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OPERATOR TRAINING MANUAL COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS


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INTRODUCTION TO COMBINED CYCLE POWER GENERATION .......................................3 1.1 COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS THEORY AND OPERATION.........................3 1.1.1 Overview ...........................................................................................................3 1.1.2 The Gas Turbine (Brayton) Cycle .....................................................................5 1.1.3 The Steam-Water (Rankine) Cycle ...................................................................8 1.1.4 Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) ........................................................9 1.1.5 The Combined Cycle.......................................................................................10 1.1.6 Rankine Cycle Parameters and Efficiency ......................................................11 1.1.7 Combined Cycle Parameters and Efficiency ...................................................11 BENEFITS OF THE COMBINED CYCLE ...................................................................13 1.2.1 Operational Benefits........................................................................................13 1.2.2 Environmental Aspects ...................................................................................14 1.2.3 Repowering and Economic Aspects ...............................................................15 Applicable Physics Concepts and Laws .....................................................................16 Gas Turbine Engine Fundamentals ............................................................................17 2.2.1 Gas Turbine Cycle ..........................................................................................18 2.2.2 Gas Turbine Engine Theory ............................................................................19 Gas Turbine Main Components ..................................................................................20 2.3.1 Air Inlet Equipment..........................................................................................20 2.3.2 Compressor.....................................................................................................20 2.3.3 Combustion Section ........................................................................................24 2.3.4 Turbine Section ...............................................................................................28 Gas Turbine Parameters and Efficiency .....................................................................31 Overview .....................................................................................................................35 Functional Description ................................................................................................35 3.2.1 Steam/Water Flowpath....................................................................................35 3.2.2 Steam Generation ...........................................................................................37 3.2.3 Superheated Steam ........................................................................................38 3.2.4 Gas Side Flowpath..........................................................................................38 HRSG Characteristics and Design Considerations.....................................................39 3.3.1 HRSG Geometry .............................................................................................39 3.3.2 Exhaust Gas Considerations...........................................................................39 3.3.3 Duct Firing.......................................................................................................40 3.3.4 Stack Temperature..........................................................................................41 3.3.5 Bypass Stack And Damper .............................................................................41 3.3.6 Stress and Fatigue ..........................................................................................42 3.3.7 Blowdown........................................................................................................42 3.3.8 Selective Catalytic Reduction..........................................................................42

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GAS TURBINES .....................................................................................................................16 2.1 2.2

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HEAT RECOVERY STEAM GENERATORS .........................................................................35

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STEAM TURBINES ................................................................................................................43 4.1 Turbine Principles ............................................................................................................43 4.1.1 Nozzles and Their Principles ............................................................................43 4.1.2 Basic Turbine Types and Principles..................................................................43 4.1.3 Classification of Turbines..................................................................................49

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INTEGRATED COMBINED CYCLE OPERATION .................................................................50 5.1 Normal Startup............................................................................................................50 5.1.1 Combustion Turbine Startup ...........................................................................50 5.1.2 HRSG Startup .................................................................................................51 5.1.3 Steam Turbine Startup ....................................................................................56 5.1.4 Fast Starts.......................................................................................................58 Operating Modes ........................................................................................................59 5.2.1 Base Load .......................................................................................................59 Shutdown of Combined Cycle Plants..........................................................................61 5.3.1 Normal Shutdown............................................................................................61 5.3.2 Emergency Shutdown .....................................................................................62 Introduction .................................................................................................................63 Energy Conversion Cycle ...........................................................................................63 6.2.1 Energy Conversion..........................................................................................63 6.2.2 Energy Leaving the Plant ................................................................................65 Plant Heat Rate...........................................................................................................66 6.3.1 Gross Plant Heat Rate ....................................................................................66 6.3.2 Net Plant Heat Rate ........................................................................................66 Factors Affecting Plant Performance ..........................................................................67 6.4.1 Gas Turbine ....................................................................................................67 6.4.2 Heat Recovery Steam Generator ....................................................................69 6.4.4 Main Condensers ............................................................................................73 6.4.5 Deaerator ........................................................................................................76

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COMBINED CYCLE PERFORMANCE MONITORING ..........................................................63 6.1 6.2

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OPERATOR TRAINING MANUAL COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS

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INTRODUCTION TO COMBINED CYCLE POWER GENERATION COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS THEORY AND OPERATION

This Training Course provides an overview of the principles and theory of combined cycle power plant design and operation. The objective of this Course is to provide plant personnel with a basic understanding of the major components of the combined cycle power plant and the role of each component in achieving optimum plant efficiency. In addition, this Training Course will help the plant staff develop an appreciation for the unique characteristics of the combined cycle power plant. 1.1.1 Overview

There are many different types of power plants including thermal power plants and hydro power plants. Thermal power plants burn some sort of fuel (such as fossil or nuclear fuel) to produce heat energy that is converted to electrical energy through a series of intermediate processes. Hydro power plants convert the potential energy of water to electrical power as it flows from higher to lower elevations. The "traditional" thermal power plant is the Rankine Cycle plant, named after the man who invented the cycle. A power plant cycle is a series of processes in which a fluid, generally water/steam, is used to convert heat energy to mechanical energy. The Rankine Cycle in its simplest form consists of a boiler, a turbine, a condenser, and a boiler feed pump. Early plants had thermal efficiencies of approximately 25% to 30%. Only 25% to 30% of the heat energy in the fuel burned in these plants was converted to electrical energy. The rest was lost in various ways. Rankine Cycle plants are still being built today. The Rankine Cycle has been refined considerably over the years and made more efficient by the addition of components like feedwater heaters, superheaters, and reheaters. The efficiency of the Rankine Cycle has also been improved by increasing the pressure and temperature of the cycle. One of the most efficient Rankine Cycle plants ever built (Philadelphia Electric's Eddystone plant, Units 1 and 2) was placed in service around 1960. The thermal efficiency of the Eddystone plant was 42%. The laws of thermodynamics and considerations such as material limitations have prevented any significant improvement since then. Power plants commonly use heat rate to measure efficiency. Heat rate is measured in BTU/KWh. Thus, heat rate shows the amount of heat in BTUs that is required to produce a kilowatt-hour of electrical energy. Thermal efficiency can be converted to heat rate by using the conversion factor 3413 BTU equals 1 KWh. If a power plant could be built with 100% efficiency, its heat rate would be 3413 BTU/KWh. In contrast, the 42% efficiency of the Eddystone plant corresponds to a heat rate of 8126 BTU/KWh. The heat rate of the Ennis-Tractebel Plant is approximately 6550 BTU/KWh (52% thermal efficiency at 83F); although it varies depending on equipment performance and ambient conditions. Gas Turbines and Combined Cycle The first practical gas turbine was developed in Europe in 1939. At the end of World War II, the first gas turbines were developed for aircraft. Shortly after the war, the first industrial gas turbines for power production and other industrial applications, such as driving locomotives, were introduced. Gas turbines use another type of cycle called the Brayton cycle, also named after its inventor. The first commercial, industrial gas turbines were relatively inefficient, typically having a thermal efficiency of 16% to 17%. As the gas turbine industry matured, the design of gas turbines, like that of Rankine Cycles, was improved. Use of gas turbines in the power utility industry increased steadily from their introduction in the late 1940's. Gas turbines reached a peak of popularity in the early 1970's. At that time, the growth in 3 of 76

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demand for electric power exceeded the ability of the industry to meet electrical demand through addition of Rankine Cycle plants alone. Gas turbines were attractive because they could be built much more rapidly than Rankine Cycle plants. The oil crisis of the early 1970's brought a sudden halt to the popularity of gas turbines for three reasons. First, almost all utility gas turbines use either gas or oil for fuel. The cost of these fuels went up dramatically while their availability went down. Secondly, the oil crisis brought renewed attention to the need for efficiency (getting more energy out of the fuel). Gas turbines of this period were significantly less efficient than Rankine Cycle plants. Typical gas turbine thermal efficiencies were 20% to 25%. Finally, the emphasis on conserving energy reduced the rate of increase in electrical power demand and thus the need for new power plants. The gas turbine industry has seen a resurgence in the last 15 to 20 years. Part of this recovery has resulted from steady increases in gas turbine efficiency due to material and design improvements. Another cause for growth in the gas turbine industry has been the growing popularity of combined cycle plants. A combined cycle plant consists of one or more gas turbines that drive generators and exhaust into a special boiler called a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that generates steam for a Rankine Cycle unit. One of the principal reasons for the popularity of the combined cycle power plants is their high thermal efficiency. Combined cycle plants with thermal efficiencies as high as 60% are being built. Combined cycle plants can achieve these efficiencies because much of the heat from the gas turbine(s) is captured and used in the Rankine Cycle portion of the plant. Refer to Figure 1-1. The heat from the exhaust gases would normally be lost to the atmosphere in a simple gas turbine cycle.

Figure 1-1 Combined Cycle Power Plant 4 of 76

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Another reason for the popularity of combined cycle plants is the relatively short time required for their construction. Although it takes longer to build a combined cycle plant than a simple gas turbine plant, a combined cycle plant can be built in much less time than a Rankine Cycle plant of comparable output. One of the biggest obstacles to even greater acceptance of combined cycle plants is the fact that the gas turbines used in combined cycle plants still burn oil and gas. Gas turbines built to date cannot burn coal directly. Often oil and gas cost much more than coal. While the combined cycle plant might be more efficient thermodynamically than a coal fired plant, the coal plant might be less expensive to run because of the lower cost for fuel. One solution to the high fuel cost for gas turbines is the development of gas turbines that can burn coal. While there have been experimental gas turbines built with this capability, none have reached commercialization. Natural gas is the most common fuel used by combined cycle gas turbine power plants. In recent years however, manufacturers have designed and built gas turbines which can burn various forms of low and medium Btu gas. These low btu gasses can be derived as a byproduct of the refinery process, or in some cases, produced through a process referred to as gasification. During gasification, solid fuel such as coal or wood is routed through a heated vessel of approximately 1500-2000F (816-1093C). The high temperature environment causes an immediate release of volatile gasses from the solid fuel; with the resulting byproducts of the gasification process being char, ash, and low-medium Btu gas. Gas turbines can burn the resultant gas as easily as natural gas, and thus indirectly can use wood or coal as a fuel. 1.1.2 The Gas Turbine (Brayton) Cycle

The first major component of the combined cycle power plant is the gas turbine. In installations where the gas turbine exhausts directly to the atmosphere, it is said to be operating in a "simple cycle" mode. When a gas turbine exhausts into a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and the resultant steam is used to operate a steam turbine generator, the plant is referred to as a combined cycle power plant. A common arrangement of a gas turbine driving an electric generator is shown in Figure 1-2. The basic gas turbine consists of a compressor, a combustion section, and a turbine section. Air is drawn into the compressor which raises the air pressure by a factor of 12 to 18:1. The temperature of the air also increases with compression, and may be as high as 600F (316C) at the compressor discharge.

Figure 1-2 Simple Cycle Gas Turbine Configuration 5 of 76

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In the combustion section, fuel is injected into the compressed air and burned to convert the fuel's chemical energy into heat energy. Burning the fuel results in a high temperature, high pressure gas with considerable thermal energy. This hot gas enters the turbine section where it expands, giving up its thermal energy to the blades of the rotating turbine. In the process of expanding and cooling through the turbine section, the thermal energy of the gas is converted into mechanical energy that is used to do work. A large portion of the work from the turbine, about 60%, is used to drive the compressor. The remainder of the turbine work is available to produce power by driving a generator. The heat exhausted from the gas turbine is typically in the range of 900 to 1100F (482-973)C. The thermodynamic cycle of a gas turbine is referred to as the Brayton Cycle. The four processes of the Brayton Cycle are represented on a temperature-enthalpy (T-h) diagram shown in Figure 1-3. The T-h diagram is a convenient way to illustrate and analyze the performance of power plant cycles including the gas turbine cycle. Temperature (T) is represented on the vertical axis and enthalpy (h) on the horizontal axis. Enthalpy is a property of substances that describes the availability of energy to do work. The T-h diagram is useful in analyzing thermodynamic cycles because it reveals the amount of heat required to make a process occur in a cycle. If a process can be represented as a curve on the T-h diagram, the area under the curve is the amount of heat required to make that process occur. Each process in the Brayton Cycle can be drawn on the T-h diagram in Figure 1-3. The first process is the compression of air in the compressor represented by the line AB. As the air is compressed, its temperature and pressure increases and there is a corresponding increase in enthalpy. As work is done on the air, the air stores this energy in the form of temperature and pressure. The power (energy) to perform this work originates from the turbine which is directly coupled to the gas turbine compressor through a common shaft.

Figure 1-3 Brayton Cycle T-h Diagram The second process is the addition of heat to the cycle at a constant pressure by burning of fuel represented by the line B-C. The temperature of the gas that results from the combustion increases considerably from the temperature of the air at the compressor outlet. The third process is the expansion and cooling of the gas as it passes through the turbine, is represented by the line C-D. Here, the energy of the hot pressurized gas is used to perform work. The final process in the Brayton cycle is the cooling of the hot gas that exhausts to the atmosphere, represented by line D-A. The exhausted gas mixes with ambient air, thus decreasing in temperature. 6 of 76

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The amount of heat that is required to make the Brayton cycle work is represented by the area under line B-C. The fraction of heat that is rejected is represented by the area under the line D-A. The area between these two lines represents the heat that is converted to useful mechanical energy. The heat converted to useful mechanical energy is 25% to 30% of the total heat required to make the process work. Cycle Performance To analyze simple cycle performance, data for a typical gas turbine is shown in Figure 1-4. The figure shows the energy supplied and energy output from a typical gas turbine cycle. The data shown reflects operation at 100 percent load. The data is based on an ambient temperature of 59F (15C) and site altitude of 1,700 feet (518 meters) above sea level. Energy supplied by the fuel is 925,000,000 BTU/hr based upon 37,910 lb/hr (17,196 kg/hr) of gas fuel with a heating value of 1000 BTU/SCF (SCF Standard Cubic Feet). The power output of the gas turbine is 81,074 KW. Overall efficiency of the gas turbine is 29.92%. The temperature of the exhaust gas is 990F (532C) and exhaust gas flow is 2,577,856 lbs/hr (1,169,296 kg/hr). Since this exhaust gas started at ambient temperature as air and fuel, considerable energy is used to heat the gas to such a high temperature. If the heat energy added to the exhaust gas was converted to electrical energy in this instance, an additional 179 MW could be generated by the cycle (over twice the electrical power actually generated). In practice, it is impossible to convert all of this heat energy into useful energy. However, it is possible to recover a large fraction of the heat energy in the exhaust gas by operating the gas turbine in a combined cycle. In a combined cycle plant, some of the exhaust heat energy is used in a Rankine Cycle.

Figure 1-4 Gas Turbine Performance Analysis

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The Steam-Water (Rankine) Cycle

The Rankine Cycle used in conventional thermal power plants can be represented on a T-h diagram. As with the Brayton Cycle, each line segment in the diagram corresponds to a process in the cycle. A simple Rankine Cycle consists of only four components; the boiler (often called a steam generator), a turbine, a condenser, and a boiler feed pump. The simple Rankine Cycle is shown on the T-h diagram in Figure 1-5. It must be noted that the illustration uses a boiler with a superheater, thus the temperature of the steam entering the turbine is above saturation temperature. The first process in the Rankine Cycle is the increase in pressure of the condensate from the condenser by the boiler feed pump. The increase in pressure occurs with a slight increase in enthalpy. The increase in energy which the boiler feed pump adds to the cycle is represented by line 1-2. The second Rankine Cycle process (Line 2-3) is the addition of heat (represented by Q) to the water entering the boiler. Within the boiler, the water is transformed from a liquid to a gas (steam). The generation of steam is assumed to occur at a constant pressure. Additional energy is added to the steam as it passes through the superheater (line 4). The steam is then expanded and cooled as it passes through the turbine as represented by line 4-5. Here, the energy of the steam is used to perform work. The last process in the Rankine Cycle is the condensation of the steam that exhausts from the turbine, represented by line 5-1. During condensation, considerable heat, called the heat of vaporization, is lost. The heat required to make the Rankine Cycle work is determined by the area under the lines between points 2 to 4; and the heat lost from the cycle is under the line between points 5 and 1. The area between the lines represents the heat that is converted to useful mechanical energy. The useful mechanical energy is only about 1/3 of the heat required to make the cycle work.

Figure 1-5 Rankine Cycle T-h Diagram

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Cycle Performance

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Rankine Cycle performance can be analyzed by referring to the typical (simplified, idealized) power plant cycle shown in Figure 1-6. Steam pressure at the turbine inlet is 1400 psia (96.52 bar) and temperature is 1000F (537C). The efficiency of this idealized plant is 41.5%. The efficiency of a real Rankine Cycle with the same configuration would be lower than the ideal cycle. Actual Rankine Cycle efficiency is lower than that calculated for the cycle alone. In practice, Rankine Cycle efficiencies range from 20% to 39%. Actual Rankine Cycle plants are considerably more complex than the simple cycle shown in Figure 1-5 because components such as feedwater heaters are added to improve efficiency. While most of the additions to the Rankine Cycle improve its efficiency, there are also factors in a real Rankine Cycle that tend to make it less efficient. Not all of the chemical energy supplied to the boiler from the fuel is absorbed by the steam. Typically only 85% to 90% of the energy input is absorbed. This means that the boiler is only 85% to 90% efficient. Additional auxiliary equipment, such as fans and soot blowers, uses part of the power produced (usually around 5%).

Figure 1-6 Basic Power Plant Cycle Efficiency 1.1.4 Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG)

The HRSG is basically a heat exchanger composed of a series of superheater, evaporator, and economizer sections. These sections are positioned from gas inlet to gas outlet to maximize heat recovery from the gas turbine exhaust gas. The heat recovered in the HRSG is used to supply steam to the steam turbine at the proper temperature and pressure. In the simple cycle mode of operation, the temperature of the exhaust gas leaving a gas turbine can be as high as 1100F (593C), and flow rates can be as high as 3 million pounds per hour (1,360,777 kg/hr). High temperature gas represents a source of heat energy, some of which can be recovered if the means to do so are available. By recovering some of this waste heat, the output and the efficiency of a power plant can be increased. The function of a heat recovery steam generator is to recover the waste heat available in these exhaust gases and transfer that waste heat to water and steam. The heat recovered is used to generate steam at high pressure and high temperature. The steam is then used to generate additional power in a steam turbine driven generator. The HRSG provides the critical link between the gas turbine and the Rankine Cycle in a combined cycle plant. The HRSG is a key component in combined cycle efficiency. 9 of 76

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1.1.5 The Combined Cycle

OPERATOR TRAINING MANUAL COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS

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Combined cycle refers to a power plant in which a gas turbine is integrated with a Rankine Cycle unit. The Rankine Cycle makes use of much of the heat in the gas turbine exhaust gases. Thermodynamically, the combined cycle can be represented by joining the high temperature Brayton cycle with the moderate pressure and temperature Rankine Cycle. An example of a combined cycle showing the Brayton cycle (gas turbine) and the Rankine Cycle (steam turbine) on a T-h diagram is shown in Figure 1-7. The area enclosed by the Rankine Cycle is within the area that represents the heat rejected from the Brayton cycle. Thus, the Rankine Cycle area represents the heat energy that is converted to useful mechanical energy that would otherwise be rejected to the atmosphere. A large portion of the heat lost from the Brayton cycle is used in the Rankine Cycle. A much greater fraction of the heat added to the cycle is actually converted to useful mechanical energy in the combined cycle than either the Brayton cycle or the Rankine Cycle alone. The Rankine Cycle parameters (pressure and temperature) are selected to match the temperature of the available gas turbine exhaust gases. Usually, the pressure and temperature used in the Rankine Cycle portion of the combined cycle plant are much lower than those used in conventional Rankine Cycle plants. The lower pressure and temperature are necessary because the gas turbine exhaust gas, while very hot, is not nearly as hot as the flue gas entering the convection pass of a conventional fired boiler. The challenge in joining the Brayton and Rankine Cycles in a combined cycle plant, is the degree of integration needed to maximize efficiency at an economic cost. The simple combined cycle can consist of a single gas turbine, HRSG, steam turbine, condenser, and auxiliary systems. In addition, if the environmental regulations require, an emissions reduction system can be directly integrated within the HRSG. A variety of more complex configurations are possible.

