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Space: 1999

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Space: 1999

First season title screen

Science fiction Genre Adventure Drama

Format

Drama

Created by

Gerry Anderson Sylvia Anderson

Gerry Anderson Sylvia Anderson Pip and Jane Baker Elizabeth Barrows Tony Barwick Written by Johnny Byrne Terrance Dicks Terence Feely Fred Freiberger John Goldsmith Donald James Bob Kellett

Thom Keyes Jesse L. Lasky, Jr. Edward di Lorenzo Keith Miles Christopher Penfold Jack Ronder Lew Schwarz Pat Silver-Lasky Anthony Terpiloff Art Wallace David Weir Michael Winder

Ray Austin Bob Brooks Tom Clegg Kevin Connor Charles Crichton Directed by Val Guest Lee H. Katzin Bob Kellett Robert Lynn Peter Medak David Tomblin

Martin Landau Barbara Bain Barry Morse (Year 1) Catherine Schell (Year 2) Prentis Hancock (Year 1) Clifton Jones (Year 1) Starring Zienia Merton Anton Phillips Nick Tate Suzanne Roquette (Year 1) Tony Anholt (Year 2) John Hug (Year 2) Jeffrey Kissoon (Year 2)

Alibe Parsons (Year 2) Yasuko Nagazumi (Year 2)

Composer(s)

Barry Gray (Year 1) Derek Wadsworth (Year 2)

Country of origin

United Kingdom

Language(s)

English

No. of series

No. of episodes

48 (List of episodes)

Production

Executive producer(s) Gerry Anderson

Producer(s)

Sylvia Anderson (Year 1) Fred Freiberger (Year 2)

Bill Blunden Mike Campbell Derek Hyde Chambers Editor(s) Alan Killick David Lane Ray Lovejoy Alan Pattillo

Cinematography

Frank Watts Brendan J. Stafford (Year 2)

Camera setup

Single

Running time

48 to 50 minutes.

Production company(s)

Group Three Productions (Year 1) Gerry Anderson Productions (Year


2)

Distributor

ITC Entertainment RAI

Broadcast

Original channel

ITV

Picture format

Film (35 mm) Aspect ratio: 1.33:1

Audio format

Mono (original transmission) Dolby Digital 5.1 (DVD/BRD)

Original run

6 September 1975 5 November 1977

Space: 1999 is a British science-fiction television series that ran for two seasons and originally aired from 1975 to 1977.[1] In the opening episode, nuclear waste from Earth stored on the Moon's far side explodes in a catastrophic accident on 13 September 1999, knocking the Moon out of orbit and sending it and the 311 inhabitants of Moonbase Alpha hurtling uncontrollably into space. The series was the last production by the partnership of Gerry and Sylvia Anderson and was the most expensive series ever produced for television up to that time.

Contents

1 Overview o 1.1 Premise 2 Episodes 3 Format 4 Principal cast 5 Guest appearances 6 Conception and development 7 Visual effects, set design, costumes and music 8 Production of Series One

9 Broadcast and reception of Series One 10 Reception 11 Cancellation, reprieve and changes 12 Production of Series Two 13 Broadcast and reception of Series Two 14 The abortive Year Three 15 Message From Moonbase Alpha and the aborted cinematic revival 16 Space: 2099 17 Other media formats 18 Video/DVD/Blu-ray releases 19 References 20 Works cited 21 Further reading 22 External links

Overview
Space: 1999 is the last in a long line of science-fiction series that the Andersons produced as a working partnership, beginning with Supercar in the early Sixties and including the famed marionette fantasy series Stingray, Fireball XL5, Thunderbirds, Captain Scarlet and the Mysterons, Joe 90 and The Secret Service, as well as the liveaction alien-invasion drama UFO. Space: 1999 owes much of the visual design to preproduction work for the never-made second series of UFO, which would have been set primarily on the Moon and featured a more extensive Moonbase. Space: 1999 drew a great deal of visual inspiration (and technical expertise) from the Stanley Kubrick film 2001: A Space Odyssey. The programme's special effects director Brian Johnson had previously worked on both Thunderbirds (as Brian Johncock) and 2001.

