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Handbook of Power Quality

Edited by

Angelo Baggini

University of Bergamo, Italy

John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Contents

List of Contributors

 

xix

Preface

xxiii

1

Frequency Variations Hermina Albert, Nicolae Golovanov, Aleksander Kot and Janusz Bro'zek

1

1.1 Frequency Quality Indices

3

1.2 Frequency Measuring

4

1.3 Load-Frequenc y Characteristics

6

1.3.1 Influence of the Frequency Variation on the Actuation Motors

6

1.3.2 Capacitor Bank and Harmonic Filters

7

1.3.3 Transformers and Coils in the Power Network

7

1.4 Influence of Frequency on Users'Equipmen t

8

1.4.1 Influence

of Frequency Variations on Asynchronous Motors

8

1.4.2 Influence of Frequency Variations on Parallel-Connected Condensers and Coils

11

1.4.3 Influence of Frequency Variations on Series-Connected Condensers and Coils

12

1.5 Governing of Turbine Speed

12

1.6 Frequency Control in Power Systems

16

1.6.1 Composite Load

17

1.6.2 The Generation Characteristic

19

1.6.3 The System Properties and Control Basics

20

1.6.4 Frequency Control in an Islanding System and in Interconnected Systems

22

1.6.5 Frequency Control: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary

23

1.6.6 Technical and Organizational Aspects of Load-Frequency Control

28

Bibliography

29

vi

)

CONTENTS

2 Continuity of Supply Krish Gomatom and Tom Short

31

2.1 Distribution Reliability

31

2.1.1 Customer-Based Indices

32

2.1.2 Load-Based Indices

34

2.1.3 Variation in the Utility Indices

35

2.2 Quality of Supply

36

2.2.1 Customer Service

36

2.2.2 Continuity of Supply

37

2.2.3 Voltage 'Quality

37

2.3 Factors Affecting Reliability Performance

40

2.3.1 Reliability Indices Reporting

41

2.3.2 Differences Based on Type of Supply

42

2.4 Improving Reliability

44

2.4.1 Utility-Side Improvement Options

44

2.4.2 Custom Power Devices

46

2.5 Costs, Markets

and Value for Reliability

49

2.5.1 Size of the End-User Load and Duration Affect Cost

49

2.5.2 Market for Reliability

50

2.5.3 Value of Reliability: a Macro View

51

2.5.4 Impact of Reliability Events on End-User Productivity

53

2.5.5 Mapping Reliability to End-User Facility Operating Hours

54

Bibliography

57

3 Voltage Control in Distribution Systems

59

Andnej

Kanicki

3.1 Description of the Phenomena

60

3.2 Disturbance Sources

61

3.3 Disturbance Effects

62

3.3.1 Load Models

62

3.3.2 Voltage Drop

63

3.3.3 Voltage Stability

64

3.4 Methods of Effect Elimination

68

3.4.1 Generator Excitation Control

68

3.4.2 Transformer Ratio Control

70

3.4.3 Voltage Control by Means of Reactive Power Flow Change

72

3.4.4 Voltage Control by Means of Network Impedance Change

74

3.4.5 Node Voltage Optimization

76

3.5 Standards

76

3.5.1

Voltage Standards in Grid Normal Operating Conditions

76

CONTENTS

 

3.5.3

Voltage Standards in Middle- and Low-Voltage Distribution Networks

77

Bibliography

77

4

Voltage Dips and Short Supply Interruptions Zbigniew Hanzelka

79

4.1 Description of the Phenomena

79

4.2 Parameters

82

4.2.1

Voltage Dip Duration

82

4".2_2 - Magnitude of a Voltage Dip

83

4.3 Sources

87

4.3.1

Sources of Voltage Dips

87

4.3.2

Sources of Short Supply Interruptions

89

4.4 Effects

89

4.4.1

IT Equipment and Control Systems

90

4.4.2

Contactors and Relays

92

4.4.3

Induction Motors

92

4.4.4

Synchronous Motors

93

4.4.5

Variable Speed Drives

93

4.4.6

High-Pressure Discharge Lamps

94

4.5 Mitigation

94

4.5.1 Reduction of the Number of Faults

95

4.5.2 Reduction

of the Fault Clearance Time

95

4.5.3 Modification of the Supply System Configuration

96

4.5.4 Voltage Stabilizers

97

4.5.5 Improvement in Equipment Immunity

98

4.6 Measurement

100

4.6.1 Principles of Measurement

100

4.6.2 Statistical Methods of Analysis

112

4.6.3 Area of Vulnerability

114

4.7 Contract

114

4.7.1 Duration of Measurements

116

4.7.2 Reference Voltage Value

116

4.7.3 Location and Method of Connection of Measuring Instrument

117

4.7.4 Technical Specifications for Measuring Instrumentation

118

4.7.5 Threshold Values for Disturbance Detection

118

4.7.6 Techniques of Reporting the Measurement Results

119

4.7.7 Methods for Aggregation of Measurement Results

119

4.8 Standards

124

4.9 Alternative Voltage Dip Indices

126

4.9.1 Indices Based on the Voltage Change

126

4.9.2 Energy-Related Indices

127

 