Figure 1-7 Combined Cycle T-h Diagram

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Rankine Cycle Parameters and Efficiency

The efficiency of the Rankine Cycle is influenced by the configuration of the plant and the steam/water conditions in the cycle. In order to achieve the highest overall combined cycle plant efficiency, the efficiency of both the Brayton cycle and the Rankine Cycle must be compromised. For the Rankine Cycle, the higher the steam pressure and temperature, the more efficient the cycle. Furthermore, the steam must be superheated far above its saturation temperature to prevent condensation as it passes through the steam turbine. As an example, in a cycle with initial conditions of 2415 psig (167 bar) and 1000F (537C), the steam is heated 388F (183C) above saturation and thus is said to have 388F (183C) of superheat. There must be a source of heat that is hotter than 1000F (537C) in order to heat the steam to 1000F (537C). In a typical boiler, the fireball and hot flue gases (approaching 2000F/1093C) provide that high temperature. The temperature of exhaust gas from a typical gas turbine is lower than the flue gas in a conventional fired boiler, usually 900 to 1100F (482-593C). Since this temperature is relatively low compared to the conventional, fired boiler, the maximum pressure that the HRSG can have and still provide adequate superheat is lower than the fired boiler found in the conventional Rankine Cycle. Typical initial steam conditions for a combined cycle plant are 900 psig (62 bar) and 900F (486C). Steam at this pressure and temperature has about 368F (193C) of superheat. The relatively low pressure and temperature make the Rankine Cycle portion of the combined cycle plant less efficient than the Rankine Cycle in most conventional plants. None the less, the use of a relatively inefficient Rankine Cycle together with the gas turbine in a combined cycle, makes the overall cycle efficiency higher than a conventional Rankine Cycle alone. Another critical parameter that affects the efficiency of the Rankine Cycle is the pressure in the condenser. In general, the lower the condenser pressure (the higher the vacuum), the more efficient the Rankine Cycle can be. The factors that determine the condenser pressure for a given load on a Rankine Cycle unit are the condition of the condenser (especially how clean the tubes are) and the temperature of the circulating water. The lower the circulating water temperature, the lower the condenser pressure and thus the more efficient the Rankine Cycle. The design and operating considerations for the condenser of a combined cycle plant are the same as those for a conventional Rankine Cycle plant.

1.1.7

Combined Cycle Parameters and Efficiency

The joining of the gas turbine and the Rankine Cycle in the combined cycle plant requires some compromises in component efficiency in order to assure the maximum overall combined cycle plant efficiency. For example, if the efficiency of the gas turbine were maximized without regard to the efficiency of the plant as a whole, the Rankine Cycle portion of the plant might be adversely affected. Maximizing gas turbine efficiency could result in an overall reduction of the combined cycle efficiency. Similarly, if the Rankine Cycle portion were modified without regard to the gas turbine, the gas turbine efficiency might decrease and lower the overall plant efficiency. Two principal issues must be considered in the combined cycle performance. The first issue is the initial steam conditions in the Rankine Cycle. The higher the initial steam pressure and temperature, the more efficient the Rankine Cycle. Gas turbine exhaust temperature determines the upper limits on Rankine Cycle initial conditions; the higher that temperature, the higher the Rankine Cycle pressure and temperature can be. Higher gas turbine exhaust temperature also benefits the Rankine Cycle because the higher the temperature of the gas turbine exhaust the more thermal energy (heat) is available to the HRSG.

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High gas turbine exhaust temperature is desirable for high Rankine Cycle efficiency. The more efficient the gas turbine is, the lower its exhaust gas temperature. Accordingly, some compromise is required between gas turbine efficiency and Rankine Cycle initial conditions. Gas turbine exhaust temperature is also a concern when the gas turbine is at less than full load. When the gas turbine drives a generator that is synchronized to an electrical distribution system, the turbine speed is constant regardless of the load. The compressor operates at the same constant speed and thus provides the same amount of air to the combustion section, regardless of the amount of fuel being burned. The result is considerably lower firing temperatures and exhaust temperature at reduced load. The reduced temperatures cause both the gas turbine and Rankine Cycle efficiencies to fall as the load is reduced. In older gas turbine designs, there was no way to remedy this problem. In newer gas turbine designs, air flow through the compressor can be controlled by adjustable Inlet Guide Vanes (IGVs). The control is done by changing the angle of attack of the IGVs in operation. At reduced loads, the IGVs can be adjusted to produce a lower air flow and maintain high exhaust temperatures at reduced load. The range of load over which this method is effective is relatively small, typically from 70% to 100% of full load. The second principal issue in combined cycle efficiency is the gas turbine exhaust pressure. The pressure at the gas turbine exhaust is the same as the pressure at the HRSG inlet. As exhaust pressure increases, the velocity of the exhaust gas through the HRSG tube bundles also increases. Heat transfer in the HRSG is principally convective heat transfer. The effectiveness of convective heat transfer is partially dependant on velocity. As the velocity of the exhaust gases increase, the heat transfer increases also. Thus, HRSG efficiency improves as the gas turbine exhaust pressure increases. This is, however, the opposite of what is desirable for gas turbine efficiency. Heat transfer can be increased without increasing gas turbine exhaust pressure by adding more tubes in the HRSG which increases the heat transfer surface area. The increased cost of the additional heat transfer surface area may, however, outweigh the increase in gas turbine efficiency. For the simple cycle, increasing the pressure ratio increases gas turbine efficiency while increasing firing temperature can decrease efficiency. However, increasing the firing temperature increases the gas turbine output. For the combined cycle, very high pressure ratios result in little increase or even a decrease in combined cycle efficiency. Increases in firing temperature always result in an increase in combined cycle efficiency. Designers of combined cycle plants must compromise the efficiency of the gas turbine and the Rankine Cycle, especially the HRSG, in order to optimize the performance of the combined cycle. By design, the pressure ratio is limited somewhat and the exhaust pressure is slightly higher than it would be with the gas turbine operating in simple cycle. This optimization has resulted in combined cycle efficiency as high as 60%. Future increases in gas turbine firing temperatures could produce combined cycle efficiencies even higher.

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BENEFITS OF THE COMBINED CYCLE

The demand for combined cycle power plants has increased dramatically over the last decade. The principal reason for this increase in popularity is probably the fact that combined cycle plants offer the most efficient, proven technology for generating steam and/or electric power commercially available today. There are other reasons for the increase in popularity however, including availability of gas and oil fuel, moderate capital cost, and short construction schedule as compared to conventional Rankine Cycle plants. This Section describes the benefits of combined cycle technology. 1.2.1 Operational Benefits

Many of the benefits of combined cycle technology are related directly to operational benefits. Those benefits are described below. Efficiency Recent advances in gas turbine technology have increased efficiency while maintaining high availability and reliability ratings. Manufacturers, such as General Electric, have implemented design advancements in cooling and aerodynamics to boost the efficiency of their simple cycle MS7000F gas turbine to over 35%. This is a significant improvement compared to the GE frame 5 units of the 1970's that had thermal efficiencies of 22 - 23%. Specially developed high strength alloys and improved coatings have allowed firing temperatures to exceed 2300F (1,260C). These gas turbines have simple cycle efficiencies comparable to conventional fossil-fired power plants. Other efficiency improvements have come from enhancements in the following areas: Reliability Early industrial gas turbines were relatively unreliable when compared to steam turbines in Rankine Cycle plants. Advanced gas turbine designs have resulted in greater reliability and higher availability. Availability is a measure of reliability that is essentially the ratio of the time the machine was available to produce power to the time the unit should have been on-line. Since the early seventies, gas turbine availability has increased from as low as 70%, to over 90%. Projected availability for newer models can be as high as 95% with 3000 hours MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures). This is better than the availability of many conventional Rankine Cycle plants. Improvements in reliability are mainly due to improved materials and designed-in redundancy of critical accessory components; especially in the control systems. Building redundancy into a design ensures that there is at least one back-up component to perform a function so that the failure of a single component does not result in a forced outage. Flexibility Beyond thermal efficiency and reliability gains, combined cycle plants can offer considerable operating flexibility. In many combined cycle plants, the gas turbine can be operated in simple cycle or in the combined mode. This feature requires the installation of a bypass stack and damper between the combustion turbine exhaust and the HRSG. The damper can be positioned to direct the gas turbine exhaust gas to either the bypass stack or the HRSG. Use of a bypass damper allows the gas turbine to be placed in operation while the Rankine Cycle portion of the plant is shut down. Flexibility can be 13 of 76 Inlet guide vane design. Compressor blade design. Tighter compressor and turbine clearances. Improved turbine nozzles, buckets, and shrouds. Improved combustion systems.

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extended through the addition of multiple gas turbines, HRSGs, and steam turbines. However, increased flexibility comes at the cost of greater complexity. Rankine Cycle power plants equipped with fired boilers often require several hours, or even days, to go from cold iron to base load operation. The majority of the startup process is spent preheating the boiler and steam turbine to prevent thermal stress and fatigue to the equipment. Because conventional (Rankine Cycle) power plants operate at such high temperatures and pressure, they are constructed with heavier/thicker materials designed to withstand the design operating conditions. To include; the turbine shell and rotor, the boiler drums, and the fire brick in the boiler furnace. These heavier/thicker materials require a very slow and gradual heat up process to bring the plant to base load operation. Combined cycle power plants, on the other hand, operate at lower temperatures and pressures and are therefore constructed with lighter materials. The gas turbine portion of a combined cycle plant can be brought from cold iron to full load in a matter of 10 to 20 minutes depending upon the particulars of the unit. The primary limiting factor on the gas turbine ramp rate is the heat up of the HRSG. However, since HRSGs are made of lighter materials than conventional boilers, they can often be brought to full steaming conditions in an hour or less. This increased flexibility over conventional Rankine Cycle plants results in reduced costs in man-hours and downtime, and increased revenue in being able to generate power in a short period of time. High Degree of Control and Automation with Minimal Monitoring Present day gas turbines incorporate a high degree of automation and control/monitoring capabilities that make them quite simple to operate. Gas turbine control systems are based on digital components and techniques that allow flexibility and high reliability. The capabilities of the controls include automatic startup, synchronizing and loading to rated load, complete monitoring, and protection of the gas turbine from unsafe operating conditions. High control system reliability is achieved by redundant control sensors, controllers, and final control elements (i.e., temperature and flow control valves etc.). Continuous monitoring is provided on graphic computer screens and the operators interface with the gas turbine is through keyboards or other devices. The computer based systems employ built-in diagnostics and troubleshooting routines that analyze and correct operation and control problems. The use of redundant components allows on-line replacement of boards and sensors that are physically accessible during operation. All of these features contribute to the increase in automation and minimize the need for operator interaction for normal turbine operation. 1.2.2 Environmental Aspects

Over the past decade, growing concern for the environment has led to strict standards regarding air emissions and industrial pollution. NOx emissions are a product of every air-fed combustion process, including those in the gas turbine. NOx emissions are suspected of contributing to several atmospheric processes that are either known or thought to be degrading to the environment. Among those processes are acid rain, forest and vegetation decline, and changes to the ozone layer. Power plants are responsible for about one-third of the annual NOx emissions. Utilities have been forced to add new equipment or modify existing equipment to comply with recent regulations. These additions and modifications have proven to be both expensive and time consuming. Gas turbines and combined cycle plants have proven to operate with significantly lower emissions of contaminants to the air than older Rankine Cycle plants. Emissions include sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulates. Another environmental benefit of the combined cycle plant is related to its high efficiency. By operating more efficiently, less fuel is burned for a given electrical output resulting in fewer 14 of 76

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combustion by-products. If natural gas is fired, sulphur dioxide (SO2) and particulate emissions are negligible. Also, advances in combined cycle technology have yielded modifications in the process which reduce emissions even further. Several of these modifications are listed below: Steam/Water Injection - Injecting steam or water into a gas turbine's combustor has proven to significantly reduce NOx emissions. Steam inside the combustion zone has a quenching effect which suppresses NOx formation by as much as 70%. Steam/water injection also increases power output, but reduces combined cycle efficiency slightly. Low NOx Burners - Modifications in gas turbine combustors have resulted in lower NOx emissions by adequately premixing the air and fuel upstream of the combustor and providing more stable control of fuel and air in the combustion process. The low NOx burners reduce the amount of excess air, control flame length, and reduce flame temperatures, all of which reduce the formation of NOx. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) - SCR is a process in which nitrogen oxides are removed by the injection of aqueous ammonia (NH3) into the flue gas upstream of a catalyst structure. The catalyst causes a chemical reaction that converts the nitrogen oxides to elemental nitrogen and water vapor. The SCR unit, generally located within the HRSG, offers a NOx removal efficiency of up to 90%.

In addition to reduced air emissions, combined cycle power plants generally operate with less thermal pollution of cooling water sources, and reduced consumption of water and natural resources. Also, the space required to build a combined cycle facility is significantly less than for conventional Rankine Cycle plants. All of these environmental factors are considered by Public Utilities Commissions in granting licenses to build new power plants. The less the environmental impact, the more likely a license will be granted. Accordingly, the difficulty and risk of completing the licensing process required for a combined cycle plant is less than that for a comparable, conventional, Rankine Cycle plant. 1.2.3 Repowering and Economic Aspects

Repowering is a term generally applied to the replacement of the boiler in an older Rankine Cycle plant with a gas turbine and HRSG. The result is a combined cycle plant with greater capacity and efficiency than the old Rankine Cycle plant. Repowering with advanced gas turbines and HRSGs can improve overall plant thermal efficiency by more than 20%. Repowering can also triple total plant electrical capacity. Repowering often has the advantage of being more economical, cost per kilowatt generated, than other options for adding capacity. While repowering is normally thought of as the conversion of an older Rankine Cycle plant, modifications can also be made to existing gas turbine plants operating in simple cycle. Modification may involve the addition of the appropriate duct work to a new HRSG and Rankine Cycle components. Some gas turbine power plants are built to run in simple cycle initially and are later converted to combined cycle configuration when the economic conditions are favorable. The amount of time required to repower a plant also has a significant economic impact in power plant construction. Depending upon equipment size and complexity, delivery and construction of a gas turbine combined cycle power plant can be completed in just over a year; much less time than required for construction of conventional power plants. Shorter construction time generally results in a significant decrease in overall cost. In addition, the system capital cost is typically low as a result of smaller, standardized components, modular construction, rapid erection, and minimum support system costs.

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2.0 GAS TURBINES

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To understand the design, function, operation, and control of gas turbines it is first essential to grasp the underlying principles. This chapter addresses the theory and principles of gas turbine design and operation, as well as the construction, classification, and characteristics of gas turbines. 2.1 Applicable Physics Concepts and Laws

To understand basic gas turbine engine theory, one must be familiar with the physics of the gas turbine engine. The three physics concepts which apply to the operation of a gas turbine engine are: Boyles Law Charles Law Newtons Law Boyles Law Compressibility is a characteristic of all gases. The English scientist, Robert Boyle, was among the first to study this characteristic, referring to it as the springiness of air. Boyle discovered that when the temperature of an enclosed sample of gas was kept constant and the pressure doubled, the volume was reduced to half the former value. As the applied pressure was decreased, the resulting volume increased. From these observations he concluded that for a constant temperature the product of the volume and pressure of an enclosed gas remains constant. This became Boyle's law, which is normally stated; The volume of an enclosed dry gas varies inversely with its pressure, provided the temperature remains constant. Boyle's Law can be demonstrated by confining a quantity of gas in a cylinder which has a tightly fitted piston. By applying force to the piston, the gas in the cylinder will compress to some specific volume. If the applied force is doubled, the piston will compress the gas to one half its original volume (Figure 2-1). As the applied pressure is decreased, the resulting volume is increased. Changes in the pressure of a gas also affect the density. As the pressure increases, its volume decreases; however, there is no change in the weight of the gas. Therefore, the weight per unit volume (density) increases. So it follows that the density of a gas varies directly as the pressure, if the temperature is constant. Figure 2-1 Boyles Law Charles Law Jacques Charles, a French scientist, provided much of the foundation for the modern kinetic theory of gases. He found that all gases expand and contract in direct proportion to the change in the absolute temperature; provided the pressure is held constant. Any change in the temperature of a gas causes a corresponding change in volume. Therefore, if a given sample of gas were heated while confined within a given volume, the pressure should increase.

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An example of Charles' Law is as follows: If an aerosol can is placed in a fire and heated, it would eventually explode. This results from the expansion of the gas in the can due to the rise in absolute temperature.

Newtons First Law Newtons First Law states that a body at rest tends to remain at rest. A body in motion tends to remain in motion. An example of Newton's First Law is as follows: A parked automobile will remain motionless until some force causes it to move (a body at rest remains at rest). The second portion of the law can be demonstrated only in the theoretical sense. The same automobile placed in motion would remain in motion if all air resistance were removed, if no friction were in the bearings, and if the surface were perfectly level.

Newton's Second Law Newtons Second Law states that an imbalance of force on a body tends to produce an acceleration in the direction of the force. The acceleration, if any, is directly proportional to the force and is inversely proportional to the mass of the body. An example of Newton's Second Law is as follows: When throwing a baseball, the force required to accelerate the ball at a rate of 50 ft/sec (15.24 m/sec) would have to be doubled to accelerate the ball at a rate of 100 ft/sec (30.48 m/sec). However, if the mass of the ball were doubled, the original acceleration rate of 50 ft/sec (15.24 m/sec) would be cut in half to 25 ft/sec (7.62 m/sec).

Newton's Third Law Newtons Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. An example of this is as follows: The firing of rifle. The firing of the rifle causes the bullet to go in one direction (the action) and the gun to recoil into your shoulder (the reaction). Force = Mass x Acceleration.

2.2

Gas Turbine Engine Fundamentals

A gas turbine is an internal combustion engine. Like all internal combustion engines, gas turbines compress air, take in fuel for combustion, and use the resultant volume of hot gases to develop shaft horsepower. Referring to Figure 2-2, the three primary sections of a gas turbine engine are: Compressor - Air is drawn into the air inlet by the compressor. Within the compressor, the air in compressed and a corresponding temperature increase is incurred. The hot, compressed air is discharged to the combustion section of the engine. Combustor - Fuel is admitted into the combustion section by fuel nozzles. The fuel/air mixture is ignited and combustion occurs. Turbine - The hot and rapidly expanding gases are directed aft through the turbine rotor assembly. There, thermal and kinetic energy are converted into mechanical energy. The gases are then expelled out the turbine exhaust.

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Figure 2-2 Basic Gas Turbine Engine

2.2.1

Gas Turbine Cycle

A cycle is a process that begins with certain conditions, progresses through a series of additional conditions, and returns to the original conditions. Gas turbine engines operate on the Brayton Cycle. The Brayton Cycle is one where combustion occurs at a constant pressure. Gas turbine engines have components designed to perform each function of the cycle separately, yet continuously. These functions are intake, compression, combustion, expansion, and exhaust. Figure 2-3 is a graphic illustration of the Brayton Cycle with respect to pressure and volume. Figure 2-3 Brayton Cycle The illustration of the Brayton Cycle in Figure 2-3 can be applied to the operation of a gas turbine engine. At Point A, air enters the inlet at atmospheric pressure and constant volume. As the air passes through the compressor, it increases in pressure and decreases in volume; Line A-B. At Point B, combustion occurs at a constant pressure while the increased temperature causes an increase in volume; Line B-C. The hot gases enter the turbine and expand through it. As the gases pass through the turbine rotor, the rotor turns kinetic and thermal energy into mechanical energy. The expanding shape of the turbine passages causes further increase in volume and a sharp decrease in pressure; Line C-D. The gases are released to the atmosphere with a large drop in volume and at constant pressure; Line D-A. At this point the cycle is complete. The Brayton Cycle is continuous in a gas turbine engine with each action occurring at all times.