Premise
The premise of Space: 1999 centres on the plight of the inhabitants of Moonbase Alpha, Earth's Space Research Centre on the Moon, following a scientific cataclysm. Humanity had been storing its nuclear waste in vast disposal sites on the far side of the Moon. Prefaced by wild emissions of an unknown form of magnetic radiation, the accumulated waste reaches critical mass and, on 13 September 1999, detonates in a massive thermonuclear explosion. The force of the blast propels the Moon like an enormous booster rocket, hurling it out of Earth orbit and into deep space at colossal speed, thus stranding the 311 personnel stationed on Alpha.[2] The runaway Moon, in effect, becomes the "spacecraft" on which the protagonists travel, searching for a new home. During their interstellar journey, the Alphans encounter an array of alien civilizations, dystopian societies, and mind-bending phenomena previously unseen by humanity. The concept of traveling through space to encounter aliens and strange worlds is similar to Lost In Space and Star Trek, although the programme's visual aesthetic was heavily influenced by 2001: A Space Odyssey. In another nod to Kubrick's film, the first series of Space: 1999 explored mystical and metaphysical themes, and offered little

explanation of plot points. The inhabitants of Alpha were unwilling travelers, and represented present-day Earthmen cast adrift in a vast, unexplainable universe where Earth-bound logic and laws of nature no longer operated. Several episodes hinted that the Moon's journey was influenced (and perhaps initiated) by a "mysterious unknown force", which was guiding the Alphans toward an ultimate destiny. The second series used more simplified "action-oriented" plots ( la Star Trek), with a deliberate aim at the American audience, and there was no further mention of the "mysterious unknown force".

Episodes
The programme was produced in two series, each comprising twenty-four episodes. The first series was produced from November 1973 to February 1975; the second series was produced from January 1976 to December 1976. The programme was produced in Britain for worldwide distribution and broadcast. Main article: List of Space: 1999 episodes

Format
The first series of Space: 1999 used a "teaser" introduction, sometimes called a "hook" or "cold open" (this approach was used in the Mission: Impossible TV series which both lead stars had starred in previously, and in many Lew Grade presentations trying to break into the American market). This was followed by a title sequence that managed to convey prestige for its two main stars Landau and Bain (both separately billed as 'starring'), and to give the audience some thirty-plus fast cut shots of the forthcoming episode. The second series eliminated this montage. The programme would then offer four ten-to twelve-minute long acts (allowing for commercial breaks in America) and finish with a short (and, in the second series, often light-hearted) "epilogue" scene. In 2004, American science fiction screenwriter Ronald D. Moore stated the style of the first season's opening credits of Space: 1999 inspired the opening credit sequence for his acclaimed remake of Battlestar Galactica.

Principal cast
The headline stars of Space: 1999 were American actors Martin Landau and Barbara Bain, who were married at the time and had previously appeared together in Mission: Impossible. In an effort to appeal to the American television market, perhaps to sell the series to one of the major networks,[3] Landau and Bain were cast at the insistence of Lew Grade against the objections of Sylvia Anderson, who wanted British actors. Also appearing as regular cast members were Barry Morse (as Professor Victor Bergman in the first season) and Catherine Schell (as the alien Maya in the second season). The programme also brought Australian actor Nick Tate to public attention. Roy Dotrice appeared in the first episode as Commissioner Simmons, and at the end of the episode it appeared that he would be a regular character, however by the second (transmitted) episode the character vanished, reappearing partway through the first season in the

episode "Earthbound", his only other appearance on the show (in which the character is ", permanently written out).

Cast of Year One of Space: 1999

Cast of Year Two of Space: 1999 Actor Role Martin Commander John Koenig leader of Moonbase Koenig, Landau Alpha (Year 1 & 2) Doctor Helena Russell head of Medical Section Russell, Barbara Bain (Year 1 & 2) Alan Carter, third in command, chief pilot (Year 1 , Nick Tate & 2) Zienia Sandra Benes data analyst (Year 1 & 2) Benes, Merton Catherine Maya, science officer (Year 2) , Schell Anton Doctor Bob Mathias Helena's deputy (Year 1 & 2) Mathias, Phillips

Appearances (47 episodes, 1975 1975 1977) (48 episodes, 1975 1975 1977) (45 episodes, 1975 1975 1977) (37 episodes, 1975 1975 1977, 1999) (24 episodes, 1976 1976 1977) (24 episodes, 1975 1975 1976)