CONTENTS

Acknowledgement

 

131

Bibliography

131

5 Voltage Fluctuations and Flicker Araceli Hernandez Bayo

135

5.1

Description of the Phenomenon

135

5.1.1 Voltage Changes, Voltage Fluctuations and Flicker

135

5.1.2 Physiology of Flicker Perception

137

5.2 Parameters

 

138

5.3 Measurement

139

 

5.3.1 The IEC Flickermeter

139

5.3.2 Use of the Flickermeter

146

5.3.3 Simplified Methods for P st Assessment

148

5.4 Sources

 

151

 

5.4.1 Industrial Loads

152

5.4.2 Electrical Appliances Supplied from LV Networks

155

5.4.3 Wind Turbine Generation Systems

155

5.5 Effects

 

156

5.6 Mitigation Strategies

156

 

5.6.1

Devices Based on Decreasing Reactive Power Variations

157

5.6.2

Methods Oriented to Increase the Short-Circuit Power

160

5.6.3

Other Solutions for Flicker Mitigation

161

Bibliography

161

6 Voltage and Current Unbalance Irena Wasiak

163

6.1 Description of the Phenomena

163

6.2 Symmetrical Components of Currents and Voltages

165

6.3 Parameters

 

170

6.4 Measurements

171

6.5 Sources

 

173

6.6 Effects

174

 

6.6.1

Asynchronous Motors

174

6.6.2

Synchronous Generators

174

6.6.3

Converters

175

6.6.4

Other Loads

175

6.7 Mitigation

175

 

6.7.1 Principle of Balancing

176

6.7.2 Static Compensators

178

6.8 Standards

 

181

 

6.8.1 Limits

181

6.8.2 Principles of Assessment

183

Bibliography

 

184

CONTENTS

7 Voltage and Current Harmonics Angelo Baggini and Zbigniew Hanzelka

7.1 Description of the Phenomena

7.1.1 Composition of Distorted Waveform

7.1.2 Decomposition of Distorted Waveform

7.1.3 Harmonics and Symmetrical Components

7.1.4 Classification of Distortion Components

187

187

188

189

190

190

7.1.5 Quantities Describing Voltage and Current Distortion

192

7.2 Parameters

194

7.3 Measurements

195

7.4 of Current Harmonics

Sources

200

7.4.1

Transformers

200

7.4.2

Motors and Generators

202

7.4.3

Arc'Furnaces

202

7.4.4

Fluorescent Lighting

204

7.4.5

Electronic and Power Electronic Equipment

204

7.4.6

Harmonic Current Values/Magnitudes for Selected Loads

208

7.5 Voltage and Current Harmonics

209

7.6 Effects

213

7.6.1

Power Factor

214

7.6.2

Overheating of Phase and Neutral Conductors

217

7.6.3

Skin Effect

218

7.6.4

Motors and Generators

221

7.6.5

Transformers

223

7.6.6

Capacitors

226

7.6.7

Light Sources

227

7.6.8

Nuisance Tripping of Circuit-Breakers

228

7.6.9

Earth-Fault Currents

229

7.6.10

Converters and Electronic Equipment

230

7.6.11

Measuring Instruments

232

7.6.12

Relay and Contactor Protective Systems

234

7.6.13

Telecommunications Interference

236

7.7 Mitigation

236

7.7.1 Methods of Voltage Distortion Reduction

236

7.7.2 Reduction of Harmonic Emission

237

7.7.3 Reduction of the Coupling Between Sensitive Load and Harmonic Source

252

7.7.4 Reduction of Load Sensitivity to Disturbances

252

7.8 Standards

257

Bibliography

259

(x

)