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2.2.2

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Gas Turbine Engine Theory

There are several pressure, volume, and velocity changes that occur within a gas turbine during operation. The following discussion applies the Physics Laws that pertain to the operation of a gas turbine engine and their relationship to the Convergent/Divergent Process. Figure 2-2 demonstrates the application of these principles to the operation of a gas turbine engine. Air is drawn into the front of the compressor. The rotor is so constructed that the area decreases through each successive stage. This tapered construction gives a convergent area; designated as Area A on Figure 2-2. Each succeeding stage is smaller than the previous, and as a result, the air is compressed as it progresses through the compressor. Because of its high rotational speed, the rotor imparts velocity to the air. Between each rotating stage is a stationary stage or stator. Each pair of rotor and stator blades constitutes a pressure stage. During operation, there is a pressure increase and a corresponding reduction in volume through each compressor stage (Boyles Law). Once through the final stage of compression, the hot compressed air enters the combustor section of the engine. The continuous operation of the compressor forces air through the combustor (and the rest of the engine) at a constant rate, thus a constant pressure is maintained in the combustion section. As the air enters the combustor section, it is mixed (atomized) with fuel and combustion takes place at a constant pressure. As a result of combustion, there is a large increase in the volume of the air (expansion) and combustion gases (Charles' Law). After combustion, the combustion gases travel rearward to Area C. This occurs partially by velocity imparted by the compressor and partially because the gas is escaping to a lower pressure area; i.e. the turbine exhaust. The high velocity, high-temperature gases are directed through the first stage turbine nozzle to the first stage of the turbine rotor (Area D). The kinetic energy (velocity) and thermal energy (temperature) of the moving gases impart rotation to the turbine rotor as they pass through the turbine stages. Between each rotating turbine stage is a static stage or nozzle which directs the hot expanding gases to the next successive stage. A nozzle is a stator ring with a series of vanes. They act as small nozzles to direct the combustion gases uniformly and at the proper angle to the turbine blades. Due to the design of the nozzles, each succeeding stage imparts velocity to the gases as they pass through the nozzle. Each nozzle converts heat and pressure energy into velocity energy by controlling the expansion of the gas. Each stage of the turbine is larger than the preceding one. The pressure energy drops are quite rapid; consequently, each stage must be larger to use the energy of a lower pressure, lower temperature, and larger volume of gases. If more stages are used, the rate of divergence will be less. Area D must diverge rapidly in proportion to the rate in which Area A converges into Area B. Atmospheric air is raised in pressure and velocity, and lowered in volume within Area A by the compressor. Each stage can only compress air about 1.2 times, so the rate is limited. However, in the turbine rotor (Area D), the gases give up thermal and pressure energy and increase in volume through three stages. If this did not happen rapidly, back pressure from Area D would cause Area C to become choked. The gases in the combustor would back up into the compressor. There, they would disrupt air flow and cause a condition known as surge, or compressor stall. This condition can destroy an engine in a matter of seconds. Surge is further explained in Section 2.3.2, pertaining to axial flow compressors. Gases from the last turbine stage enter the exhaust duct where they are expelled to atmosphere. The exhaust gases enter the atmosphere at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. This depends on the length and size of the exhaust duct, or the placement of a heat recovery steam generator (boiler). 19 of 76

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2.3 2.3.1

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Gas Turbine Main Components Air Inlet Equipment

The function of the air inlet is to deliver air, with minimal turbulence and pressure variation to the gas turbine compressor. Gas turbines are sensitive to inlet air quality because of the inherent design and the enormous amount of air consumed. Filtration is necessary to provide protection against the effects of contaminated air that may degrade gas turbine performance and life through erosion, corrosion, fouling, and plugging of the cooling passages. The inlet filter compartments that are now typically supplied by turbine manufacturers can be separated into two generic types: self-cleaning and multi-stage. Conventional compartments typically use self-cleaning filter systems with treated paper media. Special features are included which allow these high-efficiency filters to be cleaned of accumulated dust by momentarily directing a backward flow of air through the filter. The pulse cleaning air can be derived from the plants instrument air system or from the gas turbine compressor. The reverse air pulse dislodges accumulated dust and debris, which then falls from the filter. Only a few of the many filter elements are cleaned at any given time, so that air flow to the operating gas turbine is essentially undisturbed. Pulsing of the filters is normally initiated when the pressure drop across the filter compartment increases to a predetermined setpoint. The ability to clean the filters while the unit is running eliminates the need for an implosion door, thus removing a significant potential leakage path which could allow ingestion of dust-laden ambient air to flow directly to the gas turbine. Downstream of the filter compartment, baffles are often installed in the air ducting to eliminating turbulence and to silence the flow of the rushing air. In some installations, hot air from the compressor discharge is piped back to the air inlet for the purpose of anti-icing and/or to warm the air during engine startup to transition the compressor past a potential stall as the engine accelerates toward idle speed. Various types of instrumentation may also be mounted in the air inlet for monitoring barometric pressure, air temperature, and humidity. These inputs are provided to the gas turbine control system where they are used for monitoring turbine performance and to control the combustion characteristics of the engine within design parameters. Care must be exercised at all times to keep the gas turbine air inlet clean. Dirt, trash, forgotten tools or clothing can be ingested by the compressor, resulting in serious engine damage. It is strictly forbidden for anyone to enter the plenum chamber whenever the gas turbine is operating. Before a gas turbine engine is ever started, the air inlet duct should be carefully checked for debris. Once all personnel are out of the inlet air ducting, all entrance doors should be closed and locked. 2.3.2 Compressor

The function of the gas turbine compressor is to efficiently compress the required mass of air and deliver the air to the combustion section. There are two basic types of compressors used for gas turbine applications; centrifugal compressors and axial flow compressors. Axial flow compressors are most often used in power plant applications because of their ability to pump large volumes of air at a high efficiency. Both the centrifugal and axial-flow compressors compress air by imparting momentum to the air by means of rotating elements and then converting that momentum to pressure in suitable stationary passages. Refer to Figure 2-4. In the centrifugal type compressor, air is drawn in at the center, or eye of a rapidly rotating vaned disc. Centrifugal action on the rotating air mass forces it to the tips of the disc where it is flung off at high tangential velocity. Suitably shaped stator blades receive this fast moving air stream and slow it down in such a manner as to increase the pressure. About half of the pressure rise occurs in the rotor and the remainder in the stator passages. 20 of 76

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The two main elements of an axial flow compressor are the stator and the rotor. The rotor is constructed with several rows of fixed blades which impart momentum to the air and force it rearward. Following each row of rotor blades is a row of stationary stator blades. An axial flow compressor draws in air from the atmosphere and moves it parallel to the axis of rotation. The air is compressed in both the rotor and stator blade passages, by continually diffusing the air flow from a high velocity to a low velocity, with a corresponding rise in pressure. Each consecutive pair of rotor and stator blades constitutes a pressure stage.

Figure 2-4 Axial and Centrifugal Compressors A typical axial flow compressor and gas turbine rotor are illustrated in Figure 2-5. The first stage of the rotor, having the largest surface area, draws in the ambient air, increase it's velocity, and pushes it to the first stage blades (or vanes) of the stator. By virtue of this increased velocity, energy is transferred from the compressor rotor to the air in the form of kinetic energy. The compressor stages continually reduce in size from inlet to outlet. As the rotor blades push the air into the stator passages, one stage of compression takes place; i.e., kinetic energy is transferred into pressure energy. The stator vanes are shaped to promote smooth non-turbulent air flow through the compressor and to correctly position the air flow to the next stage of rotating blades.

Figure 2-5 Gas Turbine Rotor Assembly 21 of 76

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Most axial flow compressors are designed to deliver air at pressures 10 to 15 times the inlet pressure. The air flow requirement is also dependent on the physical size and speed of the machine. The power to drive the compressor varies with air flow and pressure rise. At full load, the compressor uses roughly two thirds the power produced by the turbine section. The remaining power (one-third) is used to turn the generator and produce electricity. Therefore; a one percent gain in compressor efficiency produces a two percent gain in load shaft output. It is extremely important that the compressor blading be kept clean and maintained in good physical condition so that maximum overall efficiency and capacity can be maintained at all times. Compressor Surge and Stall Power plant gas turbines are designed for continuous operation at synchronous speed to achieve the correct frequency (Hz) output of the connected generator. Since the operating speed of the gas turbine is held constant and very little deviation takes place, turbine manufacturers are able to design the aerodynamics of the compressor blading to achieve optimum efficiency at the specified synchronous speed. To achieve optimum aerodynamics, the angle and aerofoil shape of the rotor and stator blades are precisely machined and set in place such that the compression of air through the compressor is smooth and efficient. During startup and shutdown of a gas turbine, the aerodynamics of the rotor and stator blades do not promote a smooth progression of air through the compressor. This occurs, simply because the shape and position of the blades is not conducive to low speed and low flow conditions. As previously stated, power plant gas turbine compressors are designed for operation at continuous synchronous speed. Compressor surge results when the air flow stalls across the compressor blades; this is, air is not smoothly compressed. Stalling may occur over a few blades or across one or more stages. If enough air flow is interrupted, pressure may surge back through the compressor. This occurrence may be minor, or it can be very severe with possible damage to the compressor. In extreme cases, a stall can physically destroy the compressor blades, causing them to break apart and eventually pass through the turbine, destroying the entire engine in a matter of seconds. A compressor stall can be identified by one or several loud bangs followed by excessive vibrations from the engine. Figure 2-6 illustrates the effects of air flow through a gas turbine compressor during a compressor stall.

Figure 2-6 Compressor Stall/Surge A key requirement of axial compressor design is the avoidance of compressor stall/surge during partial speed operation. The two primary methods of preventing compressor stall/surge are by; (1) controlling the in-flow of air to the compressor, and (2) bleeding air from the compressor at one or more stages. 22 of 76

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Controlling the in-flow of air to the compressor can be accomplished through the use of variable inlet guide vanes (IGVs) and/or variable stator vanes (VSVs). Every gas turbine compressor has a row of inlet guide vanes preceding the first stage of compressor blades. Refer to Figure 2-7 below. In the fixed position, the purpose of the IGVs is to straighten the air flow and direct it to the first stage of compressor blades. However, variable IGVs pivot axially and their angle can be controlled to allow more or less air flow through the compressor. Likewise, several stages of the compressor stator vanes can also be constructed in the same fashion. During startup and shutdown, the IGVs and/or VSVs can be hydraulically modulated by the turbine control system to limit air flow through the compressor, thus preventing a stall or surge from occurring. Once the turbine is near synchronous speed, the blades are opened fully to the normal operating position.
IGV's

1ST STAGE BLADES

2ND STAGE BLADES

COMPRESSOR ROTOR

Figure 2-7 Variable Inlet Guide Vanes (VIGV) The use of interstage bleed valves is another method by which compressor stall/surge can be prevented. In this method, manufactures construct the gas turbine compressor with annular bleed ports at specific locations (stages). Typically, two or three stages are sufficient. The bleed ports are each equipped with an open/closed valve which is controlled by the turbine control system. During startup and shutdown, the valves are held open to bleed air from the compressor, thus preventing a stall or surge from occurring. The discharged air is vented to the atmosphere through a silencer, or in some cases it may be piped to the turbine exhaust and directed onward through the stack. Once the turbine is near synchronous speed, the bleed valves are closed and must remain closed during turbine operation. IGVs For Temperature Control During partial load operation in combined cycle configuration, gas turbine exhaust temperature decreases as a result of decreased fuel consumption. The lower exhaust temperature results in a decreased steam flow and temperature generated in the HRSG, consequently leading to a drop in steam cycle efficiency. In some gas turbine applications, the position of the variable inlet guide vanes can be modulated during low load conditions to increase the turbine exhaust temperature. Closing down on the IGVs at less than base load operation of the gas turbine, effectively chokes the engine somewhat, resulting in reduced cooling air flow through the hot gas sections of the engine. In this respect, modulation of the IGVs can be used to increase turbine exhaust temperature and thereby maintain steam production and superheat out of the heat recovery steam generator. 23 of 76

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2.3.3 Combustion Section

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The combustion section is the area of the gas turbine engine where fuel is injected for combustion. The injected fuel is very efficiently mixed (atomized) with the continuous flow of hot compressed air discharged by the compressor. The resultant thermal energy from the combustion section is directed to the nozzles and blades of the turbine section where shaft horsepower is produced. Various arrangements of the gas turbine combustion section are used by different manufacturers. The four basic arrangements of combustion sections are: Can-Type Combustor Annular Combustor Can-Annular Combustor Silo Combustor

Can-Type Combustor A can-type combustor consists of individual, cylindrical, combustion chambers mounted outside, around the axis of the engine. Refer to Figure 2-8. This arrangement makes removing a chamber easy. However, it is a bulky arrangement and consumes the largest amount of space around the engine. Each combustion chamber consists of a thick metal housing and a thin metal combustion liner. A transition piece routes air from the compressor discharge to the center of the combustion chamber inlet.

Figure 2-8 Different Types of Combustion Sections 24 of 76

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The combustion chamber liner is constructed with perforated cooling holes all along its length and around its circumference. The inlet end of the liner provides mounting for a centrally located fuel nozzle. As shown in Figure 2-8, the combustion liner fits inside the combustion chamber housing and there is an intentional air gap between the two components. During operation, a continuous flow of air from the compressor passes through and around the combustion chamber liner. The air which passes through the liner is used for combustion. Simultaneously, a blanket of secondary air flows around the periphery of the liner. The secondary air flow serves two purposes; (1) is serves as cooling air to keep the liner and the chamber housing from experiencing hot spots and overheating, and (2) a portion of the air passes through the perforated holes of the liner to aid in flame centering and to maintain a blanket of cooling air between the flame and the inside of the liner. The largest area of concern in any type of combustor is hot spots and the resultant thermal stress and damage to the affected components. Hot spots occur when a continuous concentration of heat impinges on a specific area of the combustion chamber and/or liner. Hot spots can result from insufficient cooling air flow to different areas of the combustion chamber, or from uneven flame distribution within the chamber. For example, a plugged or dirty fuel nozzle will produce a non-uniform flame which may impinge on the combustor liner to produce a hot spot. Over a period of time, the affected area of the liner will erode until a hole is formed, at which point sufficient cooling and flame centering cannot take place. It is for this reason that much of the air supplied to the combustion section is used for cooling and flame centering, while a smaller portion (25-30%) of the air is used for actual combustion. The exposed construction of a can-type combustor provides ease of maintenance and inspection. Replacement of fuel nozzles or combustor liners can be performed without major disassembly of the gas turbine. The can-type combustor does however, consists of many individual parts.

Annular Combustor An annular combustor consists of undivided, inner and outer liners which extend around the outside of the turbine shaft housing (Figure 2-8). The inner and outer liners form the combustion chamber within the confines of the engine and are surrounded by a single outer casing. Similar to the can-type combustor, the inner and outer liners of an annular combustor are constructed of thin metal with numerous perforated holes to allow for cooling and flame centering. Several fuel nozzles are located circumferentially around the combustion chamber, each discharging into a common open area. Annular combustors function much the same way as can-type combustors; with the primary difference being that several flames exist within a single open area rather than inside individual cans. Because of their open area, annular combustors are very efficient and exhibit minimal pressure losses between the compressor and turbine. In addition, annular combustors promote uniform exhaust temperature profiles and uniform gas distribution to the turbine blades and nozzles. There are some disadvantages however; on some engines, the liners are one piece and cannot be removed without complete engine disassembly.

Can-Annular Combustor The can-annular combustor combines some of the features of both the can and the annular combustors. In the can-annular type of chamber, individual cans are placed inside an annular case. The cans are essentially individual combustion chambers (Figure 2-8) with concentric rings of perforated holes to admit air for cooling and flame centering.

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Depending on the size of the engine and the manufacturer, each combustion can of a can-annular combustor can be equipped with single centrally located fuel nozzle, or several (6 to 8) fuel nozzles installed in a circular pattern at the front of the can. On cans with several fuel nozzles, the center of the can is often constructed with a round perforated tube (Figure 2-8). The center tube allows air distribution through its perforations to provide more air for combustion, cooling, and flame centering. The effect is to permit more burning per inch of can length than could otherwise be accomplished. The short length of the can-annular type of chamber is a structural advantage. It provides minimal pressure drop of the gases between the compressor outlet and the flame area. Another advantage of the can-annular engine is the greater structural strength it gets from its short combustor area. Maintenance on the cans is also easier than on that of an annular combustor. Silo Combustor Silo type combustors are used on heavy duty industrial gas turbines. Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) and Siemens are the only manufacturers which currently utilize the silo design. Silo combustors are vertical mounted, very large combustion chambers, which resemble the construction of a single can-type combustor. This arrangement has a high combustion efficiency due to the large volume of the combustion chamber. Additionally, maintenance and inspection of the combustion chamber is relatively simple in view of its large size and accessibility of the components.

Figure 2-9 Silo Combustor

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Ignition System

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Regardless of its design or the type of combustion chambers used, the combustion section of every gas turbine engine is equipped with an ignition system. The function of the ignition system is to establish ignition of the fuel-air mixture in the combustion chamber(s) during the gas turbine startup sequence. The primary components of a gas turbine ignition system consists of one or two spark ignitors or spark plugs, and a high voltage power source. The ignitors/plugs protrude into the combustion chamber area and produce a high voltage spark when energized. Ignition and Flame Distribution Depending on the manufacturer and the size of the engine, every gas turbine undergoes a specific start sequence during which ignition, combustion, and acceleration takes place. Control systems are incorporated such that each phase of the startup sequence occurs at a specific rpm, within a specified period of time, and that certain parameters are achieved (e.g. temperature and rotational speed). Although each model of gas turbine is different, the basic sequence of events for the startup of all gas turbine is essentially the same. During a gas turbine startup, an external device (diesel engine/electric motor) is required to begin rotation of the engine. As rotation begins, the compressor draws in air and begins forcing it through the engine. As shaft speed increases, the volume of air flow through the gas turbine engine also increases. At a specific rpm, a programmed ignition sequence takes place. During the ignition sequence, the spark ignitors are energized at a rate of two to three pulses per second. Immediately following, the engine fuel valves are opened and fuel is admitted through the fuel nozzles into the combustion section of the engine. The presence of spark in the combustion section results in ignition of the fuel-air mixture. The flame spreads throughout the combustion section until the fuel-air mixture at the discharge of every fuel nozzle is ignited. In both the can and can-annular type combustors, crossover tubes, or flame tubes, (Figure 2-8) provide distribution of flame between the chambers to ensure all are ignited. The crossover tubes are necessary since only one or two of the combustion cans are equipped with a spark ignitor. Because gas turbines operate on a continuous compression and combustion cycle (Brayton Cycle), the ignitors are no longer required once a flame has been established, and are therefore deenergized. As the startup sequence continues, the starting device continually increases the rotating speed of the gas turbine. At the same time, increased thermal energy passes through the turbine section and the turbine begins to develop shaft horsepower. At a certain point of the startup sequence, the turbine will develop enough horsepower to turn the compressor without the aid of the starting device. Hence; the gas turbine is said to be at self-sustaining speed. Once the gas turbine passes the point of self-sustaining speed, the starting device is disengaged. The gas turbine continues to accelerate until it reaches idle speed.

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2.3.4 Turbine Section

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The turbine section of a gas turbine engine converts the thermal and kinetic energy of the combustion gases, into rotational mechanical energy. In theory, design, and operating characteristics, the turbines used in gas turbine engines are similar to those used in a steam plant. Gas turbines, like steam turbines, use familiar impulse and reaction principles (Figure 2-10). However; because gas turbines work with lower initial inlet pressures, they have fewer stages and less change in blade height from inlet to exhaust. The gas turbine also differs from the steam turbine in; (1) the type of blading material used, (2) the lower ratio of blade length to wheel diameter.

Figure 2-10 Impulse and Reaction Turbine Blading The turbine section of a gas turbine converts part of the thermal energy contained in the hot gas into mechanical energy. Sufficient mechanical energy must be removed from the gas stream to supply the power necessary to drive the gas turbine compressor, the unit auxiliaries, provide for bearing frictional losses, and have enough excess power to drive the electric generator. The hot gas from combustion is delivered to the turbine section from the combustion chambers. The temperature and flow of the hot gas is determined by generator load. The gas temperature may range from 1,500F to 2,450F (816-1,343C), depending on the design and limitations of the gas turbine engine. While flowing through the turbine nozzles and buckets, the gas loses both heat and pressure. When passing through the stages, the gas has given up enough energy to turn the turbine rotor to provide the necessary mechanical power. Generally, the turbine buckets (blades) are constructed with firtree-shaped dovetails that fit into matching cutouts in the turbine rotor. Because each turbine stage is progressively taller in size, the later stages are often constructed with interlocking shrouds at the blade tips to help stabilize the bucket and increase turbine efficiency by minimizing tip leakage. Radial teeth on the bucket shrouds combine with mating teeth on the stator to provide a labyrinth seal against gas leakage past the bucket tips. Figure 2-11 on the following page illustrates the second stage turbine buckets of a heavy frame industrial gas turbine engine.

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Figure 2-11 Second Stage Turbine Buckets Similar to the turbine rotor stages, the turbine stator stages increase in size from inlet to outlet to accommodate the expanding gas. Because a high pressure drop does occur across the nozzles, labyrinth seals are provided along the inside diameter to prevent leakage; thus assuring the gas flows through the nozzles and not around them. The outside diameter of the nozzles are dynamically fixed to the turbine shell to provide for movement during thermal transitions. Forward and aft movement of the nozzle rings is prevented by lugs that fit into machined grooves of the turbine shell. Figure 2-12 illustrates a portion of the turbine shell and the installed location of the third stage nozzle segments.

Figure 2-12 Third Stage Turbine Nozzles 29 of 76

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Cooling

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The primary factor that has contributed to increasing turbine output in the last two decades has been an increase in turbine inlet temperature (firing temperature). Higher inlet temperatures and increased mass flow through the turbine, result in increased power output. These higher temperatures are made possible by improved blade and nozzle designs, better materials, and improvements in cooling techniques. The first stage nozzles and buckets are the first components of the turbine section that come in contact with the high temperature gases flowing out of the combustion chambers. As such, the first two or three stages of a gas turbine are often constructed with internal cooling air passages that serve to cool the nozzles and buckets; thus preventing thermal stress and metallurgical deterioration. The cooling air flow to the turbine components originates from the compressor discharge. The compressed air is internally routed through the gas turbine and then directed though the various internal cooling passages of the turbine nozzles and buckets. Once through the cooling passages, the air is discharged into the hot gas flow path; passing through the remainder of the turbine section and onward into the exhaust duct. Figure 2-13 illustrates a typical air-cooled turbine nozzle. This particular nozzle design is cooled by a combination of internal impingement and external film cooling. As illustrated, the nozzle is hollow and equipped with cooling air holes on the leading and trailing edges. Compressor discharge air enters the hollow base of the nozzle and impinges against the inside of the nozzle walls. Next, the air exits into the gas path through the multitude of holes in the nozzle wall; and in doing so, provides external film cooling to the nozzle. The discharged air mixes with the gas flow path.

LEADING EDGE HOLES TRAILING EDGE HOLES

Figure 2-13 Air Cooled Nozzle Figure 2-14 illustrates a row of air-cooled turbine buckets, typical of the first, and sometimes second, stages of an industrial gas turbine. As shown, the buckets contain a series of longitudinal air passages for bucket cooling. Air is introduced into each bucket through a cavity between the wheel and the base of the bucket dovetail. The air flows through a series of cooling holes spanning the bucket lengthwise and exits from these holes at each bucket tip. The holes are spaced and sized to obtain optimum cooling of the airfoil with a minimum of airflow extracted from the compressor.

