Description column does not appear in the SmartView Tracker, use the Query Properties pane to display it. For more information on the SmartView Tracker, see the chapter called SmartView Tracker in the SmartCenter Guide.

10 (Optional) Check Do not save recent connections information if you do not want

your connection settings saved.


11 Click Less Options << to hide the Certificate Management and Advanced options. 12 Click OK The SmartDashboard main window FIGURE 5-4 is displayed:
FIGURE 5-4SmartDashboard Main Window .

13 Click the QoS tab display the QoS Rule Base. The QoS tab (FIGURE 5-5) is

displayed.

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FIGURE 5-5QoS Tab

Step 3: Determining QoS Policy


To implement an effective QoS Policy, you must first determine how you currently use your network, and then identify and prioritize the types of traffic and the users who are going to use the network. For example, a typical QoS Policy would be: HTTP traffic should be allocated more bandwidth than RealAudio. Marketing should be allocated more bandwidth than Engineering. You will create the rules to implement this policy in Step 6: Creating a Rule Base on page 59.

Step 4: Defining the Network Objects


You must now define the Network Objects including London, the gateway on which the QoS Module is running, and its interfaces, as well as the sub-networks for the Marketing and Engineering departments. This step describes, as an example, how the gateway London will be defined.

48

To Define the Gateway London

To Define the Gateway London


1

Using one of the methods described in TABLE 5-2, open the (FIGURE 5-8 on page 52.)
TABLE 5-2 Creating a New Gateway

Properties

window

From the...
Manage

... proceed as follows

menu

From the Manage menu, choose Network Objects. The Network Objects window (FIGURE 5-6) is displayed.
FIGURE 5-6 Network Objects Window

Click New and choose Check Point > Gateway from the menu. The Check Point Gateway - General Properties window is displayed (FIGURE 5-7). If the Objects toolbar is not visible, then, from the View menu choose Toolbars > Objects.to display it. Select from the toolbar. The Network Objects window (FIGURE 5-6) is displayed. Click New and choose Check Point > Gateway from the menu. The Check Point Gateway - General Properties window is displayed (FIGURE 5-7).

Objects

toolbar

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TABLE 5-2 Creating a New Gateway

From the...
Network Objects

... proceed as follows

tree

Right-click Network Objects in the Network Objects tree and choose New > Check Point>Gateway from the menu. The Check Point Gateway - General Properties window is displayed (FIGURE 5-7).

FIGURE 5-7 Check Point Gateway - General Properties Window

50

To Define the Gateway London

In the Check Point Gateway - General Properties window (FIGURE 5-7) enter the information shown in TABLE 5-3 to define Londons gateway.
TABLE 5-3Londons Check Point Gateway - General Properties Window

Field
Name

Value

Explanation

London

This is the name by which the object is known on the network; the response to the hostname command. This is the interface associated with the host name in the DNS get this by clicking Get Address. For gateways, this should always be the IP address of the external interface. This is the text that is displayed at the bottom of the Network Objects window when this object is selected These settings specify the Check Point products installed on London, and their version number. Check Point QoS must be installed on any gateway on which a QoS Module is installed. Note that if multiple Check Point products are installed on a machine, they must all be the same version number. Establishes a secure communication channel between Check Point Modules.

IP Address

192.32.32.32

Comment

QoS Module (gateway)

Check Point Products

Select the Version from the drop-down list. Check VPN-1 Pro (if needed), FireWall-1and QoS (FloodGate-1).

Secure Internal Communication

The Check Point Gateway - General Properties window now has the information shown in FIGURE 5-8 on page 52.

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FIGURE 5-8Check Point Gateway - General Properties Window

To Define the Interfaces on Gateway London


1

Click Topology in the tree on the left side of the Check Point Gateway -London window. The Topology page Check Point Gateway - London window (FIGURE 5-9) is displayed.

52

To Define the Interfaces on Gateway London

FIGURE 5-9Check Point Gateway - London Topology Window

The easiest and most reliable way to define the interfaces is to click Get.., which automatically retrieves general and topology information for each interface. If you choose this method of configuring the gateway, the topology fetched suggests the external interface of the gateway based on the QoS Module routing table. You must ensure that this information is correct. Alternatively, click Add. The Interface Properties window (FIGURE 5-10) is displayed.

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Building and Installing a QoS Policy

FIGURE 5-10Interface Properties - General Tab

3 4

Enter the information on the three interfaces listed in TABLE 5-4, TABLE 5-5 and TABLE 5-6 in the General and Topology tabs of this window. Click OK after you have entered the information from each table to add the interface to the Check Point Gateway - London - Topology window.

54

To Define the Interfaces on Gateway London

The data for each of the three interfaces of London is as follows:


TABLE 5-4 Field Values Interface Properties Window le0

Field
General Name Net Address Net Mask Topology tab Topology

Value

Explanation

tab le0 192.32.32.32 255.255.255.0 Check Check


External (leads

out to the Internet). Anti-Spoofing Perform Anti-

Specifies to which network this interface leads. Specifies that each incoming packet will be examined to ensure that its source IP address is consistent with the interface through which it entered the machine. Specifies that when spoofing is detected, the event will be logged.

Spoofing based on network topology.

Spoof Tracking

Check

Log.

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Building and Installing a QoS Policy

TABLE 5-5 Field Values Interface Properties Window le1

Field
General Name Net Address Net Mask Topology tab Topology

Value

Explanation

tab le1 192.32.42.32 255.255.255.0 Check Internal (leads to


the local network).

Specifies to which network this interface leads. Specifies that the standard IP addressing scheme is being used. Specifies that each incoming packet will be examined to ensure that its source IP address is consistent with the interface through which it entered the machine. Specifies that when spoofing is detected, the event will be logged.

IP addresses behind this interface Anti-Spoofing

Check

Network defined

by the interface IP and Net Mask.

Check

Perform Anti-

Spoofing based on network topology.

Spoof Tracking

Check

Log.

56

To Define the Interfaces on Gateway London

TABLE 5-6 Field Values Interface Properties Window le2

Field
General Name Net Address Net Mask Topology tab Topology

Value

Explanation

tab le2 199.199.199.32 255.255.255.0 Check Internal (leads to


the local network).

Specifies to which network this interface leads. Specifies that the standard IP addressing scheme is being used. Specifies that each incoming packet will be examined to ensure that its source IP address is consistent with the interface through which it entered the machine. This specifies that when spoofing is detected, the event will be logged.
Check Point Gateway

IP addresses behind this interface Anti-Spoofing

Check

Network defined

by the interface IP and Net Mask.

Check

Perform Anti-

Spoofing based on network topology.

Spoof Tracking

Check

Log.

- London - Topology

After the three interfaces have been defined, they are listed in the window (FIGURE 5-11).

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Building and Installing a QoS Policy

FIGURE 5-11Check Point Gateway - Topology Page

To Define the QoS Properties for the Interfaces on Gateway London


1

In the Check Point Gateway - London - Topology window (FIGURE 5-11), double-click Londons external interface (le0), or select it and click Edit. The Interface Properties window is displayed. Click the
QoS

tab. The

Interface Properties - QoS

tab (FIGURE 5-12) is displayed.

58

Step 5: Defining the Services

FIGURE 5-12Interface Properties Window - QoS tab

3 4 5 6

Check both From the Click Click


OK OK

Inbound Active

and

Outbound Active. 192000 - T1 (1.5 Mbps).

Rate

dropdown list set both rates to


Interface Properties

to exit the to exit the

window. window.

Check Point Gateway - London - Topology

Step 5: Defining the Services


The QoS Policy required for this tutorial does not require the definition of new proprietary services. The commonly used services HTTP and RealAudio are already defined in FloodGate-1.

Step 6: Creating a Rule Base


After defining your network objects and services, you are now ready to create the Rule Base that will comprise your QoS policy rules. When you start SmartDashboard, the last Policy Package that was used is displayed. The Policy Package comprises the Rule Bases of all the tabs that are displayed in the SmartDashboard window. This tutorial is only concerned with the QoS Rule Base which is accessed when you select the QoS tab. In this step you close this Policy Package and create a new Policy Package in which you have the QoS Rule Base for the rules that you are about to create.

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Building and Installing a QoS Policy

The new Rule Base is created with a Default Rule (see Default Rule on page 35). After you have created the Rule Base you must add the rules that will enforce the QoS Policy determined in Step 3: Determining QoS Policy on page 48.

To Create a New Policy Package


1 2

In SmartDashboard select New from the File menu. The Save window is displayed requesting that you save the displayed Policy Package before creating a new one. Click
Save and continue.

The

New Policy Package

window is displayed

FIGURE 5-13New Policy Package Window

3 4 5 6

Enter the name in the Check Check

New policy Package Name

field.

Security and Address Translation QoS.

(if needed).

and select

Traditional

mode.
Default Rule

Click OK. The new Policy Package is created together with a displayed in the QoS tab (FIGURE 5-14).
FIGURE 5-14New Rule Base In the QoS Tab

and is

To Create a New Rules


This procedure describes how to create the two new rules required to enforce the Rule Base. Create two rules: Web Rule and RealAudio Rule.
60

To Create a New Rules

1 2

Click the

QoS

tab to access the QoS Rule Base.


above

Right-click in the Name field of the QoS tab and select Add Rule menu that is displayed. The Rule Name window is displayed.
FIGURE 5-15Rule Name Window

from the

3 4 5

Enter Click

Web Rule OK.

as the

Rule Name.

The rule is added to the Rule Base.


Rule.

Repeat steps 1 to 3 and create a new rule with the name of RealAudio QoS tab in SmartDashboard lists all the rules in the Rule Base.
FIGURE 5-16QoS Tab with Rules

The

Rule Properties When a new rule is created it has the default values assigned by the System Administrator. You must change these values so that they correctly reflect the policies you want. The next procedure describes how to change these rules so that they reflect the values shown in TABLE 5-7.
TABLE 5-7 Changing Rules Default Values

Rule Name

Source

Destination

Service

Action

Web Rule RealAudio Rule Default

Any Any Any

Any Any Any

HTTP RealAudio Any

Weight 35 Weight 5 Weight 10


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To Modify New Rules


1

In the QoS tab, right-click in the Service field of the Web Rule and select Add from the menu that is displayed. The Add Object window (FIGURE 5-17) is displayed.
FIGURE 5-17Add Object Window

2 3 4 5

Select Click

HTTP OK.

from the list.

The Web Rules Service is changed.


RealAudio.

Repeat steps 1 to 3 but change the service of the RealAudio rule to

Right-click in the Action field of the Web Rule and select Edit Properties from the menu that is displayed. The QoS Action Properties window (FIGURE 5-18) is displayed.
FIGURE 5-18QoS Action Properties Window

6
62

Change the

Rule Weight

to 35 and Click

OK.

To Modify New Rules

Repeat steps 5 and 6 and change the weight of the RealAudio Rule to 5.

Classifying Traffic by Service Even an exhaustive Rule Base will generally not explicitly define rules for all the background services (such as DNS and ARP) in the traffic mix, but will let the Default rule deal with them.
FIGURE 5-19Service Rules in the GUI

Note how the structure of the Rule Base is shown at the left of the window (FIGURE 5-19) as a tree, with the Default Rule highlighted in both the tree and the Rule Base. (For a description of the Rule Base window, see Chapter 4 Basic QoS Policy Management.). The effect of these rules is that, when connections compete for bandwidth, they receive bandwidth in accordance with the weights assigned by the rules that apply to them. For example, TABLE 5-8 describes what happens when there are four active connections.
TABLE 5-8 Service Rules - four active Connections

connections

relevant rule
Web Rule RealAudio Rule Default

bandwidth

remarks

HTTP RealAudio FTP TELNET

70% 10% sharing 20% sharing 20%

35 / 50 (the total weights) 5 / 50 10 /50; a rule applies to all the connections together 10 /50; a rule applies to all the connections together

Default

It is important to note that the bandwidth allocation is constantly changing. Bandwidth is allocated among connections according to their relative weight. As the connection mix changes as it does continuously as connections are opened and closed FloodGate-1 changes the bandwidth allocation in accordance with the QoS Policy, so that bandwidth is never wasted. For example, if the HTTP, FTP and TELNET connections are all closed, and the only remaining connection is the RealAudio connection, RealAudio will receive 100% of the bandwidth.

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Suppose now that the TELNET and FTP connections are closed. TABLE 5-9 shows the result.
TABLE 5-9 Service Rules - two active Connections

connections

relevant rule
Web Rule RealAudio Rule

bandwidth

remarks

HTTP RealAudio

87.5% 12.5%

35/40 (the total weights) 5/40

Both HTTP and RealAudio benefit from the bandwidth released by the closed connections. Even though RealAudio is assigned a very small weight compared to HTTP, it will never starve, even in the event of heavy HTTP traffic.
Note - In practice, you will probably want to give a high relative weight to an interactive service such as TELNET, which transfers small amounts of data but has an impatient user at the keyboard.

Classifying Traffic by Source The second part of the QoS Policy (Marketing should be allocated more bandwidth than Engineering.) can be expressed in the following rules:
TABLE 5-10 Marketing is Allocated More Bandwidth Than Engineering

Rule Name

Source

Destination

Service

Action

Marketing Rule Engineering Rule Default

Marketing

Any

Any Any Any

Weight 30 Weight 20 Weight 10

Engineering Any Any Any

Using the same principles described in To Create a New Rules on page 60 and To Modify New Rules on page 62, create new rules and modify them to reflect the values shown in TABLE 5-10. The effect of these rules is similar to the effect of the rules in TABLE 5-8 on page 63, except for: the different weights the fact that allocation is based on source rather than on services.

64

To Modify New Rules

Classifying Traffic by Service and Source TABLE 5-11 shows all the rules together in a single Rule Base.
TABLE 5-11 All the Rules Together

Rule Name

Source

Destination

Service

Action

Web Rule RealAudio Rule Marketing Rule Engineering Rule Default

Any Any Marketing

Any Any Any

HTTP RealAudio Any Any Any

Weight 35 Weight 5 Weight 30 Weight 20 Weight 10

Engineering Any Any Any

In this Rule Base, bandwidth allocation is based both on sub-networks and on services. First Rule Match Principle In the Rule Base in TABLE 5-11, it is possible that more than one rule can be relevant to a connection. However, FloodGate-1 works according to a first rule match principle. Every connection is examined against the QoS Policy and receives bandwidth according to the action defined in the first rule that is matched. If a user in Marketing initiates an HTTP connection, both Web Rule and Marketing Rule are theoretically relevant. Because Web Rule comes before Marketing Rule in the Rule Base, the connection will be given a weight of 35. Marketing Rule will no longer be relevant to this connection. In order to differentiate HTTP traffic by source, it would be necessary to create subrules for Web Rule. See Sub-Rules on page 67.
Note - The actual bandwidth allocated to a connection at any given moment depends on the weights of the other connections that are active at the same time.

Guarantees and Limits In addition to using weights, you can define bandwidth allocation by using guarantees and limits. You can define guarantees and limits for whole rules, or for individual connections within a rule.

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For example, the Web Rule shown in the Rule Base in TABLE 5-11 on page 65 allocates 35% of available bandwidth to all the HTTP connections combined. The actual amount of bandwidth received by connections under this rule depends on available bandwidth and on the open connections that match the other rules. A guarantee can be used mainly to specify bandwidth in absolute measures (such as bits or bytes) instead of relative weights. Note however that 35% of available bandwidth (specified in the example above) is assured to you. You may get more bandwidth if there are few connections backlogged to other rules, but you will not get less bandwidth. The bandwidth allocated is absolutely guaranteed. In TABLE 5-12, Web Rule is guaranteed 20 KBps. The connections under Web Rule will receive a total bandwidth of 20 KBps. Any remaining bandwidth will be allocated to all the rules, Web Rule included, according to their weights.

TABLE 5-12 Guarantee Example

Rule Name

Source

Destination

Service

Action

Web Rule

Any

Any

HTTP

Guarantee 20 KBps Weight 35 Weight 5 Weight 30 Weight 20 Weight 10

RealAudio Rule Marketing Rule Engineering Rule Default

Any Marketing Engineeri ng Any

Any Any Any Any

RealAudio Any Any Any

For more information and examples of guarantees and limits, see Examples: Guarantees and Limits on page 69 and Bandwidth Allocation and Rules on page 34.

66

Step 7: Installing a QoS Policy

Sub-Rules Sub-rules are rules within a rule. For example, you may wish to allocate bandwidth for HTTP connections by source, so that HTTP connections from Marketing receive more bandwidth than other HTTP traffic. In this case, you would define sub-rules under Web Rule as follows:
TABLE 5-13 Defining Sub-Rules

Rule Name

Source

Destination

Service

Action

Web Rule
Start of Sub-Rule

Any Marketing Any

Any Any Any

HTTP Any Any

Weight 20 Weight 10 Weight 1

Marketing HTTP Default


End of Sub-Rule

Sub-Rules are created in a similar manner to Rules as described in To Create a New Rules on page 60, However to create a sub-rule you right-click in the Name field of the rule in which you want to create the sub-rule and select Add Sub-Rule from the menu that is displayed. The sub-rule means that for connections under Web Rule bandwidth should be allocated according to the weights specified: 10 for HTTP traffic from the Marketing department and 1 for everything else. The bandwidth allocated to the Web Rule according to its weight (20). This weight is further divided between its sub-rules in a 10:1 ratio. Note that there will be two Default rules: one for the Rule Base as a whole and another for the sub-rules of Web Rule. The Source, Destination and Service fields of the sub-rule must always be a sub-set of the parent rule otherwise the sub-rule will be ineffective.

Step 7: Installing a QoS Policy


After you have defined the Rule Base, you can install the QoS Policy on the QoS Modules by selecting Install from the Policy menu. The Install Policy window (FIGURE 5-20) is displayed, showing a list of gateways defined as FloodGate-1 Modules (see Step 4: Defining the Network Objects on page 48).

