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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Language is the primary conveyer of thoughts and ideas. It turns abstract concept into words that symbolize those thoughts and ideas. Therefore language is regarded as one of the important aspects in human life because it is a tool of communication and interaction. There are various number of languages that thoroughly spread worldwide. In this paper, the author will discuss about Sasak language -- an Austronesian (Western Malayo-Polynesian) language spoken by approximately two million people in the Lombok island, eastern Indonesian (Austin 2004:1)which is concerned with the grammatical function and structural distribution of pronominal clitics that are applied by the speakers who inhabit Kekeri Village. The variety of Sasak is widely spoken throughout western, central and eastern Lombok. Sasak is one of the most important languages to Sasak community because it has significant role not only as a daily language but also used as a kind of standard language for educational material (Austin 2004:7). The variety of Sasak is not only possible to find in regency level but also in village level. This variety is regarded as a dialect. Sasak which is spoken in Kekeri village points to Meno-Mene Sasak-- dialect spreads over on west Lombok.

Clitics play an increasingly prominent role in linguistic research and the status of clitics is a topic of much debated in phonology, morphology and syntax as well as in the respective interface so does with the status of pronominal clitics. It is an issue which is still under discussion and no definite answer has been provided to the question of whether pronominal clitics should be treated as independent syntactic forms or as affixal element. In this paper, analysis will takes the

morphological and syntactic aspects of clitics into consideration. In this thesis author proposes the grammatical function of pronominal clitics which is found in Sasak as well as showing the syntactic environment where the pronominal clitics of Sasak can occur. The purpose of the introduction is to offer an overview of some ideas on clitics especially pronominal clitics.

1.2 Reason for Choosing the Topic Although language that spoken at Kekeri village belongs to Sasak language especially Meno-Mene dialect, it does not mean that non-Kekeri Villager fully understand the language when communication takes place. This is a result of peculiarity is found in this dialect in terms of morphology such as in distinguishing the use ku and ke. Some peculiarities of this language that spoken by inhabitants of Kekeri village determinate author to conducting this research.
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1.3 Statement of The Problem This study attempts to answer these following questions: a. How many types of pronominal clitics which are found at Kekeri? b. What is the grammatical function of pronominal clitics used at Kekeri? c. How is the structural distribution of pronominal clitics at Kekeri?

1.4 Purpose of the Study The analysis of grammatical function and structural distribution of clitics in Sasak language that spoken at Kekeri village intends: a. To indentify the types of clitics which are found in this language. b. To describe the grammatical function of pronominal clitics used in this language by analyzing their attachment in various sentences c. To describe the structural distribution of clitics by analyzing in which grammatical environment it may occur.

1.5 Scope of the Study The focus of this study is to analyze structural distribution and grammatical function of Sasaks clitics that are spoken by Sasak native speaker who live in Kekeri. Therefore, pronominal clitics will be observed in terms of their distribution and their grammatical function as well as the previous research of clitics by Peter K Austin also accounted.

1.6 Significance of the Study The finding of this study is expected to enrich and contribute reliable information and data as reference for further research pertained with clitics of Sasak.

1.7 Operational Definition of Key Terms a. Analysis The word analysis is derived from the verb analyze that means to study or examine something in detail, in order to discover more about it. (Oxford Advance Dictionary, 2003). Analysis also means separation into parts possibly with comment and judgment (Hornby;1974 ).

b. Grammatical function Grammatical function refers to the syntactic relation among part of speech, such as subject, object (direct object and indirect object), adjunct, complement etc. (www. wikipedia. org). c. Structural Crystal (2003;438) states that structural is a definition of terms used in lingsuistics that refers to any approach to the analysis of the language that plays explicit attention to the way in which linguistics features can be described in terms of structures and systems. He concludes that structural is a part of exposition of grammatical model, e.g. the notion of structural description on transformational grammar. d. Distribution Crystal (2003:162) states that distribution is a term used in linguistics to refer to the total set of linguistic context or environments in which a unit can occur.
e. Clitic is a grammatically independent and phonologically dependent word. It is

pronounced like an affix, but works at the phrase level. (www.wikipedia.org). Further clitic is an independent syntactic constituent which shows up phonologically as part of derived word (Marantantz:253 cited in Hudson;245) f. Pronominal clitics

Clitic pronoun is typically affixed to the verb. In some languages they are suffixed to the first constituent of the clause and in other they are affixed to some kinds of grammatical principle (Blake and Malinson, 1981 cited in Merdana 2001;6) g. Sasak language Sasak is a western Ausronesian language, most closely related to Balinese and Sumbawan, the two neighboring languages to the west and east of it. There are approximately 1,657,000 speakers of Sasak distributed among a reported five major dialects (Thoir et ak 1986, Teeuw 1958 cited in Benjamins 2008;144) h. Kekeri Kekeri is one of small villages which is located in Gunungsari sub district, West Lombok regency, West Nusa Tenggara province. CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter consists of two major parts: the related study and theoretical review. In the first part author talk over and give a brief description on a single study by Peter K. Austin (2004). This study focuses on the distribution of clitics in sasak that provide the interaction between clitics placement and focus construction. In the next part, the author presents the issue of the grammatical function and the structural
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distribution of pronominal clitics in Sasak. The discussion of two parts in this chapter eventually expected to lead reader in comprehending the next discussion.
2.1

The study of Sasak clitics by Peter K. Austin In his paper Austin discussed the distribution of clitics in Sasak. He outlined the

types of clitics found in Sasak by applying Napolis classification and proposed several characteristics of clitics which are generally agreed in the literature namely: 1. Words whose distribution is syntactically determined. Unlike affixes clitics possibly attach to words of many different classes, including words like prepositions or adverbs that do not usually takes affixes. 2. Clitics may appear in cluster with multiple clitics in different function. 3. Clitics typically code nominal features (person/number/case), auxiliaries or verbal features (tense/aspects/mood/polarity) Classification of Sasaks clitics by applying Napolis classification, Austin proposed categorization of clitics into three classes: 1. Simple clitics: phonologically reduce allomorph of lexical item, i.e. ll in English 2. Special clitics: weak oratonic form attached to the host, not phonologically reduced and often formally reduced and often formally different from strong form. 3. Bound word clitics : independent phonological word (not atomic) with no non-clitics counterpart.

Sasak has a variety of clitics that have different distributions in its various dialects. Austin found the following types: 1. Simple clitics Demonstratives in some dialects (especially in Men-Men) have short form that can encliticise to the final element of the X that precedes them. For instance: (1) N Dem Dengan-ni Bal-n this person that house

ni and no are syntactically independent that have function as demonstrative specifier but morphologically dependent in which they can not stand on its own in a sentence. 2. Special clitics Special clitics attach to noun to encode inalienable possessor. The forms in various Sasak dialects are provided in the following table. Ngen-Ngen 1sg 1pl 2masc 2fem 3 3anaphoric Ku Te Mq Bi Ne Menu-Meni Ko Te Ng Men-Men K T M N Meriaq-Merikuq K T M N

The strong pronouns:

Ngen- Ngen 1sg 1pl 2masc 2fem 3 Aku Ite Ante

Menu-Meni Aku Ite

Men-Men Aku Ite

Meriaq-Merikuq Aku Ite

Kamu Kamu Ie Ie

Kamu

Kamu

Ie

Ie

(Austin: 2004) Example:

(2) Ime hand

ime-ng-ku ime-ng-k ime-ng-k

my hand my hand my hand

Special clitics attach to other words classes for instance ime as in example above in which it encodes Possessive. 3. Bound word clitics

Austin found auxiliary clitics in Sasak follow the first constituents of the clause as illustrated in the following sentence. {-m} is bound word clitics in Sasak. (3) Sai Who iaq-m AUX-1sg kance with bedait meet lq loc peken? market

