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Topic: Street Crime Submitted to: Miss Riffat Submitted by: Rabia Yousaf (BS10-10) Nimra tariq (BS10-26) Ume Farwa (BS10-16) Saira Ashraf (BS10-28) Qurat ul ain (BS10-23) Nabeela Iqbal (BS10-27) (Date: 31st May 2012)

( Center for Undergraduate Studies) ( Department of Mathematics) (University of the Punjab)

Crime Property Crimes Violent Crimes


Street Crimes

Types of street crimes

Robbery Pickpocketing Illegal drug trade Graffiti Kerb-crawling

Causes of crime Root causes of committing a crime

Poverty and Unemployment Poor parenting skills Peer influence Drugs and alcohol Income and education TV and Newspaper violence Easy asses

Effects of Crime in Society Remedies for Street Crime

Crime has an impact on everyone Especially the Victi Effects of Street Crime on Economy
Eliminate the corruption Strengthen the Law Enforcing Agencie Targeting markets of stolen goods Youth awareness program for education Introduction of technologically advanced security tools Reducing the drug availability Provision of Employment Opportunities Reducing Poverty and Inequality

Role of Pakistani Govt. in Reducing Street Crime Rate Some practical ideas for dealing with street crime Conclusion

An action or omission that constitutes an offense that may be prosecuted by the state and is punishable by law. A crime occurs when someone breaks the law by an overt act, omission or neglect that can result in punishment. A person who has violated a law, or has breached a rule, is said to have committed a criminal offense. There are two main categories of crime: property crime and violent crime: Property Crimes: A property crime is committed when someone damages, destroys or steals someone else's property, such as stealing a car or vandalizing a building. Property crimes are by far the most commonly committed crime in the United States. Violent Crimes: A violent crime occurs when someone harms, attempts to harm, threatens to harm or even conspires to harm someone else. Violent crimes are offenses which involve force or threat of force, such as rape, robbery or homicide. Some crimes can be both property crimes and violent at the same time, for example carjacking someone's vehicle at gunpoint or robbing a convenience store with a handgun.

Street Crimes
The incidence of snatches and thefts at gunpoint, of cars, motorcycles, cell phones, purses, cash and other personnel belongings in markets, bazaars, parks and roadsides, collectively referred to as STREET CRIMES, has been growing at a frenetic rate over the past few years. Every day, on an average nearly 100 cases involving such crimes are reported, much larger and now growing numbers remained unreported owing to the increasing skepticism amongst the victims over police ability to ever recover their property. Very often, offering some form of resistance to the perpetrators ends up in some form of injury or death for the victim. Types of street crimes: Crime on the streets of a city may include many other types of offenses, for example pickpocketing, the open carrying-on of the illegal drug-trade, prostitution in the form of soliciting outside the law, the creation of graffiti and vandalism of public property, and assaults. As a generic term street crime may include all of these, as well as offenses against private property such as the stealing of hub caps.

Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take something of value by force or threat of force or by putting the victim in fear. At common law, robbery is defined as taking the property of another, with the intent to permanently deprive the person of that property, by means of force or fear. Precise definitions of the offense may vary between jurisdictions. Robbery differs from simple theft in its use of violence and intimidation. Types of Robbery: Armed robbery involving use of a weapon. Aggravated robbery involving use of a deadly weapon or something that appears to be a deadly weapon.

Highway robbery or "mugging place outside and in a public place such as a sidewalk, street, or parking lot. Carjacking is the act of stealing a car from a victim by force.

Pickpocketing is a form of larcensy that involves the stealing of money or other valuables from the person of a victim without their noticing the theft at the time. It requires considerable dexterity and a knack for misdirection. A thief who works in this manner is known as a pickpocket. Pickpockets and other thieves, especially those working in teams, sometimes apply distraction, such as asking a question or bumping into the victim. These distractions sometimes require sleight of hand, speed, misdirection and other types of skills. Pickpocketing can be a dangerous trade, since persons aware of the presence of pickpockets in an area may conceal such items as specially designed mousetraps, rat traps or empty decoy wallets on their person. Since pickpockets usually have no way to gauge the contents of a wallet, save by the style of dress of the victim, they must take what they find. Illegal drug trade: The illegal drug trade is a global black market, dedicated to cultivation, manufacturing, distribution, and sale of those substances which are subject to drug prohibition laws. Most jurisdictions prohibit trade, except under license, of many types of drugs by drug prohibition laws.