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Conclusion

FIGURE 5-20 Install Policy Window

Select the specific QoS Modules on which to install the QoS Policy. Check Point QoS will enforce the QoS Policy on the directions specified in the interface properties of each selected module. and click OK For further information, see Implementing the Rule Base on page 39.

Conclusion
You have now completed all the steps that were required to install the network described in Figure 5-1 on page 42, and to define the Rule Base that will implement the required policy QoS policy. As a result, you should have a much better understanding of how QoS policy can be implemented using Check Point QoS. It is strongly recommended however that you now spend some time and refer to Chapter 7 Managing Check Point QoS for further information.

68

CHAPTER

Advanced QoS Policy Management


In This Chapter
Overview Examples: Guarantees and Limits Differentiated Services (DiffServ) Low Latency Queuing Authenticated QoS Citrix MetaFrame Support Load Sharing page 69 page 69 page 75 page 77 page 84 page 85 page 86

Overview
This chapter describes the more advanced QoS policy management procedures that enable you to refine the basic QoS policies described in Chapter 4 Basic QoS Policy Management.

Examples: Guarantees and Limits


The QoS Action properties defined in the rules and sub-rules of a QoS Policy Rule Base interact with one another to determine bandwidth allocation. The guidelines and examples in the sections that follow explain how to use guarantees and limits effectively.

69

Examples: Guarantees and Limits

In This Section

Per Rule Guarantees Per Connections Guarantees Limits Guarantee - Limit Interaction

page 70 page 73 page 74 page 74

Per Rule Guarantees


1) The bandwidth allocated to the rule is a combination of the guaranteed bandwidth, plus the bandwidth that is given to the rule because of its weight. The guaranteed bandwidth is first extracted from the total bandwidth and set aside so that the guarantee can be upheld. The remaining bandwidth is then distributed according to the weights specified by all the rules. This means that the amount of bandwidth that is guaranteed to a rule is the guaranteed bandwidth plus the rules share of bandwidth according to weight.
Example: TABLE 6-1 Total Rule Guarantees

Rule Name

Source

Destination

Service

Action

Rule A

Any

Any

ftp

Rule Guarantee 100KBps Weight 10 Weight 20

Rule B

Any

Any

http

The link capacity is 190KBps. In this example, Rule A receives 130KBps, 100KBps from the guarantee, plus (10/30) * (190-100). Rule B receives 60KBps, which is (20/30) * (190-100). 2) If a guarantee is defined in a sub-rule, then a guarantee must be defined for the rule above it. The guarantee of the sub-rule can also not be greater than the guarantee of the rule above it.

70

Per Rule Guarantees

Example: TABLE 6-2 Guarantee is Defined in Sub-rule A1, But Not in Rule A Making the Rule

Incorrect

Rule Name

Source

Destination

Service

Action

Rule A Rule A1

Any Client-1

Any Any

ftp ftp

Weight 10 Rule Guarantee 100KBps Weight 10 Weight 10

Start of Sub-Rule

Rule A2
End of SubRule

Client-2

Any

ftp

Rule B

Any

Any

http

Weight 30

This Rule Base is not correct because the guarantee is defined in sub-rule A1, but not in Rule A. To correct this, add a guarantee of 100KBps or more to Rule A. 3) A rule guarantee must not be smaller than the sum of guarantees defined in its sub-rules.

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Examples: Guarantees and Limits

Example: TABLE 6-3 Example of an Incorrect Rule Base

Rule Name

Source

Destination

Service

Action

Rule A

Any

Any

ftp

Rule Guarantee 100KBps Weight 10 Rule Guarantee 80KBps Weight 10 Rule Guarantee 80KBps Weight 10 Weight 10

Start of Sub-Rule

Rule A1

Client-1

Any

ftp

Rule A2

Client-2

Any

ftp

Rule A3
End of SubRule

Client-3

Any

ftp

Rule B

Any

Any

http

Weight 30

This Rule Base is incorrect because the sum of guarantees in Sub-Rules A1 and A2 is (80 + 80) = 160, which is greater that the guarantee defined in Rule A (100KBps). To correct this, define a guarantee not smaller than 160KBps in Rule A, or reduce the guarantees defined in A1 and A2. 4) If a rules weight is low, some connections may receive very little bandwidth.

72

Per Connections Guarantees

Example: TABLE 6-4 If a Rules Weight is Low, Some Connections May Receive Very Little

Bandwidth

Rule Name

Source

Destination

Service

Action

Rule A

Any

Any

ftp

Rule Guarantee 100KBps Weight 1 Rule Guarantee 100KBps Weight 10 Weight 10

Start of Sub-Rule

Rule A1

Client-1

Any

ftp

Rule A2
End of SubRule

Client-2

Any

ftp

Rule B

Any

Any

http

Weight 30

The link capacity is 190KBps. Rule A is entitled to 103KBps, which are the 100KBps guaranteed, plus (190-100) * (1/31). FTP traffic classified to Sub-Rule A1 receives the guaranteed 100KBps which is almost all the bandwidth to which Rule A is entitled. All connections classified to Sub-Rule A2 together receive only 1.5KBps, which is half of the remaining 3KBps. 5) The sum of guarantees in rules in the upper level should not exceed 90% of the capacity of the link.

Per Connections Guarantees


1) If the Accept additional connections is checked, connections exceeding the number defined in the Number of guaranteed connections are allowed to open. If you leave the field adjacent to Accept additional connections empty, the additional connections receive bandwidth allocated according to the Rule Weight defined. 2) If
Per connection guarantees connection guarantee guarantee

are defined both for a rule and for its sub-rule, the Per of the sub-rule should not be greater than the Per connection of the rule.

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Examples: Guarantees and Limits

When such a Rule Base is defined, a connection classified to the sub-rule receives the Per connection guarantee that is defined in the sub-rule. If a sub-rule does not have a Per connection guarantee, it still receives the Per connection guarantee defined in the parent rule.

Limits
1) If both a
Rule Limit connection limit

and a Per connection limit are defined for a rule, the must not be greater than the Rule Limit.

Per

2) If a limit is defined in a rule with sub-rules, and limits are defined in all the subrules, the rule limit should not be greater than the sum of limits defined in the subrules. Having a rule limit that is greater than the sum of limits defined in the sub-rules is never necessary, because it is not possible to allocate more bandwidth to a rule than the bandwidth determined by the sum of the limits of its sub-rules.

Guarantee - Limit Interaction


1) If a Rule Limit and a Guarantee per rule are defined in a rule, then the limit should not be smaller than the guarantee. 2) If both a Limit and a Guarantee are defined in a rule, and the Limit is equal to the Guarantee, connections may receive no bandwidth, as in the following examples:

74

Guarantee - Limit Interaction

Example: TABLE 6-5 No Bandwidth Received

Rule Name

Source

Destination

Service

Action

Rule A

Any

Any

ftp

Rule Guarantee 100KBps Rule Limit 100KBps Weight 10 Rule Guarantee 100KBps Weight 10 Weight 10

Start of Sub-Rule

Rule A1

Client-1

Any

ftp

Rule A2
End of SubRule

Client-2

Any

ftp

Rule B

Any

Any

http

Weight 30

The Guarantee in sub-rule A1 equals the Guarantee in rule A (100KBps). When there is enough traffic on A1 to use the full Guarantee, traffic on A2 does not receive any bandwidth from A (there is a limit on A of 100KBps). The steps that lead to this situation are as follows: A rule has both a guarantee and a limit, such that the limit equals the guarantee. The rule has sub-rules with Total Rule Guarantees that add up to the Total Rule Guarantee for the entire rule. The rule also has sub-rule(s) with no guarantee. In such a case, the traffic from the sub-rule(s) with no guarantee may receive no bandwidth.

Differentiated Services (DiffServ)


In This Section

Overview DiffServ Markings for IPSec Packets Interaction Between DiffServ Rules and Other Rules

page 76 page 76 page 76

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Differentiated Services (DiffServ)

Overview
DiffServ is an architecture for providing different types or levels of service for network traffic. Packets are marked in the IP header TOS byte, inside the enterprise network as belonging to a certain Class of Service, or QoS Class. These packets are then granted priority on the public network. DiffServ markings have meaning on the public network, not inside the enterprise network. (Effective implementation of DiffServ requires that packet markings be recognized on all public network segments.)

DiffServ Markings for IPSec Packets


When DiffServ markings are used for IPSec packets, the DiffServ mark can be copied from one location to another in one of two ways: :ipsec.copy_TOS_to_inner The DiffServ mark is copied from the IPSec header to the IP header of the original packet after decapsulation/decryption. :ipsec.copy_TOS_to_outer The DiffServ mark is copied from the original packets IP header to the IPSec header of the encrypted packet after encapsulation. This property should be set, per QoS Module, in The default setting is:
:ipsec.copy_TOS_to_inner (false) :ipsec.copy_TOS_to_outer (true) $FWDIR/conf/objects_5_0.c.

Interaction Between DiffServ Rules and Other Rules


A DiffServ rule specifies not only a QoS Class, but also a weight, in the same way that other QoS Policy Rules do. These weights are enforced only on the interfaces on which the rules of this class are installed. For example, suppose a DiffServ rule specifies a weight of 50 for FTP connections. That rule is installed only on the interfaces for which the QoS Class is defined. On other interfaces, the rule is not installed and FTP connections routed through those other interfaces do not receive the weight specified in the rule. To specify a weight for all FTP connections, add a rule under Best Effort. DiffServ rules can be installed only on interfaces for which the relevant QoS Class has been defined in the QoS tab of the Interface Properties window (FIGURE 7-3 on page 96). Best Effort rules (that is, non-DiffServ rules) can be installed on all interfaces of gateways with QoS Modules installed. Only rules installed on the same interface interact with each other.

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Overview

Low Latency Queuing


In This Section

Overview Low Latency Classes Interaction between Low Latency and Other Rule Properties When to Use Low Latency Queuing Low Latency versus DiffServ

page 77 page 78 page 82 page 83 page 83

Overview
For most traffic on the Web (including most TCP protocols), the WFQ (Weighted Fair Queuing, see Intelligent Queuing Engine on page 23) paradigm is adequate. This means that packets reaching FloodGate-1 are put in queues and forwarded according to the interface bandwidth and the priority of the matching rule. Using this standard policy, FloodGate-1 avoids dropping packets as often as possible, because such drops may adversely affect TCP. Avoiding drops, however, means holding (possibly long) queues, which may lead to non-negligible delays. For some types of traffic, such as voice and video, bounding this delay is important. Long queues are inadequate for these types of traffic because they lead to substantial delay. Fortunately, for most delay sensitive applications, there is no need to drop packets from queues in order to keep them short. Instead, the fact that the streams of these applications have a known, bounded bit rate can be utilized. If FloodGate-1 is configured to forward as much traffic as the stream delivers, then only a small number of packets accumulate in the queues and delay is negligible. FloodGate-1 Low Latency Queuing makes it possible to define special Classes of Service for delay sensitive applications like voice and video. Rules under these classes can be used together with other rules in the QoS Policy Rule Base. Low Latency classes require you to specify the maximal delay that is tolerated and a Constant Bit Rate. FloodGate-1 then guarantees that traffic matching rules of this type is forwarded within the limits of the bounded delay.

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Low Latency Queuing

Low Latency Classes


For information on installing Low Latency Classes, see Low Latency Classes on page 78. For each Low Latency class defined on an interface, a constant bit rate and maximal delay should be specified for active directions. FloodGate-1 checks packets matched to Low Latency class rules to make sure they have not been delayed for longer than their maximal delay permits. If the maximal delay of a packet has been exceeded, it is dropped. Otherwise, it is transmitted at the defined constant bit rate for the Low Latency class to which it belongs. If the Constant Bit Rate of the class is defined correctly (meaning that it is not smaller than the expected arrival rate of the matched traffic), packets are not dropped (provided that the delay exceeds some minimum, see Computing Maximal Delay on page 79). On the other hand, when the arrival rate is higher than the specified Constant Bit Rate, packets exceeding this constant rate are dropped to ensure that those transmitted are within the maximal delay limitations.
Note - The maximal delay set for a Low Latency class is an upper limit. This means that packets matching the class are always forwarded with a delay not greater, but often smaller, than specified.

Low Latency Class Priorities In most cases, one Low Latency class is sufficient to serve all bounded delay traffic. In some cases, however, the user may need to define more than one Low Latency class. For this purpose, Low Latency classes are assigned one out of five priority levels (not including the Expedited Forwarding class, see Low Latency versus DiffServ on page 83). These priority levels are relative to other Low Latency classes. It is advisable to define more than one Low Latency class if different types of traffic require different maximal delays. The class with the lower maximal delay should get a higher priority than the class with the higher delay. The reason for this is that when two packets are ready to be forwarded, one for each Low Latency class, the packet from the higher priority class is forwarded first. The remaining packet (from the lower class) then encounters greater delay. This implies that the maximal delay that can be set for a Low Latency class depends on the Low Latency classes of higher priority.

78

Low Latency Classes

Other Low Latency classes can affect the delay incurred by a class and therefore must be taken into consideration when determining the minimal delay that is feasible for the class. This is best done by initially setting the priorities for all Low Latency classes according to maximal delay, and then defining the classes according to descending priority. When you define class two, for example, class one should already be defined. For more information on the effects of class priority on computing maximal delay, see Computing Maximal Delay on page 79. Logging LLQ Information SmartView Tracker enables you to log extensive information for all aspects of LLQ. For more information, see SmartView Tracker on page 147. Computing the Correct Constant Bit Rate and Maximal Delay
Limits on Constant Bit Rate

For each direction of an interface (inbound and outbound), the sum of the constant bit rates of all the Low Latency classes cannot exceed 20% of the total designated bandwidth rate. The 20% limit is set to ensure that Best Effort traffic does not suffer substantial delay and jitter as a result of the existing Low Latency class(es).
Computing Constant Bit Rate

To compute the Constant Bit Rate of a Low Latency class, you should know the bit rate of a single application stream in traffic that matches the class and the number of expected streams that are simultaneously opened. The Constant Bit Rate of the class should be the bit rate of a single application, multiplied by the expected number of simultaneous streams. If the number of streams exceeds the number you expected when you set the Constant Bit Rate, then the total incoming bit rate exceeds the Constant Bit Rate, and many drops occur. You can avoid this situation by limiting the number of concurrent streams. For more information, see Ensuring that Constant Bit Rate is Not Exceeded (Preventing Unwanted Drops) on page 82.
Note - Unlike bandwidth allocated by a Guarantee, the constant bit rate allocated to a Low Latency class on an interface in a given direction is not increased in the event that more bandwidth is available.

Computing Maximal Delay

To compute the maximal delay of a Low Latency class, you should take into account both the maximal delay that streams matching the class can tolerate in FloodGate-1 and the minimal delay that FloodGate-1 can guarantee this stream.
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Low Latency Queuing

It is important not to define a maximal delay that is too small, which may lead to unwanted drops. The delay value defined for a class determines the number of packets that can be queued in the Low Latency queue before drops begin to occur. The smaller the delay, the shorter the queue. Therefore, an insufficient maximal delay may cause packets to be dropped before they have the chance to be forwarded. It is advisable to allow for at least several packets to be queued, as explained in the steps below. If you are using Check Point SmartView Tracker, it is recommended to use the default Class Maximal Delay defined in the LLQ log. In order to obtain this default number, you must first configure the correct Constant Bit Rate for the Class and you must give an estimation for the Class Maximal Delay. For more information, see SmartView Tracker on page 147. Alternately, you can set the Class Maximal Delay, as described in the steps that follow. If you use the following method you can set the delay of the class by obtaining estimates for the upper and lower bounds, and setting the delay to a value between the bounds:
1

Estimate the greatest delay that you can set for the class:
a Refer to the technical details of the streaming application and find the delay

that it can tolerate. For voice applications, for example, it is commonly stated that the user starts to experience irregularities when the overall delay exceeds 150 ms.
b Find or estimate the bound on the delay that your external network

(commonly the WAN) imposes. Many Internet Service Providers publish Service Level Agreements (SLAs) that guarantee certain bounds on delay.
c The maximal delay should be set at no more than the delay that the streaming

application can tolerate minus the delay that the external network introduces. This ensures that when the delay introduced by FloodGate-1 is added to the delay introduced by the external network, and does not exceed the delay tolerated by the streaming application.
2

Estimate the smallest delay that you can set for the class:
a Find the bit rate of the streaming application in the application properties, or

using Check Point SmartView Monitoring (see SmartView Monitor Guide).


Note - Even if you set the Constant Bit Rate of the class to accommodate multiple simultaneous streams, conduct the following calculations with the streaming rate of a single stream.

80

Low Latency Classes

b Estimate the typical packet size in the stream. You can either find it in the

application properties or monitor the traffic. If you do not know the packet size, you can use the size of the MTU of the LAN behind FloodGate-1. For Ethernet, this number is 1500 Bytes.
c Many LAN devices, including switches and NICs, introduce some burstiness

to flows of constant bit rate by changing the delay between packets. For constant bit rate traffic generated in the LAN and going out to the WAN, it is therefore recommended to monitor the stream packets on the FloodGated gateway (on the internal interface that precedes FloodGate-1) to get an estimate of burst size.
d If no burstiness is detected, the minimal delay of the class should be no

smaller than:
3 packet size ----------------------------------bit rate

This enables three packets to be held in the queue before drops can occur. (Note again that the bit rate should represent a single application, even if you set the Constant Bit Rate of the class to accommodate multiple streams.) If burstiness is detected, set the minimal delay of the class to be at least:
( burst size + 1 ) packet size --------------------------------------------------------------------bit rate

The maximal delay that you choose for the class should be between the smallest delay (estimated in step 2 on page 80) and the greatest delay (estimated in step 1 on page 80). Setting it very close to either of these values is not recommended. However, if you expect the application to burst occasionally, or if you dont know whether the application generates bursts at all, then you should set the delay close to the greatest value. When you enter the maximal delay you calculated, you may get an error box containing the message The inbound/outbound maximal delay of class... must be greater than... milliseconds. This can occur if the Class of Service that you define is not of the first priority (see Low Latency Class Priorities on page 78). The delay value displayed in the error message depends on the Low Latency classes of higher priority, and on interface speed. Set the maximal delay to a value no smaller than the one printed in the message.