Who will you meet at the market? In the sentence above, AUX clitic follows the first constituent of the clause namely the noun phrase (NP) kance bedait lq peken

2.2 Grammatical function In linguistics, grammatical functions (or grammatical relations) refer to syntactic relationships between participants in a proposition (Hollman: 2006). Examples are subject, object and complement. Basic groups of grammatical function are classified into three subcategories. 1. Argument functions: Subject, object, various oblique functions, Complement and Xcomplement. 2. Adjunct functions: Adjuct and Xadjunct. 3. Grammaticized discourse functions: Focus and topic. (Y.N.Falk)

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2.2.1 Subject Subject has different status from the other argument functions. It is an element that can be related to other clauses in a sentence, for instance by being functionally controller. Subjects are often topics as Givon (1993:94 cited in Hollman). It is also described as the primary topic of the clause or the most important participant of the discourse at the point when the clause is processed. Further more subject is the most prominent of the grammatical relations which a noun phrase may bear in a clause (Trask 1993 in Hanafi 2008). A subject is a grammatical relation that exhibits certain independent syntactic properties, such as the following: 1. The grammatical characteristics of the agent of typically transitive verbs and of intransitive verbs. (4) I threw S throw PAST (5) I cry S cry the DEF paper O

Subjects in both sentences have function as agents which are followed by transitive verb threw and intransitive verb cry. 2. Subject represents entity with independent existence (6) Jack is a boxer

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In (6) Jack is the Subject and it occurs outside the Verb phrase. It is independent and preverbal. The complement a boxer refers to subject Jack 3. The conditioning of an agreement on the verb (7) The beautiful girl kicks the ball NP V-s DEF O In (7) subject The beautiful girl control the verb kick in the simple present by attaching an agreement {-s} as the first person singular marker. 4. The capability of being implied in imperative constructions. (8) Jangan kembali lagi! NEG comeback anymore Do not come back anymore! This relate to the noun phrase in a sentence. In imperative construction the subject is unmarked. It is directly addressed by the speaker to the hearer or subject. 5. The capability of co-reference with reflexive pronouns (9) She S kills v-3sgmarker herself O

In (9) subject she is the controller toward herself in which its status as reflexive pronoun and object.

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6. The capability of becoming the object in passivization (10) Dia me-mukul 3SG ACT-hit She hits that troop pasukan troop itu DEF

(11) Pasukan itu di-pukul-nya Troop DEF PASS-hit-3SG That troop is hit by him/her This example taken from Indonesian, (10) is active sentence that shows dia has a function as subject then in passive sentence (11), it bears function as grammatical object in which surfaces as postclitics {-nya}

2.2.2 Object An object is distinguished into two types namely direct object and indirect object. A direct object is a noun, pronoun or group of words acting as a noun that receives the action of a transitive verb. To find a direct object, ask What? or Whom? after an action verb, in the other word direct objects tend to be the entities mostly affected by the action that is described by the verb. Indirect object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that often appears in sentences containing direct objects. In the other word it is a grammatical relation that expresses the recipient of the action described in a verb (Binkert:2004)

2.2.2.1 Direct Object

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A direct object is a grammatical relation that exhibits a combination of certain independent syntactic properties. 1. Direct object is inside the Verb Phrase (VP) The direct object (DO) is a noun phrase (NP) that immediately follows the verb. Consider the following example: (12) He S gave gave-PAST a bunch of flower to her DO IO (Hanafi ; 2006) 2. DO is preceded by IO In this respect, there is a promotion of IO to DO position after the verb. (13) John sent S sent-PAST a book DO to Jacky IO

(14) John sent Jacky a book S sent IO DO 3. The capability of becoming the subject in passivization (15) Aca ngirim-keun Mangle-na Aca ACT.send-TRANS Mangle-3SG.POSS Aca send his Mangle to Cucu

(Hanafi ; 2006)

ka Cucu to Cucu

(16) Mangle-na di-kirim-keun (ku Aca) ka Cucu Mangle-3SG.POSS PASS-sent-TRANS by Aca to Cucu His Mangle was sent (by Aca) to Cucu

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(15) is the active sentence and (16) is the passive sentence, PASS ie marked by diprefix and phrase ku Aca is optionally deleted. (Hanafi ; 2006) 4. DO has a case marking in case languages. The case marking o is used to mark DO and follows it in Japanese. (17) Sensei ga Tasaku ni Teacher S Tasaku IO The teacher gave Tasaku a book hon book o DO yat-ta give-PAST

(Hanafi; 2006)

2.2.2.2 Indirect Object Indirect object is a grammatical relation that expresses the recipient of the action described in a verb, e.g. John in I bought John a book. Indirect object has several properties that are taken from some languages.

1. In English indirect object comes before direct object or IO precedes DO. (18) I give him a marbles

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Him in (18) is indirect object that surfaces before direct object. It is also possible to promote IO to DO position by adding preposition to (Hanafi; 2006). Consider the following example: (19) I give a marble to him. 2. In Makasai language indirect object is marked by post position. (20) Ani lawa nake kaki 1SG money take elder(brother/sister) I take money for my elder brother/sister gau for

Kaki in (20) bears grammatical function as IO. It is marked by postposition gau. 2.2.3 Oblique Oblique argument is an argument with an explicit indication of the thematic role. In English, this indication is by means of preposition . oblique arguments are prepositional phrases (PPs) (Y.N.Falk). He also proposed that the oblique argument has several grammatical functions namely: 1. GOAL is the place or the intention which identifies the direction of the state or action that is identified in the verb. It is marked in English by the preposition to.

(21)

a. John donated money to charity

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b. *John donated charity the money (Larson: 369) (22) a. John donated money to charity b *To charity money was donated

In (21 a) to charity is a goal oblique. As a goal oblique, to charity is marked by preposition to and in (21 b) cannot take the position as grammatical IO as well as S in (22b). 2. SOURCE marked in English by from. It is the place which identifies the origin of the state or action identified in the verb. (23) John flew from Italy.

3. INSTRUMENT is the means by which the action identified in the verb comes about. It is maked in English by with.

(24)

a. John sprayed the wall with the paint. b. John sprayed the paint on the wall. (Beavers; 2005)

The wall is a direct object in (24a) and a locational oblique in (24b); the paint is a direct object in (24b) and an instrumental oblique in (24a). These are just two options the syntax provides for realizing the same meaning.

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4. LOCATIVE the place which identifies the location or spatial orientation of the state or action identified in the verb. It is marked in English by various preposition for instance at, on, in etc. (25) (26) It happened in Italy Putu me-mbajak di sawah Pak Putu ACT.plough at ricefield Mr. Putu plough at at Mr. Nyomans ricefield Nyoman Nyoman (Hanafi; 2008) Locative in Indonesia is marked by di In (26) di sawah Pak Nyoman is locative oblique.

2.2.4 Complement Complement is defined as a part of speech which provides extra information. Complements are an essential part of the argument structure (part of the sub categorization frame), in which omission of a complement results in an ill-formed sentence. (Neidle:10). The following sentence illustrates this:

(27)

a. John didnt sound ashamed of himself. b. *John didnt sound.

(27a) is grammatical sentence. The deletion of complement ashamed of him self leads to the ungrammatical sentences as illustrated in (27b). Complement is categorized into three types namely:

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1. Subject Complement Subject complement is an extra information that refers to grammatical function subject. Consider the following sentence. (28) This S is V a kit and a half COMPLsubject

In (28) a kit and a half has function as complement subject in which refers to subject. 2. Object complement Object complement is extra information provided to clarify grammatical function object.

(29) The all-white strip makes S V

me O

a real star COMPLobject

Sentence above illustrate a real star bears function as complement that refers to object me. In other words, a real star is provide extra information for object me. 3. Adverbial Complement Adverbial complement always a verb phrase. It illustrates in the following sentence: (30) Iam here.