Figure 2-14 Air Cooled Buckets

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The degree of cooling required for a turbine stage is a function of turbine nozzle and bucket metal temperatures. Gas turbines are produced with turbines having multiple stages, ranging from two to five or more. The number of stages determines the energy recovered per stage and consequently the temperature drop per stage. More energy recovery per stage and temperature drop per stage occur as the number of stages is reduced. As a result, the average turbine blade metal temperature is significantly lower for a gas turbine with few stages than those having a greater number of stages. Extraction air flow from the compressor for cooling can have a dramatic effect on the efficiency and power output of a gas turbine. Greater extraction air flows reduce the mass of gas flowing through the turbine. Since turbine developed power is directly proportional to mass flow, and turbine power is roughly three times shaft output power; a one percent increase in extraction flow results in a 3 percent decrease in useful output. Increased extraction flow will dilute the main gas stream flow. The dilution of main gas stream flow lowers its temperature and energy level. The result of a lower temperature and energy level is that final exhaust temperature is reduced.

2.4

Gas Turbine Parameters and Efficiency

Operating parameters have a significant influence on gas turbine efficiency. Some operating parameters are fixed by design of the turbine. Other parameters vary with operation, regardless of the turbine design and vintage. The parameters considered in this section are: Compressor Pressure Ratio Turbine Inlet Temperature Exhaust Pressure and Temperature Ambient Air Temperature

Gas Turbine Compression Ratio The compression ratio of a gas turbines compressor has the greatest influence on the overall operational efficiency of the gas turbine. The compression of air by the gas turbine compressor is the result of the compressor design, performance, and efficiency. The relationship between a turbines compression ratio and the efficiency of the Brayton Cycle is shown in Figure 2-15.

Figure 2-15 Brayton Cycle Efficiency vs. Pressure Ratio 31 of 76

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Early industrial gas turbines had pressure ratios of as little as 5 to 1. The latest industrial gas turbine designs employ pressure ratios of 14 to 16 to 1, while aircraft derivative gas turbines have pressure ratios as high as 22 to 1. The gas turbine compression ratio is affected by the efficiency of the compressor. The compressor consumes approximately 60 percent of the power output of the gas turbine. As a result, if compressor performance deteriorates, the effect on gas turbine output and efficiency will deteriorate. A one percent decrease in compressor efficiency will decrease turbine output by almost two percent. Consequently, the condition of the compressor should be closely monitored and corrective action taken as indicated. A common problem for compressors is dirty blades. Corrective action in this case is cleaning the compressor without disassembly by admitting special cleaning materials to the air inlet. Different gas turbine manufacturers have methods and procedures for both online and offline compressor washing. Turbine Inlet Temperature The second most important parameter affecting the efficiency of the gas turbine is the turbine inlet temperature. The turbine inlet temperature, also called the firing temperature, is the temperature of the hot gas as it leaves the combustion section and before it enters the turbine. The variation of gas turbine efficiency with turbine inlet temperature is not straightforward. As the turbine inlet temperature is increased, the energy contained in the gas increases. The hotter gas has more energy to do work during expansion through the turbine than it would if it were at a lower temperature. As a result, higher firing temperatures can boost turbine efficiency if the turbine exhaust temperature is not increased. In fact, the turbine exhaust temperature generally does increase with increased firing temperature. The losses in the Brayton Cycle increase as the exhaust temperature increases. The increased heat loss in the exhaust gas and the inefficiency that results can be greater than the increase in turbine efficiency, thus resulting in an overall decrease in gas turbine efficiency. If the gas turbine operates in a combined cycle, an increase in exhaust temperature does not represent a loss. In the combined cycle, the additional heat energy in the exhaust gas can be captured in the HRSG and used to produce steam to drive the steam turbine. The higher temperature exhaust gases can be used to increase the pressure, volume, and temperature of the steam produced by the HRSG. Increased steam production increases the efficiency of the Rankine Cycle. Thus, while higher gas turbine inlet temperatures may not benefit gas turbine efficiency, the overall efficiency of the plant may increase. Increased firing temperature has an impact upon the unit output as well as efficiency. Output increases as the firing temperature increases. Maximum firing temperature corresponds to maximum output. Since most power plant gas turbines are operated at base load, they are most often operated in a temperature control mode that adjusts the fuel input to control firing temperature at the maximum safe limit. The limiting factor for firing temperature is the ability of the turbine hot gas components to withstand the high temperatures without dangerous loss of strength or erosion. Early industrial gas turbines had firing temperatures ranging from 1,100F to 1,400F (583-760C). The latest gas turbine designs have firing temperatures approaching 2,450F (1,343C). These higher firing temperatures have been made possible through the use of special design features in the hot gas path. The hot gas path begins in the combustion section and ends at the turbine exhaust. The first several stages of the blading (both stationary and rotating) are generally constructed of high strength alloys and/or coated with special materials for corrosion and oxidation resistance. Internal and external air cooling circuits are also required for the first few stages of blades and stationary nozzles. These blades are generally hollow to allow cooling air to flow inside. Small holes in the leading and trailing 32 of 76

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edges of the blades are often employed to allow cool air to flow over the outer surface of the blades thus protecting them from the hot gases. Cooling air is typically drawn from the compressor discharge or from individual compressor stages. The most recently built, heavy-duty industrial gas turbines operate with firing temperatures approaching 2,400F (1,316C). These turbines have thermal efficiency of over 35%. Gas turbine manufacturers are developing improved models with elevated firing temperatures in the 2,500 to 2,600F (1,371-1,426C) range. Once available, these gas turbines have a predicted simple cycle efficiency of over 40%. Exhaust Temperature/Pressure The exhaust gas pressure and temperature do not influence gas turbine efficiency in the same sense that pressure ratio and firing temperature affect efficiency. The exhaust gas conditions are determined by other factors such as firing temperature, pressure ratio, turbine design, and the condition of the gas path. In general, the lower the pressure and temperature of the exhaust, the greater the efficiency of the gas turbine. The exhaust pressure is determined by the turbine inlet pressure, the design of the turbine, and the design of the exhaust gas flowpath. The gas turbine is designed to expand the gas to nearly atmospheric pressure. Low turbine exhaust pressure is desirable because the lower the pressure at the turbine exhaust, the more efficient the turbine. The number of stages in the turbine and the pressure drop (or expansion) experienced by the hot gas in each stage determine the pressure at the turbine exhaust. The temperature at the turbine exhaust is related to its pressure. For a fixed firing temperature, the greater the expansion of the gas in the turbine (which can be measured as the pressure ratio across the turbine), the lower the gas temperature at the turbine exhaust. Thus, lower exhaust pressures yield lower temperatures. The pressure ratio across the turbine is slightly less than the compressor pressure ratio. Thus, for a fixed firing temperature, as the compressor pressure ratio increases, the exhaust gas temperature tends to decrease. Ambient Air Temperature Combustion turbine performance varies significantly with the pressure and temperature of the ambient air. The pressure of the air is principally a function of the elevation (altitude) of the plant site; the higher the elevation, the lower the pressure. Variations in pressure due to weather changes are usually so small that they are not significant. Since the plant elevation is fixed, the most significant component of site conditions is the temperature of the air, which may vary from summer to winter. Ambient air pressure and temperature affect the gas turbine efficiency because of their effect on the density of the air. The gas turbine, also called a volumetric machine, has a certain capacity that is expressed in terms of volume (usually in cubic feet per second). The density of air decreases as temperature increases and/or pressure decreases. If the density of the air is decreased, the mass flow is reduced even if the volumetric flow rate remains constant. The reduction in mass flow occurs because there is less air in each cubic foot. Conversely, as the density of the air increases (which occurs as the temperature decreases and/or pressure increases), the mass flow increases. When ambient air temperature drops from 59F to 0F (15 to 17C), an approximate 12% increase in mass flow occurs through an axial flow compressor. For most gas turbines, the compression ratio of the compressor increases slightly as the ambient air temperature drops. During cool ambient conditions, a greater mass flow of air is discharged from the gas turbine compressor. The increased flow of air provides additional air for combustion as well as additional cooling air to the hot gas sections of the engine. Therefore, more fuel can be burned and thus, 33 of 76

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more thermal energy is introduced to the turbine. The increase in thermal energy and mass flow across the turbine section, results in increased shaft horsepower and increased electrical output from the generator. In any internal combustion engine, shaft horsepower is a product of how much fuel the engine consumes; e.g. increasing fuel flow to the engine results in increased power output. In a gas turbine engine, the turbine inlet temperature is the primary limiting factor as to how much fuel can be admitted to the combustion section. Admitting too much fuel can exceed the design firing temperature of the engine and result in severe thermal stress and eventual component failure. If during the operation of a gas turbine, it was desired to maintain a specific turbine inlet temperature and/or exhaust temperature; fuel flow to the gas turbine would change (vary) in accordance with the changes in ambient temperature at the compressor inlet. The following scenario illustrates this concept. Referring to 2-16; turbine exhaust temperature is sensed by a temperature element (TE) which provides a feedback signal to the fuel controller. If the controller were given a setpoint of 1000F, it would modulate fuel flow to the gas turbine in an effort to maintain the turbine exhaust temperature at 1000F, regardless of ambient conditions. At any given ambient temperature, the mass air flow through the compressor will be a specific, corresponding value. For example, at cooler temperatures the mass flow will increase, while at warmer temperatures the mass flow will decrease. Changes in mass air flow through the gas turbine, directly affect the amount of cooling air that is available to the hot gas sections of the engine. If ambient temperatures increase to 95F (35C), less cooling air is available, and thus fuel flow must be decreased in order to prevent the turbine exhaust temperature from exceeding 1,000F (537C). As ambient temperatures decrease, more cooling air is available to the hot gas sections, and thus fuel flow can be increased to maintain the turbine exhaust temperature at the 1000F (537C) setpoint. As previously mentioned, more fuel input equals more shaft horsepower. More shaft horsepower equals increased electrical output from the generator. In general, cooler ambient temperatures and increased fuel flow results in an increases of both the output and efficiency of a gas turbine. For most gas turbines, a 23% increase in turbine output and a 5% increase in thermal efficiency occurs when the ambient air temperature drops from 59F to 0F (15 to 17C).

Figure 2-16 Fuel Control verses Ambient Conditions

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3.0 3.1

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HEAT RECOVERY STEAM GENERATORS Overview

In the simple cycle mode of operation, the temperature of the exhaust gas leaving a gas turbine can be as high as 1,100F (593C), and flow rates can be as high as 3 million pounds per hour. This high temperature gas represents a source of heat energy that can be recovered if the means to do so are available. By recovering this waste heat, not only can the output of a power plant be increased, but its overall efficiency will be greatly enhanced. The means to recover some of the energy in the gas turbine exhaust gas is provided in a combined cycle power plant. By installing a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) at the exhaust of the gas turbine, part of the heat energy available in the exhaust gas can be utilized to produce steam which can then be used to drive a steam turbine to produce electricity. In combined cycles, the HRSG provides the critical link between the gas turbine and the steam turbine. HRSG designs have evolved from simple, single pressure HRSG's to more complex arrangements involving three pressures, a reheat section, supplemental firing, NOx control equipment, and condensate preheating to recover maximum heat from the exhaust gas. Depending on the application, the HRSG may have two or three pressure levels, one stage of reheat, and may supply process steam at an intermediate pressure to a chemical/process plant. Various configurations of gas turbines, HRSG's and steam turbines are used, again depending on factors like unit size, cost, reliability, throttle conditions, and spare parts requirements. An examination of some of these features will help plant personnel to better understand their power station. 3.2 Functional Description

The function of a heat recovery steam generator is to recover the waste heat available in the exhaust gases from a gas turbine and transfer it to the water and steam contained in its tubes. The heat recovered is used to generate steam at high pressure and high temperature, which is then used to generate additional power in the steam turbine generator. In combined cycle applications, it is typical to have HRSG's with two or three pressure levels in order to capture as much of the heat from the flue gas as possible. The highest pressure heat transfer sections are installed first in the flue gas path, followed by the lower pressure heat transfer sections. A simplified illustration of a three pressure HRSG is shown in Figure 3-1. Similarly built two pressure HRSGs operate on the same principle, although an intermediate pressure circuit is not incorporated. 3.2.1 Steam/Water Flowpath

An HRSG is basically a heat exchanger composed of a series of superheater, evaporator, and economizer sections. These sections are positioned from gas inlet to gas outlet to maximize heat recovery from the gas turbine exhaust gas. The heat recovered in the HRSG is used to generate superheated steam which is conditioned to a specific temperature for supply to the steam turbine generator. In a typical combined cycle configuration, makeup water to the HRSG originates from the condenser hotwell. Prior to the HRSG, the makeup condensate is utilized as a cooling medium through the steam jet air ejector and gland steam condenser heat exchangers where it gains thermal energy and is consequently pre-warmed. Additional pre-warming of the makeup water occurs as the condensate passes through the HRSG low pressure economizers (feedwater preheater) prior to entering the LP steam drum. Steam produced within the LP drums is routed through an associated superheater and then to the LP steam turbine. 35 of 76

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Figure 3-1 HRSG Simplified Diagram The LP steam drum provides a positive supply of preheated, deaerated water to the HRSG feedwater pump. The feedwater pump shown above in Figure 3-1 is typical for this type of installation; it is constructed with an interstage take-off which provides intermediate pressure makeup water to the IP steam drum and IP spraywater to the reheat desuperheater. The final discharge of the pump provides makeup feedwater to the HP steam drum and spraywater to the HP steam desuperheater. The bottom of the steam drums are each connected to a series of evaporator coils located in the hot gas path of the HRSG. Together, the steam drums and their associated evaporator coils generate steam through the absorption of thermal energy from the combustion turbine exhaust. During operation, feedwater level in the drums is maintained near the drums horizontal centerline. As steam is continuously discharged from the top of the drum, a corresponding amount of preheated feedwater flows into the drum to maintain correct drum level. Drum level is maintained by the respective level control valve. The steam discharged from the steam drums is saturated steam and must be superheated before being routed to the steam turbine. As illustrated in Figure 3-1, each pressure section of the HRSG is equipped with a superheater. The superheater tubes are physically located in the hot gas flowpath and provide the necessary surface to increase the steam temperature to a significant value above the corresponding saturation temperature. For the HP and Reheat superheaters, a steam attemperator (desuperheater) is installed between the primary and secondary superheaters to control the final steam temperature. 36 of 76

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3.2.2 Steam Generation

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Preheated water is supplied to each of the steam drums from the outlet of the respective economizers/ preheaters. Although the feedwater is preheated, it is still at a somewhat lower temperature than the water inside the drum. Because the incoming water is cooler than the drum water, it is more dense and therefore circulates downward. The cooler water falls naturally into the downcomer pipes which are vertically routed down the outside of the HRSG casing away from the gas turbine exhaust. Refer to Figure 3-2 at the right. The downcomers route the falling water to the lower header of the respective evaporator sections. As illustrated in Figures 3-1 and 3-2, each steam drum is equipped with an evaporator tube bundle. Within the evaporator tubes, the water absorbs thermal energy from the gas turbine exhaust. As the water is heated, it expands, becomes less dense, and flows upward through the evaporator tubes. Cooler, denser water from the downcomers and the lower headers flows in to take the place of the rising heated water, creating natural circulation between the steam drum and evaporator coils. As the water is heated, steam bubbles begin to form resulting in a steam/water mixture within the evaporator tubes. By the time the mixture reaches the top of the evaporator, a high percentage of the mixture is saturated steam. Riser tubes carry the steam/water mixture from the upper evaporator headers to the steam drum. The rising steam/water mixture enters the bottom of the steam drum, upon which, its passage is confined by the presence of an internal circumferential baffle (Figure 3-3). As the steam/water mixture flows upward to escape the confined area of the baffle, a spinning or centrifugal motion is induced on the mixture. Due to the inertia effect, the heavier droplets of water fall out of the steam flowpath and return to the water within the drum; while the steam rises to the top of the drum toward the outlet penetrations. Before existing the drum, the steam passes through a steam separator (chevron drier) where any remaining moisture and impurities are removed.

Figure 3-2 Steam Generation

As steam is continuously discharged from the top of the drum, a corresponding amount of feedwater flows into the drum to maintain correct drum level. Makeup water flow into each drum is controlled by a corresponding level control valve (LCV). During operation, feedwater level in each drum is maintained near the drums horizontal centerline.

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Figure 3-3 Basic Steam Drum Components 3.2.3 Superheated Steam

Superheating of saturated steam has several advantages. First, superheated steam is much drier than saturated steam and therefore causes relatively little corrosion or erosion of downstream piping and components. Also, superheated steam does not conduct heat as rapidly, and therefore does not loose heat as rapidly, as saturated steam. If saturated steam were sent through the long steam header en route to the steam turbine, much of the steam would condense into water before it arrived. Superheated steam on the other hand, remains fairly stable through long piping runs, experiencing very little condensation. The steam requirements of the steam turbine require that each source contain sufficient superheat such that the steam does not approach a saturated state at the final stages of the turbine. Doing so could result in severe water impingement damage to the turbine blading. 3.2.4 Gas Side Flowpath

Steam temperature from any particular section of the HRSG can never be higher than the gas temperature entering that section. This is because transfer of heat requires a temperature differential in the direction of heat transfer. The hottest gases flow across the HP section of the HRSG. Once through the HP section, the gases are still at relatively high temperatures and can be used to generate more steam, although at a lower pressure. This is done in the LP and/or IP sections of the HRSG which operate at a lower pressure; yet provide addition power generation from the steam turbine generator. 38 of 76

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3.3 3.3.1

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HRSG Characteristics and Design Considerations HRSG Geometry

The majority of the heat transfer surfaces within an HRSG use finned tubes (Figure 3-4) to increase their heat transfer area. If the fuel being burned is clean, high fins with high fin densities are used. For natural gas, it is normal to use 6 fins per inch, having a height of 0.75 inches (19.05 mm). For less clean fuels like No. 2 oil, it is necessary to reduce the fin height and density to reduce the possibility of soot buildup and excessive fouling. Higher fins and fin densities increase the heat flux and tube wall temperatures. This affects the selection of tube and fin material, and also the circulation design for natural circulation evaporators. Figure 3-4 Heat Transfer Tubes One of the principal issues which affects combined cycle efficiency is gas turbine exhaust pressure. Increasing the pressure against which the gas turbine must operate, decreases its output and efficiency. Minimum back-pressure at the outlet of the gas turbine engine promotes maximum efficiency. The pressure at the gas turbine exhaust is the same as the pressure at the HRSG inlet. Tube size, tube pitch, and tube orientation are all critical factors which affect the exhaust gas velocity and pressure drop through the HRSG. Heat transfer in the HRSG is principally convective heat transfer. The effectiveness of convective heat transfer is partially dependant on velocity; i.e. higher velocities result in higher rates of heat transfer. If the turbine exhaust pressure at the inlet of the HRSG were increased, the velocity of the exhaust gas through the HRSG tube bundles would increase. Thus, HRSG efficiency can be improved by increasing the gas turbine exhaust pressure. This however, is the opposite of what is desirable for gas turbine efficiency. Increasing the pressure against which the gas turbine must operate, decreases its output and efficiency. Gas side pressure drop is critical for optimum gas turbine performance. If the pressure drop through the HRSG is higher than expected, gas turbine performance will deteriorate. In each combined cycle application, the HRSG is matched to the associated gas turbine so that the relationship between the turbine exhaust pressure and the pressure drop across the HRSG is balanced. Instrumentation is generally provided for monitoring the pressure losses through the HRSG. If a high differential pressure is noted, the gas turbine should be shutdown and the fins of the heat transfer sections checked for excessive accumulation of carbon and soot deposits. The fins can be cleaned using a high pressure sprayer, in combination with a cleaning solution recommended by the HRSG manufacturer. The heat transfer surfaces of some HRSGs are constructed of stainless steel, and per manufacturer instructions, they can be run dry with no water/steam flow. Dry running is effective in removing soot buildup. 3.3.2 Exhaust Gas Considerations

In order to optimize the performance of the HRSG for combined cycle applications, it is essential that each pressure section generate superheated steam. The pressure and temperature of steam that can be generated is a function of the temperature and quantity of exhaust gases leaving the gas turbine. 39 of 76

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Higher pressure steam has a higher saturation temperature, and consequently needs to be heated up to that temperature to convert to steam. This high pressure steam then needs to be heated to a higher temperature to have a certain degree of superheat to avoid excessive moisture formation in the lower stages of the steam turbine. If the steam is not superheated enough at the turbine throttle, it will start condensing at an early stage and will contain unacceptable quantities of moisture by the time it exits the last stages of the steam turbine. The amount of steam that can be generated in the HRSG is a function of the total heat available in the exhaust gases, which depends on their quantity and temperature. One way of ensuring that the steam generated in the HRSG has a high enough superheat temperature is to maximize the temperature of the exhaust gases. This can be accomplished in many different ways depending on the capabilities and limitations of the gas turbine; however, the simplest method is to maintain the gas turbine at base load operation. This will achieve maximum electrical output from the generator, and maximum exhaust gas temperature output from the gas turbine. When the gas turbine is operated at partial loads, the exhaust gas temperature will likely decrease due to the fact that the air flow rate remains the same but fuel input to the turbine is decreased. Under such conditions, the superheat steam temperature tends to decrease. Consequently, there is an increased probability of higher moisture content in the lower stages of the steam turbine. If the gas turbine is provided with variable inlet guide vanes (VIGV), they can be modulated during operation to reduce airflow to the compressor at low loads to help alleviate this problem. By reducing air flow at low loads, the temperature of the gas turbine exhaust gas, and consequently steam temperature, is maintained at design levels over a greater range. 3.3.3 Duct Firing

Another way of maintaining proper superheat out of an HRSG, is to have a duct burner installed in the gas turbine exhaust duct. Supplementary firing of a second fuel directly in the gas turbine exhaust with a duct burner yields important advantages, especially since the exhaust has enough oxygen to sustain good combustion. With supplemental firing, the maximum steam temperature from a HRSG can be controlled independently of the gas turbine exhaust gas temperature. In addition, steam production from the HRSG can be increased. Duct burners are generally capable of firing the same fuel as the gas turbine, or in some applications, more than one type of fuel. During periods of low gas turbine load the duct burner can be fired to raise steam pressure and superheat. Typically, HRSG's with duct fired burners are not as efficient as unfired HRSG's because the fuel fired in the HRSG duct does not perform work in the gas turbine.