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Low Latency Queuing

Ensuring that Constant Bit Rate is Not Exceeded (Preventing Unwanted Drops) As explained in Logging LLQ Information on page 79, if the aggregate bit rate going through the Low Latency class exceeds the Constant Bit Rate of the class, then drops occur. This situation may occur when the number of streams actually opened exceeds the number you expected when you set the Constant Bit Rate. To ensure that more streams than allowed are opened through a Low Latency Class, define a single rule under the class, with a per connection guarantee as its Action. In the Per Connection Guarantee field of the QoS Action Properties window, define the per connection bit rate that you expect, and in the Number of guaranteed connections field define the maximal number of connections that you allow in this class. The Accept additional non-guaranteed connections option should not be checked. In this way, you can limit the number of connections to the number you used to compute the Constant Bit Rate of the class.

Interaction between Low Latency and Other Rule Properties


To activate a Low Latency class, you should define at least one rule under it in the QoS Policy Rule Base, however you may define more than one rule. The traffic matching any Low Latency class rule receives the delay and Constant Bit Rate properties defined for the specified class and is also treated according to the rule properties (weight, guarantee and limit). You can use all types of properties in the rules under the Low Latency class, including Weight, Guarantee, Limit, Per Connection Guarantee and Per Connection Limit. To better understand the integration of Low Latency class and rule properties, consider the class with its rules as a separate network interface forwarding packets at a rate defined by the Constant Bit Rate with delay bounded by the class delay, and with the rules defining the relative priority of the packets before they arrive at the interface. If a rule has a relatively low priority, then packets matching it are entitled to a small portion of the Constant Bit Rate, and hence prone to more drops if the incoming rate is not small enough.
Note - Using sub-rules under the low latency class is not recommended because they make it difficult to compute the streams that suffer drops and the drop pattern. Guarantees and limits are not recommended for the same reasons (with the exception of Per Connection Guarantees, as described in Ensuring that Constant Bit Rate is Not Exceeded (Preventing Unwanted Drops) on page 82.

82

When to Use Low Latency Queuing

When to Use Low Latency Queuing


Use Low Latency Queuing in the following cases: When low delay is important, and the bit rate of the incoming stream is known. This is the case for video and voice applications. In such cases, specify both the maximal delay and the Constant Bit Rate of the class. When controlling delay is important, but the bit rate is not known in advance. The most common example is Telnet. This application requires fast responses, but the bit rate is not known in advance. In addition, even if the stream occasionally exceeds the Constant Bit Rate, you do not want to experience drops. It is preferable to experience a somewhat larger delay. In such cases, set the Constant Bit Rate of the class to an upper estimate of the stream rate, and set a very large maximal delay (such as 99999 ms). The large delay ensures that packets are not dropped even in the event of a burst exceeding the Constant Bit Rate. They are queued and forwarded according to the Constant Bit Rate.
Note - When the incoming stream is smaller than the Constant Bit Rate, the actual delay is much smaller than 99999 ms (in the example above), because packets are forwarded almost as soon as they arrive. The 99999 ms bound is effective only for large bursts.

Do not use a Low Latency Class when controlling delay is not of prime importance. For most TCP protocols (such as HTTP, FTP and SMTP) the other type of FloodGate-1 rule is more appropriate. Use Weights, Limits and Guarantees in such cases, so the exact priority of the traffic is imposed without having to take care of bit rate and delay. FloodGate-1 enforces the policy with minimal drops. Moreover, weights and guarantees dynamically fill the pipe when some types of expected traffic are not present, while Low Latency Queuing firmly bounds its traffic by the Constant Bit Rate.

Low Latency versus DiffServ


Low Latency classes differ from DiffServ classes in that they do not receive type of service (TOS) markings. Packets are not marked as Low Latency in a universal manner, and this preferential treatment can only be guaranteed for the QoS Module through which they pass. The exception to this rule is the Expedited Forwarding DiffServ class. Any DiffServ class defined as an Expedited Forwarding class automatically becomes a Low Latency class of highest priority. Such a class receives the conditions afforded it by its DiffServ marking both in FloodGate-1 and in the rest of the network.
Note - To use the Expedited Forwarding class as DiffServ only, without delay being enforced, specify a Maximal Delay value of 99999 in the Interface Properties tab (see Low Latency Classes on page 78).

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Authenticated QoS

When to Use DiffServ and When to Use LLQ If you need to limit the delay for some types of traffic, you should use Low Latency Queuing except in the following two cases, when you should mark your traffic using a DiffServ class (see When to Use Low Latency Queuing on page 83): when your ISP supports DiffServ, meaning that you can receive a different level of QoS according to the DiffServ marking that you apply to the IP packets. when your ISP provides you with several Classes of Service using MPLS. In this case, DiffServ marking serves to communicate to your ISP the Class of Service that you expect every packet to receive.

Authenticated QoS
Check Point Authenticated QoS provides Quality of Service (QoS) for end-users in dynamic IP environments, such as remote access and DHCP environments. This enables priority users, such as corporate CEOs, to receive priority service when remotely connecting to corporate resources. Authenticated QoS dynamically prioritizes end-users, based on information gathered during network or VPN authentication. The feature leverages Check Point UserAuthority technology to classify both inbound and outbound user connections. The User Authority Server (UAS), maintains a list of authenticated users. When you query the UAS, Check Point QoS retrieves the data and allocates bandwidth accordingly. FloodGate-1 supports Client Authentication, including Encrypted Client Authentication, and SecuRemote/SecureClient Authentication. User and Session Authentication are not supported. For information about Client Authentication, see Firewall and SmartDefense Guide.

84

Overview

Citrix MetaFrame Support


In This Section

Overview Limitations

page 85 page 85

Overview
Citrix MetaFrame is a client/server software application that enables a client to run a published application on a Citrix server farm from the client's desktop. It provides: Load balancing by automatically directing a client to the server with the lightest load in a server farm and by allowing publishing and application management from a single server in that farm. A secure encryption option via the ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) protocol developed by Citrix. One of the disadvantages of using Citrix ICA is that, uncontrolled, printing traffic would consume all the available bandwidth, leaving mission critical applications struggling for bandwidth. There is, therefore, a critical need to provide service differentiation both between Citrix and other types of traffic, as well as within Citrix (layer 7) traffic. Check Point QoS, from NG with Application Intelligence (R55), solves the problem by: Classifying all ICA applications running over Citrix through layer 7. Differentiating between the Citrix traffic based on ICA published applications, ICA printing traffic (Priority Tagging) and NFuse. For further information, see Managing QoS for Citrix ICA Applications on page 135. Check Point QoS, from NG with Application Intelligence (R55) manages QoS for printing over Citrix using the following service: Citrix_ICA_printing service: Citrix ICA printing traffic service. For further information, see Managing QoS for Citrix Printing on page 141.

Limitations

The Citrix TCP services are supported in Traditional mode QoS Policies only. Session Sharing must be disabled.

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Load Sharing

The number of applications that are detected by the inspection infrastructure is limited to 2048. Console errors will be sent if this limit is exceeded. These errors are harmless and will not affect your system. Simply restart the machine. Versions of MetaFrame prior to 1.8 are not supported because there is no packet tagging in these versions. Only one Citrix TCP service can be allocated per single rule.

Load Sharing
Overview
Load Sharing is a mechanism that distributes traffic within a cluster of gateways so that the total throughput of multiple machines is increased. Check Point QoSs architecture guarantees that Load Sharing will provide either: Two-way Stickiness - all packets of a single connection use the same machine in both directions. Conversation Stickiness - all packets of control/data connections within a conversation use the same machine in both directions. In Load Sharing configurations, all functioning machines in the cluster are active, and handle network traffic (Active/Active operation). If there is a failure in one of the machines, its connections are redistributed amongst the remaining operational machines in the cluster. If any individual Check Point gateway in the cluster becomes unreachable, transparent failover occurs to the other machines, thus providing High Availability. All connections are shared between the remaining gateways without interruption.
Note - The new Check Point High Availability is a special type of load sharing that automatically works with QoS Load Sharing. These modes can be safely switched. To enforce the change though, The QoS policy has to be reinstalled.

All cluster servers share the same set of so called "virtual" interfaces. Each virtual interface corresponds to an outgoing link. An example of a typical cluster setting is presented in FIGURE 6-1.

86

Check Point QoS Cluster Infrastructure

FIGURE 6-1 Cluster Example

Check Point QoS provides a fault-tolerant QoS solution for cluster load sharing that deploys a unique, distributed WFQ bandwidth management technology. The user is able to specify a unified QoS policy per virtual interface of the cluster. The resulting bandwidth allocation is therefore identical to that obtained by installing the same policy on a single server.
Note - Under a load state there are a few connections that are backlogged active for short periods of time. In such cases the Load Sharing function in ClusterXL are not spread evenly, but in this case there is no congestion and therefore no need for QoS.

Check Point QoS Cluster Infrastructure


This section describes the cluster infrastructure needed for QoS load sharing.

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Load Sharing

Cluster State ClusterXL introduces a member's load value. A member's load, calculated in percentages, is assigned to each member by the cluster. The load is different for ClusterXL multicast and unicast modes. Generally the load for the N members in the cluster equals (100 / N)%. If number of cluster members changes dynamically (due to failover or recovery) the load is dynamically adjusted by the cluster to the appropriate value. Changes in Cluster State Cluster members are informed of changes in a fellow cluster members load. All cluster members, including the causer member recalculate their rates with respect to the new load. In this way, on the next re-calculation of rates the failed machines unutilized bandwidth, will be divided between the active cluster members. This guarantees correct work and the quick recovery of the system when faults have occurred. Rates Calculation Algorithm QoS Load Sharing uses a member's load value in order to obtain correct rates allocation for QoS rules. The rates of the cluster members are calculated in the context of each virtual network interface. These calculations are used for enforcing the scheduling policy of a virtual network interface by setting the local rates of the corresponding real network interface of the cluster members. The cluster member executes this calculation each time ClusterXL informs them of changes in the cluster state. Basically, in a centralized policy the rate of a rule is divided equally between the matching connections. In load sharing, the set of connections is evenly split between the cluster members by the decision function. Therefore, any rule and sub-rule of a cluster member is assigned a fraction of the original rate that is proportional to the load of member in the cluster. To achieve a guaranteed rate, the limit and allotment of each centralized policy rule are recalculated proportionally to the load of the each member. Finally, a member's physical interface limit is calculated as a portion of the cluster interface limit, proportional to the member's load.
Note - If for any reason the QoS daemon cannot retrieve a load from the Check Point Load Sharing, it calculates the load statically according to the (100 / N)% formula. Where N is the number of members configured in the cluster topology and which are not necessarily active.

Per-connection guarantees are processed separately (Per-connection limit implementation remains unchanged by the load sharing mechanism.)

88

Check Point QoS Cluster Infrastructure

Per-Connection Guarantee Allocation Each rule with a per connection guarantee manages its rate budget. A rule's budget is the sum of all per connection guarantee rates over the number of per-connection guarantee connections allowed under this rule. In order to decide whether a new connection receives its per-connection guarantee, the overall rate, which has already been granted to the matched rule's per-connection guarantee is checked. If this rate is below the rule's budget then the new connection is granted its per-connection guarantee. This budget is also divided among cluster members proportionally to their cluster load. So, generally, each member will process only half the allowed per-connection guarantee matched to the rule. In this way the cluster as a whole will grant perconnection guarantee service according to the clusters QoS policy. Example of Rates Calculation Consider a cluster consisting of two machines with one virtual interface configured to the rate of 125KBps. The centralized scheduling policy as well as the corresponding local scheduling policies are shown in FIGURE 6-1.
FIGURE 6-2 Centralized Policy Rates

Conclusion The decision function distributes traffic evenly between all cluster members and the resultant load sharing allocates exactly the same rates to the rules/connections as would be done by a centralized policy.

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Load Sharing

90

CHAPTER

Managing Check Point QoS


In This Chapter
Defining QoS Global Properties Specifying Interface QoS Properties Editing QoS Rule Bases Modifying Rules Defining Sub-Rules Working with Differentiated Services (DiffServ) Working with Low Latency Classes Working with Authenticated QoS Managing QoS for Citrix ICA Applications Managing QoS for Citrix Printing Viewing the Check Point QoS Modules Status Enabling Log Collection page 92 page 94 page 98 page 103 page 125 page 126 page 131 page 134 page 135 page 141 page 143 page 143

This chapter describes how to configure and manage Check Point QoS. The procedures described in this chapter all presuppose that you have already started the SmartDashboard application as described on page 44.

91

Defining QoS Global Properties

Defining QoS Global Properties


You can define the QoS Global Properties, including the maximum weight of a QoS rule, the default value for the weight of a new QoS rule, the unit of measure for displaying transmission rates, and various timeout values for the implementation of the QoS rules.

To Modify the QoS Global Properties


1 2

From the Policy menu, choose Global Properties or click the Edit Global Properties icon in the toolbar. The Global Properties window is displayed. Click
FloodGate-1 FloodGate-1

in the tree that appears on the left side of the page. The page of the Global Properties window is displayed (FIGURE 7-1).

FIGURE 7-1 Global Properties Window - FloodGate-1 Page

92

To Modify the QoS Global Properties

The following properties that apply to QoS rules are displayed. You can change any of these fields: In the
Weight

area:

Maximum weight of rule: The maximum weight that can be assigned to rules. The default value is 1000, but can be changed to any number. Default weight of rule: The weight to be assigned in the Action column by default to new rules, including new Default rules. Rate

In the

area:

Unit of measure:

The unit specified in FloodGate-1 windows by default for transmission rates (for example, Bps - Bytes per second).
Authenticated timeout for QoS

In the

area: Authenticated IP expires after: If a user has been authenticated, all connections that are opened within the specified time receive the guaranteed bandwidth connection. Any connection opened after the specified time will be queried with the User Authority Server (UAS) again. Non authenticated IP expires after: If a user has previously tried and failed to be authenticated by the QoS Policy, then all connections that are opened within the specified time will not receive the guaranteed bandwidth connection. This means that they will not match that specific rule during that time. Unresponded queried IP expires after: The User Authority Server (UAS) database is queried to see if a users IP has been previously authenticated using Client Authentication or SSL. Until an answer is received, connections from this user will be classified to the next matching rule. If an answer is not received within the specified time, there will be another query.
Note - Click Set Default to restore the default settings for the Authentication timeout for QoS parameters.

Click

OK

to save the changes to the QoS Global Properties.

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Specifying Interface QoS Properties

Specifying Interface QoS Properties


You must first define the network objects, that is, the gateway and its interfaces on which QoS controls traffic flow. For further information, see Network Objects in SmartCenter Guide. After defining the interfaces you can specify the QoS properties for those interfaces. This is done in the QoS tab of the Interface Properties window. Defining the interface QoS properties involves setting the Inbound and Outbound active transmission rates and specifying the Differentiated Services (DiffServ) and Low Latency classes. You can change these definitions at any time.
Note - The QoS tab is only enabled for the interfaces of gateways that have FloodGate-1 checked under Check Point Products in the General Properties of the Check Point Gateway window, as shown in FIGURE 7-2 on page 95.

To Define the Interface QoS Properties


1

Open the Properties window for the appropriate gateway by double-clicking the gateway in the Objects Tree, or by choosing the gateway from the list in the Network Objects window. The Check Point Gateway - General Properties window is displayed (FIGURE 7-2).

94

To Define the Interface QoS Properties

FIGURE 7-2 Check Point Gateway - General Properties

2 3

Choose

Topology

Properties

in the tree on the left side of the Check Point Gateway - General window. The Check Point Gateway - Topology window is displayed.

If a list of the gateways interfaces are not already present, click Get... to automatically retrieve the interfaces information. If you choose this method of configuring the gateway, the topology fetched suggests the external interface of the gateway based on the QoS Module routing table. You must ensure that this information is correct. Alternatively, clicking Add displays the Interface Properties window. Interface information can then be defined in the General and Topology tabs of this window.

4 5

Properties

Double-click on the appropriate interface, or select it and click window is displayed. Click the
QoS

Edit.

The

Interface

tab. The

QoS

tab is displayed (FIGURE 7-3).

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Specifying Interface QoS Properties

FIGURE 7-3 Interface Properties Window - Q oS Tab

Note - The interfaces on the WAN side (or the interface connected to the slower network) should usually be set to active. On a simple gateway with only two interfaces, FloodGate-1 should be installed only on the interface connected to the WAN. If the gateway also controls DMZ traffic, you may want to install FloodGate-1 on the interface connected to the DMZ.

6 7 8 9

Check Inbound Active to enable FloodGate-1 to control traffic on this interface in the inbound direction. From the Rate dropdown list select the available bandwidth in the inbound direction, or enter the interface rate manually. Check Outbound Active to enable FloodGate-1 to control traffic on this interface in the outbound direction. From the Rate dropdown list select the available bandwidth in the outbound direction, or enter the interface rate manually.
Note - Ensure that the rates correspond to the actual physical capacity of the interfaces, as FloodGate-1 does not verify these values. If the rate is incorrectly defined as less than the lines real capacity, FloodGate-1will not use more than the capacity defined, and the excess capacity will remain unused. If the rate is incorrectly defined as more than the lines real capacity, FloodGate-1 will not control the traffic correctly.

