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RESEARCH PROJECTS AT UTT

Sommaire
Single photon source made of single nanodiamonds ............................................................................. 3 Life-time studies of ZnO and hybrid ZnO-based nanostructures. ........................................................... 3 Coupling single nanostructures to plasmonic waveguides ..................................................................... 4 Microphotoluminescence of nanostructures .......................................................................................... 4 Nanowire-based photodetector with high gain ...................................................................................... 5 Characterisation of mechanical behaviour of a nanocrystalline layer using micro-dots and instrumented nano-indentor .................................................................................................................. 6 Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) .................................................................................... 7 Reliability-Based Design Optimization Analysis and Remeshing procedure to study tube hydroforming process .................................................................................................................................................... 8 Characterization of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of Hemp fibres intended for the manufacturing of high performance composites ............................................................................................................ 9 Collaborative platform .......................................................................................................................... 10 A Familiar Stranger-based approach for communities identification in social networks of the web .. 11 Doubly resonant plasmonic nanoantennas for quantum dots luminescence ...................................... 12 Communication and multi tasking at work. .......................................................................................... 13 Development of optical nanosensors using block copolymers ............................................................. 14 Characterization of form deviation for finite element simulation ........................................................ 15 Advanced heuristics for robust optimization problems ........................................................................ 16 Statistical Matching of a Camera Fingerprint in Natural Images .......................................................... 17 Assisted templating of ZnO nanowire arrays ........................................................................................ 18 Life Cycle Resource and Land Use Requirement for Photovoltaic (PV) and Wind Energy System in EU 27 ........................................................................................................................................................... 19 Material Flow Analysis (MFA) of Rare Earth Material in China ............................................................. 20 Electronic Billing & Payment (EBP) vs. Paper Billing & Payment (PBP): Dematerialization, Energy Consumption and Environmental Impacts ............................................................................................ 21 Acoustic analysis of crumpled papers ................................................................................................... 22 3D modeling and analysis of crumpled papers ..................................................................................... 22 Dynamic analysis of crumpled papers ................................................................................................... 22 A Familiar Strangerbased approach for communities identification in social networks of the web .. 23

Online GIS module for the processing and mapping of data collected from social media and other sensors................................................................................................................................................... 24 Social media data analysis and visualization: Application to LinkedIn.................................................. 25 Implementation and evaluation of an autonomous management framework for P2P live video streaming services ................................................................................................................................. 26 PhD thesis: Neuro-inspired embedded systems for video surveillance applications ........................... 27

Single photon source made of single nanodiamonds


This project will consist in studying nanodiamonds as single photon sources. The student will study the emission properties of such systems and will show that they are indeed single photon sources. Optical spectroscopy and photon correlation will be the 2 main techniques involved here. The nanodiamonds will be commercially available but will have to be processes and studied during this project. The student will be using a home-made microphotoluminescence set-up designed to address single nanodiamonds. Photon statistics and photon correlation will then be studied in order to understand the quantum optical properties of the nanostructures. Contact: Christophe Couteau, christophe.couteau@utt.fr Laboratory for Nanotechnologies and Optical Instrumentation Key words: single photon source, quantum optics, optical spectroscopy, photoluminescence

Life-time studies of ZnO and hybrid ZnO-based nanostructures.


This project will consist in studying lifetime measurements of nanostructures made of ZnO and hybrid ZnO-based materials. Study of carriers decay times in semiconductors such as ZnO is of prime importance in order to address different applications such as photovoltaic, lighting or sensing applications. The student will study the emission properties of such systems and optical spectroscopy and photon correlation will be the two main techniques involved here. ZnO nanostructures (mainly nanowires but not only) will be available through our various collaborations (GEMaC from Versailles University and start-up Nanovation) but also from our own group done by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) growth. The student will be using a home-made microphotoluminescence set-up designed to address single nanostructures. Photon statistics and photon correlation will then be studied in order to understand the decay properties of the nanostructures. Contact: Christophe Couteau, christophe.couteau@utt.fr Laboratory for Nanotechnologies and Optical Instrumentation Key words: Lifetime, optical spectroscopy, photoluminescence, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

Coupling single nanostructures to plasmonic waveguides


This project will consist in coupling single nanostructures to plasmonic waveguides. The nanostructures will be of various forms such as ZnO nanowires, CdSe nanocrystals and nanodiamonds. The goal of this project is to study the light-matter interaction between a single nanostructure and a plasmonic waveguide. The new field called quantum plasmonics has a great potential in sensing and quantum information for instance. The student will be using a home-made microphotoluminescence set-up designed to address single nanostructures. Photon statistics and photon correlation will then be studied in order to understand the quantum optical properties of the nanostructures. Waveguide fabrication by e-beam lithography might be necessary depending on the structures already available. Contact: Christophe Couteau, christophe.couteau@utt.fr Laboratory for Nanotechnologies and Optical Instrumentation Key words: quantum optics, plasmonics, waveguiding, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, lightmatter interaction