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here in (30) is the adverbial complement in which cannot be deleted because am here is the verb phrase. The omission of here will results an ill-formed sentence. (31) I look into my future into my future in (31) is adverbial complement. Note that complement provides information in the predicate. S

Subject

Predicate Adverbial Complement

look

into my future

(Hollman; 2006)

2.3 Pronoun In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase with or without a determiner, such as you and they in English (www.wikipedia.org). The replaced phrase is called the antecedent of the pronoun. Common types of pronouns found in the world's languages are as follows: 2.3.1 Personal pronouns

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Personal pronoun refers to place, people and thing. a. Subjective pronouns are used when the person or thing is the subject of the sentence or clause (www.wikipedia.org). For instance: (32) I like to eat chips. (33) She does not go to school I and she are subjective pronouns because their grammatically role as subject. b. Intensive pronouns It is also known as emphatic pronouns, re-emphasize a noun or pronoun that has already been mentioned. English uses the same forms for the reflexive pronouns (www.wikipedia.org). for example: (34) I did it myself c. Objective pronouns are used when the person or thing is the object of the sentence or clause (www.wikipedia.org). For instance: (35)John likes me but not her. Me and her are objective pronouns which point their grammatical role is object. Direct and indirect object pronouns. for example: (36) Mary loves him (direct object) (37) Mary sent him a letter (indirect object). d. Reflexive pronouns are used when a person or thing acts on itself (Linguistic terms.org). For instance:

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(38) John cut himself. e. Reciprocal pronouns refer to a reciprocal relationship. For instance: (39) They do not like each other. f. Prepositional pronouns come after a preposition (Wikipedia.com).For example: (40) Anna and Maria looked at him. g. Disjunctive pronouns are used in isolation or in certain other special grammatical contexts. No distinct forms exist in English (Wikipedia.com). For example: Who does this belong to? Me.

h. Dummy pronouns are used when grammatical rules require a noun (or pronoun), but none is semantically required (Binkert: 2004). For instance: (41) It is raining. It in (41) is dummy subject because this subject is not semantically required. i. Weak pronouns is a pronoun phonetically more independent than clitic pronouns but less independent than ordinary pronouns Cardinaletti and Stark (1994) cited in Testelets (2006)

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2.3.2

Possessive pronouns In a strict sense, the possessive pronouns are only those that act syntactically as

nouns. For instance: (42) Those clothes are mine. Possessive determiners or possessive adjectives are not strictly pronouns because they do not substitute for a noun or noun phrases (www.wikipedia.org).

Some grammarians classify these terms in a separate lexical category called determiners due to their syntactic role that close to adjectives and always qualify as a noun. For instance: (43) Those are my clothes.

2.3.3

Demonstrative pronouns. Demonstrative pronoun is type of pronoun which is used to distinguish the

particular objects or people that are referred to from other possible candidates (Binkert; 2004). For example: (44) I'll take these.

2.3.4

Indefinite pronouns

Indefinite pronoun is classified into two categories namely:

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a. Distributive pronouns are used to refer to members of a group separately rather

than collectively. For instance: (45) To each his own.


b. Negative pronouns indicate the non-existence of people or things. English

example: (46) Nobody thinks that. (www.wikipedia.com) 2.4 Pronominal clitics Cardinaletti and Stark (1994) cited in Testelets (2006) classified pronouns into three classes: strong pronouns, weak pronouns and clitic pronoun. The difference between the three groups show universal character and spread systematically across all language levels phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics. 1. Strong pronouns Strong pronouns are often characterized by properties equivalent to full noun phrases. For instance: I, you, they and we in English 2. Weak pronouns

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Weak pronouns are often morphologically simpler, cannot be prosodically focused, show restricted syntactic distribution and do not show other properties of full phrases. Notice the following sentence. (47) a. I sawya in the garden b. *I sawya and John in the garden (Testelets ; 2006) Ya is Weak pronoun. (47b) shows that ya is syntactically restricted.

3. Clitics Pronouns/Pronominal Clitics Pronominal clitics share all the deficient characteristics of the weak pronouns with respect to the strong pronouns. Moreover the clitics pronouns are deficient also with respect to the weak pronouns: the restriction occurs above all in phonology (Clitics can not occur stressed) and syntactic distribution (the clitics location is ussualy restricted to a unique position). Pronominal clitic is typically affixed to the verb. In some languages they are suffixed to the first constituent of the clause and in other, they are affixed to some kinds of grammatical principle (Blake and Malinson, 1981 cited in Merdana 2001:6) (48) Iaq-m bng-k kpng? FUT-2sg give-1sg money Will you give me some money?

Notice that {-m} and {-k} are pronominal clitics.

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Pronominal Clitics appear at the cross-road of morphology and syntax. In grammatical theory a distinction is traditionally made between free and bound morphemes. A bound morpheme must combine with another morpheme to form word and can not stand on its own in a sentence. The analysis of the possible combinations of such bound forms is typically the domain of morphology. A free form can function as a word on its own, and can combine with other words to form a sentence. The analysis of the possible combinations of words is typically the domain of syntax. For an illustration in this process consider the following sentence. (49) Ibu-ku pergi ke pasar Mother-1SG go loc market My mothere goes to the market

Syntactically, postclitics {-ku} bears function as possessive pronoun. Morphologically it treats as subject of sentence. In conclusion, pronominal clitics are bound morpheme which bears grammatical function or in the other word it belongs to morpho-syntactical interface. Hence reviewing the terms above in purpose to be applied in analyzing the data of Sasak language which is spoken in Kekeri Village.

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CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODS 3.1 Research Method The method employed in this research is descriptive method. Since it tries to clearly describe and elaborate the grammatical function and structural distribution of pronominal clitics of Sasak which spoken by the inhabitants of Kekeri.

3.2

Population and sample Considering the language use in Kekeri Village, the inhabitants can be classified

into two communities. They are: people who are native Sasak and apply Sasak as daily language and non-native Sasak who speak Indonesian language. The subject of this study is Sasak communities who live in Kekeri Village and have been categorized as particular communities who apply Sasak in daily language. Meanwhile the population of this study is the spoken utterance or Sasak language.

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For the sampling accomplishment, author need to restrict the sample due to the large number of population by choosing samples which are regarded as the representatives of the whole population.

3.3 Data collection Collecting data is one of the crucial phase in conducting a research. The technique used depends on the purpose of the study and should be accurately collected. In giving understandable description of the grammatical function and structural distribution of pronominal clitics in Sasak. Author need to collect and transcribe natural conversation data, utterances that are produced by the speakers. Data in this study are collected through the following methods and techniques: 1. Observation In conducting the observation author apply two ways in which author takes position as: a. Participant. In this technique the researcher takes part in conversation by talking with the subject.

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b. Non

participant.

In

this

technique

the

researcher

observes

the

activities/conversation without being active in the conversation. 2. Recording The researcher used a tape recorder to record the conversation or utterance. The note taking technique is utilized as an alternative choice when particular situations are not covered by recording. 3.4 Data Analysis Data analysis is one of the prominent procedures in conducting a study. This thesis uses descriptive analytic method in which the data that have been collected through recording and note taking will be firstly transcribed into written text. Thus the data will be identified based on their distribution and grammatical function. The steps of data analysis procedure used in this research are as follows: a. The writer selects, identifies and classifies the possible properties of pronominal clitics. b. The writer morphologically and syntactically identifies the grammatical function and structural distribution of pronominal clitics. c. Finally, the writer determines the possible rule that exist in the fact of pronominal clitics.