96

To Define the Interface QoS Properties

10 In the DiffServ and Low Latency classes area, you can specify the Differentiated

Services (DiffServ) and Low Latency Queuing classes to be used on the interface. You can Add, Edit or Remove a class. Refer to Working with Differentiated Services (DiffServ) on page 126 and Working with Low Latency Classes on page 131 for more details on adding or editing DiffServ and Low Latency Classes. For information about DiffServ and Low Latency classes, see Differentiated Services (DiffServ) on page 75 and Low Latency Queuing on page 77.
11 Click OK to save the changes to the interface QoS properties. 12 Repeat from step 4 above for each of the relevant interfaces.

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Editing QoS Rule Bases

Editing QoS Rule Bases


A Policy Package comprises several Rule Bases, depending on the policy types selected. Qos policy is implemented by defining an ordered set of rules in the Rule Base. The Rule Base is comprised of those rules which you create and a default rule. The default rule is automatically created with the Rule Base. It can be modified but cannot be deleted. The fundamental concept of the Rule Base is that unless other rules apply, the default rule is applied to all data packets. The default rule is therefore always the last rule in the Rule Base. The Rule Base specifies what actions are to be taken with the data packets. It specifies the source and destination of the communication, what services can be used, at what times, whether to log the connection and the logging level. A QoS Rule Base is applied to specific gateways and interfaces. After you have created the Policy Package and defined its QoS rules you must install it on the relevant QoS Modules. For further details, refer to Overview on page 31.
In This Section

To Create a New Policy Package To Open an Existing Policy Package To Add a Rule To Rename a Rule To Copy, Cut or Paste a Rule To Delete a Rule

page 98 page 99 page 99 page 101 page 101 page 101

To Create a New Policy Package


1 2

From the

File

menu choose

New.

The

New Policy Package

window is displayed.

Enter the name of the Policy Package in the New Policy Package Name field. This name cannot: Contain any reserved words or spaces. Start with a number. Contain any of the following characters:%, #, , &, *,!, @, ?, <, >, /, \, :. End with any of the following suffixes: .w, .pf, .W. In the QoS area, select whether you want Traditional mode or Interaction with VPN-1Pro and VPN-1 Net on page 29.
Express mode.

See

98

To Open an Existing Policy Package

Click OK to save the Policy Package to a new file. The new Policy Package is saved and a Default Rule is automatically created.

To Open an Existing Policy Package


1 2

From the

File

menu choose

Open.

The

Open Policy Package

window is displayed.
Open.

Double-click on the appropriate Policy Package, or select it and click selected Policy Package is displayed.

The

To Add a Rule
When you add rules to a Policy Package you can position the new rule at any location in the Policy Package. The Default Rule which is automatically created with the Rule Base must always remain in the last position in the Rule Base.
1 2

Position your mouse cursor in the you want to add a new rule.

Name

field of the

QoS

tab, at the position where

You can add the new rule either from the Rule menu or the toolbar, as described in TABLE 7-1, or you can also right-click on any name in the Name column of a rule to display the Rule menu, as described in TABLE 7-2.
TABLE 7-1Adding a Rule

To add a rule

Select from menu


Rules > Add Rule > Bottom

Toolbar Button

After the last rule Before the first rule After the current rule Before the current rule To the current rule

Rules > Add Rule > Top

Rules > Add Rule > Below

Rules > Add Rule > Above

Rules > Add Sub-Rule

Note - The current rule is the one that is highlighted. To select a rule, click on its name.

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TABLE 7-2 Description of Rule Menu Items

Menu Option
Add Rule above Add Rule below Add Sub-Rule Delete Rule Copy Rule Cut Rule Paste Rule

Explanation

Adds a rule before the current rule. Adds a rule after the current rule. Adds a sub-rule after the current rule. Deletes the current rule. Copies the current rule to the clipboard. Deletes the current rule and puts it in the clipboard. Pastes the rule in the clipboard (a sub-menu is displayed from which you can select whether to paste the rule above or below the current rule). Specifies a Class of Service (see Differentiated Services (DiffServ) on page 75 and Low Latency Queuing on page 77). A sub-menu is displayed from which you can select whether the Class of Service is to be added above or after the current rule. Hides the current rule. The rule is still part of the Rule Base and will be installed when the QoS Policy is installed. Disables the current rule. The rule appears in the Rule Base but is not enforced by the QoS Policy. Renames the current rule. Starting from FloodGate-1 NG this feature is not relevant since it is kept for backward compatibility only (version 4.1).
Rule Name

Add Class of Service

Hide Rule

Disable Rule

Rename Rule Matching Method

3 4 5

Select one of the options for creating the new rule. The displayed. Enter the name of the rule in the
Rule Name

window is

field.

Click OK. The rule is added to the Rule Base at the selected position and is comprised of the default values defined in the FloodGate-1 page of the Global Properties window (FIGURE 7-1 on page 92). Follow the procedures described in the pages that follow to modify this rule.

100

To Rename a Rule

To Rename a Rule
1 2 3

In the QoS tab, double-click on the rule you want to rename, or right-click on the rule and select Rename Rule. The Rule Name window is displayed. Enter the rule name in the Click
OK Rule Name

field.

to save the rule name.

To Copy, Cut or Paste a Rule


You can copy, cut or paste a rule using either the menu of the selected rule.
1 2
Edit

or Rules menus or the right-click

In the

QoS

tab, select the rule you want to copy, cut or paste. or


Rules

From the

Edit

menu, choose one of the options described in TABLE 7-3.

TABLE 7-3 Copying, Cutting and Pasting Rules

Action

Select from menu


Edit>Cut

Toolbar Button

Cut Copy Paste

Edit>Copy

Edit>Paste

If you choose Paste, then the Paste menu will be opened. You must then select Bottom, Top, Above, or Below to specify where in the Rule Base to paste the rule.

To Delete a Rule
You can delete a rule using either the the selected rule.
1 2
Edit

or

Rules

menus or the right-click menu of

In the

QoS

tab, select the rule you want to delete. or


Rules

From the

Edit

menu, choose one of the options described in TABLE 7-4.

TABLE 7-4Deleting a Rule

Action

Select from menu


Edit>Cut

Toolbar Button

Cut

or

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Editing QoS Rule Bases

Click

Yes

to delete the selected rule.

102

To Delete a Rule

Modifying Rules
You can modify any of the rule fields, as often as you like, until the rule is in the form that you require. This includes specifying the source and destination of each communication, what services can be used at what times (including TCP, Compound TCP, UDP, and ICMP services), the actions to be taken with the data packets, whether you want to maintain a log of the entries for the selected rule, and on which interfaces of the QoS module the rule is enforced.
FIGURE 7-4 SmartDashboard Rule Base Window

This section describes the procedures for modifying the various fields in a rule. Refer to Overview on page 31 for more details about rules.
In This Section

Modifying Sources in a Rule Modifying Destinations in a Rule Modifying Services in a Rule Modifying Rule Actions Modifying Tracking for a Rule Modifying Install On for a Rule Modifying Time in a Rule Adding Comments to a Rule

page 104 page 107 page 109 page 112 page 117 page 118 page 121 page 124

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Modifying Sources in a Rule


You can modify the source(s) of the communication in a rule. You can add as many sources as required. In addition, you can restrict the sources of the rule to particular user groups, or to user groups originating from specific locations.
In This Section

To Add Sources to a Rule To Add User Access to the Sources of a Rule To Edit, Delete, Cut, Copy or Paste a Source in a Rule To View Where an Object is Used To Add Sources to a Rule
1 2

page 104 page 105 page 105 page 106

From the
Object

Rule Base

choose the rule you want to modify.

Right-click in the Source column of the selected rule and select Add. The Add window is displayed (FIGURE 7-5), listing the network objects defined in the Security Policy and the QoS Policy.
FIGURE 7-5 Add Object Window

Note - You can also use the Add Object window to define new objects and delete or modify objects.

Select one or more network objects (using the standard Windows selection keys) to add to the rules Source.

104

Modifying Sources in a Rule

Click OK. The objects are added to the as required.

Source

field. You can add as many sources

To Add User Access to the Sources of a Rule


1 2

From the

Rule Base

choose the rule you want to modify.


Add Users Access.

Right-click in the Source column of the selected rule and select The User Access window is displayed (FIGURE 7-6).
FIGURE 7-6 User Access Window

3 4

Choose one of the user groups to add to the rules

Source.

Select whether you want to restrict the Location, as follows: No restriction: There is no restriction on the source of the users. For example, if you choose All Users and check No restriction, then AllUsers@Any will be inserted under Source in the rule. Restrict to: The source is restricted to the network object you select in the list box. For example, the source object in the rule will be AllUsers@Local_Net. Click
OK

to add the user access to the rule source.

To Edit, Delete, Cut, Copy or Paste a Source in a Rule You can edit, delete, cut, copy or paste a source in a rule using the right-click menu of the selected source.

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1 2

From the

Rule Base

choose the rule you want to modify.

Right-click on the Source of the selected rule and select one of the following options: Edit: The appropriate window is opened, according to the type of object selected, and you can change the objects properties. (Alternatively, you can double-click on an object in the Source column of the selected rule to edit it.) Delete: The selected object is deleted. If you delete the last source object in the rule it is replaced by Any. Cut: The selected object is cut and put it in the clipboard. Copy: The selected object is copied to the clipboard. Paste: The object is pasted from the clipboard to the rules Source.

To View Where an Object is Used You can view where the selected object is used (in queries, active policies, and so on).
1 2

From the

Rule Base

choose the rule you want to modify.

References

Right-click on the Source of the selected rule and choose Where Used. The Object window is displayed (FIGURE 7-7), showing you where the selected object is used (in queries, active policies, and so on).
FIGURE 7-7 Object References Window

Click

Close

to return to the rule.

106

Modifying Destinations in a Rule

Modifying Destinations in a Rule


You can modify the destination(s) of the communication in a rule. You can add as many destinations as required.
In This Section

To Add Destinations to a Rule To Edit, Delete, Cut, Copy or Paste a Destination in a Rule To View Where an Object is Used To Add Destinations to a Rule
1 2

page 107 page 107 page 111

From the

Rule Base

choose the rule you want to modify.

Right-click in the Destination column of the selected rule and select Add. The Add Object window is displayed (FIGURE 7-5), listing the network objects defined in the Security Policy and the QoS Policy.
Note - You can also use the Add Object window to define new objects and delete or modify objects.

3 4

Select one or more network objects (using the standard Windows selection keys) to add to the rules Destination. Click OK. The objects are added to the destinations as required.
Destination

field. You can add as many

To Edit, Delete, Cut, Copy or Paste a Destination in a Rule You can edit, delete, cut, copy or paste a destination in a rule using the right-click menu of the selected source.
1 2

From the

Rule Base

choose the rule you want to modify.

Right-click on the Destination of the selected rule and select one of the following options: Edit: The appropriate window is opened, according to the type of object selected, and you can change the objects properties. (Alternatively, you can double-click on an object in the Destination column of the selected rule to edit it.) Delete: The selected object is deleted. If you delete the last destination object in the rule it is replaced by Any.

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Modifying Rules

The selected object is cut and put it in the clipboard. Copy: The selected object is copied to the clipboard. Paste: The object is pasted from the clipboard to the rules
Cut:

Destination.

To View Where an Object is Used You can view where the selected object is used (in queries, active policies, and so on).
1 2

From the

Rule Base

choose the rule you want to modify.

References

Right-click on the Source of the selected rule and choose Where Used. The Object window is displayed (FIGURE 7-7), showing you where the selected object is used (in queries, active policies, and so on). Click
Close

to return to the rule.

108

Modifying Services in a Rule

Modifying Services in a Rule


You can modify the service(s) in a rule. You can add as many services as required, however, you can only add one URI for QoS resource in a single rule.
Note - Previous versions of FloodGate-1 have not limited the number of URIs for QoS resources allowed per rule. If you are using a QoS Policy originally designed for use with a previous FloodGate-1 version, be sure to redefine any rule that has more than one resource in its Service Field.

In This Section

To Add Services to a Rule To Add a Service with a Resource to a Rule To Edit, Delete, Cut, Copy or Paste a Service in a Rule To View Where an Object is Used To Add Services to a Rule
1 2

page 109 page 110 page 110 page 111

From the

Rule Base

choose the rule you want to modify.

Right-click in the Service column of the selected rule and select Add. The Add Object window is displayed (FIGURE 7-5), listing the network objects defined in the Security Policy and the QoS Policy. Select one or more network objects (using the standard Windows selection keys) to add to the rules Service. Click OK. The objects are added to the Service field. You can add as many services as required. However only one TCP Citrix or URI for QoS service is allowed.

3 4

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To Add a Service with a Resource to a Rule


1 2

From the

Rule Base

choose the rule you want to modify.

Right-click in the Source column of the selected rule and select Add with Resources. You can only add one service with a resource to a rule, so this option will only be available if you have not already added a service with a resource to this rule. The Services with Resource window is displayed (FIGURE 7-8).
FIGURE 7-8 Services with Resource Window

Choose one of the services in the Location area and then select the appropriate resource from the Resource dropdown list. For further information, refer to: Only resources of type URI for QoS can be added to the FloodGate-1 Rule Base. URI for QoS is used for identifying HTTP traffic according to the URL (URI). Do not use the protocol prefix (http://) when setting up a URI resource. HTTP services with URI for QoS resources can be defined on all ports. Click
OK

to add the service with a URI for QoS resource to the rule.

Note - Only one resource is allowed in a single rule.

To Edit, Delete, Cut, Copy or Paste a Service in a Rule You can edit, delete, cut, copy or paste a service in a rule using the right-click menu of the selected service.

110

Modifying Services in a Rule

1 2

From the

Rule Base

choose the rule you want to modify.

Right-click on the Service of the selected rule and select one of the following options: Edit: The appropriate window is opened, according to the type of object selected, and you can change the objects properties. (Alternatively, you can double-click on an object in the Service column of the selected rule to edit it.) Delete: The selected object is deleted. If you delete the last service object in the rule it is replaced by Any. Cut: The selected object is cut and put it in the clipboard. Copy: The selected object is copied to the clipboard. Paste: The object is pasted from the clipboard to the rules Service.

To View Where an Object is Used You can view where the selected object is used (in queries, active policies, and so on).
1 2

From the

Rule Base

choose the rule you want to modify.

Right-click on the Service of the selected rule and choose Where Used. The Object References window is displayed (FIGURE 7-7), showing you where the selected object is used (in queries, active policies, and so on). Click
Close

to return to the rule.

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Modifying Rules

Modifying Rule Actions


You can modify the default properties of a rule. The options available vary according to the action type of rule, that is whether the rule is defined as simple or advanced. The advanced rule action type enables you to specify limits and guarantee allocation on a per connection basis.
In This Section

To Edit the Rule Actions To Reset the Rule Actions to Default Values To Edit the Rule Actions
1 2

page 112 page 116

From the

Rule Base

choose the rule you want to modify.

Right-click in the Action column of the selected rule and select Edit Properties. The QoS Action Properties window is displayed, as follows: If the Action Type of the rule is defined as Simple, the QoS Action Properties window is displayed (FIGURE 7-9).
FIGURE 7-9 QoS Action Properties - Simple

112

Modifying Rule Actions

If the Action Type of the rule is defined as window is displayed (FIGURE 7-10).

Advanced,

the

QoS Action Properties

FIGURE 7-10QoS Action Properties - Advanced

Note - When Express QoS has been installed, Advanced Actions are not available.

The following properties are displayed for a QoS rule with a simple action type. You can change any of these fields: In the

area: Simple: The full set of actions with the exception of the Guarantee Allocation and the per connection limit features. Advanced: The full set of actions with the Guarantee Allocation feature included.
Action Type VPN Traffic

In the

area:

Allow rule only to encrypted traffic:

Check this box if you want the rule to be matched only by VPN traffic. If you do not check this field, rules will be matched by all traffic types, both VPN and non-VPN traffic. VPN traffic means traffic that is encrypted in this same gateway by Check Point VPN. This field

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Modifying Rules

does not apply to traffic that was encrypted prior to arriving to this gateway. This type of traffic can be matched using the "IPSec" service, see the SmartCenter Guide. For further explanation on how to use this check box for prioritizing VPN traffic over non-VPN, see Example of a Rule Matching VPN Traffic on page 37. In the Action Properties area you can define the restrictions on bandwidth for connections to which the rule applies in the following fields: Rule Weight: Enables you to define the weight of the rule. This field is checked by default and has the value defined in the Global Properties window in Defining QoS Global Properties on page 92. It is recommended to leave this value as is to avoid a complete loss of bandwidth. For detailed information see Weight on page 34.
Warning - 0 rate in conjunction with 0 guarantee can lead to the rules complete loss of bandwidth. To prevent this from happening, retain some ratio in the Rule Weight. The default is 10. Rule Limit: Enables you to restrict the total bandwidth consumed by the rule. For detailed information see Limits on page 35. Tip - When using weights or guarantees, the weighted fair queuing algorithm that Check Point QoS makes use of assures that no bandwidth is ever wasted. Spare bandwidth is divided among the backlogged rules. However, if you set a rule limit, it will not use spare bandwidth above this limit. Rule Guarantee:

Enables you to define the absolute bandwidth allocated to the rule. For detailed information see Guarantees on page 35.

Note - The number you enter for the Rule Guarantee cannot be larger than the Rule Limit.

(Optional) The following additional properties are displayed for a QoS rule with an advanced action type. You can change any of these fields: In the

area: Rule Limit: Enables you to restrict the total bandwidth consumed by the rule. For detailed information see Limits on page 35.
Limit

Tip - When using weights or guarantees, the weighted fair queuing algorithm that Check Point QoS makes use of assures that no bandwidth is ever wasted. Spare bandwidth is divided among the backlogged rules. However, if you set a rule limit, it will not use spare bandwidth above this limit.

114

Modifying Rule Actions

Per connection limit:

Enables you to set a rule limit per connection.

Note - The number you enter for the Rule Guarantee cannot be larger than the Rule Limit.

In the

area: Guarantee: Enables you to allocate a minimum bandwidth to the connections matched with a rule. For detailed information see Guarantees on page 35. Per rule: Enables you to define the absolute bandwidth allocated to the rule.
Guarantee Allocation Note - The number you enter for the Per rule cannot be larger than the Rule Limit.