Microphotoluminescence of nanostructures
The goal of this project is to use a home-made microphotoluminescence set-up in order to address optically individual nanostructures such as nanowires but also nanocrystals. Semiconductor spectroscopy will then be studied for these structures as well power and polarization dependence. Microphotoluminescence is a technique that allows the excitation of micro-size areas in order to confine the excitation. By the same token, the luminescence is collected on a same micro-size region of the sample. By this mean the student will study the light-matter interaction at the nanoscale for future applications in sensing, photovoltaic and quantum information. Contact: Christophe Couteau, christophe.couteau@utt.fr Laboratory for Nanotechnologies and Optical Instrumentation Key words: single photon source, quantum optics, optical spectroscopy, photoluminescence

Nanowire-based photodetector with high gain


The goal of this project is to study the photoconductive gain of semiconductor nanowires. Recently, such nanostructures have come across as being very good photodetectors with an important gain (current/light conversion) and could be as efficient as the state of the art commercial detectors. Nevertheless, the true measurement of this photoconductive gain remains unknown and the purpose of this project is to address 2 issues: 1) to use a single photon source for accessing the intrinsic gain of a single semiconductor nanowire and 2) to channel the light efficiently towards the nanowire for efficient detection. The methods used in this project will be: setting-up a microphotoluminescence experiment at room and low temperatures, contacting and fabricating metallic slots for the plasmonic waveguide and finally measure the gain upon illumination with a faint laser source and a single photon source. The results and perspectives for this project are a better knowledge of light-matter interaction at nanometer scales as well as a better understanding of the physical phenomena responsible for the high internal photoconductive gain in semiconductor nanowires. This project is mostly experimental although some simulation will be done too. Contact: Christophe Couteau, christophe.couteau@utt.fr Laboratory for Nanotechnologies and Optical Instrumentation Key words: single photon source, quantum optics, optical spectroscopy, photoluminescence

Characterisation of mechanical behaviour of a nanocrystalline layer using micro-dots and instrumented nano-indentor
Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT patented treatment in 2000 by our lab LASMIS) is a recently developed promising technique to generate a nanocrystallised layer on the surface of metallic components. As a strong refinement of the grain size can lead to a significant increase of strength due to the Hall-Petch relationship, the nanocrystalline layer induced by SMAT is very attractive. The difficulty is to characterise the mechanical behaviour of this nanocrystalline layer itself (thickness between 30 and 50 m composed of nano-grains). In this work, a nanocrystallised layer will be synthetized at the surface of 316L stainless steel by means of SMAT. Micro-dots will be then realised using a new technique based on chemically synthetized mask (patent pending). Both lithography and etching techniques will be combined. This part will be conducted in collaboration with the LNIO (nanofab activity). Finally, the mechanical behaviour of the nanocrystalline layer will be characterised performing compressive tests on the micro-dots thanks to instrumented nano-indentor machine (all these equipments are available in our university). This project is part of the national CNRS risk topic. For more information, please contact Mrs Delphine Retraint Tel.: +33 3 25 71 56 68; fax: +33 3 25 71 56 75. E-mail address: delphine.retraint@utt.fr

Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT)


Due to its excellent corrosion resistance and its biocompatibility, austenitic 316L stainless steel is a widely used material in environments such as the petrochemical, chemical, nuclear, and food industries. However, in its coarse-grained (CG) state, austenitic stainless steel possesses relatively low strength and poor wear resistance that make it unsuitable for many structural applications. It is well known that a strong refinement of the grain size can lead to additional increase of strength due to the HallPetch relationship. So, with the emergence of methods to produce nanostructures, new routes to enhance properties of metals and alloys are arising. Among them, the recently developed surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT patented treatment in 2000 by our lab LASMIS) appears as a promising technique to generate a nanocrystallised layer on the surface of metallic materials. SMAT provides an alternative approach to effectively upgrade the global properties of engineering materials and this, without change of the chemical composition. As SMAT is simple, flexible and low cost, this technique is potentially very useful in industrial applications. In this work, a nanocrystallised layer will be synthetized at the surface of 316L stainless steel by means of SMAT performed at different temperatures. Investigations of the SMATed microstructure (optical and electron microscope observations, X-ray diffraction measurements), the residual stresses and the micro-hardness will be carried out (all the equipments are available in our university). In a second step, the influence of the SMAT on the mechanical properties of the treated steel specimens will be studied (tensile and/or fatigue tests). For more information, please contact Mrs Delphine Retraint Tel.: +33 3 25 71 56 68; fax: +33 3 25 71 56 75. E-mail address: delphine.retraint@utt.fr

Reliability-Based Design Optimization Analysis and Remeshing procedure to study tube hydroforming process
In this project, we are interested particularly in the tube hydroforming process. This process consists to apply an inner pressure combined to an axial displacement to manufacture the part. During the manufacturing phase, inappropriate choice of the load paths can lead to failure. Deterministic approaches are unable to optimize the process by taking into account the uncertainty. So we introduce the Reliability-Based Design Optimization (RBDO) coupled to Remeshing procedure to optimize the process under probabilistic constraints to ensure a high reliability level and stability during the manufacturing phase and avoid the occurrence of such plastic instability. Taking some uncertainties into account the process is very stable associated with a low failure probability. The definition of the objective function and the probabilistic constraints take advantage from the Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) and the Forming Limit Stress Diagram (FLSD) used as a failure criterion to detect the occurrence of wrinkling, severe thinning and necking. To validate the proposed approach, the THP is then introduced as an example. The numerical results show the robustness and efficiency of the RBDO to improve thickness distribution and minimize the risk of potential failure modes.