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CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter consists of two parts namely finding and discussion. In the first part the writer will outline the types of pronominal clitics which are found in Sasak which is especially spoken in Kekeri and environmental structure in which pronominal clitics occur. Then in the second part, the writer analyzes and elaborates particular sentences that are taken from the gathered verbal interactions as well as determining the grammatical functions and show the structural distribution of Pronominal clitics.

4.1 FINDINGS 4.1.1 Types of Sasak pronominal clitics Generally, Sasak presents two kinds of pronouns, they are free form pronouns and bound word form pronoun. Strong pronouns are pronoun that has function as a word on its own and can be combined with another word to form a sentence. In contrast
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with pronominal clitics. It can not be labeled as a word without its host. In the other word it must be combined with another morpheme to form a word and it cannot stand alone on its own in the sentence. Both types of pronouns are also found in Sasak which are spoken in Kekeri. The forms of pronoun are provided in the following tables.

Table 1. The strong pronoun Singular Subjective Pronoun Ku Diq Ie Objective Pronoun Ku Diq Nya Plural Ite Diq + pada Ie + pada

1 person 2nd person 3rd person

st

Table 2. The pronominal clitics Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person Ke De Plural Te de + pada +pada

The pronominal clitics in the second table are also known as bound words pronoun. Ke, de and e are singular form and te is plural form for 1st person. In order to encode plural form for second and third person the word pada (all) should be added to de and .
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Pronominal clitics in this language can also encode grammatical category namely as possessive marker. Consider these following illustrations.

(1) Buku-ng-ke

buku-ng-ke

my book

Book 1SG.POSS

(2) Tepi-n-te

tepi-n-te

our television

Television 1PL.POSS
(3) Lemari-n-de

lemari-n-de

your cupboard

Cupboard 2SG.POSS
(4) Sepede-e

her/his bicycle

Bicycle-3Sg.POSS

Pronominal clitics ke, te, de and e in (1), (2), (3), (4) above are possessive markers when they attach to noun. Note that ke, te and de that come after ended vowel noun need phonetically adaptation. Based on the general overview above there are two types of pronominal clitics that spoken in this language namely simple clitic and special clitic. Pronominal clitics in Kekeri Sasak is considered simple because some of them are phonologically reduced allomorph of full lexical item for instance Pronominal Clitics (henceforth PCL ) te is reduced from ite. Meanwhile based the sturtural distribution, PCLs are classified into proclitic and enclitic.

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4.1.2 Grammatical Function of Pronominal Clitics Grammatical function is one of ways to recognize syntactic categories for instance noun phrase, verb phrase, adverb pharse, noun, verb, adjective, determiner, conjunction as well as pronouns and pronominal clitics. In Kekeri Sasak Pronominal clitics can bear several grammatical functions that are listed in the following table.

Table.3 Grammatical functions of Pronominal Clitics Sentence Consruction Pronominal Clitics Ke Te De da+pada +lapuq/pada Ke Te + De + de+pada + + + + Ia tendang-de pada? Mpuk- ku
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Grammatical Function S O DO IO + + + + + + + + + + -

Example Ke-lalo baq daya Te-lalo baq daya De-lalo baq daya De-pada lalo baq daya? Lalo- baq daya Lalo- pada baq daya? Tendang-ke nya Ia tendang-ke Tendang-te nya

Intransitive

Transitive

Ia tendang-te Tendang-de nya? Ia tendang-de endah? De-pada beli buku?

+lapuq/pada + Ke Te De da+pada + +lapuq/pada + + + + + + + Ditransitive + + + + +

Nawir mbeli- Mbeli- pada kelambi? Nawir mbeli- lapuq Ke-beliang-da kelambi Te-beliang-ke kelambi De-beliang-te kelambi? De-pada beliang-e kelambi? Beliang- diq kelambi. diq beliang- kelambi Pada beliang- ku kelambi. Diq beliang- pada kelambi Te-tendang-ke siq nya Te-tendang-te siq pak guru Te-tendang-de siq pak + guru? Te-tendang-de pada siq + guru Ke-tebeliang kelambi siq + inaq-ke Te-tebeliang kelambi siq + inaq-te De-tebeliang kelambi siq + inaq-de De-pada tebeliang kelambi + pak guru? Te-tendang- siq pak guru Te-tendang- pada siq pak +

Ke Te De Passive (single Object) de+pada +lapuq/pada Passive (double Te object) De de+pada Ke

+ +

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siq inaq-de + +lapuq/pada + siq inaq- Pronominal clitics can bear function as grammatical S almost in all constructions. In contrast with Object, pronominal clitics can bear function as O in transitive construction. Meanwhile PCLs can not appear as DO but they can bear function as IO In ditransitive construction. inaq- Te-beliang- pada kelambi Te-beliang- kelambi siq

4.1.3 Distribution of Pronominal Clitics In words, clitic and hostword are recognized as two special and mutually defining kinds of word (Hudson: 257). Therefore every pronominal clitic has a host. Based on its respect to the host, Sasak pronominal clitics are devided into two categories namely proclitics and enclitics. Pronominal clitics in Sasak can be attached to noun, verb, adjective, auxiliary, adverb, negative, preposition and conjunction. Considering the following table:

Table 3 shows the distribution of PCLs when they attach on various word classes Clitics Pronoun Ke Word classes Noun Distribution Post position Example Inaq-ke nu

35

Verb Adjective Auxiliary Adverb Preposition Negative Conjunction Noun Verb Adjective Auxiliary Adverb Preposition Negative Conjunction Noun Verb Adjective Auxiliary Adverb Preposition Negative Conjunction Noun Verb Adjective Preposition Auxiliary Adverb

Preverbal and postverbal position Post position Post position Post position Before preposition Post position Post position Post position Pre and post verbal position Post position Post position Post position Before preposition Post position Post position Post position Preverbal and post verbal position Post position Post position Post position Before preposition Post position Post position Post position Preverbal and post verbal position Post position Before preposition Post position Post position

Ke-tendang nya Tendang-ke nya Baning-ke lalo Saweq-ke baq bangket Tebin-ke baq bangket Ke-baq bangket Deq-ke toang Terus-ke baq bangket Inaq-te Te-tendang nya Tendang-te nya Banin-te lalo Saweq-te baq bangket Tebin-te baq bangket te-baq bangket Deq-te baq bangket Terus-te baq bangket Inaq-de nu de-tendang nya? Tendang-da ku Banin-de lalo Saweq-de lalo? Tebin-de lalo? De-baq mbe? Deq-da lalo? Terus-de lalo Inaq-de pada De-pada tendang sai? Tendang-da pada Banin-da pada lalo De-pada baq embe? Saweq-da pada lalo Tebin-da pada lalo

Te

De

De+Pada

36

Negative Conjunction Noun Verb Adjective Auxiliary Adverb Negative Conjunction Noun Verb

Post position Post position Post position Postverbal position Post position Post position Post position Post position Post position Post position Post verbal position

Deq-da pada lalo? Terus-da pada lalo Inaq- Tendang- ku Bani- lao Saweq- lalo Tebin- lalo Deq- lalo Terus- lalo Inaq- pada Tendang- pada acong nu. Pada tendang- acong

+Pada Adjective Auxiliary Adverb Negative Conjunction Post position Post position Post position Post Position Post position

nu Bani- pada lalo Saweq- pada lalo Tebin- pada lalo Deq- pada lalo? Terus- pada lalo

PCLs that refer to the 1SG and 1PL namely ke and te show the same structural distribution as well as with second person PCLs. PCLs and +pada are slightly different from the others in which they only surface in the post position of word classes that is being attached. When +pada is attached to verb, pada can come before the verb that being attached by . Another finding also found that particular PCLs can be attached to the particular conjunction. This will be explained in the next section.