CONTENTS

Overvoltages Franco Bua, Francesco Buratti and Alan Ascolari

8.1 Description of the Phenomena

8.1.1 Continuous (Power Frequency) Voltage

8.1.2 Temporary Overvoltage

8.1.3 Transient Overvoltage

8.1.4 Combined Overvoltage

8.1.5 Overvoltage Propagation

8.2 Parameters

8.2.1-• Lightning Impulse Protective Level of a Surge Arrester

8.2.2 Switching Impulse Protective Level of a Surge Arrester

8.3 Sources

8.3.1 Internal Overvoltages

8.3.2 External Overvoltages

8.4 Effects

8.4.1 Breakdown Consequences

8.4.2 Reduction of Overvoltage Risk and Level

8.5 Mitigation

8.5.1 Principles of Protection

8.5.2 Insulation Coordination

8.5.3 Overvoltage Protective Devices

8.6 Standards

8.6.1 Insulation Coordination

Bibliography

Analysis of Waveforms in Modern Power Systems Johan Rens and Piet Swart

299

9.1 Frequency Analysis of Non-Sinusoidal Waveforms:

Practical Considerations

300

9.2 Analog-to-Digital Conversion

300

9.2.1 Signal-to-Noise Ratio

300

9.2.2 Spectral Leakage and Aliasing

301

9.2.3 Spectral Leakage and Windowing

301

9.2.4 Metrological Features of Measurement System

302

9.2.5 Harmonic Power Measurement in Non-simultaneous Sampling

302

9.3 Sequence Component Analysis

307

9.3.1 Fortesque Transform Redefined for Non-sinusoidal Circuits

307

9.3.2 Three-Wire Power System Analysis

309

9.3.3 Four-Wire Power System Analysis

316

9.4 IEEE 1459: Power Definitions for Modern Power Systems

321

9.4.1

Voltage and Current Quantities under Non-sinusoidal Unbalanced Conditions

321

CONTENTS

¥§/

 

9.4.3 Arithmetic Apparent Power

 

324

9.4.4 The Vector Apparent Power

324

9.4.5 The Effective Apparent Power

325

9.4.6 Harmonic Pollution and Unbalance

326

9.4.7 Fundamental Frequency Active and Reactive Power

 

327

9.4.8 Power Factor Definitions

 

327

9.5

Localization of Sources of Waveform Distortion in a Modern Power System

 

328

Bibliography

 

329

10

Earthing Franco Bua, Francesco

Buratti

and Antoni

Klajn

331

10.1 Typical Earthing System

331

10.2 Electric Resistivity of Soil

332

10.3 Electrical Properties of the Earth Electrodes

 

335

 

10.3.1 Resistance and Impedance to Earth

335

10.3.2 Voltage-to-Earth and Surface Potential Distribution

339

10.3.3 Properties of Earth Electrodes at Lightning Currents

340

 

10.4

Typical Earth-Electrode Constructions

 

342

 

10.4.1 Simple Horizontal Earth Electrodes

 

343

10.4.2 Simple Rod, Vertical Earth Electrodes

346

10.4.3 Simple, Combined Earth Electrodes

'

349

10.4.4 Meshed Earth Electrodes

 

350

10.4.5 Foundation Earth Electrodes

352

10.4.6 Cable with Earthing Effect

354

 

10.5

Earthing Arrangements in Protection Against Electric Shock

 

355

 

10.5.1 Earthing Arrangements as Protection Elements in LV Networks

357

10.5.2 Earthing Arrangements as Protection Elements in HV Networks

358

 

10.6

Role of Earthing in Electronic and Telecommunication Systems

361

 

10.6.1 Protective and Functional Earthing

362

10.6.2 Combined Earthing System

 

362

10.6.3 Safety Aspects

363

10.6.4 Functionality Aspects

366

10.6.5 Disturbances and Coupling Mechanisms

 

367

10.6.6 Low-Noise Equipotential Bonding

369

 

10.7

Lifetime Aspects of the Earthing Arrangements

370

 

10.7.1 Chemical Corrosion

 

370

10.7.2 Corrosion Caused by Stray (Direct) Currents

 

372

10.7.3 Galvanic (Electrochemical) Corrosion

373

 

10.8

Measurements of Earthing Arrangements

 

375

 

10.8.1

Measurement

of Soil Resistivity

376

10.8.2

Measurement of Resistance to Earth of an Earth Electrode

377

 

Bibliography

380

(S)

CONTENTS

11

Reliability of Electricity Supply: Structure Angelo Baggini, David Chapman and Francesco Buratti

383

11.1

Basic Schemes of Electrical Grids

384

 

11.1.1 Simple Radial System

384

11.1.2 Ring Scheme

385

11.1.3 Double Radial Scheme

387

11.1.4 Meshed Scheme

388

11.1.5 Compound Scheme

388

 