Per connection:

Enables you to manage the bandwidth at the connection-level. Per connection guarantee: Enables you to restrict the absolute bandwidth allocated per connection. Number of guaranteed connections: Enables you to allocate a minimum number of guaranteed connections
Note - The Number of guaranteed connections multiplied guarantee cannot be greater than the rule limit.

by the

Per connection

Accept additional connections:

Check this checkbox to allow connections without per connection guarantees to pass through this rule and receive any left over bandwidth. Enter the maximum amount of bandwidth that is allowed for this option in the text box. This only occurs if all other conditions have been met.
Note - Select a non-zero rule weight when Accept additional non-guaranteed connections is checked.

Click

OK

to update the QoS action properties for the rule.

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To Reset the Rule Actions to Default Values


1 2

From the

Rule Base

choose the rule you want to modify.

Right-click in the Action column of the selected rule and select Reset to Default. The action properties for the selected rule are reset to their default values. The default values are defined in the FloodGate-1 page of the Global Properties window (see Defining QoS Global Properties on page 92).

116

Modifying Tracking for a Rule

Modifying Tracking for a Rule


You can choose whether you want to maintain a log of the entries for the selected rule. If you do want to log the entries, you also have the option of logging the entries in account format. For further information on tracking and logging, see Overview of Logging on page 147. For information on how to turn logging on, see Enabling Log Collection on page 143. To Modify Tracking for a Rule
1 2

From the

Rule Base

choose the rule you want to modify.

Right-click in the Track column of the selected rule. The menu that is displayed has the following options:
TABLE 7-5 Track Menu

Track

Meaning
None: Log:

No logging is done for this connection.

Logging is done for this connection. Logging for this connection is done in Accounting format.

Account:

Select the required option.

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Modifying Rules

Modifying Install On for a Rule


The Install On field specifies on which interfaces of the QoS module the rule is enforced. You can select any number of Install On objects.
Note - In order to install a QoS Policy on a gateway, you must ensure that the gateway has a QoS module installed in the Global Properties window and that the interface is defined in the QoS tab of the Interface Properties window. (See Defining QoS Global Properties on page 92. and Specifying Interface QoS Properties on page 94.)

In This Section

To Modify Install On for a Rule To Delete an Install On for a Rule To View Where an Object is Used To Modify Install On for a Rule
1 2

page 118 page 119 page 120

From the

Rule Base

choose the rule you want to modify.


Add.

Right-click in the Install On column of the selected rule and select Interface window is displayed (FIGURE 7-11).
FIGURE 7-11Add Interface Window

The

Add

118

Modifying Install On for a Rule

(Optional) Click

Select Targets

Installation Targets

to select additional installable targets. The window is displayed (FIGURE 7-12).

Select

FIGURE 7-12Select Installation Targets Window

a To add any target(s) to the list of Installed Targets, select the target(s) in the
Not in Installation Targets

are added to the and click

In

area and click Installation Targets area.

. The selected target(s)

b To remove a target(s) from the In Installation Targets area, select the target(s)
Installation Targets

. The selected targets are returned to the area.

Not in

c Click OK. The selected targets now appear in the Add Interface window

(FIGURE 7-11).
4

Select from the list of targets in the Add Interface window: A module (and all its interfaces on which QoS is defined), or An interface (in both directions), or One direction of an interface Click
OK.

The selected interface is added to the

Install On

field.

To Delete an Install On for a Rule You can remove an interface for a rule. The rule will no longer be enforced for the interface.

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Modifying Rules

1 2

From the

Rule Base

choose the rule you want to modify. of the selected rule and select
Delete.

Right-click on the object is deleted.

Service

The selected

To View Where an Object is Used You can view where the selected object is used.
1 2

From the

Rule Base

choose the rule you want to modify.

Right-click on the Install On of the selected rule and choose Where Used. The Object References window is displayed (FIGURE 7-7), showing you where the selected object is used. Click
Close

to return to the rule.

120

Modifying Time in a Rule

Modifying Time in a Rule


You can specify the times that the rule is enforced. You add any number of time objects to a rule.
In This Section

To Modify Time in Rules To Edit or Delete a Time Object for a Rule To View Where an Object is Used To Modify Time in Rules
1 2

page 121 page 122 page 123

From the

Rule Base

choose the rule you want to modify.


Add.

Right-click in the Time column of the selected rule and select window is displayed (FIGURE 7-13).
FIGURE 7-13Add Object Window - Time Objects

The

Add Object

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(Optional) You can edit a time object:


a Select the required time object and click Edit to modify a time object. The
Time Properties window is displayed (FIGURE 7-14). (Alternatively, you can double-click on an object in the Time column of the selected rule to edit it.) FIGURE 7-14Time Properties Window

b Edit the fields in the Time Properties window, as required. c Click OK. The Time Object Properties are amended. 4

Select the required time object in the Add Object window. The time object is added to the rule.

To Edit or Delete a Time Object for a Rule You can edit or delete a time object in a rule using the right-click menu of the selected service.
1 2

From the

Rule Base

choose the rule you want to modify.

Right-click on the Time of the selected rule and select one of the following options: Edit: The appropriate window is opened, according to the type of object selected, and you can change the objects properties. (Alternatively, you can double-click on an object in the Time column of the selected rule to edit it.)

122

Modifying Time in a Rule

Delete: The selected object is deleted. If you delete the last time object in the rule it is replaced by Any.

To View Where an Object is Used You can view where the selected object is used (in queries, active policies, and so on).
1 2

From the

Rule Base

choose the rule you want to modify.

Right-click on the Service of the selected rule and choose Where Used. The Object References window is displayed (FIGURE 7-7), showing you where the selected object is used (in queries, active policies, and so on). Click
Close

to return to the rule.

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Adding Comments to a Rule


You can add a comment to a rule. To Add Comments to Rules
1 2

From the

Rule Base

choose the rule you want to modify.

Right-click in the Comment column of the selected rule and select Edit. The Comment window is displayed (FIGURE 7-15). You can also open this window by double-clicking in the Comment column of the selected rule.
FIGURE 7-15Comment Window

3 4

Type any text you wish to add in the text box. Click
OK.

The comment is added to the rule.

124

Adding Comments to a Rule

Defining Sub-Rules
Sub-rules are rules that allocate bandwidth more specifically within a rule. For example, consider the rule shown in FIGURE 7-16.
FIGURE 7-16Rule Base with Sub-Rules

The bandwidth allocated to the ABC_VPN rule is further allocated among the sub-rules ABC_VPN_ERP through Default under ABC_VPN (see the rule tree).
In This Section

To Define Sub-Rules To View Sub-Rules To Define Sub-Rules


1 2 3 4

page 125 page 125

Select the rule under which the sub-rule is to be defined. Right-click in the Select
Rule Name

column.
Rule Name

Add Sub-Rule

from the menu. The

window is displayed.

Enter the sub-rule name and click OK. The new sub-rule together with a default sub-rule is automatically created, under the rule selected in 1 above, using the default values defined. You may modify the sub-rules by following the same procedures for editing rules described on page 99. Add new sub-rules by following the same procedures for creating rules described on page 99.

5 6

To View Sub-Rules The sub-rules under a main rule can be seen by expanding the rule in the QoS Rule Tree.

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Working with Differentiated Services (DiffServ)

To view sub-rules in the Rule Base itself, click one of the sub-rules in the relevant main rule. The Rule Base shows all the sub-rules for that rule.

Working with Differentiated Services (DiffServ)


A DiffServ rule specifies not only a QoS Class, but also a weight, in the same way that other QoS Policy Rules do. These weights are enforced only on the interfaces on which the rule is installed. Refer to Differentiated Services (DiffServ) on page 75 for additional information on DiffServ.
In This Section

To Implement DiffServ Marking in FloodGate-1 To Define a DiffServ Class of Service To Define a DiffServ Class of Service Group To Add QoS Class Properties for Expedited Forwarding To Add QoS Class Properties for Non Expedited Forwarding To Implement DiffServ Marking in FloodGate-1
1

page 126 page 127 page 128 page 129 page 130

Define one or more DiffServ Classes of Service using the QoS Classes window. You may also define a Class of Service Group. For more information, see To Define a DiffServ Class of Service on page 127. In the QoS tab of the Interface Properties window of all interfaces on which the DiffServ class will be implemented (see Specifying Interface QoS Properties on page 94), click Add under DiffServ and Low Latency classes to add a new class, or Edit to edit the properties of an existing class. See Specifying Interface QoS Properties on page 94. In the Click
Add QoS Class Properties Inbound

3 4 5 6 7

and

Outbound

window, select the parameters.

QoS class

and define the

OK.

You can now add QoS Classes to the QoS Policy Rule Base.
Add Class of Service,

Right-click in the Name column of a rule and choose choose Add QoS Class from the Rules menu.

or

Specify whether the class should appear above or after the rule in the Rule Base.
Service

Choose the required Class of Service from the dropdown menu in the window (FIGURE 7-17).

Add Class of

126

To Define a DiffServ Class of Service

FIGURE 7-17Add Class of Service Window

8 9

Click

OK.

A DiffServ class header appears in the Rule Base.

Add rules under the QoS Class you defined, by either: Choosing Rules > Add Rule > Below from the menu, or Right-clicking on the QoS Class and choosing Add Rule > Below from the menu

To Define a DiffServ Class of Service


1

From the Manage menu select (FIGURE 7-18) is displayed.

QoS>QoS Classes.

The

QoS Classes

window

FIGURE 7-18QoS Classes Window

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Working with Differentiated Services (DiffServ)

Click New to define a new DiffServ class and select DiffServ Class display the Class of Service Properties window (FIGURE 7-19).
FIGURE 7-19Class of Service Properties Window

of Service

to

Enter the following details in the Class of Service Properties window: Name: The name of the Class of Service. Comment: The text to be displayed when this class is selected in the QoS Classes window (FIGURE 7-18). Color: Select a color from the dropdown list. Type: Select a type from the dropdown list. You may choose a predefined or user defined class. DiffServ code: This is a read-only field that displays the DiffServ marking as a bitmap. Click
OK

to create the new DiffServ Class of Service.

To Define a DiffServ Class of Service Group


1

From the Manage menu select (FIGURE 7-18) is displayed.

QoS > QoS Classes.

The

QoS Classes

window

128

To Add QoS Class Properties for Expedited Forwarding

Click New to define a new DiffServ class and select DiffServ Class of Service Group to display the Group Properties window (FIGURE 7-20).
FIGURE 7-20QoS Class of Services Group Window

Enter the following details in the Group Properties window: Name: The name of the group. Comment: The text to be displayed when this class is selected in the QoS Classes window (FIGURE 7-18). Color: Select a color from the dropdown list. To add a DiffServ class to the group, select the class in the list box labeled Not in . Group, and click To delete a class from the group, select the class in the list box labeled In Group, and click . Click Click
View expanded group OK

4 5

to display all members of the selected DiffServ group.

to create the new DiffServ Class of Service Group.

To Add QoS Class Properties for Expedited Forwarding


1

From the QoS tab of the click Add or Edit.

Interface Properties

window FIGURE 7-3 on page 96,

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Working with Differentiated Services (DiffServ)

From the menu that is displayed select either Low Latency Classes or DiffServ > Expedited Forwarding. The Add Low Latency QoS Class Properties window FIGURE 7-21 is displayed if you selected Low Latency Classes. If you selected DiffServ Expedited Forwarding, a similar window with the identical fields is displayed.
FIGURE 7-21Add Low Latency QoS Class Properties Window

Enter the required information as detailed below. You should define at least one inbound or outbound direction. Class: Select a Low Latency class from the list of defined classes. Inbound: Define the portion of the interfaces inbound capacity to be reserved. Constant Bit Rate: The constant bit rate at which packets of this class will be transmitted. Maximal Delay: The maximum delay that will be tolerated for packets of this class. Those packets that exceed this delay are dropped. Outbound: Define the portion of the interfaces outbound capacity to be reserved by defining a Constant Bit Rate and a Maximum Delay as described above. Click
OK.

The new class is added.

To Add QoS Class Properties for Non Expedited Forwarding


1 2

From the QoS tab of the click Add or Edit.

Interface Properties

window FIGURE 7-3 on page 96,


Add DiffServ QoS class

From the menu that is displayed select DiffServ>Others. The Properties window is displayed (FIGURE 7-21).

130

To Add QoS Class Properties for Non Expedited Forwarding

FIGURE 7-22DiffServ QoS class Properties Window

Enter the required information as detailed below. You should define at least one inbound or outbound direction. Class: Select a DiffServ class from the list of defined classes. Inbound: Define the portion of the interfaces inbound capacity to be reserved. Guaranteed bandwidth: The bandwidth guaranteed to be marked with the QoS Class. Bandwidth Limit: The upper limit of the bandwidth to be marked with the QoS Class. Traffic in excess of the Bandwidth Limit will not be marked. For example, if the interfaces capacity is 256MB and Bandwidth Limit to 192MB, then traffic beyond 192MB will not be marked. Outbound: Define the portion of the interfaces outbound capacity to be marked by defining a Guaranteed Bandwidth and a Bandwidth Limit as described above. Click
OK.

The new class is added.

Working with Low Latency Classes


FloodGate-1 Low Latency Queuing makes it possible to define special classes of service for delay sensitive applications like voice and video. Rules under these classes can be used together with other rules in the QoS Policy Rule Base. Low Latency classes require you to specify the maximal delay that is tolerated and a Constant Bit Rate. FloodGate-1 then guarantees that traffic matching rules of this type are forwarded within the limits of the bounded delay. For more detailed information, please see Low Latency Queuing on page 77.

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Working with Low Latency Classes

In This Section

To Implement Low Latency Queuing To Define Low Latency Classes of Service To Define Class of Service Properties for Low Latency Queuing

page 132 page 133 page 133

To Implement Low Latency Queuing


Having defined one or more Low Latency Classes of Service, you can implement Low Latency Queuing as follows:
1

In the QoS tab of the Interface Properties window of all interfaces on which Low Latency classes are implemented (see Specifying Interface QoS Properties on page 94), click Add under DiffServ and Low Latency classes to add a new class, or Edit to edit the properties of an existing class. In the
Low Latency class

window (FIGURE 7-21 on page 130), select the and define the Inbound and Outbound parameters (see To Add QoS Class Properties for Expedited Forwarding on page 129).
Add QoS Class Properties OK.

3 4 5

Click

You can now add Low Latency Classes to the QoS Policy Rule Base.
Add Class of Service,

Right-click in the Name column of a rule and choose choose Add QoS Class from the Rules menu.

or

Specify whether the class should appear above or below the rule in the Rule Base.

Note - The order of the classes in the Rule Base must be DiffServ, followed by Low Latency, and then Best Effort. You will not be able to add a Low Latency class to the Rule Base above any DiffServ classes you may have.

Service

Choose the required Class of Service from the dropdown menu in the window (FIGURE 7-23).
FIGURE 7-23Add Class of Service Window

Add Class of

7 8
132

Click

OK.

A class header appears in the Rule Base.

Add rules under the QoS Class you defined, by either:

To Define Low Latency Classes of Service

Choosing Rules>Add Rule>Below from the menu, or Right-clicking on the QoS Class and choosing Add Rule>Below from the menu.

To Define Low Latency Classes of Service


Before a Low Latency class can be implemented on an interface and used in the FloodGate-1 Rule Base, it must be defined.
1 2 3

From the Manage menu select QoS>QoS Classes. The displayed (FIGURE 7-18 on page 127).

QoS Classes

window is

Define the Low Latency Class of Service as described in To Define a DiffServ Class of Service on page 127. To define a new Low Latency class, click New and select Low Latency Class of Service to display the Class of Service Properties window (FIGURE 7-24 on page 133).

To Define Class of Service Properties for Low Latency Queuing


1 2

From the Manage menu select QoS>QoS Classes. The displayed (FIGURE 7-18 on page 127). Click
New Properties

QoS Classes

window is

and select Low Latency Class window (FIGURE 7-24).

of Service

to display the

Class of Service

FIGURE 7-24Low latency Class of Service Properties Window

Enter the following details: Name: The name of the Class of Service. Comment: Enter the text to be displayed when this class is selected in the Classes window (FIGURE 7-18 on page 127).

QoS

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Working with Authenticated QoS

Select a color from the dropdown list. Class Priority: Select one of the five priority types from the dropdown list (Class 1 being the highest priority).
Color: OK.

Click

The new Low Latency Class of Service is saved.

Working with Authenticated QoS


Check Point Authenticated QoS provides Quality of Service (QoS) for end-users in dynamic IP environments, such as remote access and DHCP environments. This enables priority users, such as corporate CEOs, to receive priority service when remotely connecting to corporate resources. For more detailed information, please see Authenticated QoS on page 84.

To Use Authenticated QoS


In order to apply Authenticated QoS in a rule, follow these steps:
1 2 3

Make sure that the UAS package is installed on the module that performs Authenticated QoS. Make sure that the User Authority Server, under Check Point Products Installed, is checked on the VPN-1 Pro Module upon which you are installing the policy. Create a group in Manage>Users>New>Group in the menu. The window is displayed.
Group Properties

FIGURE 7-25 Group Properties Window

134

To Use Authenticated QoS

Include all the user(s) whom you want to give priority by selecting the user and clicking . To remove a user from the group, select the user and click . Make a rule and in the Source column, right-click and select Add User Access. For example, if the CEO of your company is in a remote location and wants to access his email and without waiting too long, create a rule as follows:

TABLE 7-6 A Rule that Allows Access to email from a Remote Location

Rule Name

Source

Destination

Service

Action

CEO

CEO@localnet

Any

Pop-3

Weight 10 Guarantee 50,000 Bps

Note - To minimize the resources taken up by Authenticated QoS, it is recommended that Authenticated QoS rules refer to specific services, and unless absolutely necessary, you should not include Any in the Service field.