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3.3.4 Stack Temperature

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The effectiveness of a HRSG is highly dependent upon the stack temperature. This is true, since the amount of heat lost through the stack is considerably higher than from all the other losses combined. Therefore, the emphasis is to lower the stack temperature as much as possible. Lowering of stack temperature can be achieved by: Increasing the surface area of the heat transfer sections within the HRSG. Lowering the temperature difference between the exhaust gas and the last component of heat transfer surface (LP economizer / preheater) within the HRSG. Decreasing the operating steam pressure. However, steam turbine or process steam requirements may preclude this possibility.

Theoretically, it is possible to reduce the stack temperature to within 20 to 25F (10-12C) of feedwater inlet temperature. A more practical approach is to maintain stack temperature between 225 and 280F (107-138C). Operating with too low of a stack temperature may have the following detrimental consequences: HRSG may require excessive surface area to extract the last BTU's resulting in excessive capital cost. Excessive surface area in the HRSG will increase the gas pressure drop. Additionally, colder exhaust gas could cause a loss of draft in the stack. The loss of draft will increases the back pressure on the gas turbine.

Acid Dewpoint Corrosion In addition to the above, there are practical limits to how much the gas temperature may be reduced. The most significant of these limits is with respect to the acidic constituents of the fuel. Most HRSGs built today are equipped with a means (a pump) of re-circulating preheated makeup water back through the LP economizer/preheater. The purpose of re-circulating water through the economizer is to protect the external surfaces of the economizer from corrosive attack. This type of attack can occur when acidic constituents of the turbine exhaust gas are cooled to a point at which they condense into vapor droplets. The most prevalent acidic constituents are sulfur oxides (SO2 / SO3) which are a combustion product of any sulfur contained in the gas turbine fuel. If the turbine exhaust is allowed to cool below a certain value, the SO2 / SO3 will combine with water vapor and condense into tiny droplets of acidic vapor. By keeping the flue gas above a minimum temperature, acidic condensation of the exhaust gas constituents is prevented; thus protecting the LP economizer and HRSG exhaust stack from acid dewpoint corrosion. In some HRSGs, the last heat transfer sections are made of corrosion resistant stainless steel as a precaution. Stainless steel is used in the construction of these heat transfer sections since they are the most likely to be subject to condensation and attack by acid. 3.3.5 Bypass Stack And Damper

In some combined cycle arrangements, a bypass stack and damper are provided at the outlet of the gas turbine, prior to the HRSG. At some facilities, the damper can be modulated to allow a portion of the turbine exhaust to pass through the HRSG for warm-up purposes. The installation of a bypass damper has several advantages including the ability to run the gas turbine in simple cycle mode, and to 41 of 76

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allow the gas turbine to be brought up to load independently and faster than the HRSG or steam turbine. By allowing the gas turbine to be operated in the simple cycle mode, it becomes possible to increase the availability of the gas turbine cycle, even if the steam cycle is out of service for maintenance. 3.3.6 Stress and Fatigue

As steam temperatures and pressures are elevated to maximize combined cycle efficiency, the HRSG's must be designed to handle these conditions. Thermal stresses are particularly important because the system must retain its rapid start-stop and load cycling capabilities. During startup and shutdown of the gas turbine, significant changes occur in both the mass flow and thermal energy being directed through the HRSG. Also, combined cycle plants usually operate in the sliding pressure mode, meaning that drum pressure and steam flow vary (follow) gas turbine load. Over a period of time, the resulting transients can impart stress and fatigue to the HRSG components resulting in eventual failure. 3.3.7 Blowdown

As steam is produced, any impurities that may be present in the makeup feedwater are left behind in the steam drums. These impurities are generally concentrated in the upper 4 to 6 inches of the drum water level and must be continuously removed to prevent excessive accumulation. For this purpose, steam drums are typically equipped with a continuous blowdown header which extends internally across the length of the drum, just below the normal water level. The rate of continuous blowdown is controlled by throttling an isolation valve in an effort to maintain water chemistry requirements. The continuous removal of blowdown water from a steam drum represents a loss of thermal energy from the system; and hence, a reduction in cycle efficiency. One way to minimize theses losses in through the use of a cascading continuous blowdown piping arrangement. That is; blowdown water from the high pressure steam drum passes to the low pressure steam drum where it flashes and steam is recovered. Once inside the LP drum, all of the impurities rise to the surface of the water and are then discharged through the LP continuous blowdown piping to the HRSG blowdown tank. 3.3.8 Selective Catalytic Reduction

SCR involves the injection of ammonia into the flue gas upstream of a catalyst structure. NOx is catalytically reduced to nitrogen and water. The need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) can have a significant effect on the way an HRSG is designed and operated. To meet the requirements of the catalytic process, the SCR is usually sandwiched in between the HRSG components. Location depends upon matching the process temperature window of the catalyst with the proper window in the HRSG. The HRSG temperature profile is a moving target, however, that depends upon gas turbine load and ambient air conditions. Gas velocities through the SCR portion of the HRSG need to be adjusted to meet the residence time requirements for NOx reduction reactions. Other considerations include proper control of ammonia injection and mixing with turbine exhaust. The ammonia injection grid may have to be located relatively far from the catalyst structure. Also, if sulphur is present in the fuel, and as SO3 in the exhaust, it can react with ammonia to form ammonium bisulfate which can promote rapid corrosion of downstream heat transfer tubes. Provisions for water washing the cold section of an HRSG with SCR should be considered where this is a problem. SCR in HRSG's may also limit operational flexibility. Supplemental firing can drastically change the temperature profile throughout the HRSG and turndown of the gas turbine must be accomplished while maintaining the exhaust in the correct temperature range. It may be difficult to meet emissions limits if turbine exhaust is bypassed around the HRSG. Additionally, as required NOx removal efficiencies go up, it becomes more difficult to optimize the SCR process. 42 of 76

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4.0 STEAM TURBINES

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Steam turbines convert the heat energy of steam into rotational mechanical energy. The mechanical energy of the steam turbine is then used to produce electrical energy from a generator. The steam turbine-generator is, by itself, a very simple machine with few moving parts. This is desirable because it allows the steam turbine-generator to have very good reliability. It is not unusual for a steam turbine-generator to operate continuously for more than a year without shutdown. 4.1 Turbine Principles The power plant is often described as an energy conversion factory in which the chemical energy in the fuel is transformed in a series of steps into electrical energy, with the turbine-generator as one part of the power plant. The function of the steam turbine is to convert the energy in superheated high pressure steam from the boiler or HRSG, into mechanical energy. It is common to refer to the energy conversion that occurs in the turbine as happening in a single step. The conversion of energy in the turbine actually occurs in two steps. First, the heat energy in the steam is converted into kinetic energy of a steam jet by nozzles. Second, the steam jets are used with buckets or blades mounted on a rotor to produce a mechanical force and torque. This section describes both of these processes. 4.1.1 Nozzles and Their Principles A steam turbine nozzle is a device that converts heat energy of steam into kinetic energy (energy of motion) by expanding the steam. A simplified, convergent nozzle of the type most often used in steam turbines is shown at the right in Figure 4-1. Assume that steam at temperature T1 and pressure P1 enters a convergent nozzle. The higher the pressure and temperature, the more thermal energy is in the steam. The steam is moving at velocity V1 before entering the nozzle. The steam leaves the nozzle at a lower pressure and temperature, T2 and P2 but at a higher velocity, V2. This is because some of the heat energy in the steam has been converted into energy of motion, called kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is a function of the square of velocity; therefore, as the velocity increases, so does the kinetic energy. Figure 4-1 - Convergent Nozzle The ratio of the pressure upstream and downstream of the nozzle is critical in the efficient operation of the nozzle. It is designed to operate with a constant pressure ratio for best efficiency in energy conversion. If turbine conditions change the pressure ratio, inefficiency results. Also, if changes to the nozzle such as erosion occur, the design is upset and inefficiency results. Common problems with nozzles which occur in operation are erosion from debris in the steam and deposits from contamination of the steam. 4.1.2 Basic Turbine Types and Principles The kinetic energy in a jet of steam is not useful as it is. The nozzle by itself cannot convert the energy in the steam to useful mechanical energy. There are two basic turbine types: impulse and reaction. Both use nozzles and rotor buckets (also called blades), but in different ways.

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Impulse Turbine

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Figure 4-2 illustrates the basic concept of an impulse turbine. As illustrated, a steady jet of high velocity steam is directed toward a turbine wheel. The impulse of the steam velocity acting against the turbine blades causes the wheel to rotate. Figure 4-3 further illustrates the operating principles of an impulse turbine. Steam enters an impulse turbine through a stationary nozzle that expands the steam and creates a steam jet. The steam jet strikes the rotor buckets (blades). Each set of nozzles and rotor buckets is called a stage. The graph in Figure 4-3 illustrates that all the pressure drop in the stage occurs at the nozzles, and the velocity and volume of the steam increase in the nozzles. Within an impulse turbine, the expanded steam strikes the buckets forcing them to rotate and reducing the velocity of the jet of steam. The force of the steam on the buckets produces the mechanical energy needed to turn the generator. This mechanical energy comes from the jet of steam which has its velocity reduced considerably. In large modern power plants, there is considerable thermal energy in each pound of steam delivered to the turbine. It is impractical and inefficient to build a single nozzle and rotor large enough to convert all the steam's thermal energy into useful work. Therefore, large modern turbines are usually multi-staged, with each stage converting part of the steam's thermal energy to mechanical energy. In a basic multi-staged steam turbine, steam enters through the first stage nozzle, which converts part of the thermal energy in the steam into kinetic energy. The steam jet from the first stage nozzle strikes the first stage rotor buckets. After leaving the first stage rotor buckets, the steam passes through the second stage nozzle. Some of the remaining thermal energy is then converted to kinetic energy. The second stage rotor buckets are forced to rotate by the steam jet leaving the second stage nozzles. Impulse turbines can be multi-staged in two ways. One of these ways is referred to as the Rateau (or pressure compounded) stage. A Rateau turbine consists of a series of nozzles and buckets; with each set of nozzles and buckets making up one stage. The turbine illustrated in Figure 4-3 is an example of a four stage, pressure compounded, impulse turbine. As shown, the steam pressure in a series of Rateau stages drops in steps through each set of nozzles. Figure 4-3 Impulse Principles

Figure 4-2 Impulse Concept

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The second way that impulse turbine stages may be arranged is the Curtis (or velocity compounded) stage shown in Figure 4-4. A velocity compounded stage has one set of nozzles with two or more rows of moving buckets. There are stationary buckets between each row of moving buckets. Each set of nozzles and buckets makes up one stage. In passing from the nozzle exit through one set of buckets, the velocity of the steam decreases because of the work it does on the buckets. The steam then passes through a row of stationary buckets that change the direction of the steam without changing its pressure or speed. The new steam direction is approximately parallel to the original steam direction leaving the nozzles. The steam then strikes a second row of buckets that are attached to the same wheel as the first row. This process may be repeated through as many as four rows of moving buckets in one stage. Most Curtis stages, however, are limited to two rows of moving buckets. Figure 4-4 also shows that in an ideal Curtis stage, the entire pressure drop occurs through the nozzle, and the pressure remains constant across the buckets. This is a characteristic of impulse turbines. The velocity, on the other hand, drops in steps as it passes through the moving buckets. In a sense, Curtis staging is not multi-staging. This is because, as pointed out above, no matter how many rows of moving buckets a Curtis stage has, it is still only one stage. It is possible, however, to have a second Curtis stage behind the first.

Figure 4-4 Curtis Impulse Turbine 45 of 76

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Many old, multistage, impulse turbines consist of both Rateau (pressure compounded) and Curtis (velocity compounded) stages. Usually, the first stage (and sometimes the second stage) is a velocity compounded stage with two rows of moving buckets on its wheel. The remaining stages are then pressure compounded stages as shown in Figure 4-5. Newer turbines seldom use Curtis staging, however, otherwise the multi-staging is the same. It is not unusual to have as many as 20 stages in an impulse turbine.

Figure 4-5 Combination of Curtis and Rateau Stages

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Reaction Turbines

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Figure 4-6 illustrates the basic operating principles of an ideal reaction turbine. The turbine rotor is forced to turn by the active force of the steam jet leaving the nozzle. In an ideal reaction turbine, the moving buckets would be the only nozzles. Therefore, all the steam expansion would occur in the moving buckets. This is impractical in large turbines because it is difficult to admit steam to moving nozzles. Thus, large turbines use fixed nozzles to admit steam to moving nozzles. Therefore, practical, large reaction turbines use a combination of impulse and reaction principles. The rotary lawn sprinkler is an example of a pure reaction turbine. In practice, so called pure reaction turbines are seldom used, and are never used in practical utility turbines. Practical reaction turbines are a combination of reaction and impulse. There are stationary nozzles just as there are for impulse turbines. There are also rotating nozzles, not of the sort one might expect from the figure of the simple reaction turbine. The typical reaction turbine has stationary nozzles and moving nozzles. The moving nozzles are created by varying the cross section of the openings between adjacent buckets (usually called blades in such turbines) as shown in Figure 4-7. Reaction turbines can be classified by the percentage of the energy conversion that occurs in the moving nozzles. Typically, turbines that are called reaction turbines have about 50% reaction and 50% impulse. Turbines which use a combination of impulse and reaction principles are often referred to simply as reaction turbines to distinguish them from the impulse turbines. There are rotating blades (similar to impulse turbine buckets) in the practical reaction turbine and the profile of the blades is such that the passages between adjacent blades form nozzles, as shown in Figure 4-7, in which the stationary nozzles are shown at the top and the moving blades are below. Figure 4-7 Reaction Turbine Stage One practical result of this design is that, unlike impulse turbines, there is a pressure drop across the moving row of blades by design, that is P2, the pressure between the nozzles and the blades is higher than the pressure downstream of the blades, P3. This results in a force being imposed upon the rotor in the downstream direction, unlike the impulse turbine. Accordingly, one characteristic of reaction turbines is high thrust loading that requires special design features to make reasonable sized thrust bearings practical. 47 of 76

Figure 4-6 Reaction Nozzles

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Figure 4-8 shows a series of reaction turbine stages. Each stage consists of a set of fixed nozzles and a set of moving nozzles. The pressure drop occurs over both the fixed and moving nozzles. Reaction turbines are multi-staged by alternating sets of fixed and moving nozzles. Each pair of fixed and moving nozzles makes up one stage.

Figure 4-8 Reaction Turbine Characteristics

Figure 4-9 Combination; Curtis and Reaction Turbine 48 of 76

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4.1.3 Classification of Turbines In the previous section, turbine theory and the two basic turbine types were described. Impulse and reaction turbines can be further divided into a large variety of types using important characteristics. Each of the six characteristics discussed below is applicable to both impulse and reaction turbines. These characteristics are: Condensing vs. Non-Condensing Extraction vs. Non-Extraction Single Pressure vs. Multiple Pressure Reheat vs. Non-Reheat

Condensing vs. Non-Condensing One characteristic for classifying steam turbines is whether they are condensing or noncondensing. In a condensing turbine, the steam is exhausted into a condenser. By condensing the steam, the turbine exhaust pressure and temperatures can be very low. Low exhaust pressure allows the turbine to make maximum use of the thermal energy in the steam and makes the power plant more efficient. Nearly all large steam turbines are of the condensing type. In non-condensing turbines, the exhaust steam is not condensed. Instead, the exhaust steam is often collected in a piping system and used for another process. In this application, the steam turbine can provide an efficient method of reducing high pressure steam to low pressure steam; i.e, pressure letdown device. If a non-condensing turbine exhausts to a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, it is referred to as a backpressure unit. The implementation of this type of turbine is becoming common at larger cogeneration facilities which provide low/medium pressure steam to a steam host. Extraction vs. Non-Extraction A second way turbines can be classified is by extraction or non-extraction. Extraction turbines are sometimes called "bleeder" turbines. An extraction turbine is a multi-stage turbine where some of the steam is exhausted from, or bled, between turbine stages at extraction points. This extraction steam may be used for feedwater heating, or as an alternate source of LP steam to the plant, or many other purposes. Single Pressure vs. Multiple Pressure Most turbines have steam admitted to the first stage from a single source. Some turbines have steam at a lower pressure admitted to the steam path at some point after the first stage. This arrangement is common in steam turbines used in combined cycle plants because it is common to have Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG's) that operate with more than one pressure. Reheat vs. Non-Reheat A third way that turbines can be classified is reheat or non-reheat. A reheat turbine is a multistage turbine in which the steam is directed from some intermediate stage of the turbine back to the boiler. In the boiler, the steam is reheated and then piped back to the turbine. Some large turbines return the steam to the boiler to be reheated a second time. This is called a double reheat turbine. There are two advantages to reheating steam. First it makes the power plant more efficient thermodynamically. Second, it delays the start of steam condensation in the turbine. Nearly all modern large steam turbines use reheat.

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5.0

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INTEGRATED COMBINED CYCLE OPERATION

Combined cycle plant operations vary significantly from traditional Rankine Cycle power plants. Although standard operational considerations are given to the balance of plant support systems, specific considerations must be given to the combustion turbine, heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and steam turbine. 5.1 Normal Startup

Prior to unit startup, all support systems, power sources, and control devices must be checked and aligned for operation. Typically, these checks depend on individual station operating procedures and requirements, but may include such areas as correct valve alignment, correct power supply breaker positions, returning tagged out equipment to service, aligning control systems for startup/operation, and ensuring all safety equipment is in place and functional. Upon successful completion of the necessary pre-start checks, the unit can be started and brought up to base load operation. The operational sequence for a combined cycle plant startup consists of the following major steps: 1. Placing the necessary balance of plant support systems in operation such as compressed air, circulating water, condensate, boiler feed, etc. Starting the combustion turbine/HRSG. Generating steam. Starting the steam turbine. Increasing unit load.