(24 episodes, 1975 1976) (23 episodes, 1975 Prentis Hancock 1976) (23 episodes, 1975 Clifton Jones David Kano, computer operations officer (Year 1) 1976) Tony Verdeschi, second in command, head of (23 episodes, 1976 Tony Anholt Security and Command Center controller (Year 2) 1977) (19 episodes, 1975 Suzanne Tanya Alexander, base operations officer (Year 1) Roquette 1976) (9 episodes, 1976 John Hug Bill Fraser, Eagle pilot (Year 2) 1977) (7 episodes, 1976 Jeffery Dr. Ben Vincent, deputy medical officer (Year 2) Kissoon 1977) Barry Morse

Professor Victor Bergman, science adviser (Year 1) Paul Morrow, second in command, Main Mission controller and base (Year 1) executive officer

Guest appearances
Over the course of its two series the programme featured guest appearances by many notable actors including Christopher Lee, Roy Dotrice, Joan Collins, Peter Cushing, Judy Geeson, Julian Glover, Ian McShane, Leo McKern, Billie Whitelaw, Richard Johnson, Patrick Troughton, Peter Bowles, Sarah Douglas, David Prowse, Isla Blair, Stuart Damon and Brian Blessed. (Blair, Damon and Blessed each appeared in two different episodes portraying two different characters.)[4][5] Catherine Schell had guest-starred as a different character in the Year One episode Guardian of Piri before moving into the role of Maya during the second series.

Conception and development


In 1972, Sir Lew Grade, head of ITC Entertainment, proposed financing a second series of the Century 21 production UFO to show-runners Gerry and Sylvia Anderson. Grade had one stipulation: the new series would be set primarily on the Moon within the environs of an expanded SHADO Moonbase; the ratings indicated the Moon-centric episodes had proved more popular with the viewers. The Andersons and their team would quickly revamp the production, flashing ahead nearly twenty years for UFO: 1999 with Commander Ed Straker and the forces of SHADO fighting their alien foes from a large new Moonbase facility. However, toward the end of its run, UFO experienced a drop in ratings in both America and the UK; nervous ITC executives in both countries began to question the financial viability of the new series, and support for the project collapsed. In the meantime, Production Designer Keith Wilson and the art department, had made considerable progress in envisioning the look and design of the new series. Their work was then shelved for the foreseeable future.[6] Anderson would not let the project die; he approached Grade's number two in New York, Abe Mandell, with the proposal for taking the research and development done for UFO: 1999 and creating a new science fiction series. Mandell was amenable, but stated

he did not want a series set featuring people "having tea in the Midlands" and forbade any Earth-bound settings. Anderson responded that in the series opener, he would "blow up the Earth". Mandell countered that this concept might be off-putting to viewers, to which Anderson replied he would "blow up the Moon".[7] The Andersons reworked UFO: 1999 into a new premise: Commander Steven Maddox controlled the forces of WANDER, Earth's premier defence organisation, from Moon City, a twenty-mile wide installation on the Moon. Maddox would view all aspects of Earth defence from Central Control, a facility at the hub of the base and accessible only by Moon Hopper craft, which would require the correct pass-code to traverse Control's defensive laser barrier. The Commander would also have access to a personal computer called "Com-Com" (Commander's Computer), which would act as a personal advisor, having been programmed with the Commander's personality and moral sense. In the half-hour opening episode "Zero-G" penned by the Andersons, Earth's deep space probes have discovered an advanced extraterrestrial civilisation. Maddox is kidnapped for an interview with the aliens. Angered by humanity's innate hostility and WANDER's defensive posture, they travel to Earth with the intent of isolating mankind within the boundary of Earth's atmosphere. Having judged Maddox a noble example of mankind, they return him unharmed. They then use a beam to reduce the Moon's gravitational influence to zero, sending it careening out of orbit into deep space.[8] The project continued forward. Group Three Productions (a partnership of the Andersons and production executive Reg Hill) would produce the series; ITC Entertainment and RAI would provide the funding. Grade, aiming for a US network sale, insisted the series have American leads and employ American writers and directors. George Bellak, a well-known American television writer, was brought on staff. As stated by series writers Christopher Penfold and Johnny Byrne, it was Bellak who created and polished the series' defining concepts. Bellak wrote a ninety-minute opening episode titled The Void Ahead, which was a close forerunner of Breakaway. Bellak also set up a writers' guide defining the three leads, the facilities of the Moonbase and potential storylines. At this point, the staff seemed to make creative changes that brought the series closer in concept and appearance to 2001: A Space Odyssey. Even the title Space: 1999 evoked comparison with Kubrick's film. (Before, the title of the new series had greatly varied: Space Journey: 1999, Journey In Space, Menace In Space and Space Invaders the invaders of the last title being the Earthmen trapped on the runaway Moon.) For the lead characters of John Koenig and Helena Russell, Gerry Anderson approached the husband-and-wife acting team of Martin Landau and Barbara Bain. Landau and Bain were bankable high-profile stars in America after three years on the popular CBS espionage series Mission: Impossible. Producer Sylvia Anderson let it be known that she would have preferred British lead actors; since Grade insisted on Americans, she would have chosen Robert Culp (star of the 1960s espionage series I Spy) and Katharine Ross (co-star of 1960s blockbuster movies The Graduate and Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid).[6] Lee H. Katzin, a highly-respected American television director with a specialty for pilot episodes, was selected to helm the opening segment and brought into the fold as a primary director for the remainder of the series.