11.2

General Criteria for the Study and Choice of the Schemes

389

 

11.2.*!-. Parameters and Basic

Conditions

389

11.2.2

Scheme of the Grid as a Link Between Supplies and Loads

389

11.2.3

Characteristics of the Installation

390

11.2.4

The System Supply Section and End Section

400

11.2.5

The Standard and Preferential Functions

400

 

Bibliography

401

12

Reliability of Electricity Supply: Appliances and Equipment 403 Roberto Villafdfila-Robles and Joan Bergas-Jane

12.1 Power Quality, Reliability and Availability

12.2 General Aspects of Reliability Appliances

12.3 Power System Protection Alternatives

12.3.1 Power Conditioners

12.4 Emergency and Standby Power Systems

12.4.1 Engine-Driven Generators

12.4.2 Microturbine-Driven Generators

12.4.3 Uninterruptible Power Systems

12.4.4 Dynamic UPS

12.4.5 Static UPS

12.4.6 Hybrid Static/Dynamic UPS

12.4.7 D.C. Power Supply Systems

12.4.8 Technological Comparison

12.5 Dynamic UPS Systems

12.5.1 Modern Flywheels

12.5.2 Components

12.5.3 Classification

12.5.4 Application

12.5.5 Future Developments and Applications

12.6 Static UPS System

12.6.1 Components

12.6.2 Classification

12.6.3 UPS Technology

404

405

406

407

410

411

413

414

415

416

417

420

421

425

425

425

426

427

429

429

429

432

433

CONTENTS

(Xiii

 

12.6.4 Application

438

12.6.5 Future Developments and Applications

440

 

12.7

Good Engineering Practice

442

Bibliography

 

443

13

Monitoring Power Quality Andreas Sumper and Samuel Galceran-Arellano

445

 

13.1

Monitoring Objectives

445

 

13,1.1

Benefits of Power Quality Monitoring

446

 

13.2

Measurement Issues

447

 

13.2.1 Measurement Chain

447

13.2.2 R.M.S. Measurement

448

13.2.3 Transients Measurement

448

13.2.4 Sampling Rate

449

13.2.5 Bandwidth Amplitude/Frequency

449

13.2.6 Accuracy

449

13.2.7 Precision

449

13.2.8 Resolution

450

13.2.9 Measurement Aggregation Algorithm

450

 

13.3

Selection of Monitoring Instruments

451

 

13.3.1 General Features of Monitoring Instruments

452

13.3.2 Signal Input/Output

453

13.3.3 Functions

454

 

13.4

Successful Power Quality Monitoring

454

 

13.4.1 Power Quality Program

454

13.4.2 Managing Monitoring Projects

456

13.4.3 Immunization Program

458

 

13.5

Postprocessing Monitoring Results

460

 

13.5.1

Interpreting Monitoring Results

460

13.5.2

Data Collection and Monitoring Systems

460

13.5.3

Software and Data Analysis Tools

460

13.5.4

Power Quality Data Interchange Format (PQDIF)

461

 

Bibliography

461

14

Static Converters and Power Quality Mircea Chindris and Antoni Sudria-Andreu

463

14.1

Impact of Static Converters on the Supply Network

464

 

14.1.1 Industrial Equipment

464

14.1.2 Control and Informatics Equipment

469

14.1.3 Solutions

470

14.1.4 Electromagnetic Compatibility Issues

477

xivj

CONTENTS

 

14.2

Impact of Supply Network Disturbances on Static Converters

 

487

 

14.2.1

Impact of Voltage Disturbances on Static Converters

487

14.2.2

Voltage Sag Susceptibility

490

14.2.3

Immunization Techniques

490

 

Bibliography

494

15

Compensation of Reactive Power Stefan Fassbinder and Alan Ascolari

 

499

15.1

Basics

500

 

15.1.1 "Characteristics of Inductances and Capacitances

 

500

15.1.2 Reactive Power

^

502

15.1.3 Wattless current

'

503

15.1.4 Reactive Power Compensator

505

 

15.2

Power Factor Correction

506

 

15.2.1 Control and Regulation of Reactive Power

506

15.2.2 Centrally and Dispersed Compensation

508

15.2.3 Detuning

510

 

15.3

Passive Filters

513

 

15.3.1

Dedicated Filtering Circuits for Individual Frequencies

514

15.3.2

Central and Dispersed Solution

515

15.3.3

L/C Ratio

516

15.3.4

Sound Frequency Signals

518

 

Bibliography

519

16

Distributed Generation and Power Quality Vu Van Thong and Johan Driesen

 