4.2 DISCUSSIONS

37

4.2.1 Pronominal Clitics and Strong Pronoun in Kekeri Sasak Pronominal clitics that applied in Sasak especially spoken in Kekeri are slightly different from other dialects. Austin (2004:5) found that there are three varieties of pronominal clitics that refer to first person singular in four Sasak dialects namely ku, k and k. In Kekeri Sasak, ku is not a pronominal clitics but a strong pronoun or free form pronoun meanwhile the posisition of pronominal clitic is occupied by ke. Cardinaletti & Starke cited in Testelets journal (Strong pronoun and Weak pronoun in Russian: 2) classify pronouns into three categories namely strong pronoun, weak pronoun and clitic pronoun or pronominal clitic. Strong pronoun has characteristics that equivalent to full noun phrase or shows its behavior like NP. Weak pronoun are often morphologically more simple. It is an interface between strong pronoun and clitic pronoun/pronominal clitic. Therefore it constitutes both

characteristics of strong pronoun and of pronominal clitics. Pronominal clitics are deficient with respect to weak pronoun and strong pronoun. The restriction of pronominal clitic can be seen in its location that usually restricted to unique position. Considering that weak pronoun in Kekeri Sasak is not found, writer only focuses on Strong pronoun and Pronomional clitics. By disregarding weak pronoun, writer concludes that ke is pronominal clitic and ku is strong pronoun based on these following characteristics concern with both pronominal clitics and strong pronouns characteristics:

38

1. The first characteristic that differentiates strong pronoun ku from pronominal clitic ke is the ability of conjoining as showed in (5a) and (5b).

(5) a. Ku dit diq 1Sg or 2SG b. *Ke dit diq 1Sg or 2SG

you and I

you and I

Strong pronoun ku in (5a) can conjoin with conjunction dit. This contrast with pronominal clitic ke in (5b). Those sentences prove that ke is clitics and ku is strong pronoun.

2. Another evidence that shows ke is pronominal clitic and ku is strong pronoun is the ability to be stressed.

(6) a. Ku

doang yaq FUT

te-beng PASS-give

1Sg only

Im the only one person will be given b.*Ke doang yaq te-beng 1Sg only FUT PASS-give Im the only one person will be given

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(6a) points that the strong pronoun ku can be stressed, where as when pronominal clitics ke is stressed, it lead to ungrammatical sentence as in (6b).

3. The ability of standing on its own. This fact clearly appears in answering an interrogative sentences. Examples (7a) and (7b) show that clitics pronoun ke cannot stand alone without its host meanwhile ku has the ability to appear as a word.

(7) a. Sai epe-ang ni? Ku Who has-REL DEM ? I who is the owner of this? Me b. *Sai epeang ni? Ke Who has DEM? I who is the owner of this? Me

4. The phonetically assimilation when both ku and ke comes after nouns which is ended by vowel. (8a) clearly shows that the existence of phonetically assimilation when the pronominal clitics ke precedes the noun buku in which it encodes possessive marker. Whereas (8b) reveals that there is no phonetically assimilation when ku is positioned after the noun book. However it also bears function as possessive marker.

(8)

a. bukung-ke Book 1SG.POSS

buku-ng-ke

my book

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b. buku ku Book 1SG.POSS

my book

5. The capability of being relativised. Pronominal clitics can not be relativized like Strong pronoun. When the PCL -ke is relativized, it results ungrammatical sentence as in (9b).

(9)

a. Ku saq nangis nu 1SG REL cry DEM Im the one who cry b. *Ke-saq nangis nu DEM

1SG.CL.REL cry Im the one who cry

4.2.2 Pronominal Clitics and Their Grammatical Function The status of PCLs is claimed stay in the interface between morphology and syntax. One of the features that concern with syntactic area is clearly depicted through PCLs due to they have the ability to bear grammatical function in a language as stated by Kayne (1975) cited in (Luis:2004). Therefore pronominal clitics also should be treated as syntactically autonomous units

subject to clitic-specific movement operations. In Sasak that especially

41

spoken in Kekeri also provide that PCLs have several grammatical functions. Therefore there are two sub-classes of PCLs namely subject pronoun and object pronoun. Subject and object are an argument that can be expressed nominally or pronominally. Considering that an argument can be pronominally expressed, Sasak has a set of PCLs which can refer to actor and patient in which they bear grammatical function as S and O.

4.2.2.1 Subject Clitics The PCL ke are attached to the verb as described in (10), (11), (12),(13), (14) and (15) in which they have function as grammatical S. PCLs also phonologically affect their host that is ended by vowel as in illustrated in (10) and (12)

(10)

Baung-ke

paoq leq

kebon

Pick 1SGCL mango PREP garden I pick mango in the garden


(11)

Ke-bau

paoq leq

kebon

1SGCL-pick mango PREP garden I will pick mango in the garden


(12)

Lalong-ke Go

baq

Warnet

1SGCL PREP Cafe net

I go to Caf net

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(13)

Ke-lalo

baq

Warnet

1SGCL-go PREP Cafe net I will go to Caf net


(14)

Sikat-ke

kelambin-da

Brush-1SGCL shirt-2SG.POSS.CLs I brushed your shirt


(15)

Ke-Sikat kelambin-da 1SG brush clothes 2SG.POSS.CL I will brushed your shirt

In (10) the PCL -ke is S whereas paoq bears function as O and OBLloc is leq kebon. In Kekeri Sasak OBLloc is marked by preposition leq. In (13) PCL -ke does not affect the verb which is ended by consonant. However, it has the same function as S. Then NP kelambin da is the O. On the other hand, when the PCLs ke- appears in the preverbal position it can not phonologically influence the verb that is being attached. The preverbal position of PCL ke- also leads to the different meaning. This will be explained in the next section. The PCL -te or te- also shows the same features as in (17), (19) and (21) in which functions as S. The existence of phonetical changing when PCL -te is attached to the ended vowel verb as in (16) and (18). Meanwhile when it attaches to the verb that ended by consonant, it does not induce its host as in (20)

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(16)

Baun-te

paoq

leq

kebon

Pick-1PLCL mango PREP garden We picked mango at the garden


(17)

Te-bau

paoq leq

kebon

1PLCP-pick mango PREP garden We will pick mango at the garden


(18)

Lalon-te

baq Warnet

Go-1PLCLs to Cafe net We go to Caf net


(19)

Te-lalo

baq Warnet

1PLCL-go to Cafe net We will go to Caf net


(20)

Sikat-te

kelambin-da

brush-1PLCL shirt-2SGPoss.CL We brush your shirt


(21)

Te-sikat

kelambin-da

1PLCL-brush your t-shirt-2SG Poss.CL We will brush your shirt PCL - in Sasak also can appear as dummy subject. It is illustrated in the following sentence.

(22) Ujan-

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Rain-3CL It is raining
(23) Rintis-

Drizzle-3anaphor CL It is drizzling In (22) and (23) the PCl is regarded as dummy subject because it is not semantically needed but by means of performing a grammatical sentence.

4.2.2.2 Transitive and Intransitive Construction Transitive construction in this language shows the possibility of dropping object pronoun. Notice the following illustration. (24) a. Mper-ke nya kadu batu nu

Throw-1SG.CL 3SG with stone DEM I throw her/him with that stone

b. Mper-ke

kadu batu nu

Throw-1SG.CL with stone DEM I throw her/him with that stone

45

(24a) shows objective pronoun nya, that appears before instrumental OBL kadu batu nu can be deleted as in (24b). It shows the possibility of dropping object if both addressor and addressee know the object. The possibility of dropping Subject clitic is also found in this language. The deletion of subject also occurs due to both speakers have known the subject. It shows in (25b) in which subject clitic is deleted.

(25)

a. Mper-

ku kadu batu nu

Throw-3SG.CL 1SG with stone DEM She/he throws me with that stone

b. Mper ku kadu batu nu Throw 1SG with stone DEM She/he throws me with that stone

The PCLs in intransitive construction always bear function as S when it precede or follow a verb. Consider the following illustration in which te is S and it attaches to intransitive verb lampaq. Then baq daya occupied position as an OBLloc.