2. 3. 4. 5. 5.1.1

Combustion Turbine Startup

Combustion turbine generators are provided with digital control systems which are programmed to sequentially start the unit and place it in service; generally at the push of a button. The control system also starts and stops base mounted and auxiliary equipment which supplies cooling, lubrication, fuel and protection for the combustion turbine and the associated generator. Once a start command is initiated, the control system progresses through an automatic sequence to bring the combustion turbine generator from a standstill condition to a pre-selected point of operation, i.e. synchronized and electrically loaded. Although each combustion turbine manufacturer provides control systems programmed with full automatic start capabilities, it is extremely important for operating personnel to be familiar with the start sequence and to be aware of the key operating parameters. Once a start command is initiated, the combustion turbine starting device will spin the turbine to a specified speed to purge the HRSG of combustible gases. The combustion turbine is maintained at the purge speed for a specified length of time to allow 3 to 4 exchanges of air in the HRSG casing structure. Upon completion of the purge, the starting device will de-energize/disengage allowing the combustion turbine to coast down in preparation for the startup sequence, i.e. ignition, acceleration, synchronization, and loading. During the startup sequence, once the turbine increases to ignition speed, the Operator should closely monitor flame presence, rate of acceleration, and combustion temperature. Combustion temperature is typically monitored as either the turbine inlet temperature, turbine outlet temperature, or both. Combustion turbine control systems are programmed to control fuel flow to the combustor to continuously accelerate the turbine without exceeding a specific turbine inlet or exhaust gas temperature. 50 of 76

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During a normal startup, the combustion temperature will increase at a somewhat gradual rate. If, however, the combustion temperature increases at an extremely accelerated rate, the Operator should not hesitate to trip turbine. This may indicate a control system malfunction or a malfunction within the regulation of fuel flow to the turbine. As an overall protective function, the control system will trip the turbine if the turbine inlet or exhaust temperature exceeds a specific setpoint. During the acceleration period of the startup, the turbine inlet and exhaust temperatures will be much greater than when the unit is at idle speed. In particular, a critical period in which over-temperature damage can occur during the startup phase is before the turbine reaches governing speed. During this period of the startup, air flow through the turbine has not yet increased to a point where the turbine is able to accelerate away from excess fuel. As the turbine approaches idle speed, i.e. the increased rotational speed results in the compressor forcing more air through the turbine, the turbine inlet and exhaust gas temperature will decrease to a normal operating value. Because an excess amount of heat is required to accelerate combustion turbines to idle speed, one start deteriorates the equivalent of 20 - 30 hours of normal operational life to the hot gas path components. Once the combustion turbine reaches idle speed, the generator may be synchronized to the grid. With automatic generator synchronization selected, the control system will read, compare, and adjust turbine-generator speed and generator voltage to match system requirements. The generator is then connected to the system by closure of the generator breaker. Synchronization of the turbine-generator unit to the distribution system can be automatic, as stated above, or manual. In either case, relaying and control components compare and display on the control panel, critical information useful in the proper connection of the generator to the system. In the manual synchronization mode, the Operator adjusts turbine-generator speed and generator voltage before closing the breaker. Manual loading can be accomplished by gradually increasing the speed setpoint from either the control system CRT, or from the generator control panel. Manufacturers generally deliver "maximum loading rate" specifications with each combustion turbine generator. At a maximum, combustion turbine load should never be changed more than 25% of full load in any one minute period. 5.1.2 HRSG Startup

The HRSG, located at the exhaust end of the combustion turbine, efficiently utilizes the excess thermal energy in the combustion turbine exhaust gases to generate high pressure, superheated steam. Because of its location, the HRSG is automatically placed in operation in conjunction with the combustion turbine. In some combined cycle plants, a bypass stack and damper is installed between the combustion turbine and the HRSG. In the bypass configuration, exhaust gases from the turbine can be diverted directly to the atmosphere instead of passing through the HRSG. Regardless of the specific combustion turbine/HRSG arrangement, similar considerations are applicable the startup and operation of all HRSGs. The HRSG must be prepared for operation prior to initiating a start of the combustion turbine. Preparing the HRSG for operation consists of following evolutions: Filling and venting the feedwater heater Establishing deaerator water level and steam pressure Filling and venting the economizers Establishing steam drum water level Opening the superheater and reheater vents and drains

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When starting the combustion turbine and HRSG from cold conditions, a focus of primary concern must be placed on the operation of the HRSG and its limited physical ability to withstand a rapid increase of temperature. If combustion turbine load, i.e. exhaust gas temperature, is increased at an accelerated rate, excessive thermal stress is induced on the pressure sections of the HRSG. If the combustion turbine exhaust gas temperature is increased significantly above the HRSG tube metal temperatures, steam/water hammering and metal fatigue will result. Therefore, upon synchronization to the electrical grid, the combustion turbine must be maintained at a minimum megawatt load until the HRSG is sufficiently warmed and the temperatures of each pressure section have stabilized. A simplified schematic of a single pressure, reheat HRSG is illustrated in Figure 5-1. As illustrated, the HRSG feedwater heater is located at the back of the casing structure, near the exhaust gas exit to the stack. This location is ideal for the intended purpose of the feedwater heater, which is to utilize the remaining thermal energy from the combustion turbine exhaust to preheat feedwater en route to the deaerator. When designing a HRSG, the manufacturer calculates, constructs, and locates each bank of tubes to absorb a specific amount of thermal energy from the exhaust gas flowpath when the combustion turbine is operating at "base load". As a result of these calculations, the amount of available thermal energy at each progressive location, from the inlet to the outlet of the HRSG, can be determined. The heat exchanger segments of each pressure section are arranged, respective of each other, to take maximum advantage of the temperature difference between the exhaust gas and tube side temperatures.

Figure 5-1 - Simplified Schematic of HRSG A basic law of thermodynamics states that the rate of heat transfer from hot to cold is dependant upon the temperature difference between the objects. HRSGs are designed on the basis of this thermodynamic principle. During base load operation, with steam and water flowing through the respective boiler tubes, the temperature of the combustion turbine exhaust decreases as it progresses through the HRSG. By the time the exhaust gas reaches the feedwater heater, the exhaust gas temperature has been reduced to less than 300F (149C). As per design calculations, the feedwater heater is sized with the appropriate heat transfer surface to obtain a specific water outlet temperature when the unit is operating at base load. As illustrated in Figure 5-1, the pre-heated water is routed to the deaerator. 52 of 76

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Upon initial startup of the combustion turbine, the hot exhaust gases pass through the HRSG without a significant reduction in temperature. Even though each pressure section absorbs "some" heat from the exhaust gases during startup, none of the absorbed heat is removed from the HRSG in the form of steam. Upon combustion turbine startup, the temperature of the gases at the exhaust stack is nearly equal to the temperature of the gases at the combustion turbine exhaust. Therefore, the startup period can be basically considered a "preheat stage" in which the temperature difference between the exhaust gas and the boiler tubes decreases, i.e. they equalize. Although this preheat stage is required in order to prevent excessive thermal stress to the boiler tubes and steam drum, the feedwater heater temperature eventually increases to well above its designed, base load, inlet temperature of 300F (149C). Throughout the preheat stage, the "high exhaust stack temperature" condition remains present even as combustion turbine generator load is increased and the HRSG begins to generate steam. Until the steam drum begins to develop significant steam flow, the removal of thermal energy (steam flow) from the HRSG is inappreciable. Likewise, feedwater makeup to the steam drum is at a minimum during this period and therefore, the economizer is absorbing very little thermal energy from the exhaust gas flowpath. During this period, makeup water to the deaerator is bypassed around the feedwater heater to prevent exposing the water to the higher than normal gas temperatures at the exhaust stack. If the water were allowed to pass through the feedwater heater, it would absorb so much heat that some of the water would flash into steam upon entering the deaerator. Not only would this condition result in excess pressure within the deaerator, but the "design" temperature limitations of the boiler feed pumps would be exceeded resulting in accelerated wear and damage to the pump internals. Once the HRSG begins to generate steam, the load on the combustion turbine generator can be gradually increased at the programmed rate of approximately 3 to 10 megawatts per minute. As more load is placed on the combustion turbine generator, the exhaust gas temperature increases proportionately, and the result is increased steam production. When the combustion turbine generator reaches 40-50% of base load, the transfer of thermal energy through the HRSG will have increased to a point where the exhaust gas temperature at the feedwater heater is near its normal operating value. At this point, the feedwater heater inlet isolation valve can be opened, and the bypass closed. When increasing combustion turbine load, and consequently HRSG steam production, the rate of temperature rise (F per minute) with the steam drums should be closely monitored. HRSG manufacturers often provide specific limitations. Accelerating the temperature rise beyond the manufacturers recommendations will cause undue stress to the steam drums and heat transfer components. If an excessive temperature difference is noted, changes in combustion turbine load should cease until the temperatures stabilize. Superheated Steam Each pressure section of the HRSG is equipped with a superheater. Superheating of saturated steam has several advantages. First, superheated steam is much drier than saturated steam and therefore causes relatively little corrosion or erosion of downstream piping and components. Also, superheated steam does not conduct heat as rapidly, and therefore does not loose heat as rapidly, as saturated steam. If saturated steam were sent through the long steam header en route to the steam turbine, much of the steam would condense into water before it arrived. Superheated steam on the other hand, remains fairly stable through long piping runs, experiencing very little condensation. The steam requirements of the steam turbine require that each source contain sufficient superheat such that the steam does not approach a saturated state at the final stages of the turbine. Doing so could result in severe water impingement damage to the turbine blading.

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Superheater Fundamentals During HRSG operation, steam flows continuously through the superheater tube bundles to absorb thermal energy from the gas turbine exhaust. If steam flow through the tubes were significantly decreased or depleted, the exhaust gas would heat the tube above its design point causing severe thermal stress and possible tube failure. For this reason, it is very important to maintain steam flow through the superheaters (and reheaters) whenever the gas turbine is in operation. During normal plant operation, steam generated by the HRSG is directed to the steam headers for distribution the steam turbine generator and/or to the steam host. However, there are specific periods of plant operation during which steam generated by the HRSG cannot be admitted to the Steam System or bypassed to the steam turbine surface condenser. For example, during unit startup or shutdown. To accommodate this, the superheaters and reheaters are often equipped with high flow vent valves capable of discharging all generated steam to the atmosphere. Although this mode of operation is wasteful and inefficient, it is very important that steam flow be maintained through the superheaters at all times. Once condenser vacuum is established, the generated steam can be bypassed to the condenser until the steam turbine is ready to accept steam flow. Steam Distribution Steam from the HRSG superheater is supplied to the steam header for use by the steam supply systems and the steam turbine. The control of steam flow from the superheater outlet is generally through a motor-operated stop check valve and steam stop valve; such as the example illustrated in Figure 5-1. The position of the valve motor operators is typically controlled from the Operator Keyboard at the DCS. During startup of the HRSG, the motor operators for the stop check valve and the steam stop valve are moved to the OPEN position before the steam drum begins to develop steam pressure. As the HRSG heats up, steam will flow through stop check valve and begin to warm the steam header. During this period of the startup, the combustion turbine is maintained at minimum load. Once the HRSG and the steam system piping are completely heated and pressurized, the combustion turbine load can be increased to meet the prestart steam requirements of the steam turbine. In multiple unit applications, if the steam header is already pressurized prior to HRSG startup, the disk of the stop check valve remains seated due to the already pressurized steam header. Once the steam drum increases to a pressure equal to the steam header, the check valve will slowly open and steam will begin to flow through the superheater from the drum. Once steam flow through the superheater and reheaters is sufficient, the applicable vent and drain valves are closed. It is very important that the drum water level be closely monitored during the transition period when steam is initially delivered to the system. HRSG Drum Level Control Maintaining proper steam drum level is a critical function and cannot be over stressed. An excessively high drum level will flood the moisture separators located within the steam drum, resulting in moisture carry over to the superheater and a steam turbine trip. An excessively low drum level will result in decreased steam output, overheating of the economizer, evaporator, and superheater tubes and a combustion turbine trip. Drum pressure is a result of drum level combined with the generation of steam in the evaporator tubes. The drum pressure will fluctuate with changes of load demands on the steam system. During a sudden steam load increase, drum pressure will decrease. This will result in a false high level condition known as "swell." During a sudden decrease of steam demand, steam drum pressure will increase and 54 of 76

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result in a false low level condition known as "shrink." In some situations, the tuning of the steam drum level control loop may not respond quick enough to maintain proper drum level during such abnormal conditions. In this event, the Operator may be required to take MANUAL control of the level control valves. During unit operation, a constant flow of makeup feedwater must be supplied to the steam drums to compensate for the amount of steam exiting the drum. In the simplest feedwater control scheme, referred to as single element control, water is added to maintain the drum level at or near the centerline. As the level of water in the steam drum decreases, it is sensed by a level controller which opens the feedwater control valve. As the drum level increases back to normal, the feedwater control valve is modulated toward close until the amount of water being added is equal to the amount of steam being used. If steam usage is reduced, the drum water level will tend to increase slightly, and the feedwater supply valve will again modulate toward close. Steam drum pressure is the result of drum level combined with the generation of steam in the evaporator tubes. During unit operation, steam is generated inside the evaporator tubes which contain water and steam bubbles. If drum pressure decreases due to a sudden demand in the steam header, the steam bubbles will swell due to the decreased pressure in the drum. Likewise, when the quantity of steam being used by the loads on the steam header decreases, the drum pressure will momentarily increase and the steam bubbles will shrink. Because of the huge number of bubbles within the boiler water side, this change in bubble size results in the lifting/falling of the water level in the evaporator tubes and in the steam drum. Refer to Figure 5-2 below.

Figure 5-2 Steam Drum Level Shrink and Swell

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As illustrated in Figure 5-2, this lifting and falling of water in the tubes can cause a major level change in the steam drum. It must be noted, this change in level is not due to a change in quantity of water in the boiler; it is due to a momentary change in the balance among pressure, flow, and steam bubble diameter. While this may not at first appear important, it must be remembered that when a single element feedwater control loop senses a falling level in the steam drum, it adds water. In the case of shrinkage, the level fell because of a reduction in steam (and water) usage. Thus, there is no reason to add more water. In fact, to keep everything in balance, the quantity of water being added should be reduced. The same is true during a load increase; e.g., the bubbles will swell and the drum level will rise. A single element feedwater control will close the valve (when it should be opened) to respond to the higher steam (and water) usage. To aggravate the situation, when cold feedwater is added to the drum it causes an incremental shrinkage of its own because some of the heat in the boiler water (primarily from the steam bubbles) is used to heat the cold water up to the temperature of the water already in the boiler. This will cause the steam bubbles to become smaller or actually disappear. If the Operator is controlling feedwater (drum level) manually or in single element mode, he must consider what is going on in the plant as a whole to determine if the change in drum level results from a real change in inventory, or whether it was caused by shrink or swell. To minimize the effects of shrink and swell, the drum level control is maintained by a three element control loop. A three element loop controls the makeup flowrate to match steam consumed, and uses high and low drum level to trim the mass balance matching signal. In this way, on an increase in steam usage, the control system will see that more water is needed to match the steam flow and will momentarily disregard the high drum level resulting from swell. If the drum level gets too high, the drum level signal will override the mass balance signal to prevent water carry-over. In the same way, on reduction in steam usage, the feedwater will be reduced to match the steam flow even though the drum level is falling. Should the drum level get too low, the level signal will again override the mass balance signal to prevent running the boiler dry. In some situations, the tuning of the steam drum level control loop may not respond quick enough to maintain proper drum level during such abnormal conditions. In this event, the Operator may be required to take MANUAL control of the level control valve. In particular, if a sudden change in steam demand is anticipated, increasing or decreasing drum level prior to the pressure swing may prevent a potential trip of the unit. Maintaining proper steam drum level is a critical function and cannot be over stressed. An excessively low drum level will result in decreased steam output, overheating of the economizer, evaporator, and superheater tubes and a combustion turbine trip. An excessively high drum level will flood the moisture separators located within the steam drum, resulting in moisture carry over and leaving deposits in the superheater tubes. Of even more concern, carryover of water droplets through the superheater can result in water impingement damage to the steam turbine blading. 5.1.3 Steam Turbine Startup

The next progressive step of bringing a combined cycle plant up to base load operation, is to preheat and start the steam turbine. In general, proper warmup of the steam turbine may take up to several hours. If an external source of steam is available, preheating of the steam turbine can begin prior to startup of the combustion turbine to facilitate the overall startup process. In some applications however, the HRSG may be the only means of producing steam at the plant. Upon startup of the combustion turbine and HRSG, the steam generated by the HRSG is routed to the condenser through the steam turbine bypass valve(s). The bypass valve is modulated to control steam flow to the condenser and consequently, HRSG steam drum pressure. 56 of 76

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Steam Turbine Pre-Warming

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One of the primary concerns of steam turbine operation is the gradual and uniform heating and cooling of the rotors, shells, and valves. Controlling the rate of metal temperature change is necessary to ensure excessive thermal stresses do not occur in any portion of the turbine metal. Each steam turbine manufacturer provides starting and loading instructions for each specific steam turbine application. These instructions are designed primarily to minimize cyclic damage to the turbine rotor, but they also have the effect of limiting cyclic damage to the turbine shell. In general, the starting and loading instructions contain recommended temperature ramp rates, acceleration rates, soak periods at different holds, and generator loading rates. If properly followed, the starting and loading instructions will increase the availability and reliability of the turbine components. During steam turbine pre-warming and startup, the Operator must be aware of the following limitations: Thermal stress and distortion Vibration Rotor and shell differential expansion

Any of the above limitations may be introduced by subjecting the turbine metal to excessive temperature mismatches and/or rates of temperature change. One of the above limitations is likely to be reached before the others, depending on the turbine design and configuration, although the other two may be present to a significant degree. Ramp rates are maintained during steam turbine startup by careful matching of the first stage and reheat steam temperatures to the corresponding metal temperatures. The steam-to-metal temperature difference should be maintained as small as possible. The main steam pressure and temperature should be controlled in such a way to produce a steam-to-metal temperature difference of 50 to 100F. This match, or slightly positive mismatch, is an important factor is establishing and maintaining the desired ramp rate. Proper control of the thermal ramp is primarily achieved by controlling the main and reheat steam temperature, and by controlling generator load upon synchronization to the grid. First-stage steam temperature is affected not only by throttle steam temperature, but by boiler pressure and temperature, and the resultant throttling at the turbine admission. Lower pressures result in a higher first-stage steam temperature at the same initial steam temperature. Maintaining Steam Temperature and Pressure During the steam turbine warmup process, the steam seals can be placed in service followed by the application of the condenser vacuum system. Once the steam flow and temperature from the HRSG has stabilized, the combustion turbine generator load can be gradually increased to meet the steam turbine prestart requirements, i.e. steam flow, pressure, and superheat. With all requirements met, the steam turbine is rolled off the turning gear and brought up to synchronizing speed. As previously illustrated in Figure 5-1, steam from the HRSG steam drum must be superheated to a controlled temperature before entering the steam turbine. To accomplish this, steam from the drum is routed through a superheater, where its temperature is increased above the saturation point. This initial superheating of the steam brings the steam temperature and pressure to the correct conditions before the admission of spray water (attemperation) which provides downstream temperature control. Spray water is admitted into the attemperator based on the steam outlet temperature from the superheater. Typically, a pneumatically operated temperature control valve is provided to modulate spray water flow into the attemperator in a effort to maintain the correct steam temperature to the steam turbine.

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Prior to steam turbine operation, HRSG drum pressure is controlled through the throttled position of the steam turbine bypass valves. However, once the steam turbine generator is synchronized and electrically loaded, the bypass valves are modulated closed to provide full steam flow to both the steam turbine and the steam host. At this point of the plant startup, steam pressure and flow is controlled by increasing the electrical load on the combustion turbine generator, i.e. increased exhaust gas temperatures result in increased steam production and steam superheat. In a combined cycle power plant arrangement, the HRSG and consequently the steam turbine is totally dependent upon the gas turbine for its energy input. It is quite common to operate such units with the steam turbine valves wide open under all operating conditions, and allow steam turbine generator load to vary as a function of the steam pressure available from the HRSG. This arrangement is called sliding (or variable) pressure operation. An advantage of sliding pressure operation is that it reduces thermal stress on turbine components as the steam temperature remains relatively constant over a wide load range. This mode of operation is also more efficient since there is minor energy loss across the control valves since they are left wide open. In other words, the steam turbine operates in the turbine follow mode with regard to the gas turbine. 5.1.4 Fast Starts

As previously discussed, there are specific points of a combined cycle plant startup where proper warmup of components must take place; i.e. the HRSG and steam turbine. These warmup periods are critical to the life expectancy of the plant equipment and must never be ignored or bypassed. However, upon a plant shutdown or trip, the HRSG, steam turbine, and the associated piping and components will already be at or near operating temperature. Only under these circumstances, can a fast start be performed. By definition, a hot restart of a steam turbine is one in which the first-stage shell inner metal temperature is greater than 700F (371C). In terms of combustion turbine combined cycle operation, a fast start refers to the increased rate at which the plant load is increased upon a successful start and synchronization of the combustion turbine. It must be noted, there is not a means of bypassing or accelerating the "programmed start sequence" of the combustion turbine. The limiting factor during a fast start is the ability of the HRSG to accept a large mass of thermal energy at an accelerated rate. However, if the HRSG is already "hot" from recent operation, combustion turbine load can be safely increased. During a fast start, once the combustion turbine generator is synchronized and electrically loaded, the Operator may load the unit to either a preselected load value or allow the unit to assume base load. The actual loading rate is often programmed by the manufacturer to protect the combustion turbine and HRSG from thermal damage. For example, a loading rate of 5 megawatts per minute is not uncommon for an industrial (frame) combustion turbine. Aero-derivative units are generally capable of faster loading rates since the overall mass of their components is a fraction of the larger frame units. When determining loading rates, each combustion turbine manufacturer takes the following parameters into consideration: Vital clearances between rotating parts. Thermal fatigue of metal parts. The rate of differential expansion; not only between parts of different materials, but between parts of different thickness.