CHEROUAT Abel, Professor


ICD/GAMMA3 UTT, 12 rue Marie-Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes, France e-mail : abel.cherouat@utt.fr

Characterization of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of Hemp fibres intended for the manufacturing of high performance composites
In this project, the thermo-mechanical behaviour of hemp fibres is investigated by means of a dynamic mechanical analyser. When a periodic stress is applied to an elementary fibre, an increase in its rigidity and a decrease in its damping capacity are observed. These changes in its mechanical properties tend to stabilize after an identified number of cycles, thus providing evidence of an adaptation phenomenon. This specific mechanical behaviour certainly involves biochemical and/or structural modifications, such as micro-fibril reorientation, in the materials organisation. In addition, the behaviour of hemp fibres is affected by temperature, which acts not only as an activation factor, but also as a degradation factor with respect to the visco-elastic properties of the fibres. The rigidity and endurance of the fibres are highly affected by thermal treatment at temperatures above 150C, and up to 180C. Taking these results into account, polypropylenehemp fibre composites were manufactured using a specific processing cycle. By respecting the integrity of the fibres during manufacturing, it is found that with such composites, comparatively high performance can be achieved with some specific mechanical properties. This is highly encouraging for applications requiring high mechanical performance. The aim of this project: Investigation of the mechanical properties of hemp fibres, Polypropylenehemp fibre composites were manufactured. Mechanical properties, i.e. Youngs modulus, stress and strain at rupture, were studied as a function of the mat of the fibres and temperature.

CHEROUAT Abel, Professor


ICD/GAMMA3 UTT, 12 rue Marie-Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes, France e-mail : abel.cherouat@utt.fr

Collaborative platform
Description: Within the framework of the European project 2Centre (Cybercrime Centres of Excellence Network for Training Research and Education) a collaborative platform is being created. This platform should ultimately allows to develop and benchmark a wide range of digital forensics tools (among which analysis of OS and browser log files, files metadata classification, semantic research of office and multimedia files, etc... ). The main goals of this collaborative platform are threefold: * First, the end-users can describe their new and/or problematic case-study to allow a thorough study by researchers. Once a suitable algorithm is proposed, developers can finally contribute to create an open-source software. * Secondly, by using a labeled database of case-study and a database of proposed forensics tools, researchers can compare the performance obtained from a novel method with the state-of-the-art algorithms. * Finally, the comparisons performed on the platform are recorded together with the performances of tested tools to enable end-users to choose the most accurate tool in each forensics case they have to face in practice. The proposed internship is part of the European 2Centre project (www.2centre.eu). The student will have to briefly review current commercial digital forensics tools available together with the state-ofthe-art algorithm published in the literature. Then the student will have to contribute to the development of the platform and/or of the development of digital forensics tools within an opensource framework. According to the achievement and/or the will of the student, the student can contribute to improve robustness, performance, and speed of digital forensics tools working closely with the researchers working on these topics at the UTT. Two students might be available for this internship ; in such a case, one will preferably work on the computer development of platform and forensics tools while the second will preferably do a research internship on digital forensics methods (in the wide sense explained above). Contact: Rmi Cogranne Email: remi.cogranne@utt.fr

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A Familiar Stranger-based approach for communities identification in social networks of the web
Requirement: Algorithms; Graph Theory; Probability. The recent growth of social networks of the Internet has led to new ways of communication and information sharing between members of the same network. An individual (a node) can play several roles in a social network. He may, for example, interact (directly or indirectly) with people who are familiar to him, those who are completely strangers, or even "familiar strangers" to him". The "Familiar Strangers" are individuals who are not directly connected but who share the same "attributes" in their activities in the network. One of the major challenges in the social network analysis is to understand the dynamics of its communities to better monitor and represent them. As in the real society, the social link on a virtual platform will be determined by time, space, attributes (digital identity, interests, etc.) and interaction (data exchange). While the state of art in SNAM (social network analysis and mining) is full of work that takes into account attributes and interactions, few works integrate spatio-temporal constraints. The latest advances in location-based services via mobile phones and other smart devices, open up new perspectives for conceptualizing the notion of virtual space. This conceptualization will contribute ultimately to refine the definition of the concept of community, specifically the notion of familiarity that we can define as an individual's propensity to be or to come in contact with another individual or community. The work required includes: 1. Produce a state of the art on the concept of "Familiar Strangers" (FS) applied to social network of the Web 2. Build a small application (Java or C ++ or other) to implement a FS algorithm and visualize the result on some graphs 3. Build a simulation tool of evolution and formation of communities based on a probability of familiarity For more information send a mail to: babiga.birregah@utt.fr
(Babiga BIRREGAH, University of Technology of Troyes)