(26) Lampaq-te baq daya Walk-1PL to north We walk to the north

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4.2.2.3 Object Clitics Object clitics can appear in particular grammatical environment such as in transitive construction. It can come after non nasalized and nasalized verb as in (27c) and (27d).

(27) a. Nawir m-beli kelambi Nawir ACT-buy shirt Nawir buys a shirt

b. Nawir -beli kelambi Nawir ACT-buy shirt Nawir buys a shirt c. Nawir m-beli- Nawir ACT-buy-3SGCL Nawir buys it

d. Nawir -beli- Nawir ACT-buy-3SGCL Nawir buys it

(27a) is the basic construction in which the agent Nawir bears function as S. The position of O in that sentence is occupied by kelambi. When the verb is replaced by non nasalized verb as in (27b) the sentence is acceptable as well as when the O is replaced by PCL as in (27c) and (27d).
47

4.2.2.4 Passive Construction Passive construction is one of tests to prove the grammatical function of noun or pronoun whether it bears function as S, O (IO and DO) or OBL. Before analyzing the grammatical function of PCLs. Notice the basic passive construction with strong pronoun/free form pronoun as in (28) and (29).

(28) a. Ia

tendang Acong nu 1SG DEM

3SG kick

She/he kicks that dog

b. Acong nu

te-tendang siq nya

Dog DEM PASS-kick by 3SG That dog is kicked by her/him

c. Acong nu

te-tendang

1SG DEM PASS-kick That dog is kicked

Sasak canonical passive especially in Kekeri is marked by te- prefix as well as followed by the preposition isiq or siq. (28a) is an active construction that can be derived to be passive construction (28b) in which the position of S is occupied by acong nu that is O in (28a). Meanwhile the verb should be added by te prefix and

48

followed by chmer siq nya. Note that strong pronoun nya only appears as O and chmer. The passive sentence also can be derived as in (28c) by deleting the chmer.

(29) a. Ku

m-puk nya kadu tongkat nu DEM

1SG ACT-hit 3SG use stick I hit her/him with that stick

b. Ia

te-mpuk siq ku kadu tongkat nu DEM

3SG PASS-hit by 1SG use stick She/he hit by me with that stick

(29b) is derived from the active sentence (29a), to encode passive the verb should be attached by prefix te- , the O nya is promoted to the S as Ia meanwhile the grammatical S ku in (29a) appears as chmer siq ku in (29b) as well as comes with the instrumental OBL kadu tongkat nu. The passive construction that involve PCL clitics is also marked by te- prefix and followed by the preposition isiq or siq. Notice the following sentence.

(30)

a. Mpuk-ke Hit-1SG.CL

nya kadu tongkat nu 2SG use stick DEM

I hit him/her with that stick

49

b. Te-mpuk-

siq ku kadu tongkat nu

PASS-Hit-3SG.CL by me use stick DEM She/he is hit by me with that stick

c. Te-mpuk-

kadu tongkat nu DEM

PASS-Hit-3SG.CL use stick She/he is hit with that stick

(30a) is active construction which shows the PCL -ke bears function as Subject clitics where as the position of O is occupied by objective pronoun nya and kadu tonkat nu is instrumental OBL When (30a) is derived to be passive sentence the positions of PCL -ke and object pronoun is changing as well as appears in different form as illustrated in (30b). In (30b) the verb mpuk should be attached with prefix te- to encode passive, the PCL -ke surface as pronoun ku and it is functioned as chmer that can be optionally deleted as in (30c). Whereas object pronoun nya surface as PCL and bears function as S. The passive construction that constitute the distribution of clitics in pre verbal position also show the grammatical function as S and note that pronominal clitic can be attached to siq when it has function as chmer. Notice following construction in which ke and da bear function as S.

(31)

a. Ke-tendang 1SG.CL-kick 2SG I will kick you

diq

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b. Da-te-tendang

siq ku

2SG.CL-PASS-kick by 1SG You will be kicked by me

c. *Da-te-tendang

siq-ke

2SG.CL-PASS-kick by 1SG.PCL You will be kicked by me

d. Da-te-tendang 2SG.CL-PASS-kick You will be kicked Based on the analyzed sentences above, in passive construction PCLs can only appear as grammatical S and the distribution of PCLs as well as grammatical function of PCLs in Passive Construction which is derived from single object construction can be explained by following frame work.

The rule A describes the GF and the distribution of PCLs in which appears as enclitics

V-(S=PCLs1)+(O=P1) --- PASSmarker-V-(S=PCLs2)+Chm (isiq/siq+P2)/ (Active) (Passive)

51

The rule B describes the GF and the distribution of PCLs in which appears as Proclitics

(S=PCLs1)-V+(O=P1) --- yaq-(S=PCLs2)+PASSmarker-V+Chm(isiq/siq+P2)/ (Active) (Passive)

The rule C describes the GF and the distribution of PCLs in sentence as proclitics and which O is occupied by NP.

V-(S=PCLs1)+(O=NP1) --- PASSmarker-V+(S=NP2)+Chmer (isiq/siq+P2)/ (Active) (Passive)

The rule D describes the GF and the distribution of CP in sentence as enclitics and which O is occupied by NP.

(S=PCLs1)-V+(O=NP1) --- yaq+PASSmarker-V+(S=NP2)+Chm(isiq/siq+P2)/ (Active) (Passive)

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4.2.2.5 Double Object Construction In double object construction as in (32a) and (32b) Ali is functioned as subjects. (32b) is derived from (32a). The denotation of IO tuaq-e is possible. In (32b), it appears as recipient OBL. In passive construction DO kepeng is promoted to S and S Ali surfaces as Chomer as in (32c). When (32a) is derived into passive as in (32d), the sentence is semantically changed. This shows that this sentence can not be derived into passive sentence.

(32) a. Ali kirim-ang tuaq- S V-BEN IO

kepeng DO

Ali send-BEN uncle-3SGPOSS money Ali sends his uncle some money

b. Ali kirim kepeng untuq tuaq- S V DO OBL:recepient uncle-3SGPOSS

Ali sends money for

Ali sends money for his uncle

c. Kepeng te-kirim siq Ali untuq tuaq- S PASS-V Chm OBL:recepient

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Money PASS-send by Ali for

uncle-3SGPOSS

Money is sent by Ali for his uncle d. Tuaq- te-kiriman kepeng siq Ali S PASS-V money Chm His/her uncle is sent money by Ali

(33b) also shows the same grammatical function with (33c) in which the promotion of O to S and the preverbal Ali surfaces as OBLgoal.

(33)

a. Ali kirim kepeng baq tuaq-e S V O OBL:goal Ali sends money to uncle-3SGPOSS Ali sends money for his uncle

b. Kepeng te-kirim siq Ali baq tuaq-

PASS-V Chom OBL:goal uncle-3SGPOSS

Money PASS-send by Ali for

Money is sent by Ali to his uncle

Those contractions above show that only DO can turn into Subject in passive construction. This notion also found in the passive construction that involve PCLs. Consider the following illustration.

54

(34) a. Ia

Beli-ang ku

kelambi

2SG buy-BEN 1SG shirt I buys her/him a shirt

b. Beli-ang-

ku

kelambi

buy-BEN-3SG CL 1SG shirt She/he buys me a shirt

c. Te-beli-ang-k

kelambi siq nya by him/her

PASS- buy-BEN-3SG.CL shirt

The shirt is bought for me by her/him

d. Te-beli-ang-k

kelambi

PASS- buy-BEN-1SGCL shirt The shirt is bought for me

(34a) is the basic construction that involved the strong pronoun. Where as (34b) is derived form (34a). It is also an active construction ,then (34c) is the passive construction that is derived from (34b). In passive construction PCL -ke is S, it is promoted from IO that occupied by pronoun ku in (34b). PCL as Initial S denotes to Chmer siq nya and DO stay in the same position. The verb should be added by teprefix to encode passive and chmer is optionally deleted as in (34d).