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5.2 Operating Modes

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The purpose of any combined cycle power plant with a QF Status (qualified facility) is to; 1) supply steam to a thermal host, and 2) generate electricity. The requirement of supplying steam to a thermal host is the primary variable in obtaining a QF status. As such, once the plant is operating, the steam requirements of the thermal host must be continuously met in order to maintain the QF status. Although the steam demands of the thermal host are generally within specified limits, the actual steam demand may change at any given time. To facilitate this variable, the steam turbine stop/control valve is typically operated in a sliding header pressure mode; i.e. it serves as a back-pressure regulator. In this configuration, the production of steam from the HRSG can remain constant regardless of the steam demands by the thermal host. Then, as the steam demands of the thermal host change, the steam turbine stop/control valve modulates to maintain header pressure at a predetermined setpoint with the excess steam flowing to the steam turbine. 5.2.1 Base Load

Manufacturers publish the rated output of their combustion turbine generator sets based on industrial standard operating (ISO) conditions. Two of the major factors defined in an ISO rating are a compressor inlet temperature of 59F (15C) and the specific altitude, with respect to sea level, which the unit in installed. Since the power output of a combustion turbine is very sensitive to changes in ambient temperature, the use of ISO conditions have been standardized throughout the industry to insure uniform methods of rating combustion turbine shaft horsepower and generator output. As air cools, it's density increases. Likewise, warmer air decreases in density. Cool, dense air at the inlet of the combustion turbine compressor results in increased mass air flow through the turbine and an increased cooling of the combustor and turbine sections. As a result, during cool ambient conditions, increasing fuel flow to the combustion section can be accomplished without exceeding the maximum allowable turbine inlet temperature. The combined effect of increased mass air flow and increased fuel flow (Btu's) through the turbine section, results in an increase of combustion turbine shaft horsepower. Consequently, as ambient temperatures increase, a decrease of shaft horsepower occurs even when the turbine inlet temperature is maintained at maximum allowable value. The most critical area of a combustion turbine is the hot gas flowpath through the turbine section. Experience has shown that wear in this area is directly related to the combustion gas temperature at the turbine inlet. Since combustion turbine generators operate at a continuous synchronized speed, the combustion gas temperature at the turbine inlet is a function of; 1) the amount of fuel burned, or level of power, and 2) ambient temperature. Base load operation of a combustion turbine generator is not based on maintaining a constant power output, but on maintaining a constant turbine inlet temperature and allowing shaft horsepower to vary as changes in ambient temperature occur. When base load operation is selected, the combustion turbine control system increases or decreases fuel flow to the combustor in an effort to maintain the maximum allowable turbine inlet temperature regardless of ambient conditions. Consequently, the change of fuel flow, and thereby shaft horsepower, results in a corresponding change in generator megawatt output. The highest temperature attained in the combustion turbine occurs in the combustion chambers and at the turbine inlet. This temperature must be limited by the control system to prevent thermal damage to the turbine section. Some combustion turbine control systems are designed to measure and control turbine exhaust temperature because it may be impractical to measure temperatures in the combustion chambers or at the turbine inlet directly. The indirect control of turbine inlet temperature, called firing temperature, is possible through known turbine performance relationships. For example, the 59 of 76

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exhaust temperature alone does not fully determine firing temperature; the measured compressor discharge pressure is also required. In addition to exhaust temperature control, there are several other control and protective functions incorporated into the combustion turbine controls to ensure safe operation of the unit. These include such variables as shaft vibration, bearing temperatures, oil pressures, etc. Although each of these variables are equally important and critical to the operation of the combustion turbine, exhaust temperature is of primary concern when operating the unit at base and peak load. It must be noted; excessive firing temperature can damage the turbines hot gas path components. When operating the combustion turbine at base load, the control system compares the exhaust temperature control setpoint with the actual combustion turbine exhaust temperature as measured from thermocouples mounted in the exhaust plenum. These thermocouples are located on the circumference of the turbine exhaust and provide representative input signals to the control system. In addition, some combustion turbines are equipped with thermocouples which sense the wheelspace temperatures between each turbine stage. Daily reading of the turbine exhaust and wheelspace temperatures aid in monitoring the turbine's combustion characteristics and in detecting faulty thermocouples. Aside from the actual temperature indications, the "temperature spread" between the highest and lowest temperatures around the circumference of the turbine exhaust must be closely monitored. Throughout the life of the combustion turbine, it is important to define a "baseline value" of exhaust temperature spreads with which to compare future data. This baseline data is established during steady state operation after each of the following conditions: Initial startup of unit Before and after a planned shutdown Before and after scheduled maintenance

An important point regarding the evaluation of an exhaust temperature spread is not necessarily the magnitude of the spread, but changes in the spread over a period of time. Accurate recording and plotting of exhaust temperatures on a daily basis can indicate a developing problem. Such problems may be the result of faulty thermocouples, deteriorated/damaged turbine blades, deteriorated/damaged combustion liners, or a blockage in the cooling and sealing air flowpath. Each combustion turbine manufacturer specifies maximum allowable temperature spreads and wheelspace temperature operating limits which can be found in the technical reference materials delivered with the unit. In general, an allowable temperature spread may be between 30F and 105F (15-50C). It is important when reviewing exhaust temperature readings to observe any trend which may indicate deterioration of the combustion system. Gradual and/or sudden temperature excursions should be investigated as soon as possible to determine the validity of readings.

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5.3 5.3.1

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Shutdown of Combined Cycle Plants Normal Shutdown

Similar to a startup, the combustion turbine control system decreases generator load at a programmed rate during the shutdown sequence. The rate of load reduction is typically the same as the programmed loading rate, i.e. 3 to 10 megawatts per minute. As combustion turbine load decreases, HRSG steam production decreases proportionately. With respect to the thermal limitations of the combustion turbine and HRSG, a load reduction of 3 to 10 megawatts per minute can be safely performed. However, in combined cycle applications, the steam turbine temperature ramp rates are the limiting factor during the shutdown sequence. When decreasing steam turbine load, steam flow and temperature must be gradually reduced in accordance with manufacturer recommendations. Consequently, combustion turbine load, and therefore steam production, must be gradually decreased to accommodate the temperature ramp rates of the steam turbine. Once the steam turbine is at minimum operating load, it will trip on reverse power. Upon coasting down, the steam turbine is immediately placed on turning gear to prevent shaft bowing. With the steam turbine removed from service, the combustion turbine is shutdown by initiating a stop signal at the operator control interface. Once initiated, an automatic shutdown sequence will decrease generator load at a programmed rate. Once the generator load has decreased to a minimum value, the generator breaker is tripped open and fuel to the turbine is decreased until flame can no longer be maintained in the combustion chambers. When the turbine speed decreases to a standstill, the rotor turning device is automatically initiated. Throughout the shutdown sequence, combustion turbine support systems will be activated or shutdown as required. Immediately following a shutdown, the combustion turbine rotor must be turned to provide uniform cooling. Uniform cooling of the turbine rotor prevents rotor bowing, resultant rubbing and imbalance, and related damage that might otherwise occur when subsequent starts are attempted without cooldown. Typically, a combustion turbine can be started and loaded at any time during the cooldown cycle. After the combustion turbine is shutdown, the HRSG steam pressure should be allowed to decrease naturally without opening vents or other intentional means of taking steam from the unit to accelerate the lowering of steam pressure. A cooling rate exceeding 100F (47C) per hour to 150F (70C) per hour by excessive opening of vents should be avoided to limit drum distortion and the resulting strain on the boiler tube joints. Rapid heating or quenching can cause leaking tube joints in the steam and mud drums. Throttled opening of the superheater vent valves permits steam flow through the superheater and permits a modest pressure reduction within the above stated temperature limits. Superheater vents can be fully opened when the steam pressure decreases to 15-20 psig (1-1.37 bar). Simultaneously, the steam drum vent must be opened to prevent a vacuum from forming within the HRSG pressure sections. If it is required to drain the boiler for maintenance, the water temperature must be allowed to cool below 200F (93C).

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5.3.2 Emergency Shutdown

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Emergency shutdowns are the least desirable method of shutting down any power plant. An EMERGENCY STOP or TRIP pushbutton is generally provided to simultaneously trip both the combustion turbine and steam turbine. However, a unit trip should only be performed if an emergency condition exist which requires an immediate shutdown. If time permits, the electrical load on both generators should be removed over a period of approximately 3 minutes prior to tripping the unit. Although this type of a shutdown is still considered highly undesirable, it is preferred over a high load trip. Upon performing an emergency shutdown, both turbines must be placed on turning gear to prevent shaft bowing. Similar to a normal shutdown, the steam turbine bypass valves will open to route excess steam to the condenser.

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6.0 6.1

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COMBINED CYCLE PERFORMANCE MONITORING Introduction

The primary purpose of any power plant installation is to profit monetarily from the generation of electricity. The profitability of a power plant is directly proportional to the efficiency and performance of the plant and the manner is which is it operated. It is the responsibility of the operating staff to continuously monitor and control the operation of the plant to achieve optimum performance and efficiency, while minimizing losses. Being conscientious of the plants performance not only increases profitability, but will pay back great dividends in extended equipment life and equipment reliability. Maximum plant performance requires awareness on behalf of the Operators, of the conditions which can lead to reduced plant efficiency and output. This awareness demands strict attention to detail, combined with the ability to identify and correct performance related problems as they occur. Upon completion of this course, the Operator will be aware of the factors that affect plant performance and reliability, and the actions that can be taken to ensure the plant is operated in an efficient and reliable manner. Before a performance related problem can be solved, the root cause of the problem must be precisely identified. This module provides plant personnel with the required knowledge to identify performance related problems associated with each major component of the combined cycle power plant. The information conveyed in this section is broken down into individual sections, each pertaining to the following objectives: Identify the plants energy conversion cycle. Define the term Plant Performance and how it is measured. Identify the major components of the energy conversion cycle and how their operation affects plant performance. 6.2 Energy Conversion Cycle

The energy conversion cycle consists of those components which are responsible for converting one form of energy into another. For example; converting water into superheated steam. In general terms, a power plant can be thought of as a large energy transfer system made up of several smaller energy transfer systems. Figure 6-1 is a simplified diagram of the energy conversion cycle of a typical combined cycle power plant. 6.2.1 Energy Conversion

As illustrated in Figure 6-1, natural gas or fuel oil is provided as the fuel source to the gas turbine. The fuel provides chemical energy to the plant which must undergo several conversions to produce electrical energy to the grid: Within the gas turbine, the chemical energy of the fuel is converted to thermal energy (heat). The majority of this heat is converted to mechanical energy as it causes the gas turbine shaft to rotate. The mechanical energy of the gas turbine is transmitted to the associated generator through a drive shaft. Within the generator, mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. Exhaust heat from the gas turbine passes through the HRSG. Within the HRSG, the thermal energy from the gas turbine exhaust is used to convert water into superheated steam. 63 of 76

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Superheated steam is routed to the steam turbine, where it expands through the turbine stages causing the shaft rotate. The steam turbine converts thermal and kinetic energy into mechanical energy. The mechanical energy of the steam turbine is transmitted to the associated generator through a drive shaft. Within the generator, mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. The steam exhausted from the steam turbine is cooled and condensed. The condensate/feedwater is reintroduced into the HRSG to repeat the process.

Figure 6-1 - Energy Conversion Cycle through a Combined Cycle Power Plant

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6.2.2

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Energy Leaving the Plant

As energy is converted through each stage of the power plant process, losses occur due to the impossibility of the systems and the individual components to be 100% efficient. These losses are inherent to the design of the plant and occur continuously while the plant is in operation. Although these losses cannot be avoided, it is important to realize where these losses occur so that they can be monitored and kept to a minimum. In thinking of the power plant as an energy transfer system, it is important to realize that most of the energy which enters the plant as fuel is not converted to a usable energy form such as electricity. A typical combined cycle power plant converts less than 60% of the energy in the fuel into electrical energy. The rest of the energy is used within the plant for running auxiliary equipment or is lost from the plant cycle at various stages in the conversion process. Since energy cannot be destroyed, the fuel energy that is not converted to electrical energy must leave the power plant in some other form. The major areas of energy loss in a power plant cycle are as follows: Heat rejected to the circulating water Heat rejected through the flue gas stack Unburned combustibles in the flue gas Heat losses to the surrounding atmosphere by radiation Inefficient equipment performance due to improper operation and/or maintenance

From the above list of items, the primary way in which energy is lost from the power plant is as heat in the circulating water leaving the condensers. Once the steam has given up its energy to the turbine, it must be returned to the boiler to complete its cycle and start over. Since the steam is at a very low pressure and will not flow back to the boiler, it needs to be condensed and pumped to the boiler as feedwater. The steam is condensed by transferring its latent heat of vaporization to the circulating water passing through the condenser tubes. The heat contained in the circulating water is discharged to the atmosphere and thus, is lost from the plant cycle. Another major loss of energy from the plant occurs within the HRSG. Although most of the thermal energy inside the HRSG is transferred to the steam/water cycle, a portion of the heat contained in the flue gas is discharged directly through the stack. This discharge of heat to the atmosphere takes place in accordance with the thermodynamic design of the boiler by the manufacturer; i.e., a certain amount of heat rejection must occur in order to achieve reliable HRSG operation. Reducing the flue gas temperature below the design point can lead to problems with corrosion in the ductwork and decrease the thermal lift (natural draft) of the flue gas through the stack. Therefore, it is necessary that the flue gas temperature exiting the boiler is above a defined minimum value; generally between 240-280F depending on duct firing. Although this temperature value seems insignificant, it quickly becomes a major factor when a quantitative measurement of the rejected flue gas mass flow is taken into account. In addition to the above heat losses, a very small amount of energy is lost due to incomplete burning of fuel within the gas turbine. Although the gas turbine is extremely efficient, a measurable amount of the injected fuel is not burned completely. Incomplete combustion of fuel appears as carbon monoxide in the flue gas. Unburned combustibles indicate that all of the chemical energy in the fuel is not converted to heat, and therefore energy is also lost from the plant cycle. The last form of energy loss is heat which is lost to the ambient environment. These losses result from the radiation of heat from plant equipment, motors, electrical busses, and piping. Additional losses may be present in the form of gas, steam, or water leaks. These types of losses can be minimized through the use of insulation on piping and equipment, and by proper maintenance to prevent leaks. However, no matter what measures are taken, a significant portion of energy losses will occur due to radiation. 65 of 76

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6.3 Plant Heat Rate

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Plant heat rate is a method of showing the performance of a power plant. It is a measure of the amount of heat energy needed to produce one unit of electrical energy. The heat rate of a power plant is generally regarded as a symbol of pride as it is a measure of the plants operating efficiency and is directly representative of the hard work, knowledge, and dedication of the plant personnel to maintain optimum plant performance. The plant heat rate accounts for all inefficiencies of the plant in transferring the heat of combustion into electricity. There are two kinds of plant heat rate; (1) gross plant heat rate and, (2) net plant heat rate: Gross Plant Heat Rate is defined as the amount of heat energy in the fuel needed to produce 1 kilowatt-hour of electricity at the generator output terminals. Net Plant Heat Rate is defined as the amount of heat energy in the fuel needed to produce 1 kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to the transmission system for sale to users. The net plant heat rate is most often used as a benchmark of the plants performance.

6.3.1

Gross Plant Heat Rate

The gross plant heat rate is determined by measuring the kilowatts generated at the generator terminals for a given period of time (usually one month). During this time the amount of fuel burned in the gas turbine and duct burners is also measured. The heat energy of the fuel is found by determining its heating value (HV) in BTUs. Natural gas has a nominal heating value of 1,000 BTUs. The amount of fuel used, multiplied by the heating value, determines the number of BTUs needed to generate the measured kilowatt-hours. The ratio of BTUs to KWHs is gross plant heat rate. The formula is illustrated below: (BTU per cu/ft of fuel) x (cu/ft of fuel per hour) x (number of hours) = (KW electrical output) x (number of hours) BTU KWHR

6.3.2

Net Plant Heat Rate

A portion of the electrical energy generated by the plant is needed to drive auxiliary plant equipment such as circulating water pumps, boiler feed pumps, gas turbine auxiliaries, etc. Therefore, not all of the electrical energy generated is delivered to the switchyard for transmission to the grid. The auxiliary electrical load may be as much as 6% of the total generator output. If the sum auxiliary load is subtracted from generator output, the result is net plant heat rate. One kilowatt-hour of electrical energy is equivalent to 3,413 Btus of heat energy. If a power plant were 100% efficient, it would have a net plant heat rate of 3,413 Btu per KWH. A very efficient, modern coal fired power plant uses 8,500 Btu of heat energy to produce one kilowatt-hour of electrical energy. Early power plants were very inefficient and some used more than 30,000 Btu to produce 1 kilowatt-hour of electrical energy. The lower the plant heat rate, the more efficient the plant.

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6.4

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Factors Affecting Plant Performance

Modern distributed control systems (DCS) continuously calculate the net plant heat rate and provides the information to the Control Room Operator. Since changes in ambient conditions have a direct affect on the performance output of the gas turbine, the net plant heat rate will change accordingly based on that premise alone. Over a period of time, these changes will be realized as baseline values to an experienced Operator. However, significant changes in the net plant heat rate during base load steady-state operation should be investigated immediately. A numerically higher than normal heat rate value indicates an unnecessary loss of energy from the power plant cycle; thus indicating a reduction in plant efficiency and performance. As previously illustrated in Figure 6-1, each major component of the energy conversion cycle plays a key role in the overall performance of the plant; e.g., the gas turbine, HRSG, steam turbines, etc. A malfunction or abnormal condition associated with any of these components has a direct impact on the overall plant performance. It is the Operators responsibility to be aware of these potential conditions and how to identify them. The following subsections discuss the operation and purpose of each major component and the abnormal conditions or malfunctions would can lead to reduced plant performance. 6.4.1 Gas Turbine

Gas turbine units are equipped with a programmed control system designed to maintain the turbine at maximum efficiency during all modes of operation. Unlike traditional coal or oil fired boilers which require constant Operator attention to fuel and air ratios, combustion temperatures, and so forth; the gas turbine control system maintains peak operation of the unit and does not allow for Operator interaction on specific functions. This method of control is necessary to ensure emission parameters (NOx) are continuously met and the integrity of the gas turbine is not jeopardized or damaged. For example; during startup and operation of the gas turbine unit, the control system modulates the position of the fuel valves, controls the operation of the blow-off dampers, and controls the position of the inlet guide vanes. Precise control of these components is extremely vital to the operation of the unit, and thus these components are controlled by the gas turbine control logic. Human interaction to these controls would invariably result in unnecessary thermal stress and damage to the gas turbine unit, and possibly an explosion or flame out. Although the control system has primary control over the gas turbine, there are conditions which the Operator must monitor to ensure peak efficiency and performance. The following can affect the performance of the gas turbine and should be periodically monitored: Compressor Fouling Dirty Inlet Air Filters Evaporative Cooler Malfunction Interstage Bleed Valve Malfunction

Compressor Fouling The most common area of performance degradation for any gas turbine is the cleanliness of the compressor. Over a period of time, traces of dirt particles accumulate on the surface of the compressor blades resulting in reduced efficiency and compressor output. As the performance of the compressor deteriorates, the overall reduction in performance of the gas turbine unit is very significant. In general terms, a one percent decrease in compressor efficiency results in a two percent decrease in turbine output.