Graffiti is writing or drawings scribbled, scratched, or sprayed illicitly on a wall or other surface in a public place. Graffiti ranges from simple written words to elaborate wall paintings, and has existed since ancient times, with examples dating back to Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire. In modern times, paint, particularly spray paint, and marker pens have become the most commonly used graffiti materials. In most countries, marking or painting property without the property owner's consent is considered defacement and vandalism, which is a punishable crime. Graffiti may also express underlying social and political messages and a whole genre of artistic expression is based upon spray paint graffiti styles. Kerb-crawling: A kerb crawler (or curb crawler) is a person who drives around areas known for street prostitution soliciting prostitutes for sex. The act is known as "kerb crawling" because the person will typically drive very slowly along the kerbside. Kerb crawlers are widely regarded as a public nuisance because they help keep street prostitutes in business in red-light districts and often solicit pedestrians who are not prostitutes for sex, and as a result, kerb-crawling is illegal in many jurisdictions. Sting operation in which undercover police wait for kerb crawlers to proposition them are a common method for tackling kerb crawling. Causes of crime "Society prepares the crime, the criminal commits it " (Henry Thomas Buckle) There are certain factors in our societies, cultures, system , economy and so on that endorse the potential of criminal activities of an individual. Usually a combination of these factors is behind a person who commits a crime. Reasons for committing a crime include greed, anger, jealously, revenge, or pride. I will

discuss social causes, because from my point of view people are good by default, only the social factors create the criminals.

Root causes of committing a crime

Poverty and Unemployment: Poverty is a major cause of crime, since a hungry man can do literally anything in order to appease his hunger. Unemployment, much like poverty is a major cause of crime. Many young men commit suicides when they are frustrated by extreme poverty and continued unemployment. Many others turn to thieving, picking pockets, robbery etc. Among the people who are seen creating disturbances, causing violence, etc. the majority are the unemployed. Most gangsters do not work, Gangsterism is their only occupation. Poor parenting skills: Children who are neglected or abused are more likely to commit crimes later in life than others. Similarly, sexual abuse in childhood often leads these victims to become sexual predators as adults. Fatherlessness is also one of underestimated cause of crime. Peer influence: A person's peer group strongly influences a decision to commit crime. For example, young boys and girls who do not fit into expected standards of academic achievement can sometimes become lost in the competition. Children of families who cannot afford adequate clothing or school supplies can also fall into the same trap. Researchers believe these youth may abandon schoolmates in favor of criminal gangs, since membership in a gang earns respect and status in a different manner. In gangs, antisocial behavior and criminal activity earns respect and street credibility. Like society in general, criminal gangs are usually focused on material gain. Gangs, however, resort to extortion, fraud, and theft as a means of achieving it. Drugs and alcohol: Some social factors pose an especially strong influence over a person's ability to make choices. Drug and alcohol abuse is one such factor. The urge to commit crime to support a drug habit definitely influences the decision process. Both drugs and alcohol impair judgment and reduce inhibitions (socially defined rules of behavior), giving a person greater courage to commit a crime. Deterrents such as long prison sentences have little meaning when a person is high or drunk. Income and education: Many prisoners could not read or write above elementary school levels, if at all. The most common crimes committed by these inmates were robbery, burglary, automobile theft, drug trafficking, and shoplifting. Because of their poor educational backgrounds, their employment histories consisted of mostly low wage jobs with frequent periods of unemployment. People must make a choice between long-term low income and the prospect of profitable crime.

TV violence:
In TV programs crimes are presented in such a attractive way that the people especially youth get fascinated and indulge in such activities only for the sake of thrill. further, programs on criminal issues in particular provide people with many ideas or way of committing crime. Newspapers: Besides cinemas, newspapers also have a hand in increasing criminal activity. Newspapers increase criminal activity by publishing methods of crime through news items, by printing many news items relating to crime, by making crime a general subject, by printing news of major crimes and showing their advantages, circulating the names of criminals, by highlighting causes which tend to increase crime in the name of studies of crime sand by warning and alerting criminals by publishing police methods. The recent wave of dacoities in Pakistan was to some extent indirectly assisted by newspapers.

Easy asses:
Another factor many criminologists consider key to making a life of crime easier is the availability of

handguns in society. Many firearms used in crimes are stolen or purchased illegally (bought on what is called the "black market"). Firearms provide a simple means of committing a crime while allowing offenders some distance or detachment from their victims. By the beginning of the twenty-first century firearm use was the eighth leading cause of death in the world. Hot weather: Studies have suggested that warmer temperatures boost aggression hormones such as epinephrine and testosterone. It has long been known by police officers that cold winter nightskeep criminals off the streets and crime levels down. Crime scientists speculate that one of the hidden consequences of global warming will be an increase in street crime during mild winters.