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Doubly resonant luminescence

plasmonic

nanoantennas

for

quantum

dots

Control of the luminescence of molecules or nanocrystals is of primary importance for applications such as protein and cell imaging or Light Emitting Devices (LED). It is now well accepted that luminescence is modified in the near vicinity of metallic nanoparticles which is a manifestation of the Purcell effect. Metallic nanoparticles exhibit resonances which are related to Surface Plasmon (SP) excitations, that is collective oscillations of the free electron gas on the metallic surface. These resonances entail a strong modification of the electromagnetic near-field around the nanoparticles leading to a change of both absorption cross section and emission quantum yield of the luminescent species. Even if luminescence is also modified when the nanoparticle is off-resonance stronger effects are observed when it is on-resonance. As quantum dots can be excited at a much lower wavelength than its emission peak it is possible to device metallic nanoparticles exhibiting two distinct SP resonances matching respectively excitation and emission wavelengths of the QD. For blue green emitting QD, illumination should be performed in the near UV where no SP can be excited for gold nanoparticles. However, if near infrared emitting QD are used then it is possible to obtain doubly resonant gold nanostructures. The purpose of this subject is to obtain double enhancement of near-infrared QD luminescence through a well devised arrangement of nanoparticles. (1) J. Grand, et al., Phys. Rev. B, 72, 033407 (2005) (2) P. Viste, J. Plain, R. Jaffiol, A. Vial, P.-M. Adam, P. Royer, ACS Nano. 4, 759 (2010)

Full Professor Pierre-Michel Adam Laboratory of Nanotechnology and Optical Instrumentation LNIO/ICD phone : +33325715661 fax : +3325718456 e-mail : pierre_michel.adam@utt.fr

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Communication and multi tasking at work.


Email systems are used to manage multi-tasking work situations. An analysis has been conducted in Tech-CICO research team about this subject and the link between strategies used when writing emails and the existing functionalities of email systems has been questioned. Based on this critical analysis, the aim of this project is to design new functionalities allowing users to be assisted in their daily use of email systems, in order to enable them to acquire and to implement skills related to the management of communication and multitasking at work. Prerequisites: Skills related to the development of interfaces and multimedia contents (Java, Ajax, Flash, Director, TCL-TK, PHP,) A knowledge of e-mail API would be great keywords: email, multitasking, user-centered design Myriam Lewkowicz Matre de Confrences / Associate Professor Institut Charles Delaunay - UMR CNRS 6279 Tech-CICO (Technologies pour la Coopration, lInteraction et les Connaissances dans les Collectifs) Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT) 12, rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 TROYES CEDEX, FRANCE Tel. 33 (0)3 25 71 + 80 67(direct)/80 08(secr.)/76 98(fax) mob. 33 (0)6 16 47 13 53 www.utt.fr - http://techcico.utt.fr - http://myriam.lewkowicz.free.fr/

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Development of optical nanosensors using block copolymers


Scientfic Supervisor: Thomas MAURER Host Institution: Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et dInstrumentation Optique(LNIO)/ Universit de Technologie de Troyes (UTT) Address : 12 rue Marie Curie, 10000 TROYES email : thomas.maurer@utt.fr Tel : +33 (0) 3 25 75 97 11 Fax : +33 (0) 3 25 71 84 56

Description of the research project :


Context For the past fifteen years, the investigations of the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) for 50nm-100nm Au nanoparticles has opened new perspectives for optical nanosensors. Indeed, there is not any longer the need of using a prism in order to excite plasmons. The application possibilities are all the more numerous as the fundamental studies go to the direction of single molecule sensing. What is at stake today is the development of such large scale and low cost devices. Scientific aim The scientific aim is here to use copolymers as 1.50 deg ecthing masks for Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) in order to fabricate arrays of Au nanocylinders [1]. The idea consists in using PS-PMMA copolymers and in organizing them into domains after annealing. This organization into domains will be controlled by AFM. Then, since the two polymers are not attacked with the same speed by the plasma during the RIE procedure, it 200nm will conduct to the creation of a etching mask (made of holes). The next step is the attack of the Au under-layer -5.57 deg via the holes during another RIE process. Finally, this Figure 1 :AFM image of PS-PMMA mask process should allow the fabrication of arrays of Au after annealinbg cylinders over large surfaces [2]. The interest of such a process is that it does not require expensive technology and paves the way for large-scale production. Once the optical nanosensors is made by the young scientist, sensing tests will be led in Illustration order to detect small quantities of different molecules. [1] K. Asakawa and A. Fujimoto, Appl. Opt. 44 (2005) N34 [2] C. K. Kang et al., Current Applied Physics 9 (2009) 197-200

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Characterization of form deviation for finite element simulation


In the context of metal forming process optimization, the component geometry resulting from the finite element (FE) simulation has to be compared to the desired component geometry. The optimization algorithm then analyses this form deviation to decide the more appropriate direction for optimizing. Several approaches are available for the characterization of form deviation from the nominal geometry such as tolerance zones based on geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T), mean and standard deviation of deviations from the nominal geometry, or a deviation mode characterization. This last approach describes the global deviation as the combination of elementary type of deviation (for a cylinder: diameter, conical, barrel, ovality, undulation ). The project is to develop a methodology for the characterization of form deviation of FE simulation results. Objectives are: The generation of form deviation basis, based on the modal analysis and enrichment with technical deviation modes, The form deviation analysis of finite element meshes where a problem concerns the meshes nodes position that changes when meshes are different, Application to 2D and 3D shell and volume meshes.