Install the policy.


Note - The user must be authenticated in the UAS in order for the QoS policy to be enforced.

Policy-wide properties for Authenticated QoS can be defined in the FloodGate-1 page of the Global Properties window (FIGURE 7-1 on page 92). For more information, see Defining QoS Global Properties on page 92.

Managing QoS for Citrix ICA Applications


In order to deliver a QoS solution for the Citrix ICA protocol, complete the following procedures:
1 2

Disable session sharing in the Citrix Program Neighborhood. Modify your Security Policy to allow the Citrix_ICA and Citrix_ICA_Browsing services.
Note - The Any service does not include the Citrix ICA service.

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Managing QoS for Citrix ICA Applications

Discover the Citrix application names, as defined by the Citrix Administrator, and retrieve your Citrix ICA application names from the SmartView Tracker. This includes turning on the application detection check box and installing Security and QoS Policies. Define new Citrix TCP services with the application names you have detected. Add the appropriate Citrix TCP services to rules in your QoS Policy. Install the QoS Policy.
In This Section

4 5 6

Disabling Session Sharing Modifying your Security Policy Discovering Citrix ICA Application Names Defining a New Citrix TCP Service Adding a Citrix TCP Service to a Rule (Traditional Mode Only) Installing the Security and QoS Policies

page 136 page 137 page 137 page 140 page 140 page 141

Disabling Session Sharing


Citrix enables session sharing by default. In this mode, traffic from all the applications used by a specific client share the same TCP connection. In order for Check Point QoS to prioritize different Citrix ICA applications from the same client, you must disable session sharing. This means that every application uses a separate TCP connection (all going to the same server port, 1494, from different source ports). You should contact the Citrix Administrator to configure the correct mode. To Disable Session Sharing:
1 2 3 4

Double-click the Citrix Citrix install program. Click the Select the
Settings

Program Neighborhood

icon placed on the desktop by the from the


File

icon or select tab.

Application Set Settings

menu.

Default Options

Select something other than

Seamless Window

from the

Window Size

dropdown list.

136

Modifying your Security Policy

Modifying your Security Policy


You must modify your Security Policy to enable the new Citrix_ICA TCP and Citrix_ICA_Browsing UDP services. The Citrix_ICA service initializes the stateful inspection of the Citrix ICA protocol. The Citrix_ICA service is not included in the Any service of the Security Policy and must therefore be enabled in one of the following ways: In the Security tab add a rule to your Security Policy with the Citrix_ICA TCP service. Similarly, add a rule for the Citrix_ICA_Browsing service. Alternatively, you can add simply add the Citrix_metaFrame group, which incorporates both the Citrix_ICA TCP and Citrix_ICA_Browsing UDP services. OR
1 2 3

Expand the TCP branch of the Services Tree. Double-click on the Citrix_ICA service. The TCP Service Properties - Citrix _ICA window is displayed. Click
Advanced.

The

Advanced TCP Service Properties

window is displayed.

Check Match for Any to turn on the Citrix ICA protocol inspection without having to add a specific rule for the Citrix_ICA service (if the Any service is allowed).

Discovering Citrix ICA Application Names


In order to discover the Citrix ICA application name, as defined by the Citrix Administrator, use Check Point QoS to snoop the wire and send logs (of type alert) to the SmartView Tracker, recording the Citrix ICA application name. The Citrix ICA application detection is turned off by default.
Note - The frequency of recording an application name log (alert) is 24 hours.

Advanced: If you want to reset the application detection cache in order to re log a Citrix ICA application on the wire even if it was logged in the past 24 hours use the following command line instruction:
fw tab -t fg_new_citrix_app -x

To Enable Citrix ICA Application Name Logging:


1

Double-click on the gateway in the Network Objects Tree. The Gateway - General Properties window is displayed.

Check Point

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Managing QoS for Citrix ICA Applications

Choose

Logs and Masters > Additional Logging

Check Point Gateway - General Properties Configuration

in the tree on the left side of the window. The Additional Logging

window is displayed.

FIGURE 7-26 Additional Logging Configuration Window

3 4 5 6

Check Detect new Citrix ICA application the Citrix application names. Click
OK.

names

to enable Check Point QoS to log

Citrix ICA application name detection is enabled.

Create a Security Policy with a valid rule that uses the Citrix_ICA service. Install the QoS and Security policies on the QoS Module and let it run for a period of time. See "Installing the QoS Policy" on page 67.
Note - The QoS policy content is irrelevant to the application detection feature.

138

Discovering Citrix ICA Application Names

View the QoS log entries using SmartView Tracker (the entries are of Type Alert and contain the Citrix ICA application names). Once you have the application names you can turn off the application detection, as well as define new Citrix TCP services to use in a QoS policy. For example:
FIGURE 7-27Record Details Window

Note - It is a pre-requisite that the Citrix_ICA TCP be enabled in the Security Policy.

To Disable Citrix ICA Application Name Logging:


1 2

Double-click on the gateway in the Network Objects Tree. The Gateway - General Properties window is displayed. Choose
Logs and Masters > Additional Logging Check Point Gateway - General Properties Configuration

Check Point

in the tree on the left side of the window. The Additional Logging

window is displayed.

3 4 5

Uncheck Detect new Citrix ICA application names so that Check Point QoS will not log the Citrix application names. Click
OK.

Citrix ICA application name detection is disabled.

Install the QoS Policy.

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Managing QoS for Citrix ICA Applications

Defining a New Citrix TCP Service


A new service type was introduced in the Smart DashBoard, Citrix TCP. To Define a New Citrix TCP Service
1 2

Right-click on the Citrix TCP branch of the Services Tree, and select The Citrix Service Properties window is displayed.

New Citrix TCP .

Enter the following details in the Citrix Service Properties window, as shown in the example below: Name: The name of the new service. Comment: A comment describing the new service. Color : Select a color from the dropdown list. Application: The exact name (case insensitive) of the Citrix Application.
FIGURE 7-28Citrix Service Properties Window

Note - The application name is case insensitive.

Click

OK

to create the new Citrix Class of Service.

Adding a Citrix TCP Service to a Rule (Traditional Mode Only)


Once you have created a new Citrix TCP service, you can add the service to a rule in your QoS Policy, in the usual manner. See Editing QoS Rule Bases on page 98.

140

Installing the Security and QoS Policies

Installing the Security and QoS Policies


Once you have created the appropriate Security and QoS Policies these must be installed.

Managing QoS for Citrix Printing


In This Section

Configuring a Citrix Printing Rule (Traditional Mode Only) Configuring Check Point QoS Topology

page 142 page 142

Printing generates relatively large quantities of data, causing the TCP connection to consume excessive quantities of bandwidth. Clearly, from a QoS perspective this type of connection should be identified and the bandwidth made available to these connections should be limited. There are three primary methods of printing in the MetaFrame environment, IP Network printing, MetaFrame Auto-Creation of printers and local MetaFrame printing. Check Point QoS provides a solution for printing traffic using the MetaFrame AutoCreation of printers printing method, by classifying each ICA connection as either a printing or a non-printing connection. A connection that is classified as printing is assigned to a Citrix printing rule. This rule can be configured to limit printing traffic and thus avoid excessive consumption of bandwidth. A connection that is classified as non-printing is assigned to a rule according to the regular matching method. Classification of the connection is dynamic and is based on examining the ICA priority bits of each packet. An ICA connection is therefore matched dynamically to one of 2 different rules depending on the type of data passing through the connection at any point in time. It is recommended that you limit the bandwidth per connection for printing to 25Kbps. This value represents the average bandwidth utilization of a single non-printing Citrix ICA session versus an additional 150Kbps of bandwidth per session that printing often requires. This preserves bandwidth for other traffic.

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Managing QoS for Citrix Printing

Configuring a Citrix Printing Rule (Traditional Mode Only)


Define a printing rule to which all ICA connections that are in a printing state are assigned. To Configure a Citrix Printing Rule
1 2 3 4 5

Position your cursor in the want to add a new rule.

Name

field of the
Add Rule

QoS

tab, at the position where you


Rule Name

Right-click and select one of the displayed. Enter the rule name in the Click
OK

options. The

window is

Rule Name

field.

to save the rule name.

Right-click in the Service column and select Add. The Add Object window is displayed, listing the network objects defined in the Security Policy and the QoS Policy. Select the predefined to the rule.
Properties Citrix_ICA_printing

6 7 8 9

service and click

OK.

The service is added


QoS Action

Right-click in the Action column and select window is displayed. Select Select
Advanced

Edit Properties.

The

in the

Action Type

area. area.

Per connection limit

in the

Limit

10 Enter a per connection limit of 25 Kbps in the Per connection limit field

(recommended).
11 Click OK.

Configuring Check Point QoS Topology


When the MetaFrame Auto-Creation of printers printing method is used, the Citrix printing traffic passes from the Citrix Server to the Citrix Client. To enforce QoS on this traffic, Check Point QoS must be installed on the Gateway external interface on the inbound direction, or on the Gateway internal interface on the outbound direction, that is, Flood-Gate-1 must be able to "see" the traffic passing from the Citrix Server to the Citrix Client.

142

To Display the Status of Check Point QoS Modules Controlled by the SmartCenter Server

Viewing the Check Point QoS Modules Status


To Display the Status of Check Point QoS Modules Controlled by the SmartCenter Server
Use the Check Point SmartView Status application and the SmartView Monitor. For information about the Check Point SmartView Status, see the SmartCenter Guide.

Enabling Log Collection


In order for a connection to be logged, the QoS logging flag must be turned on and the connections matching rule must be marked with either Log or Account in the Track field of the rule. For further information on how Check Point QoSs logging features work see Overview of Logging on page 147.
In This Section

To Turn on QoS Logging To Confirm that the Rule is Marked for Logging To Start the SmartView Tracker

page 143 page 144 page 144

To Turn on QoS Logging


A QoS Module logs to the Check Point log if Turn on QoS Logging is checked in the Additional Logging page (under Logs and Masters) of the QoS Modules Properties window (FIGURE 7-29 on page 144). By default Qos Logging is turned on.

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Enabling Log Collection

FIGURE 7-29Properties Window - Additional Logging Configuration

To Confirm that the Rule is Marked for Logging


1 2

Select the rule whose connection will be logged. Confirm that either Log or Account appear in the Tracking for a Rule on page 117.
Track

field. See To Modify

FIGURE 7-30Track Logging or Accounting

To Start the SmartView Tracker


To start the SmartView Tracker, double-click on the SmartView Tracker icon, or choose SmartView Tracker from the Window menu in the SmartDashboard window.

144

To Start the SmartView Tracker

FIGURE 7-31Log showing FloodGate-1 Entries

Note - The SmartCenter Server reads the Log File and sends the data to the SmartConsole for display. The SmartConsole only displays the data.

It is now possible to view log data according to: Rule Name Rules using DiffServ Control type having to do with install and uninstall logs For more information, see SmartView Tracker in the SmartCenter Guide.

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Enabling Log Collection

146

CHAPTER

SmartView Tracker
In This Chapter
Overview of Logging Examples of Log Events Examples of Account Statistics Logs page 147 page 150 page 152

Overview of Logging
The SmartView Tracker enables you to view entries in the Log File. Each entry in the Log File is a record of an event or an account record. The SmartView Tracker gives you control over the information displayed in the Log File. You can navigate through the Log File and select the log entries that you would like to display. You can view the log entries for all the installed Check Point products or for a selected product, such as Check Point QoS or VPN. Two types of events are logged. TABLE 8-1 on page 148 describes the features unique to event logs and TABLE 8-2 on page 149 describes the features unique to accounting logs. The following two conditions must be met for a connection to be logged: The QoS logging checkbox must be selected in the Gateway Properties Additional Logging Configuration window shown in FIGURE 7-29 on page 144 must be selected. (By default this is automatically selected.) The connections matching rule must be marked with either Log or Account in the Track field of the rule. Refer to To Confirm that the Rule is Marked for Logging on page 144 and To Modify Tracking for a Rule on page 117. Further information on how to start the SmartView Tracker can be found in Enabling Log Collection on page 143.

147

Overview of Logging

The following table describes the non-accounting events logged by SmartView Tracker:
TABLE 8-1 SmartView Tracker Non-Accounting Log Events

Log Event

Data Returned

Presentation

Express or Traditional modes

Connection Reject QoS rejects a connection when the number of guaranteed connections is exceeded and/or when you have configured the system not to accept additional connections. The name of the matching rule on account of which the connection was rejected. Generated as a reject log. Unified with the initial connection log. Traditional mode only. PCG is a feature of Traditional mode.

Running Out of Packet Buffers QoSs global packet buffers are exhausted. One of the interfacedirections packet buffers is exhausted. A report is generated a maximum of once per 12 hours. LLQ Packet Drop When a packet is dropped from an LLQ connection. A report is generated a maximum of once per 5 minutes. The statistics are computed from the last time an LLQ Packet Drop log was generated for all relevant interface directions. The following are logged: 1. number of bytes dropped from the connection. 2. average delay computed for all the connections packets that were not dropped. 3. maximum delay of a connection packet. 4. maximum delay difference between two consecutive successfully transmitted packets. Unified with the initial connection log. Traditional Mode only. LLQ is a feature of Traditional mode. A string explaining the nature of the problem and the size of the relevant pool. New log record created each time a global problem is reported. Traditional mode only.

148

TABLE 8-2 Explaining the Accounting SmartView Tracker Log

Logged General Statistics The total bytes transmitted through QoS for each relevant interface and direction. Drop Policy Statistics Total bytes dropped from the connection as a result of QoSs drop policy. Count of the bytes dropped from the connection because the maximum used memory fragments for a single connection was exceeded LLQ Statistics Statistics about the LLQ connection.

Data Returned

Express or Traditional modes

Inbound & outbound bytes transmitted by Check Point QoS.

Both

Traditional Mode only

The following are logged: 1. number of bytes dropped from the connection due to delay expiration 2. average packet delay. jitter which is computed as the maximum delay difference between two consecutive packets.

Traditional Mode only. LLQ is a feature of Traditional mode.

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Examples of Log Events

Examples of Log Events


In This Section

Connection Reject Log LLQ Drop Log Pool Exceeded Log This section describes the log events in the SmartView Tracker:

page 150 page 150 page 151

Connection Reject Log


The connection is rejected because the rule exceeds the number of guaranteed connections, where Accept additional non guaranteed connections is unchecked in the QoS Action Properties window (see QoS Action Properties on page 36). The log will include the name as well as the class of the rule in the following format: rule_name:<class>-><name>. In the following example, the rule belongs to the class rule (rule_name) is udp2.
TABLE 8-3 Connection Reject Log Example ... Time Product Interface Type Action Information ... Best_Effort.

The name of the

...

15:17:09

QoS

daemon

log

reject

rule_name:Best_E ... ffort->udp2

LLQ Drop Log


When a packet from the LLQ connection is dropped, LLQ information is computed and logged from the last time a log was generated. This information includes significant data logged from the relevant interface-direction. In the following example, the information logged includes: s_in_llq_drops: The number of bytes dropped from the connection on the ServerIn interface direction. s_in_llq_avg_xmit_delay: The average delay computed for all the connection's packets that were not dropped on the Server-In interface direction. s_in_llq_max_delay: The maximum delay of a connection packet that was not dropped on the Server-In interface direction.

150

Pool Exceeded Log

s_in_llq_xmit_jitter: The maximum delay difference between two consecutive successfully transmitted packets of the connection on the Server-In interface direction. Any packets which are dropped in between the two successfully transmitted packets are ignored. s_in_llq_recommended_delay: The default delay that can be entered into the Add Low Latency QoS Class Properties window in order to achieve a minimal number of dropped bytes.

TABLE 8-4LLQ Drop Log Example ... Product Type Information s_in_llq_drops:3000 s_in_llq_avg_xmit_delay: 900 s_in_llq_max_delay: 1351 s_in_llq_xmit_jitter: 1351 s_in_llq_recommended_delay:2000 ... ...

...

QoS

log

In the above example relevant data was observed only on the Server-In interface direction, therefore only Server-In counters are available. There are several reasons why logging might not occur on a specified interface direction: QoS might not be installed on all the interfaces directions. No packets were seen on other interface directions. Data on other interface directions might not be significant, for instance, the values logged might be all zeroes.
Note -

Pool Exceeded Log


The designated size of the pool is exceeded, whether the pool is set for a particular interface direction, or whether it represents the global pool. In the following example, the information logged includes: an interface direction (ifdir) has a pool size of 8 fragments the interface name is E100B1, and the direction is outbound (marked by little cube juxtaposed to the interface name which has an outward pointing arrow) in the Inter. column.
TABLE 8-5Pool Exceeded Log Example ... Product Interface Type Information info:Ifdir Memory Pool Exceeded Pool_size:8 ... ...

...

QoS

E100B1

control

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Examples of Account Statistics Logs

Examples of Account Statistics Logs


In the Check Point SmartView Tracker, the account logs always include the segment_time information (the time from which the information about the log was gathered) in the Information column.
TABLE 8-6The Mandatory Fields in Account Logs ... Product Type Information segment_time 8May2002 12:24:57 ...

...

QoS

Account

...

In This Section

General Statistics Data Drop Policy Statistics Data LLQ Statistics Data Account Logs may include any or all of the above information:
Note - Only significant data is logged and presented in the same log record.

page 152 page 153 page 153

General Statistics Data


These statistics include the number of bytes transmitted through QoS in any relevant interface direction. In the following example: s_in_bytes: 5768 bytes were transmitted through Check Point QoS on the ServerIn interface direction. s_out_bytes: 154294 bytes were transmitted through Check Point QoS on the Server-Out interface direction.
TABLE 8-7General Statistics Data Example ... ... Information s_in_bytes:5768 s_out_bytes: 154294 ... ...