4.2.3 Structural Distribution of Pronominal Clitics.

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Distribution of PCLs are an important point in which involves the organizing principles of syntax and morphology. They are quite different, syntax being organized in terms of word-word dependencies while morphology is based on whole part relationship. The morphological and syntactic environment in which PCLs occur is the main consideration in the structural distribution of PCLs. Interestingly the distribution of particular PCLs in this language can encodes FUTURE tense.

4.2.3.1 The PCLs and Word Classes There are many possibilities position in which The PCL Ke can occur, namely after a noun, before and after unprefixed and prefixed verb, after sircumfixed verb, after adjective, after auxiliary, before particular preposition, after conjucntion and after negative. In one hand the PCL te also shows the similarity distribution with the PCL ke as well as with da. In the other hand the PCL is slighty different in which it always appear in the post position of its host.

4.2.3.2 The PCLs Versus Noun Enclitics in Sasak is commonly attached to the noun in which they encode possessive.

(35)

a. Bale-ng-ke Home-1SG POSS.CL

my house

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b. Kaos-te Socks-1PLPOSS.CL c. Sepatu-n-da Shoes-2GPOSS.CL c. Guru- Teacher-3SGPOSS.CL

Our socks

Your shoes

Her/his teacher

Similar to PCLs in Inonesia (Musgrave: 225) in which possessive in Sasak is not a specifier of its head or host. This is proved by the following sentences in which they can followed and preceded by demonstrative nu and ni. Notice the illustration below.

(36) a. Baleng-ke

nu

That is my house

House-1SG POSS.CL DEM b. Nu Baleng-ke DEM house-1SG POSS CL c. Kaos-da ni This is your sock That is my house

Shocks-2SG POSS.CL DEM d. Ni kaos-da This is your sock

DEM shocks-1POSS.CL

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4.2.3.3 PCLs Versus Verb Sasak has two types of clausal structuring which verbs can appear, and that a crucial diagnostic in order to recognize which type is being used is morphology that will be beneficial to analyze the position of PCLs. The prefixes n- (m-, ny-, men-) and te- derive potential predicates from verbal bases. Some verbs in Sasak are monomorphemic (e.g. menjojaq play, nyandi dress up), but many are

morphologically complex (e.g. bebale stay, ketindoqan fall a sleep).

4.2.3.3.1 Vowel Ended Verb and Nasalized Verb PCLs in Sasak can be attached to various verb i.e. unprefixed verb, prefixed verb (non nasal verb or Nasal Verb). When the PCLs ke, te and da are surface in the post position of the verb. They can induce the host that ended by vowel. The phonetical assimilations (morphemic change) depend on the initial phone of PCLs as illustrated in the following table.

Table 4. The phonetically assimilation of PCLs Host Lalo Beli CP ke (1SG) Lalo-ng-ke Beli-ng-ke CP te CP-da (2PL) Lalo-n-da Beli-n-da CP- (3SG) Lalo- Beli-

(1PL) Lalo-n-te Beli-n-te

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Begaw e Nari

Begawe-ng ke Nari-ng-ke

Begawe-nte Nari-n-te

Begawe-nda Nari-n-da

Begawe- Nari-

Table above shows that when the PCLs ke, te and da attached to the post verbal position in which verb ended by vowel sound morphemic change are found. Second column when initial phoneme [k] of PCLs followed by ended vowel verb, the word should be added by phoneme [] or ng. Considering that phoneme [k] and [] are belong to the same place of articulation namely velar. Third column and fourth column also point that the initial phoneme [t] and [d] of PCLs can induce the ended vowel verb. The verb should be added by phoneme [n] due to phoneme [t], [d] and [n] are alveolar. In contrast with PCL , when it is attached to post verbal position there is no phonologically changing. Based on table above, certain morphological rules can be concluded as the following patterns. Vowel ended N + ng + [velar]1SG PCL Vowel ended N + n + [Alveolar] 1PL PCL Vowel ended N + n + [Alveolar] 2SG PCL

Nasalized verb also found in this language in order to convey transitive construction. Notice the following table. Table 5. The nasalized verb
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[n] + word [n] + buruh [n] + baca [n] + beli [n] + sapu [n] + aduk [n] + apeq [n] + joraq

Nasalized Words m-buruhin m-baca m-beli Nya-pu Ng-aduk Ng-apeq Men-joraq

Meaning To work as labour To read To buy To sweep To-smell To-make tidy To-kid

4.2.3.3.2 Dual Placement of PCLs Dual placement is the ability of clitics to appear after and before the given host (Luis:16). This kind of PCLs are found in Sasak. This dual placement in Sasak only appear when the PCLs ke, te and de are attached to a verb. Considering the following example.

(37)a. Ke-mengan 1SG.CL-eat I will eat b. Kan-ke jeruk-e

Eat-1SG.CL orange-3SGPOSS.CL I eat her/his orange c. Da-lalo baq mbe? 2SG-go PREP where? where will you go? d. Lalon-da baq embe tebin?
60

Go-2SG.CL PREP where yesterday? Where did you go yesterday? e. Te-mbeli kupi

1PL.CL-buy coffe We want to buy coffee f. Belin-te kupi

Buy-1PL.CL coffee We buy coffee The sentences above show the dual placement of PCLs in which (37a), (37c) and (37e) appears as procilics whereas (37b), (37e) and (37f) are enclitics. Pronominal clitics also can be attached together in the same word. Considering the following example:
(38)

Da-beng-ke

buku nu?

2SG.CL-give-1SG book DEM Will you give me this book? (38) shows that pronominal clitics namely da and ke are possibly attached together in the same word.

4.2.3.3.3 Pronominal Clitics Versus Tenses The morphological system of Sasak that spoken in Kekeri is unusual. There is no marking for case or gender. The similarities with Sasak which is spoken in the other

61

places point that there is not agreement or cross-referencing nor the verb that is marked for tense. However the distribution of PCLs ke, te and da embody interesting feature in which has the ability to show particular tense. It can precede and follow various word classes. By respect to their host especially verb, they can encode FUTURE tense when they follow verb or appear in the preverbal positition. Considering the following conversations.

(39) a. Yaq-da

baq

embe? Yaq ke-lalo baq

Sayang

FUT 2SG.CL PREP where? Will 1SG go PREP Sayang Where will you go? I will go to Sayang b. De-baq embe? Ke-lalo baq Sayang

2SG.CL PREP where? 1SG go PREP Sayang Where will you go? I will go to Sayang c. Yaq-da pada Will-2PL.CL baq embe? Yaq-te lalo baq Sayang

PREP where? Will 1PL go PREP Sayang

Where will you go? We will go to Sayang e. Da-pada 2PL.CL baq embe? Te-lalo baq Sayang

PREP where? 1PL go PREP Sayang

Where will you go? We will go to Sayang Those sentences above describe that PCLs ke and te can encode FUTURE tense. Sentences (39b) and (39d) convey that the FUTURE in Sasak is usually marked by auxiliary yaq. However in sentences (39b) and (39d) yaq auxiliary is omitted

62

but still encode the FUTURE tense. Note that the distribution of PCLs ke- and te- only surface on preverbal position in order to encodes FUTURE. The evidence also underlines through some illustrations in (40c) and (40g). Notice that in sentence (40a) and (40e) the PCLs ke and te appear in the postverbal position. Those sentences encode PAST which is marked by the adverb tebin. When the PCLs ke and te are attached to the preverbal position in the same environment, it leads to ungrammatical sentence as illustrated in (40b) and (40f). Those ungrammatical sentences can be grammatical sentences that encode FUTURE tense by omitting adverb tebin as in (40c) and (40g) or change the position of adverb before the PCL ke as illustrated in (40d) and (40h) note that the PCLs are not in the preverbal position but after the adverb tebin.