Visual effects, set design, costumes and music


The show's vehicles, including the Eagle space shuttle and the Moon Buggy, were represented with a mixture of full-sized props, photographic blow-ups, and detailed scale models. Dozens of models for the various alien spaceships and the Mark IX Hawk from the War Games episode were built by model maker Martin Bower, often at several different sizes to account for the intended use. Rather than relying on blue screen techniques, la Star Trek, Johnson's team often employed a technique that went back to the earliest days of visual effects: spacecraft and planets would be filmed against black backgrounds, with the camera being rewound for each successive element. As long as the various elements did not overlap this produced convincing results. In technical terms, the advantage was that all of the elements were recorded on the original negative, as opposed to blue screen which would have involved several generations of duplication. The disadvantage was that the number of possible angles was more limited; for instance, a spaceship could be seen approaching a planet from the side, but could not move in front of it without the elements overlapping.[9] Special effects director Brian Johnson and most of his team went on to work on Ridley Scott's Alien, followed by Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back. Many of the spacecraft were designed around their prescribed functionality rather than being glistening starships, adding a sense of realism that was replicated in future sciencefiction features. The uni-sex "Moon City" uniforms for the first series were created by renowned Austrian fashion designer Rudi Gernreich, a personal friend of series' star Barbara Bain. Other costumes were designed by Production Designer Keith Wilson, who was also responsible for set design. Wilson's innovative Moonbase set construction, using fourfoot by eight-foot plastic foam-board panels linked together Lego-like into whatever room configuration was required, made for a uniform and realistic appearance for the Alpha interiors (not to mention relatively cheap and quickly assembled).[9] A muted colour pallette and the integration of recognisable equipment and accessories added to the verisimilitude. For the second series, the Moonbase uniforms were updated having been perceived by some as "bland". Coloured decorative stitching and turtleneck collars were added, as were various badges and patches. Red, navy or dark-green jackets also appeared, originally on just the senior staff, then on many of the male extras. The women characters tended to wear skirts and knee high boots throughout the second series, rather than the flared trousers used in Series one. The costumes for series two were designed by Emma Porteous, who later designed the wardrobes for several James Bond films.

The Main Mission set from Space: 1999's first series. The Alpha interiors were also upgraded for the second year, with the existing stock of wall panels, doors, computer panels, et cetera (along with some bits from other Anderson productions) being assembled for the first time into a standing complex of interconnected sets. (The first series sets had been assembled as needed and the size of the Main Mission/Command Office complex was prohibitive for the construction of a Mission/Command lasting series of rooms.)[9] Vibrant colour was much more evident in this series' Moonbase sets. Futuristic "science "science-fiction-y" appearing gadgets and equipment were y" also more evident (for example, Helena no longer used a stethoscope, but a little beeping, all-purpose medical scanner similar to Dr. McCoy's whistling medical purpose "Feinberger" on Star Trek.) .) The opening credits for the first series featured a dramatic fanfare composed by long longtime Anderson associate Barry Gray, whose scores for the series were his final Gray, compositions for an Anderson production. Gray scored five episodes Breakaway, Matter of Life and Death, Black Sun Another Time, Another Place and The Full Sun, CircleVic Elms provided a completely electronic score for Ring Around the Moon Vic and Big Jim Sullivan performed a one one-off sitar composition for The Troubled Spirit Spirit. Library music, classical compositions and score excerpts from earlier Anderson productions augmented the five Gray scores and gave the impression of an expansive musical repertoire. The second series was scored by jazz jazz-musician and composer Derek Wadsworth Wadsworth; American producer Fred Freiberger wanted a more "driving, searing" score for his new action-adventure format.[9] Wads Wadsworth composed original music for The Metamorph Metamorph, The Exiles, One Moment of Humanity The Taybor and Space Warp, that music being Humanity, , assembled for reuse in the other episodes to accompany appropriately similar thematic content. One may note influences of other Anderson shows on the Space: 1999 spacecraft and elements. The cockpit of the Eagle has a slight resemblance to the cockpit of an earlier Anderson Supermarionation series, Fireball XL5. Thruster and engine sounds also may ounds have had previous use in Fireball XL5 Thunderbirds, and Captain Scarlet Lighting XL5, Scarlet.