152

Drop Policy Statistics Data

Drop Policy Statistics Data


The number of bytes dropped from the connection in any relevant interface direction as a result of drop policy are logged. The drop policy is aimed at managing FloodGate-1 packet buffers, see WFRED (Weighted Flow Random Early Drop) on page 23. This includes the total number of bytes dropped from the connection since it exceeded its allocation. In the following example: s_out_total_drops: 3914274 bytes were dropped from the connection as a result of drop policy, on the Server-Out interface direction. s_out_exceed_drops: Out of total number of drops (s_out_total_drops) 3914274 bytes were dropped from the connection because it exceeded its allowed number of fragments, on the Server-Out interface direction.
TABLE 8-8Drop Policy Statistics Data Example ... ... Information s_out_total_drops:3914274 s_out_exceed_drops: 3914274 ... ...

LLQ Statistics Data


Data items are the same as in LLQ Drop Log on page 150, but are computed from the beginning of the connection and not from the last time a log was generated.

Chapter 8

SmartView Tracker

153

Examples of Account Statistics Logs

154

CHAPTER

Command Line Interface


In This Chapter
Check Point QoS Commands Setup fgate Menu Control Monitor Utilities page 155 page 156 page 156 page 157 page 158 page 160

Check Point QoS Commands


TABLE 9-1 lists the QoS command names.
TABLE 9-1 FloodGate-1 Command Names

VPN-1 Pro and FloodGate-1 Installed on the Same Machine


etmstart etmstop fgd50

Description

Starts FloodGate-1 Stops FloodGate-1 FloodGate-1 daemon

155

Setup

Setup
In This Section

cpstart and cpstop etmstart etmstop cpstart and cpstop

page 156 page 156 page 156

Generally, to stop and start the QoS Module you are required to stop the VPN-1 Pro using the cpstop and cpstart commands. In the event that you would like to stop the QoS Module only, you can use the QoS specific etmstart and etmstop commands. For more on cpstop and cpstart, see the SmartCenter Guide. etmstart
etmstart

loads the FloodGate-1 Module, starts the FloodGate-1 daemon (fgd50), and retrieves the last policy that was installed on the FloodGate-1 module. etmstop

etmstop kills the FloodGate-1 daemon (fgd50) and then unloads the FloodGate-1 policy and Module.

fgate Menu
The following menu is displayed when typing
FIGURE 9-1 fgate Menu fgate

from the command line.

156

Control
In This Section

fgate fgate load fgate unload fgate fetch fgate

page 157 page 157 page 157 page 157

The fgate program is used to manage FloodGate-1. Its specific action is determined by the first command line argument, as described in the following sections: fgate load
fgate load

runs a verifier on the policy file. If the policy file is valid, fgate compiles and installs a QoS Policy to the specified QoS Modules. It can only be run from the SmartCenter Server.

Syntax fgate load <rule-file.F> [targets]

If

targets

is not specified, the QoS Policy is installed on the local host.

fgate unload uninstalls a QoS Policy from the specified QoS Modules. It can only be run from both the SmartCenter Server and localhost.
fgate unload

Syntax fgate unload [targets]

If

targets

is not specified, the QoS Policy is uninstalled from the local host.

fgate fetch
fgate fetch

retrieves the QoS Policy that was last installed on the local host. You must specify the machine where the QoS Policy is found. Use localhost in case there is no SmartCenter Server or if the SmartCenter Server is down. You may specify a list of SmartCenter Servers, which will be searched in the order listed.

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157

Monitor

fgate fetch -f

attempts to retrieve policies from all management stations, one after the other until it succeeds. If the module fails to retrieve a policy from a SmartCenter Server, it tries to retrieve one from itself.

Syntax fgate fetch [-f | servers] Examples fgate fetch localhost fgate fetch -f fgate fetch mgmt_server_name

Monitor
In This Section

fgate stat fgate ver fgate stat

page 158 page 159

fgate stat displays the status of target hosts in various formats. If this command is launched from a SmartCenter server this command can be run on an array of modules. If this command is launched from a module, the status of the module is returned.

Usage fgate stat [targets]

The default format displays the following information for each host: product, version, build number, policy name (Express or Traditional), install time and interfaces number. If no target is specified, the status of
fgate stat
localhost

is shown. Example:

158

FIGURE 9-2 fgate stat Output

Examples fgate stat fgate stat gateway1 gateway2

fgate ver
fgate ver

displays the FloodGate-1 version number. If the -k option is included, both the kernel version build number and QoS executable version build number are returned. Without the -k, only the QoS executable version is specified.

Syntax fgate ver [-k]

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Command Line Interface

159

Utilities

Utilities
In This Section

fgate log fgate ctl fgate debug fgate kill fgate log

page 160 page 160 page 160 page 161

fgate log turns logging on or off in the kernel. It can be used in order to save resources without reinstalling your QoS policy. the stat option returns the current state of logging.

Syntax
fgate log < on | off | stat >

By default, fgate ctl


fgate ctl

fgate log

is turned on.

sends control information to the QoS kernel module.

Syntax fgate ctl etmreg

parameter
etmreg

meaning
etmreg is for Unix platforms only. or off the QoS kernel. fgate ctl

turns on

fgate debug fgate debug turns on a debug flag which sends additional debugging information to the fgd logfile: $FGDIR/log/fgd.elg. The default is off.

160

Syntax
fgate debug < on | off >

fgate kill
fgate kill sends a signal to a FloodGate-1 daemon. The SmartCenter Server does not run the QoS daemon therefore this command is valid only on modules.

Syntax fgate kill [-t sig_no] proc-name

parameter
[-t sig_no] proc-name

meaning

If the file
$FWDIR/tmp/<proc-name>.pid

exists, send sig_no to the pid given in the file. If no signal is specified, signal 15 (SIGTERM) is sent.

The FloodGate-1 daemon writes the pids to files in the log directory upon startup. These files are named $FWDIR/tmp/<daemon_name>.pid. For example, the file containing the pid of the FloodGate-1 snmp daemon is $FWDIR/log/snmpd.pid.
Examples

The following command:


fgate kill fgd

sends signal 15 to the FloodGate-1 fgd daemon. The following command:


fgate kill -t 1 fgd

sends signal 1 to the FloodGate-1 fgd daemon.

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161

Utilities

162

CHAPTER

10

Check Point QoS FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)


In This Chapter
Questions and Answers page 163

Questions and Answers


In This Section

Introduction Check Point QoS Basics Other Check Point Products - Support and Management Hardware Support Policy Creation Capacity Planning Protocol Support Installation/Backward Compatibility/Licensing/Versions How do I? General Issues

page 164 page 164 page 167 page 169 page 169 page 171 page 172 page 173 page 173 page 176

163

Questions and Answers

Introduction
Question: What is Check Point QoS?

Check Point QoS is a policy-based, Quality of Service (QoS) solution for VPNs, private WANs and Internet links. It optimizes network performance by assigning priority to business-critical applications and end users. Check Point QoS is tightly integrated with VPN-1 Pro
Question: How can I comment on this FAQ?

For comments and ideas regarding this FAQ or Check Point QoS in general, please send email to: fgfaq@checkpoint.com For additional technical information about Check Point QoS, consult Check Points SecureKnowledge database at http://support.checkpoint.com/kb/
Question: Where can I find further information regarding Check Point QoS?

Find further details about Check Point QoS at http://www.checkpoint.com/products/accelerate/FloodGate-1.html


Question: Do I have to know how to administrate Provider-1/SiteManager-1 to manage Check Point QoS?

Knowing how to administrate Provider-1/SiteManager-1 is not mandatory, but prior knowledge of Provider-1/SiteManager-1 is helpful when working with Check Point QoS.

Check Point QoS Basics


Question: When should I use Traditional mode and when should I use Express mode?

Traditional mode should be used if you need fine-tuned functionality and enhanced Check Point QoS features. Express mode should be selected if your system requires only basic QoS.
Question: What are the benefits of using each mode?

Traditional mode provides you with optimal QoS functionality, whereas Express mode increases performance and needs less CPU and less memory.
Question: Can I change from Express mode to Traditional mode and vice versa?

You can change a policy from Express mode to Traditional mode, however, you cannot change a policy from Traditional mode to Express mode. Therefore it is recommended that if you are unsure which to install, you

164

Check Point QoS Basics

should begin with Express mode, maintaining the option to transition to Traditional mode, if you find that your policy required heightened Check Point QoS functionality.
Question: What is the highest weight I can use in a rule?

Weights are relative. The only limitation is the Maximum weight of rule parameter, which is defined in the Global Properties window under Check Point QoS. The default parameter is 1000, but can be changed to any number.
Note - This parameter is only used to assist in input validation.

In the example shown in TABLE 10-1, you can see the significance of the value of the weight allocated in two different policies. In the example both the HTTP and FTP connections initially enjoy an equal share of the available bandwidth, although they each had a weight of 500 in Policy 1 and a weight of 2 in Policy 2. By adding a third rule to both policies you can significantly change the result. for example, An SMTP connection with a weight of 100 can be added to each policy. Due to the high initial weights used in Policy 1, there is an insignificant change to the amount of bandwidth available for the HTTP connection in Policy 1 + third rule. However, due to the low initial weights used in Policy 2, the amount of bandwidth that is available to the HTTP connection in Policy 2 + third rule is significantly reduced.
TABLE 10-1Example of Highest Weight Differentiation

Policy 1 HTTP weight = 500, FTP weight =500 Policy 2 HTTP weight = 2, FTP weight =2; Policy 1 + third rule

HTTP gets 500/(500+500)

...and equals =

Comment Equal weight is given to each rule.

2/(2+2)

Equal weight is given to each rule.

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Questions and Answers

Policy 1 HTTP weight = 500, FTP weight =500, SMTP weight = 100

HTTP gets 500/(500+500+100)

...and equals = 500/1100

Comment Due to the initial high value of the weights in Policy 1, the amount of bandwidth available to the HTTP connection is only marginally less than in Policy 1 even after the introduction of the third rule.

Policy 2 + third rule HTTP weight = 2, FTP weight =2; SMTP weight = 100 2/(2+2+100) = 2/104 Due to the low value of the weights in Policy 2, the amount of bandwidth available to the HTTP connection is now significantly less as a result of the introduction of the third rule.

Question: Should I install Check Point QoS on the external or the internal interface?

While Check Point QoS can run on both interfaces, it is highly recommended to position Check Point QoS on the external interface only.
Question: What is the difference between guarantees and weights?

Guarantees and weights are similar in their behavior. Despite the difference in their dictionary meaning, they both guarantee the allocated bandwidth to the matched traffic. The differences between them are: Guarantees are stated in absolute numbers (for example, 20000bps) and weights are stated in relative numbers (for example, 100). Guarantees are allocated their share of bandwidth before weights. For example if you have a link of 1.5 MB: Your Rule Base is: HTTP Guarantee 1Mb FTP Weight 40 SMTP Weight 10 The result is: first 1 MB for HTTP is allocated, then 0.4 MB for FTP is allocated and 0.1MB for SMTP is allocated. Use guarantees to define bandwidth in absolute terms or for per connection guarantees.

166

Other Check Point Products - Support and Management

Question: How does Check Point QoS handle TCP retransmitted packets?

When a retransmission is detected, Check Point QoS checks to see if the retransmitted data is already contained in the Check Point QoS queue. If so, the packet is dropped. This unique Check Point QoS capability eliminates retransmissions that consume up to 40% of a WAN link, and saves memory required to store duplicated packets.
Question: Which Firewall resources does Check Point QoS support in the Rule Base?

Check Point QoS can use its resources to inspect HTTP traffic. Resources are defined using the URI for QoS option and can contain specific URLs or files. For example, you can limit Web surfing to the site http://www.restrict-access-to-this-site.com. You need to add a QOS URI resource that looks for the string www.restrict-access-to-this-site.com (without http://). Then use the resource in a Check Point QoS rule and add a limit.
Question: Do guarantees waste bandwidth?

No. Check Point QoS uses a sophisticated queuing mechanism. An application only takes as much bandwidth as it needs. Any unused bandwidth is then available for use by other applications.
Question: How do I know if loaned bandwidth is available for applications that may need it back?

There is no loaned bandwidth in Check Point QoS. Bandwidth that is not utilized by a guarantee/weighted rule is immediately (on a per-packet basis) distributed to the other connections, according to their relative priorities. The important thing to remember is Resolution (referring to level of granularity). Check Point QoS allocates bandwidth on a per packet basis. Therefore, only one packet is allocated at a time, resulting in the most accurate scheduling policy.

Other Check Point Products - Support and Management


Question: Where is Check Point QoS placed in the Provider-1/SiteManager-1 Inspection chain?

Check Point QoS is composed of two Modules: QoS Policy, which is in charge of rule matching QoS Scheduling, which is in charge of packet scheduling

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Questions and Answers

Question: Does Check Point QoS work With Provider-1/SiteManager-1?

Yes. One of Check Point QoSs most important features is its unique and sophisticated integration with Provider-1/SiteManager-1. Its integration features include: accurate classification of VPN traffic (inside the VPN tunnel) classification of NATed traffic shared network objects and topology (that save you time and effort in administration) common Check Point SmartDashboard with an advanced GUI but a familiar look and feel authenticated Quality of Service allows you to assign bandwidth to VPN remote users DiffServ Support and Check Point QoS bring Better than Frame Relay QoS to the VPN world log verification
Question: Is SmartView Monitor a part of Check Point QoS?

No. As of NG with Application Intelligence (R55), SmartView is a separate product that is bundled with Check Point QoS.
Question: Does Check Point QoS support Load Sharing configurations?

Yes, Check Point QoS supports all ClusterXL configurations. Check Point QoS
supports the SYNC mechanism and therefore can be used with CPLS/CPHA or third-party solutions. For OPSEC partner solutions, see the OPSEC Website:

http://www.opsec.com/ for certification.


Question: Does Check Point QoS support NATed traffic?

Check Point QoS has full support for NATed traffic, including matching, scheduling, limiting and all other Check Point QoS features.
Question: What is the maximum number of QoS Modules I can manage?

QoS Modules management is identical to VPN/FireWall Module management. Thus, the maximum number of Modules is identical to the maximum number of VPN/FireWall Modules that are managed.
Question: Do I need to run QoS on the SmartCenter Server?

Yes, in order to manage a QoS Module you need to install Check Point QoS on the SmartCenter Server.

168

Hardware Support

Hardware Support
Question: What platforms does Check Point QoS support?

Check Point QoS supports the following platforms: Solaris 8 UltraSPARC (32 bit and 64 bit) Solaris 9 UltraSPARC (64 bit only) Windows NT 4.0 - Server and Workstation (SP6a) Windows 2000 - Server and Professional (SP1, SP2, SP3) Red Hat Linux - 7.0 (kernels 2.2.16, 2.2.17, 2.2.19) Red Hat Linux - 7.2 (kernels 2.4.9-31) Red Hat Linux - 7.3 (kernels 2.4.18-5) CP - SecurePlatform IPSO 3.7
Question: Is Check Point QoS available on appliances?

Yes. Check Point QoS is available on Nokia appliances and on several Linuxbased appliances.
Question: Does Check Point QoS support multiple CPUs?

Check Point QoS can run on multiple CPU machines.


Question: Does Check Point QoS improve performance with multiple CPUs?

Using Check Point QoS with VPNx on a multiple CPU machine creates a major performance improvement over using a single CPU machine. When running Check Point QoS and Provider-1/SiteManager-1 on a multiple CPU machine, performance improvements are expected.
Question: Does Check Point QoS work with SecureXL?

Check Point QoS and Performance Pack cannot run simultaneously on the same gateway.

Policy Creation
Question: When should I use LLQ (Low Latency Queuing)?

LLQ is best suited for VoIP applications, Video conferencing and other multimedia applications. LLQ is targeted for applications where: a minimal guaranteed bandwidth is required for adequate performance low delay and Jitter are required

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Questions and Answers

Question: Is QoS Rule Base first match?

From Check Point QoS NG forward, all QoS rules are matched on the first match principle. Meaning that only the first rule that applies to a connection is activated. For example, if you have a rule for CEO traffic and a rule for HTTP traffic, the rule that appears first within the Rule Base will be matched to all CEO surfing. Correct Rule Base (CEO is the first match) 1) SRC=CEO => Guarantee = 128Kbps 2) Service=HTTP => Limit = 64Kbps Incorrect Rule Base (CEO traffic will be limited) 1) Service=HTTP => Limit = 64Kbps 2) SRC=CEO => Guarantee = 128Kbps
Question: I am using QoS on multiple modules. What is the best way to organize my Rule Base?

If you are managing Modules with identical bandwidth and you want an identical policy for all Modules, define as All in the Install On field. If you are managing Modules with varied bandwidths and want an identical policy for all Modules, you can have one policy installed on all modules. It is best to use weights since they assign relative bandwidth and not a fixed one. Remember that weights also guarantee bandwidth allocation. If you are managing Modules with varied bandwidths and want a different policy for all Modules, you can use different sub-rules for each module. You can also use common rules that are matched for Modules.

Question: When should I use Sub-rules?

Sub-rules should be used when there is hierarchy between objects. For example, when you want to manage bandwidth according to organizational structure, such as within an organization that has R&D, Marketing and operation divisions.
Question: How can I see the top bandwidth-hogging applications?

From the command line run the command

rtmtopsvc.

170

Capacity Planning

Capacity Planning
Question: What are Check Point QoSs memory requirements?

To run Check Point QoS, the following amount of free memory is needed (in addition to the memory needed for Provider-1/SiteManager-1):
FIGURE 10-1Check Point QoS memory requirements
Number of connections Management Module (or Management+ Module)

5,000 10,000 25,000 50,000 100,000


0 MB 0 MB 0 MB 0 MB 0 MB

32.5 MB 39 MB 57 MB 91 MB 156 MB

These numbers include SmartView Monitor and UserAuthority. Connections are counted in the Firewall connection table. Note that the default size for the connection table is 25,000. On an average, each connection requires 1300 bytes.