Some form deviation modes computed with modal analysis of a meshed cylinder Pierre Antoine Adragna Maitre de confrences - Associate Professor Universit de Technologie de Troyes bureau E202 12 rue Marie Curie - BP 2060 - 10010 Troyes Tel: +33 3 51 59 11 27 fax: +33 3 25 71 56 75 Mail: adragna@utt.fr

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Advanced heuristics for robust optimization problems


Responsible: Andra C. Santos Duhamel (Associate professor, Universit de Technologie de Troyes, Troyes, France) Team: ICD-LOSI, UMR STMR The LOSI (Laboratoire dOptimisation des Systmes Industriels) team works further on mathematical modelling and on designing efficient algorithms to solve combinatorial optimization problems. Our expertises are mainly on logistic topics for transportation, location routing and supply chain problems. The methods developed in LOSI have been applied on industrial and on commercial applications as complete or a piece of decision-making systems. Moreover, the team has also produced advances in scientific terms, particularly for vehicle routing and multiobjectives problems. Site: http://losi.utt.fr/fr/index.html Abstract In this traineeship, the student will be integrated into a high level team. He or she will work together with an expert on the development of classic heuristics for robust versions of well known optimization problems with several applications on transport infrastructures and telecommunication. Tactical and strategic levels of decisions, sometimes with several (conflicting) objectives to optimize, will be investigated. The robust optimization has emerged in the last years as an alternative to perform an optimization over a set of scenarios and it is mainly applied when data are uncertain. An initial literature review will be given for being improved by the trainee. Then, the student will develop algorithms such as greedy heuristics, population-based metaheuristics and local searches. The strategies will be further tested over a number of instances. A final report will be done followed by a possible local presentation. Skills Proficiency in programming (C or C++). Applicants can communicate in English, French or Portuguese. Some knowledge in graphs, operational research strategies for combinatorial optimization problems will be much appreciated. General Information Applicants can contact andrea.duhamel@utt.fr for more details.

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Statistical Matching of a Camera Fingerprint in Natural Images


Background: Imaging is increasingly used as a surveillance tool in various fields: production control, correction maps, image denoising, automatic identification of objects, image segmentation, handwriting recognition, etc. These natural images, however, can be altered (voluntarily or not) by some digital processing and it is therefore desirable to detect automatically the presence of these alterations. An optical acquisition system, a digital camera in particular, changes the physical nature of the image due to its Camera Transfer Function (CTF). This CTF plays the role of a physical fingerprint. Hence, it is desirable to estimate automatically this CTF in order to detect some image manipulations. Objectives: This internship consists of estimating the CTF from an image. There are a finite number of possible CTFs. The proposed problem aims to evaluate the matching of a natural image with a known CTF. In a first step, the evaluation will be done on artificial images whose content is known. In a second step, the image content will be assumed unknown and the loss of matching will be quantified. Summary: To understand the CTF model ; To evaluate the matching between a known CTF and a known natural image ; To evaluate the matching between a known CTF and an unknown natural image. Skills: Signal and image processing, statistics and Matlab programming. Laboratory : Institut Charles Delaunay, Team LM2S, Universit de Technologie de Troyes, Troyes (10). Contact: Dr. Lionel Fillatre (associate professor) E-mail : lionel.fillatre@utt.fr

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Assisted templating of ZnO nanowire arrays


NAME OF THE HOSTING INSTITUTION: Photonics group UTT/ICD/LNIO Internship short description:
Zinc oxide, one of the most promising materials, has unique electrical and optical properties such as wide band gap, large exciting binding energy, high electrical mobility, and high visible transmittance; therefore ZnO has a wide range in many potential applications. The proposed study will focus on the synthesis of ZnO nanowire arrays by on templated ZnO buffer layer by chemical bath deposition. As compared to other deposition methods, CBD referred to as solution deposition method belonging to low temperature process, and this method has its own advantages such as simplicity, low temperature, large growth area and low production cost. In CBD, the crystal morphology is strongly influenced by the solution including the chemical concentrations and temperature and the nature of the buffered substrate. The intern will first concentrate on the preparation of ZnO nanorods by chemical bath deposition and the template buffer layers by means of micro/meso/nanosphere lithography. The effect of the template on the morphologies and more specifically the optical properties will be then examined. An example of a CBD synthesized thin film of ZnO nanorods is given above. Name and function of the internship supervisor: A. Gokarna (Researcher) gokarna@utt.fr / G. Lrondel (Professor), lerondel@utt.fr Student background: 4 year undergraduate or master students in materials science or physics (condensed matter, optics) Internship Dates: Fall 2012 and/or Spring 2013
th