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Even with the gas turbine intake filters functioning properly, compressor fouling will undoubtedly occur over an extended period of time. In an ideal situation, it would be desirable to keep the gas turbine compressor extremely clean at all times. However, in real life terms it is not feasible to continuously wash the compressor in an effort to maintain peak performance from the unit. The most common method of determining when an offline water wash of the compressor is required, is by monitoring the performance output of the unit with respect to ambient conditions. When a 5% decrease in unit performance is noted, a water wash should be performed during the next unit shutdown, or an online water wash performed. Dirty Inlet Air Filters An obstruction of air flow to the gas turbine will undoubtedly result in decreased performance. The gas turbine inlet air filters are equipped with a self-cleaning feature which operates automatically to prevent an excessive pressure drop across the filter elements. Although this is an automatic function, the operation of the cleaning sequence and the condition of the filters should be periodically checked to ensure proper operation. Failure of the self-cleaning system or the high differential pressure alarm could result in reduced performance of the gas turbine unit. Evaporative Cooler Malfunction The largest single factor affecting the output of a gas turbine unit is the ambient air temperature. As the temperature of air increases, it expands in volume; thus decreasing in density. As a result, gas turbine output and efficiency are decreased due to the reduction in mass air flow through the compressor. This reduction of air flow results in less effective cooling in the high temperature areas of the turbine; thus fuel flow to the unit must be decreased to prevent overheating of the turbine above the maximum firing temperature. To finalize this chain of events, the reduction of fuel flow results in a corresponding reduction in shaft horsepower; thus the generator megawatt output is reduced. In summary, unit output decreases as ambient temperatures increase. Gas turbines installed in seasonally warmer climates are sometimes equipped with an evaporative cooler to offset the impact that high ambient temperatures have on unit performance. The evaporative cooler consists of a water soaked cellulose media through which all air to the inlet of the gas turbine compressor must pass. The evaporative cooler converts sensible heat into latent heat without changing the total heat content of the mixture. This increases the moisture content and density of the air flow; thus reducing the impact of high ambient temperatures on the performance and efficiency of the unit. During unit operation, the evaporative cooler operates automatically and cannot be visually inspected due to its installed location. However, it is the Operators responsibility to monitor unit performance from the gas turbine control system and ensure the evaporative cooler is functioning properly. Secondly, the source of makeup water to the cooler must be periodically checked to ensure it is continuously available. A malfunction or failure of the evaporative cooler will result in an immediate reduction in unit output and efficiency. The entire evaporative cooler system should be periodically inspected during unit shutdown to ensure proper operation and to verify that the cellulose media is in tact and free of obstructions or damage. A tear or hole in the media will reduce the effectiveness of the system; thus resulting in a reduction in unit output and efficiency. Interstage Bleed Valve Malfunction Most gas turbine compressors are equipped with interstage bleed valves used to purge excess air from the compressor during startup and shutdown; i.e. to prevent a compressor stall or surge. The bleed valves remain closed while the turbine is in operation and are not sequenced to open until a shutdown signal is generated. 68 of 76

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If any one of the interstage bleed valves are wholly or partially open during unit operation, the performance and efficiency of the gas turbine will decrease. For monitoring purposes, open/close indications are often provided at the gas turbine control system display. However, the bleed valves should be visually checked on a periodic basis to ensure they are fully closed or are not leaking by. One method of checking valve position is by observing the local position indications on the valve actuator. A second method involves temperature. If the body and discharge piping of one bleed valve is significantly warmer than the other two, chances are that the valve is passing air due to leakage or failure to close completely. Any suspected leakage should be investigated at the earliest opportunity. 6.4.2 Heat Recovery Steam Generator

The HRSG is an important factor in the energy conversion cycle of any combined cycle power plant. In effect, the HRSG is large heat exchanger which utilizes hot flue gas from the gas turbine exhaust to convert feedwater into superheated steam. The installation of an HRSG on the exhaust end of a gas turbine provides a means of capturing waste heat, and utilizing this heat to produce additional electrical energy. Hence the term; combined cycle. Depending on the plant, the HRSG may be equipped with two unique features; (1) a bypass damper, and (2) a duct burner. Bypass Damper As previously illustrated in Figure 6-1, the bypass damper is installed between the gas turbine and the HRSG. In the combined cycle mode, the damper is positioned such that it directs the gas turbine exhaust through the HRSG. This represents the most efficient mode of plant operation. In the simple cycle mode, the damper is positioned such that it directs the gas turbine exhaust directly to the atmosphere, bypassing the HRSG. This by far, is the most inefficient mode of plant operation. Directing the turbine exhaust to the atmosphere eliminates the HRSG and the steam turbine generator from the plants energy conversion cycle. This mode of operation results in an enormous reduction in overall plant efficiency and a corresponding increase in the net plant heat rate. The simple cycle mode of operation should only be used during extreme circumstances. Duct Burner The duct burner is installed in the flue gas stream at the inlet of the HRSG. The duct burner provides a means of increasing steam production and superheat within the HRSG through the introduction of additional thermal energy. When placed in operation, the duct burner is supplied with natural gas which is combusted inside the HRSG duct work and the resultant thermal energy is released to the boiler tube heat transfer surfaces. The duct burner is generally placed in service while the gas turbine is operating at base load. Particularly during warm weather conditions, the duct burner provides a means of increasing the electrical output of the plant by increasing steam production to the steam turbine generator. As a stand alone item, the duct burner is not an efficient component of the energy conversion cycle. In general terms, HRSG's with duct fired burners are not as efficient as unfired HRSG's because the fuel burned in the HRSG duct does not perform any work in the gas turbine. The overall efficiency of energy conversion in unfired HRSG's is therefore higher than in HRSG's with duct firing. However; as long as the amount of revenue ($) resulting from the increased output of the turbine/generator, more than offsets the cost of fuel to the duct burner, its use is considered an asset even though the overall net plant heat rate is reduced.

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HRSG Efficiency

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The most significant performance related factor associated with the HRSG is the efficiency of heat transfer across tubes. Placing all design characteristics and other fixed variables aside, the primary interaction that an Operator has with the performance of the HRSG is to ensure the water chemistry is maintained within limits. Proper water chemistry ensures internal cleanliness of the boiler tubes, thus promoting optimum heat transfer. The two most important impurities which need to be controlled within the HRSG feedwater are; (1) oxygen and (2) dissolved solids. Oxygen causes corrosion attack on the internal tube surfaces resulting in pitting and eventual tube failure. Oxygen corrosion is not only damaging to the tubes, but it reduces the heat transfer efficiency of the tubes while it is occurring. Therefore, it is very important to the overall efficiency of the plant to ensure proper operation of the deaerators and the oxygen scavenger injection system. Dissolved solids are particles of material which readily dissolve in water. Dissolved solids have two detrimental effects on the HRSG. First, they affect the acidity of the water, thus controlling the tendency of the water to chemically attack pipe and tube surfaces. Secondly, dissolved solids leave behind a formation of deposits on the internal tube surfaces after the water is boiled-off and converted to steam. When this occurs, two undesirable effects can result: 1. When the deposits adhere to the inside of boiler tubes, they form a layer of scale which retards the transfer of heat from the combustion gasses through the tube metal to the boiler water. Thus, overheating and failure of the tubes results. Shutdowns are then required to replace failed tubes and possibly to clean the boiler. Figure 2 illustrates the obstruction of heat transfer across fouled tubes. 2. If the deposits are carried over in the steam, they can become lodged inside the superheater or transported to the steam turbine blades. If the former occurs, overheating and failure of the superheater tubes can result. If the latter occurs, the deposits can greatly reduce turbine efficiency as well as erode the blade surfaces.

Figure 6-2 Effects of Scale on Boiler Tube Efficiency 70 of 76

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Because dissolved solids have such a high impact on the overall efficiency of the HRSG, it is pertinent that the Operator maintain correct operation of the water treatment system and control the accumulation of solids in the boiler through correct chemical injections and blowdowns. Proper water treatment in a power plant is just as important as proper maintenance and operating procedures. 6.4.3 Steam Turbine

Within the steam turbine, heat energy stored in the steam is converted to mechanical energy. As the steam expands through the turbine, it causes the turbine shaft to rotate. This rotation is transmitted to the generator, where the mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy. The heat energy lost from the steam (equal to the work performed by the steam) appears as a drop in steam pressure and temperature (an enthalpy drop) as the steam passes through the turbine. The steam inlet pressure and temperature plus the turbine backpressure (condenser vacuum) are all factors that affect the enthalpy drop through the turbine to perform work. Although the operation of a steam turbine is very straight forward, there are several factors which affect the efficiency of the turbine in converting the thermal energy of the steam into mechanical energy to the turbine shaft. The following subsections discuss these performance related factors and how they affect steam turbine efficiency. Condenser Backpressure Condenser backpressure is the most significant factor that affects the cycle efficiency of a steam turbine. Because the steam turbine exhausts into the condenser, it is desirable to reduce the pressure in the condenser as much as possible, thus reducing the backpressure against which the turbine must operate. As backpressure is decreased, the pressure drop across the steam turbine increases and a corresponding increase of steam flow through the turbine results. A decrease in backpressure increases the enthalpy drop across the turbine; thus improving the work performed by the steam as it passes through toward the exhaust end. The two primary factors which affect condenser backpressure are the operation of the steam jet air ejectors and the temperature of the circulating water. It is very important that the Operator monitor these two factors closely to ensure peak performance of the unit. Once placed in service, the air ejectors will operate as needed to withdraw air and non-condensable gases from the condenser shell. The primary variable in maintaining condenser vacuum is the temperature of circulating water. Very cool circulating water will increase the quench effect that the condenser has on the condensing steam; thus resulting in increased vacuum inside the condenser. Warm circulating water reduces the quench effect; thus reducing the ability to achieve a high level of vacuum in the condenser. Controlling the flow and temperature of circulating water to the condensers, as well as other variables that affect condenser performance, are discussed in Section 6.4.4. Leakage There are two types of leakage that can affect the operating efficiency of a steam turbine; (1) steam leaking out, and (2) air leaking in. Every seam, joint, and seal on the steam turbine casing has the potential to develop a leak. Periodic inspection by the Operator during steam turbine operation will aid in detecting any leaks and prevent reduced performance of the unit. One area of specific concern is the high pressure section of the steam turbine. Excessive steam leakage along the shaft of the turbine can escape to the gland seal exhauster, taking its heat energy with it. This leakage reduces steam flow through the turbine, thus reducing turbine work and efficiency.

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Air in-leakage can occur at the shaft sealing area of a low pressure turbine. A leak of this nature draws air into the condenser by virtue of the condenser vacuum. The in-leakage of air interferes with condenser performance causing an increase in condenser backpressure. Consequently, turbine work and efficiency are reduced. Finally, leakage can occur internally inside the steam turbine. Steam can leak from a high pressure stage, past the interstage packing, to a low pressure stage. This leakage will not affect flow to the turbine, but the work produced by the turbine will decrease. Once again, turbine efficiency is reduced. Blade Fouling The internal components of a steam turbine are precisely machined and assembled with close tolerances. The accuracy of these tolerances has a great impact on the performance and efficiency of the machine. The most common cause of lost efficiency is fouling and erosion of the turbine blades and nozzles. Any damage to the turbine nozzles which affects their shape or cross-sectional area will result in lost turbine efficiency. Tests have shown that a 0.003 inch (0.0762 mm) thick deposit, uniformly distributed over the steam path of a turbine, can decrease flow through the turbine by 1% and cause a reduced turbine efficiency of 3%. Deposits of this type are most commonly caused by poor water chemistry in the boiler. The most prevalent constituent which causes scaling and deposits inside a steam turbine is silica. Silica is a crystalline substance similar to glass and sand. Next to oxygen, silica is the most common substance found in the earths crust. Water taken from wells contain high concentrations of silica. Proper treatment of the water through the cation and anion vessels is extremely important to the performance and efficiency of the steam turbines. In general, turbine scaling can be avoided when the feedwater silica is less that 0.07 ppm. A secondary measure of reducing silica is by controlling the boiler feedwater pH. The concentration of silica in the steam will decrease when the boiler water pH is increased. During unit operation, silica vaporizes in the boiler at high pressure and temperature. When the vaporous silica comes in contact with the cooler, low pressure surfaces of the turbine, it plates out forming a shiny glass-like layer. Silica deposits on the turbine blading can restrict flow through the turbine and cause a higher than normal first stage shell pressure. This is opposite of the normal trend for first stage pressure to vary directly with flow. Erosion Blade erosion is primarily caused by excessive moisture in the steam due to insufficient superheating. As steam passes through each stage of the turbine, it reduces in pressure and expands. If the steam is not sufficiently superheated, it will begin to condense in the later stages of the turbine. The condensed droplets of steam impinge on the nozzle and blade surfaces, resulting in erosion. Erosion can actually increase steam flow through the turbine because of the increased nozzle area, but will reduce turbine efficiency because of its effect on the nozzle pressure ratio. A secondary form of erosion can occur from the existence of debris or solids suspended in the steam. This type of steam contamination can result from the breaking loose of slag or deposits in the main steam piping, or from tube exfoliation in the HRSG. Exfoliation is the process in which the protective iron oxide film on the interior surface of the HRSG superheater tubes flakes off. No matter how clean a steam system is, a certain amount of erosion will occur over an extended period of time due to steam contamination.

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Generator Hydrogen Pressure

OPERATOR TRAINING MANUAL COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS

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Some steam turbine generators utilizes a hydrogen atmosphere for heat transfer and cooling. Turbine/generator manufacturers utilize hydrogen as a cooling medium because it has a higher heat transfer coefficient than air, and it is also less dense than air. The thin density of hydrogen minimizes windage losses inside the generator, and thus the amount shaft horsepower required by the steam turbine to maintain a defined electrical load. With all other factors being equal, the use of hydrogen cooling in a generator increases the efficiency of the turbine/generator unit. The hydrogen pressure in the generator has a slight impact on the overall plant efficiency and a major impact on plant load. The heat transfer ability of the hydrogen is directly related its pressure inside the generator. If pressure decreases, heat transfer decreases and generator cooling will be reduced. If this occurs, the generator output must then be decreased to prevent overheating of generator components. For this reason, it is very important that the Operator maintain the generator hydrogen pressure at the manufacturers design setpoint. 6.4.4 Main Condensers

The Rankin Cycle portion of a combined cycle plant, consists of the steam/water cycle components; to include the HRSG, the steam turbine generators, and the condensers. There is no single component in the Rankine Cycle with a greater impact on the cycle efficiency than the condenser. Accordingly, the plant Operators must have a good understanding of how the condensers work and the factors which affect their efficiency. The primary function of a condenser is to condense the turbine exhaust steam into condensate. In this respect, the condenser serves as the heat sink for the Rankine Cycle and consequently, the point of heat reject and heat loss from the cycle. The more efficient the condenser is, the less heat that is dumped out of the cycle, and thus overall plant efficiency is increased. The difference in volume between steam and water at condenser operating temperature is roughly twenty five thousand to one; i.e. at 95F (35C) a pound of water occupies 0.016113 ft3 (0.00156 m3) while steam occupies about 404.484620 ft3 (11.454 m3). This reduction in volume creates a quench effect in the condenser when the steam is converted from a vapor to a liquid. The quench effect (pressure reduction) at the turbine exhaust increases turbine efficiency and is very much responsible for maintaining condenser vacuum. During unit operation, the steam jet air ejectors are responsible for removing air and noncondensable gases introduced into the condenser shell by the exhaust steam, while the quenching effect of the circulating water is the primary action which maintains condenser vacuum. Improper operation of the air ejectors can result in an accumulation of air and non-condensable gases inside the condenser shell. If not removed, these gases will tend to blanket the condenser tubes, resulting in reduced heat transfer efficiency. Continued operation under these conditions will result in diminished vacuum and a unit trip. For these reasons, it is very important that the Operator maintain correct operation of the circulating water system and the steam jet air ejectors. Condenser performance has a significant impact on the overall efficiency of the plant. The following factors directly affect condenser performance and must be continuously monitored by the Operator: Sub-Cooling Tube Cleanliness and Fouling Air In-Leakage Water Box Priming 73 of 76

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Sub-Cooling

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Efficient operation of the condenser requires that the exhaust steam be cooled only enough to remove its latent heat, leaving the resultant condensate at the saturation temperature. It must be kept in mind, that all of the thermal energy removed from the exhaust steam by the condenser is dumped from the cycle by action of the circulating water. Additional cooling of the condensate below the saturation value is not necessary and only serves to decrease the efficiency of the cycle. Any unnecessary heat removed from the cycle must be replaced before the condensate is reintroduced into the HRSG as feedwater. The reduction of the condensate temperature below the saturation point is referred to as subcooling. Some sub-cooling is necessary to provide sufficient suction head to the condensate pumps; however, excessive sub-cooling reduces cycle efficiency and should be avoided. The primary factors which affect condenser sub-cooling are circulating water flow and temperature. From an operating standpoint, whatever the circulating water temperature is, there will always be a certain point at which the condenser vacuum will not increase any further, no matter how much the circulating water flow is increased. In this respect, condenser vacuum varies with seasonal conditions; i.e., the coldness of circulating water. The best method to avoid excess sub-cooling is by controlling the circulating water flow and temperature in an effort to maintain the hotwell at the highest temperature attainable, without experiencing a reduction of condenser vacuum. An excess of circulating water flow beyond this point results in sub-cooling of the hotwell condensate. In other words, increasing the circulating water flow after the maximum vacuum is attained, only reduces the condensate temperature as it falls downward into the hotwell and does nothing toward further reducing vacuum. In general, it is desirable to maintain hotwell temperature equal to, or as near to the turbine exhaust steam temperature as possible. In practical terms, it is not possible to have temperatures of turbine exhaust steam and condenser hotwell condensate. However, a good rule of thumb is no more than 10F between steam and condensate temperatures. If an excessive temperature difference exists between the exhaust steam and the hotwell, the circulating water flow through the condenser should be reduced by the amount necessary to equalize the temperatures. This may be done by either throttling the condenser circulating water outlet valves or reducing the number of circulating water pumps. Reducing the circulating water flow to equalize the temperatures not only helps to retain heat in the condensate, but also reduces the circulating water pump electrical consumption. Tube Cleanliness and Fouling The internal cleanliness of the condenser tubes has a direct impact on the operating efficiency of the condenser. Any fouling or build-up of material inside the tubes acts as an insulating layer which reduces the rate of heat transfer between the turbine exhaust steam and the circulating water. When fouling exists, optimum condenser vacuum is not attainable due to the inhibited ability of the circulating water to efficiently condense the turbine exhaust steam and produce the desired quench effect needed for maximum vacuum. The net result of fouled tubes is reduced condenser vacuum and reduced steam turbine generator output. Proper water treatment is essential in maintaining efficient and reliable operation of the condenser. This holds true whether the system is being operated in the closed-loop mode using the cooling tower, or when recirculating water out of a nearby lake or river. The purpose of injecting chemicals into the circulating water is prevent internal scaling and corrosion from occurring inside the system components and to control the growth of bacterial slime and algae. Not only are the chemicals used to keep the 74 of 76

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condenser tubes clean, but also the heat transfer surfaces of the cooling tower and all other components served by the system. For example, the growth of micro-organisms in the circulating water system can impair flow distribution at the cooling tower and cause deterioration of the cooling tower materials. In summary, circulating water treatment must be closely monitored and tested to ensure the injected chemicals are effective. Air In-Leakage Because the condenser operates under a vacuum, the presence of a leak results in air being drawn into the condenser. The in-leakage of air results in reduced condenser vacuum, increased steam turbine backpressure, and decreased unit efficiency. If a reduction of condenser vacuum is noted during unit operation, the Operator can determine the cause of the problem by checking the discharge air flow from the steam jet air ejectors. If the air flow is normal, the cause of reduced vacuum can be traced to the operation of the circulating water system. As previously discussed, inadequate circulating water flow or high water temperature can result in reduced condenser vacuum. If the discharge flow rate from the ejectors is abnormally high, an air in-leakage condition exists. Determining the location of an air leak on a system which is under a vacuum presents a unique problem. If the leak is of significant size, it can be located by listening for an in-rush of air. However, most leaks are small enough that a more sophisticated detection method must be used. One common method is to admit non-flammable gas, such as Freon into the atmosphere around the suspected area while monitoring the air ejector discharge with a gas detector. When gas is detected, the point where gas was released is identified as having a leak. Once a leak is located, temporary repairs should be made so the turbine backpressure is reduced, and steps should be taken to initiate permanent repairs. The in-leakage of air through the steam turbine casing and related components was previously discussed in Section 6.4.3. Inadequate seal steam to the steam turbine shaft seals is the most likely cause of an air in-leakage problem and should be one the first items checked by the Operator. If the steam seals are functioning properly, the Operator must consider the probability of a leak at the condenser shell and all components and piping connected to it. Leaks can originate from any one of the following: Condenser or Hotwell Instrumentation All Condensate Drain Piping to the Condenser Condensate Pump Shaft Seals Vacuum Breaker Leakage Hogger Valve Not Completely Closed Expansion Joint Leakage Due to Cracks or Gasket Failure

Water Box Priming During unit operation, circulating water flow through the condenser tube bundle passes through water boxes mounted on each end of the condenser shell. The churning and continuous flow of water through the condenser water boxes and tubes promotes the liberation of entrained air from the water. As the small bubbles of air are released, they rise to the surface and form an air pocket inside the water boxes. Over a period of time, continued releases of air from the water will increase the size of the air pocket to the extent that the upper row of tubes becomes air bound. When this occurs, circulating water can not flow through the affected tubes due to the presence of the air pocket. As with any shell and tube heat exchanger, the amount of heat transfer is directly related to the size of the heat transfer area. In the condenser, the heat transfer area is the combined area of all the 75 of 76

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condenser tube surfaces. If a portion of these tubes do not have circulating water flowing through them, they can not transfer heat and thus the rate of heat transfer through the condenser is decreased. The end result is less effective cooling of the steam turbine exhaust, leading to a reduction of condenser vacuum and reduced unit performance and efficiency. To prevent the above scenario from occurring, the condenser is equipped with a Water Box Priming System which continuously evacuates any entrained air from the upper section of the water boxes. It is very important that the Operator maintain correct operation of the system, thus ensuring optimum condenser performance. Sight glasses are generally provided on the upper portion of the water boxes and they should be periodically checked by the Operator to ensure an air pocket is not present. 6.4.5 Deaerator

When referring to plant performance and efficiency, one component of the heat transfer cycle that is often over-looked is the deaerator. The life and reliability of the HRSG is very much dependant on the operation and effectiveness of the deaerator. It is very important that the deaerator function properly in order to prevent oxygen-based corrosion from attacking the water side heat transfer surfaces of the HRSG. This type of corrosion reduces heat transfer efficiency while it is occurring and can lead to eventual tube failure and unit shutdown. The primary function of the deaerator is to remove non-condensable gases from the feedwater entering the HRSG. The efficiency of the deaerator in performing this function is partially dependent on the temperature of the incoming feedwater. If the inlet water temperature is abnormally low, proper deaeration cannot take place. This creates the need for additional chemical injection to control feedwater dissolved oxygen content; and thus wasted chemicals and money are expended. The Operator must ensure that the feedwater heater to the deaerator is in service and operating properly, and that it is not bypassed for any reason. To efficiently perform the task of deaeration, the deaerator requires an adequate supply of steam at the design flow and pressure requirements. If the pressure of the steam supply deteriorates, deaeration efficiency and heating decreases; again creating the need for additional chemical injection. To alleviate this, the Operator must ensure that the steam supply to the deaerator is continuous and adequate, and that the pressure regulator is functioning properly. Deaerators must be properly vented to carry off the non-condensable gases which are "driven off" from the feedwater. However, the continuous venting of the deaerator can be a source of considerable lost energy and is often the single largest contributor to poor feedwater system efficiency. To minimize these losses, the deaerator should be vented only enough to meet the units dissolved oxygen removal requirements. The Operator should observe the flow of steam from the deaerator vent to ensure obstruction or pluggage is not present.

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