521

16.1

Distribution Network Modeling

522

 

16.1.1 Steady-State Modeling

522

16.1.2 Dynamic Modeling

523

 

16.2

Power Quality and DG

524

 

16.2.1

Voltage Rise

524

16.2.2

Voltage Dips

524

16.2.3

Voltage Fluctuations and Flicker

524

16.2.4

Harmonics

525

16.2.5

Unbalance

526

16.2.6

Direct Current

526

 

Bibliography

526

17

Electricity Market Pieter Vermeyen and Johan Driesen

 

529

17.1

Market Players

529

 

17.1.1 Electricity Producers

530

17.1.2 Grid Operators

530

CONTENTS

 
 

17.1.3

Electricity Retailers

 

531

17.1.4

Regulators

a

531

 

17.2

Contract Types

531

 

17.2.1 Residential Customers

 

532

17.2.2 Small Businesses

 

532

17.2.3 Small and Medium-Sized Companies

 

533

17.2.4 Large Companies

 

533

 

17.3

Load Management in the Electricity Market

 

534

 

17.3.1

Reason for Load Management

534

17.3.2

Multiple Electricity Tariff

535

*-17:3.3

Real-Time Pricing

535

17.3.4

Contracts for Reducing Consumption

536

17.3.5

Intelligent Energy Meter

 

536

17.3.6

Other Techniques

537

 

17.4

Power Quality in the Electricity Market

.

 

537

 

17.4.1

Power Quality Contracts

 

538

17.4.2

Power Quality Market

542

 

Bibliography

 

,

543

18

Cost of Poor Power Quality Roman Targosz and Jonathan

Manson

545

18.1 Exploring PQ Cost

547

 

18.1.1 Staff Cost

547

18.1.2 Work in Progress

 

547

18.1.3 Equipment Malfunctioning

 

548

18.1.4 Equipment Damage

 

548

18.1.5 Other Costs

 

548

18.1.6 Specific Costs

548

18.1.7 Savings

549

 

18.2 Studies on Cost of Poor PQ

 

549

18.3 Long Interruptions

 

552

18.4 Short Interruptions

556

18.5 Voltage Dips

556

18.6 Harmonics

558

18.7 Other Disturbances

559

18.8 Profiles by Sector

561

18.9 Cost Per Event of PQ Disturbances

 

570

18.10 PQ Solutions

 

574

18.11 Investment Analysis to Mitigate Costs of PQ

 

582

 

18.11.1 Investment Analysis

 

582

18.11.2 Capital Budgeting

583

18.11.3 Project Classifications

583

18.11.4 Cost of Capital

 

584

18.11.5 The Time Value of Money

 

584

18.11.6 Future Value of a Single Cash Flow

585

CONTENTS

 

18.11.7

Present Value of a Single Cash Flow and of a Cash Flow Stream

586

18.11.8

Deterministic Approach to PQ Investment Analysis

586

18.11.9

Discounted Cash Flow Methods

587

18.11.10

Non Discounted Cash Flow Methods

590

18.11.11

Break-even Analysis

591

Bibliography

592

19 Power Quality and Rational Use of Energy Pieter Vermiyen -and Johan Driesen

593

19.1

Reasons for Rational Use of Energy

594

19.1.1 Sustainable Development

594

19.1.2 Economic Considerations

594

19.1.3 Electricity Industry

595

19.2

Techniques for Rational use of Energy

595

19.2.1 Adapted Use of Electrical Systems

595

19.2.2 Efficient Loads

 

596

19.2.3 Variable Tariffs

598

19.3

Impact on Power Quality

598

19.3.1

Emission of Harmonic Distortion by Fluorescent Lamps

598

19.3.2

Emission

of Harmonic Distortion by VSDs

601

19.3.3

Immunity of Fluorescent Lamps

603

19.3.4

Immunity of VSDs

603

Bibliography

605

20 Perceived Power Quality Maurizio Caciotta

 

607

20.1 Customer Definition

607

20.2 Customer Requirements

608

20.3 Analysis Process of the Customer with Respect to the Requirements Concerning the Product

608

20.4 Multiplicity of Goods: Active Categories in the Territory of Rome

609

Bibliography

 

611

Index

613

Case Studies and Annexes Accessible on the Companion Website

Annex 1 Angelo Baggini and Alan Ascolari

CONTENTS

Annex 2 Angelo Baggini and Zbigniew Hanzelka

Annex 3

Andrzej Firlit

Power Theory with Non-sinusoidal Waveforms

Annex 4

Zbigniew Hanzelka

Series and Parallel Resonance