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Life Cycle Resource and Land Use Requirement for Photovoltaic (PV) and Wind Energy System in EU 27
Dr. Junbeum Kim and Dr. Bertland Guillaume CREIDD Research Centre on Environmental Studies & Sustainability, Department of Man, Environment & Information Technology (HETIC), University of Technology of Troyes, France. There has been a dramatic rise in consumption of energy resources, mainly fossil fuels, since the advent of the industrial revolution in 19th century. The World Energy Outlook shows that total energy consumption is expected to increase by 60 percent in the next 25 years (www.iea.org). Therefore, for future world energy demands, renewable energy system is playing an important role to meet the worlds energy demands. Renewable energy technology and systems such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy are consuming a number of metals and rare earth materials and using available land as well as providing direct benefits at national and local levels. The demand for a number of metals and rare materials are forecast to double over the next 50 years (Muilerman and Blonk 2001). Up to date, PV technology has acquired the potential to become a major source of power generation for the world. Figure 1 shows historical PV market development. Especially, European Union (EU) leads PV power generation in the world with almost 30 GW, which is 75% of the worlds total cumulative capacity in 2010. By 2050, this PV system will correspond to between 19 to 27% of the electricity demand in EU (EREC 2010).

Figure 1. Historical PV market development (Data from European Photovoltaic Industry Association) In this study, based on PV and wind energy production scenarios and roadmap by country in EU 27 by 2020 and 2030, the requirement amount of life cycle resources (e.g., types and amount of direct and indirect input metals and rare materials) and land use for PV and wind energy system will be calculated. Also by increasing the energy production efficiency of PV system, the future reduced resources and land use were calculated. Having a product-lifespan of over 30 years, we will explore that by increasing the recycling rate of significant volumes of end-of-life PV modules and wind plant, we will see the recovered important materials amount.

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Material Flow Analysis (MFA) of Rare Earth Material in China


Dr. Junbeum Kim CREIDD Research Centre on Environmental Studies & Sustainability, Department of Man, Environment & Information Technology (HETIC), University of Technology of Troyes, France. These days, the rare earth materials play an important role in many new technologies, such as electric vehicles, energy-efficient lighting, and wind turbines, alternative energy and communications industries. The rare earth materials are the 15 lanthanide series elements (cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium (atomic numbers 5771). China produces nearly 95 percent of the worlds rare earth materials and China became the world's dominant producer of rare earth elements in the early 1990s, when production at the Mountain Pass mine in California began to decline (USGS 2011). China's dominance increased rapidly and in 2000 China accounted for about 90% of world rare earth production. As increasing Chinas economic development, also Chinas consumption of rare earth materials will be increased significantly. China had consumed about 73,000 ton in 2009 with 380 percent increased amount than 52,000 ton in 2000 (USGS 2011). With this background, already China has severely tightened its restrictions on exports of these elements. China has slashed its export quotas by 37 percent in 2010 and by another 35 percent in the first half of 2011 (Torence et.al 2011). The Chinas tightened restriction of rare earth materials will also affect to the industry in the U.S., Japan, and Europe. Based on these backgrounds, a number of key problems and questions regarding the challenges related to Chinas rare earth materials consumption and international trade could be addressed: How much of the rare earth materials do extract, trade, and consume in China? The rare earth materials flow to renewable energy (photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy) and information communication technology (ICT) industry in China. What are the key materials for these industries? How much the rare earth materials are used in these industrial sectors? Estimation of future rare earth material supply and demand for renewable energy and information communication technology (ICT) system in China With Chinas future rare earth material demand, its implication in international demand and supply. The primary objective of this research is to gain a better understanding of rare earth materials flow in China. In this research, also we will see the future demand and supply based on renewable energy and ICT technology system development in China and its impact to international demand and supply of rare earth materials.

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Electronic Billing & Payment (EBP) vs. Paper Billing & Payment (PBP): Dematerialization, Energy Consumption and Environmental Impacts
Dr. Junbeum Kim and Dr. Serge Rohmer CREIDD Research Centre on Environmental Studies & Sustainability, Department of Man, Environment & Information Technology (HETIC), University of Technology of Troyes, France. The recent development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has significantly changed, among others, the ways how products are purchased, used, and discarded. Such changes, in turn, influence how materials and energy are consumed and pollutants are generated along the production consumption chains. One of the areas that ICT can play a significant role in reducing energy consumption and environmental impact is billing. In 2008, an average of 12.4 bills was paid from each household per month in the U.S., among which 56% were paid by paper billing and payment system. The impact of electronic billing and payment on energy and the environment, however, has not been fully captured by previous studies. We want to conduct a research to compare paper billing and payment (PBP) systems with electronic billing and payment (EBP) systems in terms of their life-cycle environmental impact and energy consumption. The analysis will be conducted in two phases: (1) descriptive life cycle assessment (LCA) based on current conditions comparing PBP and EBP systems; (2) consequential LCA based on scenarios for the shift from PBP to EBP systems. The results will be utilized for developing educational YouTube materials on comparative LCA and consequential LCA as well as for outreaching academic and professional communities through presentations and research articles. This research will shed lights on policy implications of other broader changes such as e-government and e-banking. The results of the proposed research will be relevant also for corporate decision-making by offering a better understanding on energy and environmental consequences of billing and payment systems.