Question: How do I know which machine I need to run Check Point QoS?

Deciding on a hardware platform and vendors involves many aspects and each buyer has their own specific considerations such as support, price, appliances, knowledge, and so on. As far as performance is concerned, CPU performance is the main factor in Check Point QoS performance. With Check Point QoSs reduced memory footprint and 2003 memory prices, memory should not usually be the cause of a bottleneck.

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Questions and Answers

Question: How do I tune Check Point QoS performance?

Here are some tips on fine-tuning Check Point QoS performance: 1)Upgrade to the newest Check Point QoS version available. Major improvements in performance have been introduced in Check Point QoS NG FP1 and NG FP2. 2)In most cases you need to install Check Point QoS only on the external interfaces of the gateway. 3)Unless you are using limits for inbound traffic, installing Check Point QoS only in the outbound direction will provide you with most of the functionality and improvements. 4)Put more frequent rules at the top of your Rule Base. You can use SmartView Monitor to analyze how much a rule is used. 5)Turn per connection limits into per rule limits. 6)Turn per connection guarantees into per rule guarantees.
Question: What is the maximum bandwidth supported by Check Point QoS?

Check Point QoS NG FP1 can support up to 1.13GBps and 890MBps (in Traditional Mode) of traffic of long UDP packets. In real-world traffic and in the Rule Base, Check Point QoS supports 330GBps (In Express Mode) and 255 MBps (in Traditional Mode) of traffic.

Protocol Support
Question: What protocols/services are supported by Check Point QoS?

See: http://www.checkpoint.com/products/protect/vpn-1_firewall-1_appsupport.html
Note - New services and applications are added on a permanent basis.

Question: Can I prioritize system administration traffic?

Yes. This can be done in any of the following ways: Guarantees for administrators based on authentication Guarantees for administrators based on IPs, networks Guarantees for applications only administrators use (for example, Provider-1/SiteManager-1 control protocols, PC-Anywhere) Combinations of all the above
172

Installation/Backward Compatibility/Licensing/Versions

Question: Does Check Point QoS support Citrix applications?

Yes, Citrix applications can be differentiated from one another. In addition, Check Point QoS can identify Citrix ICA printing traffic and re-classify it to a proper rule.
Question: Does Check Point QoS support SIP?

Yes. Starting from Check Point QoS FP2, the SIP protocol is supported.
Question: Does Check Point QoS support H323?

Yes. Starting from Check Point QoS FP1, the H323 protocol is supported
Question: Does Check Point QoS support GRE?

Yes. This protocol is supported.

Installation/Backward Compatibility/Licensing/Versions
Question: When will Check Point QoS next feature pack be available?

Check Point QoS feature packs/releases are usually shipped at the same time Provider-1/SiteManager-1 feature packs are released.

How do I?
Question: How do I guarantee performance for my mail server?

You need to add a rule matching your email traffic. You can do this by either matching the source/destination of your mail server, or matching mail protocols (SMTP, POP3, Exchange). For this rule, define a weight or guarantee that meets the needs of the priorities you want to set.
Question: How do I ensure Quality of Service for Voice Over IP?

Check Point QoS FP1 introduced the VoIP-tuned mechanism Low Latency Queuing (LLQ). This mechanism is tuned to achieve best latency for constant bit rate applications, like VoIP. To limit the number of connections admitted, use LLQ with a per connection guarantee. For voice, you want to give each conversation a guaranteed bandwidth. Usually you would want an admission policy that does not accept additional calls if bandwidth is not adequate.
Note - This is equivalent to the busy tone in old voice system.

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Questions and Answers

Question: How can I prioritize traffic for remote users?

Using the Authenticated QoS feature of Check Point QoS, you can prioritize bandwidth allocation for remote VPN users and Windows domain user groups. To configure the Windows domain users please refer to the UserAuthority Guide and read the SecureAgent -> System Setup section.
Question: How do I guarantee performance for my ERP applications?

You need to add a rule matching your ERP traffic. You can do this by either matching the source/destination of your ERP server, or matching application protocols (SAP, BAAN, ORACLE). For this rule, define a weight or guarantee that meets the needs of the priorities you want to set. If your ERP application is not a predefined service, you can either add it manually or use the first method. If you are using ERP over HTTP, check How my intranet applications?
can I provide bandwidth for

Question: Can I use Check Point QoS to prevent Denial of Service Attacks?

Check Point QoSs main goal is not an Anti-Denial of Service tool. However, there are many situations in which Check Point QoS can be used to detect, monitor and prevent such attacks. Using SmartView Monitor and Check Point QoS you can perform detection and monitoring. Prevention can be achieved in the following ways: by limiting applications that are known to be a part of DOS attacks (for example, ICMP, suspicious URLs). by providing guarantees for important traffic (for example, ERP, MAIL, VoIP). by providing guaranteed bandwidth for authenticated users using Authenticated QoS. Authenticated users can be identified with digital signatures and can rely on VPN authentication and encryption. Check Point QoS guarantees that these users will get their bandwidth. The attacker cannot authenticate to the VPN and will not get bandwidth for the attack.
Question: Why is limiting bandwidth for Napster better than blocking It?

Blocking "nonwork-related" applications might cause users to find a way to bypass blocking. Prioritizing bandwidth lets users continue with their activities without damaging critical business processes. Consider a university where the Internet connection is being used for peer-to-peer file downloads

174

How do I?

like Napster and Kazaa. Blocking these services completely may encourage the students find a smart way to bypass the block, which in turn might cause legal problems. Check Point QoS offers smarter solutions: Limiting the allocated bandwidth for such applications this can be done with or without the students knowledge. Limiting the allocated bandwidth during daytime, and providing more bandwidth at night. Providing guarantees to important users (Professors, MIS) while allowing students to use the reminder of the bandwidth.

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Questions and Answers

General Issues
Question: My machine is experiencing certain technical failures. What should I do?

Check the Web for updated release notes on known issues and limitations. Contact your vendor for further support.
Question: I set up a guarantee/limit but in SmartView Monitor it seems to be broken?

If you are looking at very low traffic limit (for example, 1000 Bytes per second) at a high frequency (update every 2 seconds) it might look, as if the limit is broken since Check Point QoS does not fragment packets. If you lower the sampling frequency of SmartView Monitor (update every 8 seconds) you will see that limits are kept.
Question: Can Check Point QoS prompt a user for authentication in order to use the Authenticated QoS feature?

No. In order to use Authenticated QoS, Provider-1/SiteManager-1 must perform an authentication session prior to the classification of the connection by Check Point QoS.
Question: Can I deploy Check Point QoS on LAN environments?

Yes. You will need to position the hardware to support the network traffic you want to prioritize. Check Point QoS is best deployed in congestion points for network traffic.
Question: What happens if a lines bandwidth (as defined in the QoS tab of the Interface Properties window) is less than its physical (real) bandwidth?

Check Point QoS will only allocate as much bandwidth as is defined in the Interface Properties window. Additional bandwidth will not be allocated regardless of the physical bandwidth of the interface.
Question: What happens if a link bandwidth (of the link defined in Check Point QoS) is more than its physical (real) bandwidth?

Check Point QoS will attempt to transmit more than the physical bandwidth allows. This can cause random traffic drops in the next hop that result in the loss of critical packets.

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CHAPTER

11

Deploying Check Point QoS


In This Chapter
Deploying Check Point QoS Sample Bandwidth Allocations page 177 page 179

Deploying Check Point QoS


Check Point QoS Topology Restrictions
Check Point QoS can manage up to the maximum number of external interfaces supported by Firewall, subject to the following restrictions. (Refer to the Firewall documentation for further information): 1) All of the traffic on a managed line must go through the gateway. 2) Each managed line must be connected (directly or indirectly via a router) to a separate physical interface on the QoS machine. Two managed lines may not share a physical interface to the QoSmachine, nor may two lines be connected to the same router. For example, in the configuration depicted in FIGURE 11-1, the routers can pass traffic to each other through the hub without the QoS Module being aware of the traffic.

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FIGURE 11-1Two Lines Connected to a Single Interface

In addition, you cannot manage two lines connected to a single router (as in FIGURE 11-2), since traffic may pass from one line to the other directly through the router, without the QoS Module being aware of the traffic.
FIGURE 11-2Two Lines Connected to a Router

An example of a correct configuration is depicted in FIGURE 11-3.


FIGURE 11-3Correct Configuration

178

Frame Relay Network

Sample Bandwidth Allocations


Frame Relay Network
In the network depicted in FIGURE 11-4, the branch offices communicate with the central site and vice versa, but they do not communicate directly with each other or with the Internet except through the central site. The Web server makes important company documents available to the branch offices, but the database server supports the companys mission-critical applications. The problem is that most of the branch office traffic is internal and external Web traffic, and the mission-critical database traffic suffers as a result. The network administrator has considered upgrading the 56K lines, but is reluctant to do so, not only because of the cost but also because upgrading would probably not solve the problem. The upgraded lines would still be filled mostly with Web traffic.
FIGURE 11-4Frame Relay Network Example

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179

Sample Bandwidth Allocations

The goals are as follows: 1) Allocate the existing bandwidth so that access to the database server gets the largest share. 2) Take into account that the branch offices are connected to the network by 56K lines. These goals are accomplished with the following Rule Base:
TABLE 11-1 Main Rules

Rule Name

Source

Destination

Service

Action

Office 1

Office 1

Any

Any

Weight 10 Limit 56KBps


...

...

...

...

...

Office n

Office n

Any

Any

Weight 10 Limit 56KBps Weight 10

Default

Any

Any

Any

Each office has sub-rules, as follows:.


TABLE 11-2 Office Sub-Rules

Rule Name

Source

Destination

Service

Action

Start of Sub-Rule

Database Rule Web Rule

Any Any

Database Server Web Server Any

database-service http Any

Weight 50 Weight 10 Weight 10

Branch Offices Any


End of Sub-Rule

The sub-rules give database traffic priority over Web traffic and other traffic. Assumptions The following assumptions are made in this example: The problem (and its solution) apply to traffic outbound from the central site.

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Frame Relay Network

Note that FloodGate-1 shapes the branch office lines in the outbound direction only. FloodGate-1 shapes inbound traffic only on directly controlled interfaces (that is, interfaces of the FloodGated machine). The central site has the capacity to handle the networks peak traffic load. There is no traffic between the offices.

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Sample Bandwidth Allocations

182

Appendix

Debug Flags

Note - Error is turned on by default.

fw ctl debug -m FG-1 Error Codes for Check Point QoS


TABLE A-1 fw ctl debug -m FG-1 Error Codes for Check Point QoS

Command Line

Usage

All commands begin with: fw ctl debug -m FG-1...


driver error chain install pkt citrix ls tcp sched policy url dns

Driver Attachment General Error Flag Main Steps Of QoS Packet Processing For Future Use Packet recording mechanism Citrix processing Load sharing TCP Retransmission Detection Packet Scheduling QOS Policy Rules Matching QOS URL Matching DNS Related Messages

183

TABLE A-1 fw ctl debug -m FG-1 Error Codes for Check Point QoS

Command Line
rtm auth log conn drops rates dropsv timers chainq llq verbose automatch autosched

Usage

SmartView Monitor Interaction Authenticated QOS Logging Connections Processing Drop Policy Reporting Rule/Connection Rates Verbose Version Of Drop Policy Timer Events Internal Chain Q Mechanism Low Latency Queuing Used With Other Flags - Adds More Information Report Matching Process (Debug Version Only) Report Scheduling Process (Debug Version Only), a good way of reporting of rates on rules

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Index

A
Add Class of Service window 126, 132 Add Interface window 118 Add QoS Class Properties window 126, 132 Adding Comments to a Rule 124 allocation of bandwidth 176 Authenticated IP 93 Authenticated QoS 134 definition 84 using 134

B
bandwidth allocating 34 sample allocations 179 Bandwidth Policy fetching last installed on host 157 loading 157

by source 64 Client/Server interaction 28 commands cpstart 156 etmstart 155, 156 etmstop 155, 156 fgate 156 fgd50 155 Comment window 124 comments adding to a rule 124 concurrent sessions 29 configuration distributed 27 Configuring a Citrix Printing Rule 142 Configuring Check Point QoS Topology 142 connections classifying 33 constant bit rate computing 79 ensuring it is not exceeded 82 in defining a class 78 limits on 79 cpconfig 28

defining classes 127, 128 definition of 75 Expedited Forwarding class 83 interaction with other rules 76 IPSec packets 76 versus Low Latency Queuing 83 Disabling Session Sharing 136

E
enforcing 39 enforcing and installing, difference between 39 ERP applications 174 example Account Statics Logs 152 Connection Reject Log 150 Drop Policy Statistics Data 153 General Statistics Data 152 LLQ Drop Log 150 LLQ Statistics Data 153 Pool Exceeded Log 151 Expedited Forwarding 83 External Interfaces 166

C
Check Point QoS architecture 29 deploying 85 displaying page 92 distributed configuration 27 Global Properties 92 installing and configuring 29 topology restrictions 177 Citrix 173 Citrix ICA Application Names 137 Citrix MetaFrame Support 85 Citrix Printing Rule 142 Class of Service Properties window 133 classifying traffic by service and source 65

D
default rule 35, 63 for sub-rules 36 default weight 93 defaults reset to 93 rule weight 93 units 93 Defining Sub-Rules 125 Denial of Service Attacks 174 difference between guarantees and weights 166 Differentiated Services (DiffServ) 126 Differentiated Services, see DiffServ DiffServ

F
fgate 157 fgate fetch 157 fgate load 157 fgate stat 158 fgate unload 157 fgate ver 159 fgate ctl 160 fgate debug 160 fgate log 160 fgate stat command 158 first rule match principle 65 FloodGate Module 27 logging 143 status 143 FloodGate-1 185

configuration 27 GUI Management Client 26 FloodGate-1 FloodGate requirements 13 installation sequence 44 new features in NG 19 technology overview 22 FloodGate-1 Topology 142

G
Get Interfaces button 95 GRE 173 guarantees 65 definition 35 interaction with limits 74 per connection 35, 73 total rule 35 using 69

H
H323 173

I
Intelligent Queuing Engine 22, 23 Interface Properties opening QoS tab 94 Interface Properties window 126, 132 QoS tab 96, 126, 132 interfaces activating 96 Get Interfaces 95 properties of 94 IP authenticated 93 non-authenticated 93 queried 93

Load Sharing 86 loading a Bandwidth Policy 157 loaned bandwidth 167 log Connection Reject 148 Drop Policy Statistics 149 General Statistics 149 LLQ Packet Drop 148 LLQ Statistics 149 Running Out of Packet Buffers 148 viewing 147 log collection enabling 143 Log Viewer 144 starting 144 viewing 147 Low Latency class overview 78 priorities 78 Low Latency Classes 131 Low Latency Queuing class priorities 78 classes 78 constant bit rate 78 defining classes 133 implementation 132 interaction with other rule properties 82 maximal delay 78 overview 77 versus DiffServ 83 when to use 83 low traffic limit 176

defining 43 New Citrix TCP Service 140 new rule default weight 93 next feature pack availability 173 Non-authenticated IP 93

P
prioritize system administration traffic 172 Properties window 143

Q
QoS Class adding 126, 132 adding to Rule Base 126, 132 definition 76 DiffServ 75 editing 126, 132 Low Latency Queuing 77 QoS Classes window 127, 128, 133 QoS for Citrix ICA Applications 135 QoS for Citrix Printing 141 QoS logging turning on 143 QoS Policy installing 67 installing and enforcing 39 monitoring 40 uninstalling 40 verifying and viewing 39 QoS Rule tree 26 Queried IP 93

M
mail server 173 matching method first rule 65 maximal delay computing 79 in defining a class 78 maximum weight 93 memory requirements 171 Modifying your Security Policy 137 multiple modules 170

R
rate units 93, 98 RDED 22, 24 resources URI for QoS 34 Retransmission Detection Early Drop 24 Rule Base adding QoS Classes 126, 132 display 33, 103 management 31 rules

L
LAN environments 176 limits 65 definition 35 interaction with guarantees 74 using 69 186

N
Napster 174 network objects 33

adding and inserting 99 adding to Rule Base 99 adding under QoS Classes 127, 132 copying 101 cutting 101 default 35 default weight 93 deleting 101 modifying 103 naming 101 pasting 101 properties of 61 source 104, 107, 109, 112, 116 time 121 track 117, 118

Time in a Rule 121 time objects 121 top bandwidth hogging 170 top bandwidth hogs 170 track 117, 118 Turn on QoS Logging 143

Workstation Properties 49, 94, 95 Workstation Properties window General page 51 Topology page 52, 95

U
URI for QoS resources 34 Users Access adding 105 Users Access window 105 utilities fgate ctl 160 fgate debug 160 fgate kill 161 fgate log 160

S
services 34 defining 43 Services with Resource window 110 simple window definitions 115 SIP 173 SmartDashboard 26 starting 43 SmartDashboard Rule Base Editor window 33, 103 SmartDashboard Rule Base window 33, 103 source adding to a rule 104, 107, 109, 112, 116 classifying traffic by 64 Stateful Inspection 22 status of hosts, displaying using command-line interface 158 Status Manager 143 Sub-rules 170 sub-rules bandwidth allocation for 37 default rule 36 defining 125 example 67 viewing 125

V
viewing log 147 Voice Over IP 173 VPN-1 Pro interoperability 29 sharing objects with 29

W
Weight 93 Weighted Fair Queuing 22, 23 weights calculating 34 setting maximum 93 WFRED 22, 23 windows Add Class of Service 126, 132 Add Interface 118 Add Object 104, 107, 109 Add QoS Class Properties 126, 132 Class of Service Properties 133 Interface Properties 126, 132 Properties 143 QoS Action Properties 36 QoS Classes 126, 127, 128, 133 Services with Resource 110 Users Access 105

T
TCP retransmitted packets 167 TELNET typical QoS Policy for 64

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