Effects of Crime in Society

Crime exacts an enormous financial toll on society. Crime is often glorified through movies and music. Crime happens in many forms and has different effects. Just about everyone in any Country has been exposed to some form of crime in their lifetimes, if not performing crimes themselves. Typically, crime is kept under control by processes of the law and law enforcement. Sometimes, however, crime has a tremendous effect on society and the people within it as a whole. Crimes are not committed solely by any single race of people or class of people. Crime is committed by people of all origins and backgrounds, and its effects are felt by all in society, not just those in direct contact with the crime. In the end, all those who are involved in active society end up experiencing some effect of crime. In areas where crime is prevalent residents notice direct effects in terms of the social effects of crime vary among the various segments of the general population. Statistics show that men are far more likely to be victims of crime than women. Studies show that women, however, fear crime far more than men. Other patterns reveal that the elderly fear crime more than younger adults, and children fear crime more than adults. While women have less chance of being a victim, the crimes they suffer are more violent including rape and domestic abuse. Another factor is that women, the elderly, and the very young are physically weaker than the common offender making them feel more susceptible to crime. Society loses when investing in new jails rather than paying employees higher wages. A study has proven that society pays over twice the average household income for one inmate's incarceration. This means that instead of that money being invested in prevention through higher wages or better education, taxpayers pay more to keep criminals safe and well fed. Parents have also felt the sting of crime by changing the ways their children play. It is less likely for children in present days to play outside because of the general unrest of unpredictable and heinous crimes. Alarm systems are on rise for the average American household, as well as paranoid and depressive behavior associated with the effects of crime.

Crime has an impact on everyone Especially the Victim:

Victims of crime and their significant others (family and friends) go through a difficult adjustment period following a crime. Whether they have been physically hurt or had their house broken into, chances are the crime will have an impact. The trauma that people experience after being victimized is not a sign of weakness. It is a stress reaction to the loss of safety and security brought about by the crime. If you or someone close to you has been the victim of a crime, you many find that you are experiencing some or all of the reactions listed below:


Extremely fearful! Angry,resentful/revengeful and easily agitated. Anxious-n edge,easily startled and suspicious of everyone violated and vulnerable. Embarrassed about some of the details of the event. Guilty about your actions or reactions. Alone-disconnected and different from others. Scattered-unable to focus on work or daily activities. Sleepless nights, nightmares, headaches, changes in appetite.

These reactions can last for several hours, days, weeks, months or even years depending on the individual and the circumstances that they are faced with. Crime effects people by making them fearful and changing most things in their life. For example parents aren't going to allow their children alone outside or at the supermarket will crime prevalent. People may also become meaner as to protect themselves.

Effects of Street Crime on Economy:

If the world economy is good, then money flow is most likely vibrant which means that people everywhere are willing to buy and sell products, start new businesses, etc. Money flow allows countries' economies to grow and stay healthy. More money flow means that everyone is buying from everyone else, which means that everyone wins in the end. Think of all the world's economies like a metal-link chain. The chain is really only as strong as the weakest link (aka the weakest country's economy). When the link breaks (aka country goes in a recession), all the other links fall apart because they are no longer connected. All the other countries need that economy to do well because they do business with that country and need them to buy and sell products in order to keep the money flow alive.

Remedies for Street Crime

Street crime is posing serious challenge to law enforcement agencies in the country as this creates a sense of insecurity and a lack of the writ of the state and tarnishes the image of the country. It can only flourish with the support of powerful vested interest groups and organized crime that can influence the decisions of the government and thus frustrate all efforts to stem the tide of lawlessness. It has a snowball effect as it generates more resources and attracts bigger players and becomes part of organized crime. In order to formulate the strategy package to fight crime rate, we need to focus on the factors that are leading to these increasing number of street crimes. The solution to the dominant factors which are responsible for increasing rate of crime in Pakistan are separately discussed below. Eliminate the corruption: Corruption in the crime control officials (Police) is the main factor in increasing rate of street crime in Pakistan. People, specially youth, has no fear what so ever in breaking the laws because they know that if they get caught, theyll be released on spot in return of Rs. 50. Some actions are taken to minimize the factor of corruption from traffic police for which cameras were placed in high profile areas of Karachi but due to the loop holes, the problem is still there. If this problem of corruption is eliminated from the Police system, crime rate will fall by 7075%. Strengthen the Law Enforcing Agencies: In Pakistan, Police seems to have limited authority. There is a need to increase the authorities of police and solve their problems in order to improve their attitude towards work. As a result, the control over the offenders will be increased. Most of the offenders do it freely just because they know that there is no one to catch them. If police arrests 20 or 30 criminals and give them

proper punishment, the other criminals will think twice before doing illegal acts.

