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Br and l oyalty

Loyalty is a direct measure of how willing customers are to stick to a brand. Therefore Aaker argues the price premium as the basic indicator for brand loyalty and the single best measurement of brand equity. Loyal customers prevent entry of potential competitors and lower the treat of substitutes. Next to that loyalty facilitates in time so it is possible to respond to market innovations and to create to protection shield against price fighters. Hence, Aaker defines brand loyalty as a core dimension in the brand equity model (Aaker, 1996:319-323). The importance of loyalty is also recognized and correlated to brand equity by Kapferer. Strong brands can only be strong if they have a solid supply of loyal customers. Where the financial brand value is a function of brand equity, loyalty decreases the risk of expected future returns. Loyal customers spend more and their spending could easily increase over time as a result of loyalty programs. Compared to prospect / non -customers, loyal customers are 5 times less costly to contact (Kapferer, 2007:203). Loyalty is often measured as repeating sequence of purchase. Keller argues that repeat buying does not necessarily address high customer loyalty, nor does a high level of customer satisfaction. Cust omers can purchase repeatedly and feel very satisfied without demonstrating intrinsic loyalty to the product, brand or organization. Nonetheless repeatedly buying is part of brand loyalty. Loyalty demands deeper attitudinal attachments that fully satisfy c ustomer needs, it's beyond having a positive attitude to the brand (Keller, 2007:71&88). Love and Gelbert argue that strong brands consistently win two moments of truth and that they will earn a special place in the mind of customers. The first moment of truth occurs when the customer chooses the brand above the competition. The second moment of truth occurs when the customer experiences the brand and the brand promise is congruent with the brand experience. Hence loyalty is directly linked to value of trus t earned by credibility as a result of the moments of truth. Therefore trust can be seen as a simple foundation of loyalty programs (as quoted in Kotler & Pfoertsch, 2006:VI). Aaker defines five loyalty segments which guide companies to develop their strategic and tactical market insight (Aaker, 2002:22 -23); 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Noncustomers Price switchers Passively loyal customers Fence sitters Committed customers

Organizations should enhance loyalty of the fence sitters, the ones who have no brand preference between two or more brands, and the committed customers. Brand awareness, perceived brand quality, a well managed brand identity and behavioural brand loyalty programs could leverage brand loyalty among these groups (Aaker, 2002:22-23). The latter has also been addre ssed by Kapferer

Br and eq uit y Brand equity is the financial value of a brand which provides capital/value to products and services. See figure 20. enable the brand to leverage her strength and should deliver future value to the brand. 2007:17): 1. 3. Kotler and Pfoertsch came to the conclusion that. Brand equity is related to future returns that customers generate to the product or service. 2006:70). brand equ ity drivers are built around four key drivers which leverage consumer's perceptions of the brand: (1) perceived quality. A strong brand characterizes it self by a strong customer base. (2) brand strength and (3) brand value. Kotler and Keller argue that the value of a brand is directly related to the perception and mind set of prospects and customers. Previous consumption of the brand. Hence brand equity is an intangible ass et that delivers (financial) value to the customers on one hand and value to the organization on the other hand. (3) brand associations and (4) brand loyalty (Kotler & Pfoertsch. Developed brand assets in the past. Kapferer recommends four indicators of brand equity (Kapferer. no matter which brand equity paradigm is used. For that reason the customer determines the future attractiveness of a brand and its brand equity. heard. It reflects the direct and indirect brand experience of what they have seen. Hence brand equity fulfils a bridging role where it connects the past to the future. Aided brand awareness. measure of salience 3. Kapferer distinguishes three levels. 4. 2007:86). 4. 5. 2006:276). 2006:69) addressed brand equity in a preferred customer respons e of: 1. Evoked set. 2. The sequence from past to future is a conditional consequence which differs in time due to competitive an d environmental changes (Kapferer. Greater willingness to try a product or service Less time needed to close the sale of an offering Greater likelihood that the product or service is purchased Willingness to award a larger share of purchase requirement Willingness to pay a price p remium . and emotions. measures whether the brand has the power to evoke long-lasting images. Spontaneous brand awareness (unaided awareness). (2) name awareness. thought and felt over time (Kotler and Keller. also called consideration set.who argues that behavioural loyalty programs create an emotional connection between the brand and customers (Kapferer. memories. (1) brand assets. 2. learned. From a company perspective Anderson and Narus (as quoted in Kotler & Pfoertsch. or even better by a sustainable base of loyal customers. 2007:14).