(40) a. Menjojaq-ke Play-1SG

baq

bangket

tebin yesterday

PREP rice field

I played to paddies field yesterday b.*Ke-menjojaq baq bangket 1SG.CL play PREP rice field tebin yesterday

I played to paddies field yesterday c. Ke-menjojaq baq bangket 1SG.CL play PREP rice field I will play to paddies field d. Tebin-ke menjojaq baq bangket
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Yesterday-1SG.CL play

PREP rice field

I played to rice field yesterday e. Menjojaq-te baq bangket tebin yesterday

Play-1PL.CL PREP rice field

We played to paddies field yesterday f. *Te-menjojaq 1PL.CL play baq bangket PREP rice field tebin yesterday

We played to rice field yesterday g. Te-menjojaq 1PL.CL- play baq bangket PREP rice field

We will play to rice field h. Tebin-te menjojaq baq bangket

Yesterday-1PL.CL play

PREP rice field

We played to paddies field yesterday

Another evidence also found when Kekeri speakers being asked where they will go, they locate PCL ke in preverbal position as in (41a) to encode FUTURE or prospective meaning. Note that PCLs can be attached to preposition baq. Then the post verbal position will lead to the odd sentence due to it encodes PERFECT as in (41b). Consider the following example.

(41) a. da-baq

mbe tia?

Ke-lalo

baq peken

2SG.CL-PREP where DEM? 1SG.CL-go PREP market


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Where will you go? I will go to the market b. da-baq mbe tia? ? *Lalong-ke baq peken

2SG.CL-PREP where that? Go-1SG.CL PREP market Where will you go? I go to the market

4.2.2.3.4 PCLs versus Intransitive and Transitive Verb In an intransitive sentence the subject appears can be as proclitics and enclitics in which it can precede and follow the verb but the PCL always surface in the post verbal position. It is illustrated in the following sentences. In (42a) PCLs ke and are enclitics. Meanwhile ke in (42b) is proclitics.

(42) a. Lampaq-ke Walk-1SG.CL b. Ke-lampaq 1SG.CL-walk c. Nangis- Cry-3SG.CL

I walk

I will walk

She/he cries

In transitive construction, the distributions of PCLs are similar to PCLs in Intransitive construction. Notice the following sentences.

(43) a. Tendang-ke

bal nu

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Kick-1SG.CL I kick that ball b. Te-bau

boll DEMONST

paoq leq kebon

1PL.CL-pick mango Loc garden We will pick mango in the garden

(43a) and (43b) show the distribution of PCLs in transitive sentence can be attached to the post verbal position and preverbal position in which they have the same function as Agent. However the distribution of PCLs above express different features linguistically as explained in the previous section. As mentioned before the PCL always surface in the post position as it surfaces as the object in transitive construction. In (44b) the object clitic is used to replace object kelambi. (44) a. Nawir m-beli kelambi Nawir ACT-buy shirt Nawir buys a shirt b. Nawir mbeli- Nawir ACT-buy-3SG Nawir buys it

4.2.2.4 PCLs and Auxiliary

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Sasak language is not rich with auxiliary. It has only some auxiliary that used to encode PAST and FUTURE tense. In a sentence construction which is involve the environment of PAST and FUTURE that marked by auxiliary, the PCLs have to agree with the auxiliary itself as it is exemplified in (45a) and (45b).

(45)a. Yaq-ke

mandiq

FUT-1SG.CL take abath I will take a bath b. Saweq-ke PAST-1SG.CL eat I have had my meal mengan

4.2.2.5 PCLs and Negative The distribution of PCLs in a sentence construction is the same with the auxiliary. It the negative sentence whether it is passive or active, the PCLs have to agree with the negative at the post position as illustrated below.

(46) a. deq-te

toang-e

NEG-1PL.CL know-3SG.CL We dont know him/her b. deq-ke te-jaua-ng jaja siq nya

NEG-1PL.CL PASS-bring-BEN by her/him The cake is not brought for me

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4.2.2.6 Non verbal construction 4.2.2.6.1 PCLs and Adjective The placement of PCLs in non verbal construction are different from verb. They only attach at the post position of the verb. However the phonologically adaptation also found when the adjective is ended by vowel.

(47) a. Sili-ng-ke Ungry-1SG.CL Im ungry b. Jogang-ke isiq- Crazy-1SG by-3SG.CL Im crazy because of him/her

4.2.2.6.2 PCLs and Conjuction As aforementioned before PCLs cannot be conjoint with dit (and). Nevertheless there are others several conjunctions that can be a host i.e terus, dit (instead of). When the PCLs conjoin, it always surfaces at the post position of conjunctions.

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(48) a. Saweq-te

baq bale- terus-te baq bangket

After-1PLCL PREP house-3SGPOSS then-1PL PREP paddies field After going to her/his house then we go to the paddies field b. Dit-ke mondoq leq bale saraang-ke lalo

Instead of-1SG.CL stay Loc house better-1SG go instead of I stay at home, it is better to go

4.2.2.6.2 PCLs and Postposition The distribution of PCLs in Kekeri Sasak are unique. They can be attached to preposition baq. When the PCLs are being attached to baq, baq no longer became preposition, it becomes postposition. This peculiarity is illustrated by these following sentences.

(49) a. Ke-lalo baq daya 1SG-go PREP north I go to the north

b. Ke-baq

daya

1SG-POST north I go to the north

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(49b) is derived from (49a). the preposition baq becomes postposition as illustrated in (49b) and the verb lalo is deleted.

CHAPTER FIVE

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CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

In this paper the writer has provided morphological and syntactical analysis of pronominal clitics as well as provided an answer to the peculiarity of properties of pronominal clitics in Kekeri Sasak and the distinction of PCLs with Strong pronoun that look likes similar to each other. The facts out line the PCL ke unlike the strong pronoun ku in terms of the distribution of both in conjoining, bearing stress, phonetically assimilation and relativity as summarized in the following table. Characteristics 1.Ability to conjoin with dit conjunction 2. Ability of bearing stress 3. Ability to stand on its own 4. Phonetically assimilation 5. Ability of being relativised PCL ke + SP ku + + + +

Pronominal Clitics of Kekeri Sasak can attach various words classes i.e. noun, verb, adjective, auxiliary, adverb, negative and postposition. PCLs in Kekeri Sasak can be classified into two categories based on this analysis namely: 1.Prociltics Proclitics can only attach to preposition and verb. PCLs Kekeri Sasak has the ability to encode FUTURE when it surfaces as proclitics and cannot induce the verb that being attached. 2. Enclitics

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Enclitics can be attached to noun in order to encode POSSESIVE, to the verb to encode PERFECT to adjective, auxiliary and negative. PCLs that surface as enclitics has the ability to induce the word classes that being attached. The distribution of PCLs in a clause also influences the grammatical function. Therefore pronominal clitics combine syntax and morphologythey are morphemes that is a part of morphologically structure of a word with ordinary syntactic dependency that connects to the other words. The grammatical functions are determined based on the distribution of PCLs in various constructions that describe in following table. Grammatical Function O DO + -

Types of Construction Transitive Intransitive Ditransitive Passive (Single O ) Passive (Double O)

S + + + + +

IO + -

In conclusion, pronominal clitics can precede and follow various word classes that have significant influences toward tense and grammatical functions. For the next researcher, in order to get more comprehensive understanding of pronominal clitics, the dialectical division might be caused the significant difference of pronominal clitics should be noticed.

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