Targeting markets of stolen goods:

Goods are stolen generally to sell. There are specific markets where these stolen goods are sold specially for electronic items like mobile and laptops. If the markets are eliminated, the incentive to steal or rob will decline significantly. As far as the sell of legal used goods is concerned, they can be made sell able by showing their purchase receipts. Youth awareness program for education: In this modern world today there are still many people who cannot recognize the importance of education, especially higher education. In addition to the steps to make higher education attainable for poor, there is a need of some youth awareness program that can highlight the importance of education in youth. Higher education will increase the probability of the person to get employed which can reduce the chances of him to involve in street crime. Criminals often know about the loopholes in the antitheft security mechanism such as car trackers. Technologies used for such tools in developing countries like Pakistan are old and criminals are well aware of their weaknesses. In order to make sure that the tools actually works, new technologies are needed to be introduced such as GSM based tracking or Radio Frequency tracking which is used in South Africa and it is much more effective than the GPS system. Maintaining the record: Government should maintain record of every individual with his criminal activities and asset possession etc, as it is done in developed nations like United Kingdom. All vehicles should be registered with active National Identity Cards so that tracking the criminals could be made easy. With a fear that crime will be registered against his name for a life time, criminal will think twice before committing a crime. Reducing the drug availability: Availability of dangerous drugs is needed to be curtailed so that fewer people get access to it. A drug addicted person cannot work and hence cannot finance his/her drug expenses as a result he steals others assets and sells them in the market to buy the drugs. Drug mafia is needed to be targeted so that the existing drug addicts can be cured other can be saved from getting involved in drugs usage. Provision of Employment Opportunities: Increased opportunities of employment can help in making the street crime rate fall. Employment opportunities can be increased by promoting small scale industries which are suffering due to the high electricity rates and high cost of production. Provisions of incentives to the small scale industries will not only increase the gross domestic product of the country but also it will make the youth busy in productive work, hence the crime rate will fall.

Introduction of technologically advanced security tools:

Reducing Poverty and Inequality:

By using proper taxation tools with guaranteed fair implementation, the inequality can be decreased. Poor can be made better off by targeting food inflation and increasing the minimum wage in the country. The more the youth is involved in the productive work, lesser are the chances of their involvement in criminal activities.

Role of Pakistani Govt. in Reducing Street Crime Rate:

These are some of the solutions which should be adopted by the government to reduce the increasing crime rate and which can contribute in reducing crime rate in Pakistan and will paved the way for progress and development of the country.

Strong judiciary Honest officers in law maintaining departments Increase in salaries of police officers Provide employment opportunity to youth Aid should be used in progress of the nation More and more industries should be set up

Some practical ideas for dealing with street crime :

Stick to well known or popular routes when going home late at night. Avoid quiet short cuts, alleyways, subways and railway bridges or places, such as narrow pathways, where you could be ambushed. Start a Neighbourhood Watch scheme. Only travel with licensed taxi firms. Use expensive gadgets such as mobile phones and MP3 players carefully so as not to advertise the fact that you have valuables to steal. If you are using public transport late at night stick to busy train carriages or sit downstairs or near the front of the bus where the driver can see you. Get involved in local community groups to help drive out crime in your local area. Register your mobile or bike with the police. This may help you to get them back if they are stolen.

There is no single factor that can be specified as the main cause of criminal behavior. This can more accurately be found in the way that multiple risk factors clustered together can interact in the lives of some children, while important protective factors are absent. Moreover, causes of crime differ from country to country, In western world, causes are directly related to the environment of the surroundings. These surroundings can be of school, home, neighborhood or playground. In contrast, causes of street crime in Pakistan are significantly different from that of the western world. Here in Pakistan, the first main cause of street crime is corruption in the law enforcing agencies, if corruption is eliminated; the major part of the problem will be solved. After identification of the root causes of crime in Pakistan, the remedial measures to control the criminal activities must revolve around those identified causes. These remedial measures include mainly the solution to the following problems, Corruption in law enforcing agencies, lack of authorities given to the agencies, unsolved issues of the agencies (like salary increment and provision of modern tools), technological backwardness in context of security tools, poverty and unemployment. Priority wise solution of the problems is the key to success. If the above mentioned remedial measures are taken into account, significant decrease in crime can be achieved. If we fail to do so, all our efforts for progress and economic development will come to naught as street crime will continue to project Pakistan as a lawless and wild country as no amount of image building can be fruitful without safe streets in large urban centers of the country.