Figure 1. PBP System and EBP System

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Acoustic analysis of crumpled papers


Required skills: signal analysis Lab: CREIDD Supervisor: Serge ROHMER, serge.rohmer@utt.fr Description: The objective of this research is to analyze the sound created by crumpled papers. The student will be in charge of the definition of the protocol to measure the acoustic effects created by the folding or unfolding procedure of crumpled papers. The student will apply the protocol on different kinds of crumpled papers. The analysis of the signals will show the relationship between the paper patterns and the sound and the energy used to fold or unfold the papers. This project is a part of a research program dedicated to smart packaging based on crumpled papers.

3D modeling and analysis of crumpled papers


Required skills: mechanical analysis, 3D modeling Lab: CREIDD Supervisor: Serge ROHMER, serge.rohmer@utt.fr Description: The objective of this research is to establish the topological (statistical) analysis of crumpled papers. The student will define the protocol to measure and analyze the topology (orientation, size, ) of crumpled papers. The student will apply the protocol by using a 3d digitizer arm with scanner to analyze different crumpled papers. This project is a part of a research program dedicated to smart packaging based on crumpled papers.

Dynamic analysis of crumpled papers


Required skills: mechanical modeling, strengh analysis Lab: CREIDD Supervisor: Serge ROHMER, serge.rohmer@utt.fr Description: The objective of this research is to analyze the dynamic efficiency of folded objects (based on crumpled papers). The dynamic efficiency of a folded object expresses the ability of the object to create dynamic mechanical interactions with its environment. The student will have to define the type of triggering factors that should be applied to create the dynamic interactions.

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A Familiar Strangerbased approach for communities identification in social networks of the web
Requirement: Algorithms; Graph Theory; Probability. The recent growth of social networks of the Internet led to new ways of communication and information sharing between members of the same network. An individual (a node) can play several roles in a social network. He may, for example, interact (directly or indirectly) with people who are familiar to him, those who are completely strangers, or even "familiar strangers" to him". The "Familiar Strangers" are individuals who are not directly connected but who share the same "attributes" in their activities in the network. One of the major challenges in the social network analysis is to understand the dynamics of its communities to better monitor and represent them. As in the real society, the social link on a virtual platform will be determined by time, space, attributes (digital identity, interests, etc.) and interaction (data exchange). While the state of art in SNAM (social network analysis and mining) is full of work that takes into account attributes and interactions few works integrate spatiotemporal constraints. The latest advances in locationbased services via mobile phones and other smart devices, open up new perspectives for conceptualizing the notion of virtual space. This conceptualization will contribute ultimately to refine the definition of the concept of community, specifically the notion of familiarity that we can define as individual's propensity to be or to become in contact with another individual or community. The work required includes: 1. Produce a state of the art on the concept of "Familiar Strangers" (FS) applied to social network of the Web 2. Build a small application (Java or C ++ or other) to implement a FS algorithm and visualize the result on some graphs 3. Build a simulation tool of evolution and formation of communities based on a probability of familiarity

Contact: BIRREGAH Babiga, Phd Assistant professor ICD UMR-CNRS 6279 STMR Joint Research Unit in Sciences and Technologies for Risk Management Babiga.birregah@utt.fr

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Online GIS module for the processing and mapping of data collected from social media and other sensors
In recent years, social media have proven their importance in the emergence and ad-hoc crisis management communities. Given the success of these platforms, we are interested in studying their key role in community resilience during a crisis. The contribution of social media like Twitter, Flickr and Facebook and other platforms such as Ushahidi, Sahana Eden Google Person Finder in times of sudden and widespread crises (earthquake, flood, etc..) is no longer to be demonstrated (Goolsby 2010, NorheimHagtun & Meier 2010). However, several issues remain unexplored such as their availability, reliability and efficiency. Among the information that could be displayed for crisis mapping one could include information about missing persons, location of emergency resources (rescue teams, healthcare facilities, etc.), the state of transport and communication networks, etc. The joint research unit (UMR CNRS STMR) in Sciences and Technologies for Risk Management is involved in the development of a global framework in crisis management. We are now interested in developing research in the area of crisis mapping using an integrated approach involving different sources of information. A first module was developed a few months ago. It remains to deploy this platform on internet to allow remote users to test it as an online multi-game platform. One needs thus to set up user interface. The intern will work with an interdisciplinary team working on crisis management. Specific Tasks: 1. Build the user interface of the platform, 2. Develop a web interface from which users can report incidents or other types of information to feed the map in real time, 3. Write a user guide. Requirements: The applicant must basic programming experience is required (web oriented- php, JavaScript, etc.). The successful candidate is expected to work in English. Previous knowledge of French is not required. A basic knowledge of APIs for spatial visualization and data collection on social media will be appreciated but not mandatory. Applicants should submit a CV and a statement of prior studies and other experiences with respect to the above mentioned requirements via email. Bibliographie Goolsby, R. (2010), Social media as crisis platform: The future of community maps/crisis maps, ACM Trans. Intell. Syst. Technol. 1, 7:17:11. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1858948.1858955 Magsino, S. (2009), Applications of social network analysis for building community disaster resilience: workshop summary, Natl Academy Pr. Norheim-Hagtun, I. & Meier, P. (2010), Crowdsourcing for Crisis Mapping in Haiti, Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 5(4), 8189. Perez, C., Lemercier, M., Birregah, B. & Corpel, A. (2011), Spot1.0: Scoring suspicious profiles on twitter, in International Conference on Advances in Social Network Analysis and Mining, ASONAM 2011 (July, 25-27). Accepted. Shklovski, I., Palen, L. & Sutton, J. (2008), Finding community through information and communication technology in disaster response, in Proceedings of the 2008 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work, CSCW 08, ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 127136. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1460563.1460584 Contact: BIRREGAH Babiga, Phd, Assistant professor, Babiga.birregah@utt.fr ICD UMR-CNRS 6279 STMR Joint Research Unit in Sciences and Technologies for Risk Management