The measures should reflect brand equity and forces that drive the market. 19 96:317). Aaker formed his brand equity model around the five categories of brand assets: 1. See figure 22. Next to that. 5. 2006:278). product lines and markets (Aaker. Brand loyalty. It's of vital importance to understand the source that creates value and the way it creates value. . also known as the "brand resonance pyramid" The model is build ar ound 4 sequential steps from bottom to top. See figure 21. Other proprietary assets.. 2000:17). The reason why brand equity occurs and how marketeers can create this is captured in Keller's definition: "Customer-based brand equity occurs when the consumer has a high level of awareness and fami liarity with the brand and holds strong. Brand awareness. Less sensitive in regard to price increase 7." Keller labelled this as customer based brand equity (CBBE) and developed a CBBE pyramid model. these are the indicators/ effect as displayed in figure 21 (Aaker. and an emotional route on the right side: imagery and feeling. favourable. the measures should be sensitive and it should be applicable across brands. The four steps of CBBE pyramid are structured in six core building blocks with a rational route on the left side: performance and judgement. based on the first four primarily categories of the equity model in figure 22. 4. and unique brand associations in memory. 2.6. Brand knowledge enables the consumer to differentiate brands and guides the mind and response to marketing activities as a result of this knowledge (Kotler and Keller. Aaker determines the five categories as the main determinants of brand equity which deliver positive or negative value to the customer and organization. 1996:8). Aaker has set 10 brand equity measurement variables. Kotler and Keller argue that the foundation of brand equity is formed by the brand knowledge of the consumers. Less inducement to try a competitive offering This is also congruent with Aaker and Joachimsthaler who defined brand equity as: ". Each category can be seen as a brand asset that creates value. Brand associations. where each next step is conditional to the success of achieving the objectives of the previous step. 3.a set of brand assets (or liabilities) linked to a brand's name and sym bol that adds to (or subtract from) a product or service" (Aaker and Joachimsthaler.. Perceived quality. situated on the right side of figure 23. Parallel on the four steps Keller defined 4 questions customers ask th em self about the brand. situated on the right side of figure 23.

 Successful global active brands will establish integrated marketing communication programs. 7. Understand similarities and differences in the global branding landscape. which safeguard brand heritage and brand positioning across all traditional and non -traditional communication tools.The means by which brand equity is build. 5. 3. the product needs to be manufactured. 4. Embrace integrated marketing communication. Keller argues that global active organizations need to build their global customer based equity model on his "Ten commandments of Global Branding" (Keller. 1. culture is not relevant as long as marketers understand the relevance of each building block in relation to the target group (Keller.  One of the aspects of globalization is the blend of global and local brand elements. as well in product and price strategies.  Logistics are very important. country. 2007:86 87). 6. before successful marketing programs can be exported into new local markets to build sustainable long term brand equity.  Successful global active brands establish partnership to access local distribution channels within their international markets. Don't take shortcuts in brand building. Marketing infrastructure encompasses international chain distribution for products and market intelligence. distributed.  Local brand awareness and positive brand image come first. The balance needs to be reviewed. product. measured. may differ from time to time and on customer group/segmentation. Balance global and local control .  International markets will vary in many aspects and brands can loose easily their local relevance due to local consumer behaviour and local competitive market forces. 2007:607-627). managed and set against the most efficient and effective global marketing programs. Cultivate brand partnership. sold and consumed. Balance standardization and customization. Establish marketing infrastructure. 2. Whether this is based on geographic zone.

3 implementation steps(1) brand equity charter. Organizations are able to build a reputable brand by understanding the correlation between brand awareness and brand value. Basically it captures standardization of core brand aspects and local adaption of secondary aspects. By understanding the brand values employee s can start a word of mouth epidemic of positive incentives and spread the brand message to differentiate the brand within the playing field (Kotler & Pfoertsch.  A set of organizational processes . Building global brand equity depends heavily o n the balance of internal integration and differentiation. It is extremely important to create a consistent. (2 brand equity reports. 2007:21). Leverage brand elements. Implement a global brand equity measurement system. The importance and power of communication is given by the fact that communication can reveal the brand's tangible and intangible meaning rather then focusing on . added value and brands. Key aspects are local responsiveness. 2006:129). (3) brand equity responsibilities) 10. Establish operable guidelines  To guide local marketers across the globe. 9. teach. In general communicating to stakeholders starts with communicating to the brand ambassadors: the employees of the organization. 8. Marketing communication is the voice of the brand (Keller. 2007:230 ). Hence marketing communication can establish a dialogue and strengthen the relationship with and among stakeholders. transparent and recognizable balance between the internal qualities and external tangible and intangible signs without discrepancy in the a ssociation set in the mind of the stakeholders. Br and c omm u ni cati on Marketing communication is an important tool by which organizations inform. This captures the verbal and nonverbal elements as well which can have a severe impact on the effectiveness of global marketing programs. Communicating brand values to stakeholders is a core activity of brand management. persuade and remind stakeholders about their activities.  Core brand elements should be standardized for global purposes and selecte d very carefully to leverage the global brand. operable guidelines need to be established which should capture a brand charter and a clear product line strategy. integration (scale of economy) and globally dispersed knowledge diffusion. unambiguous. A reputable brand is the most efficient of external signals to create value (Kapferer.

5. based on theoretical and managerial guidelines. using unique exposure techniques to create beneficial. Be patient  Building a strong brand and brand equity is investing in future returns. triggers the marketer to look for new customer insights and high level of customer understanding. unique and sustainable brand associations. hence effective communication request patience and a long term view. 2007:272 -273). 6. 4. 7.visible product commodities. 2007:194). Marketing communication contributes meaning ful to enhance brand equity which is in essence determined by brand experience and brand knowledge created in the mind of stakeholders. strong. Brand managers and marketers need to evaluate marketing communication options strategically to determine how they can contribute to brand equity. Be curious  Communication based on curiosity. 1. That's why brands are not jeopardized by offering products on oligopolistic markets (Kapferer. Be analytical  Communication programs should have a conceptual framework. Keller has formed a short list of eight general marketing guidelines (Keller. Be single-minded  Dedicated/custom communication to a specific target group will enhance the communication effectivenes s. 3. Be integrative  Integrated and balanced communication across all communication interfaces usses all communication tools in a consistent manner. 8. Be observant  Maintain market and stakeholder knowledge on high level through monitoring and research. Be realistic . Be creative  Communicate creative. 2.

2006:107 -109). They segregate the communication environment into four groups. (2) external marketing. (2) . (3) customers.brandhygiene. and (3) interactive marketing. (1) collaborators. See right triangle in figure 24 (Kotler & Pfoertsch. (1) internal marketing. Marketing communication objectives should be specific and realistic (SMART) to avoid too much deviation. The interdependencies are captured and visualized in the branding triangle. http://www. Kotler and Pfoertsch approaches brand communication from a holistic paradigm to encounter the complex B2B interactions and constru ct a branding triangle. Marketing communication is a complex process and has several interdependent direct and indirect d eterminant factors. Next to that they associate the group intersection towards different marketing perspectives. and (4) general public.