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Social media data analysis and visualization: Application to LinkedIn


1. Explore all the functionalities of LinkedIn analytics provided by LinkedIn labs. 2. Propose a graph model of this social network, 3. Propose visualization tool that can help to understand the dynamic of this network Requirements: The applicant must have some knowledge in Computer Science and must be used with Social Media platforms and services (LinkedIn, Facebook, etc.). Basic programming experience is required (web oriented- php, JavaScript, etc.). The successful candidate is expected to work in English. Previous knowledge of French is not required. A basic knowledge of APIs for spatial visualization and data collection on social media will be appreciated but not mandatory. Applicants should submit a CV and a statement of prior studies and other experiences with respect to the above mentioned requirements via email. Contact: BIRREGAH Babiga, Phd Assistant professor ICD UMR-CNRS 6279 STMR Joint Research Unit in Sciences and Technologies for Risk Management Babiga.birregah@utt.fr

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Implementation and evaluation of an autonomous management framework for P2P live video streaming services
Description of work: This training consists in developing a Java-based autonomous framework for the management of a peer-to-peer live video service. First of all, the student will have to study previous research work that was performed in our lab. The latter deals with (1) the design of an adaptive monitoring plane for distributed management information and (2) adaptive control mechanisms for the performance enhancement of P2P live streaming systems. Then, the student will integrate all these research contributions into a unique framework that will gather all the already developed elements. In a third time, the student will evaluate this implementation through a largescale experiment in the PlanetLab environment. The final goal of this work is to publish an opensource version of the developed framework. Research references: R. Makhloufi, G. Doyen, G. Bonnet, and D. Gati. SAAM: a Self-Adaptive Aggregation Mechanism for Autonomous Management Systems. In Proceedings of the 13th IEEE/IFIP International Network Operations and Management Symposium- NOMS12. To appear, 2012. R. Makhloufi, G. Doyen, G. Bonnet, and D. Gati. Towards self-adaptive management frameworks: The case of aggregated information monitoring. In O. Festor and E. Lupu, editors, Proceedings of the 7th ACM/IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Network and Service Management CNSM11, pages 15. IEEE, 2011. I. Ullah, G. Doyen, Bonnet G., and D. Gati. User behavior anticipation in P2P live video streaming systems through a bayesian network. In N. Agoulmine, C. Bartolini, T. Pfeifer, and D. OSullivan, editors, Proceedings of the 12th IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management - IM11, pages 337344. IEEE, 2011. Keywords: Autonomous network management, P2P networks, live video streaming Required skills: Advanced Java programming, software engineering, networks principles, P2P networks Duration: 6 months Starting date: Autumn 2012 Contact: Guillaume DOYEN (Associate Professor): guillaume.doyen@utt.fr Rafik Makhloufi (PhD): rafik.makhloufi@utt.fr

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PhD thesis: Neuro-inspired embedded systems for video surveillance applications


Graduate School: Sciences of Technological and Organizational Systems (SSTO) Speciality: Optimization and Security of Systems (OSS) University of Technology of Troyes (UTT) http://www.utt.fr/en/education/phd-studies.html Application: Please click here. Funding from September 2012 till August 2015: Research department of Ministry or Regional Council Deadline for applications: April 28th 2012 Co-supervisors: Michel Doussot, ERA/STMR, University of Technology of Troyes Michel Paindavoine, LEAD, University of Burgundy Contact: michel.doussot@utt.fr Current systems for face recognition are very dependent on environmental conditions of the scene such as lighting or the visibility. Conventional methods of pretreatment and recognition often are insufficiently robust to be applied in a natural environment where lighting conditions are very variable. Furthermore these solutions often use too much resources (computational power, energy, ...) for embedded systems with low resources. Where traditional solutions are insufficient the human visual system is less sensitive to environmental conditions and often is more robust. The proposed approach in this thesis is inspired by the human visual system to propose more robust processing solutions. We propose to study an adaptive recognition system integrating neurons associated with conventional processing systems based on human visual system. The aim of this thesis is to study neuro-inspired processing chains from the existing literature implementable on embedded processors. The results can be validated by an application of video surveillance that can identify people in real time from a few references database. To achieve this aim the thesis will include the steps: Do the state of the art of algorithms based on human visual system Propose pretreatment chains according to criteria of robustness and embeddability within the algorithm architecture adequacy Validate the results by a real time application of face recognition for the identification of people listed in a few references database.

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