effects for Moonbase Alpha may have come from UFO, as did the concept of the elevating spacecraft launch pad. The original Moonbase Alpha model reappeared in the public eye after almost 30 years on www.eagletransporter.com when the site gained exclusive access to photomap the model and solicit its sale. Images of the model as it is today can be seen here.

Production of Series One


As the November 1973 start date approached, George Bellak fell out with Gerry Anderson over creative issues and left the production. Story consultant Christopher Penfold acted as head writer, bringing in American writer Edward di Lorenzo and Irish poet Johnny Byrne as script editors. Penfold reworked Bellak's opening episode into a one-hour draft first re-titled Turning Point, then finalised as Breakaway.[10] One week before live action filming commenced, Visual Effects Supervisor Brian Johnson and his team began work on the visual effects sequences for the first episode at Bray Studios on 5 November 1973. For the first six weeks, no usable footage resulted until the team discovered a dragging break had affected film speed. Studio rehearsals commenced at Elstree Studios, Borehamwood on 12 November 1973. During filming of the first episode, it became apparent that the troubled Elstree was under the threat of imminent closure. One weekend, the company itself secretly relocated sets, props, costumes, etc., to the nearby Pinewood Studios, resulting in a union black-listing of the production.[7] Scheduled for ten days' filming, Breakaway overran an additional fifteen days. Lee Katzin was a perfectionist and demanded take after take of scenes; even coverage of reaction shots of the background extras required running a whole scene from beginning to end.[11] His two-hour director's cut was assembled and sent to ITC New York for a viewing. Abe Mandell was horrified by the finished product. Anderson re-wrote several key scenes and, after three days of re-shoots, re-edited the pilot into a one-hour episode that appeased the fears of ITC. Katzin was not asked back to the programme after the filming of his second episode Black Sun, which also ran over schedule. Scheduled for a twelve-month shoot, the twenty-four episodes took fifteen months to complete, with the production experiencing as many hazards as their fictional creations. Britain's mandatory three-day work week and the unplugging of the National Grid during the coal shortages of the early 1970s did not delay filming (as Pinewood had its own generators), but it affected film processing (the lab was an off-site contractor).[6] Group Three's commitment to its financial partner, Italian broadcasting company RAI, to include Italian actors in the cast also had to be addressed. Originally, two supporting roles were intended for Italian actors; with the casting of Nick Tate and Zienia Merton in those roles, a solution had to be worked out. Four of the later episodes produced (The Troubled Spirit, Space Brain, Dragon's Domain and The Testament of Arkadia) featured Italian guest artists. The necessity to telex story outlines and scripts to New York for approval caused further production delays. The incessant re-writing this brought about eventually caused Christopher Penfold to resign during the shooting of Space Brain, after completing his

writing commitment with the script Dragon's Domain. In a later interview, Johnny Byrne stated that "one episode they (New York) would ask us to speed things up, forcing us to cut out character development; then the next episode, they asked for more character moments, which would slow down the action; then they would complain there weren't enough pretty girls in another."[7] Years later, Byrne and Penfold would agree that the process they worked under made "good scripts less than they had been" and forced them to waste time re-writing "bad scripts to make them acceptable".[7] Byrne remained until the end of production; his last task writing filler scenes for the desperately short The Last Enemy and a re-shoot for the troublesome Space Brain. The scenes re-mounted for The Last Enemy concluded principal photography on 28 February 1975.

Broadcast and reception of Series One


The series premiered in 1975, nearly two years after the start of production. In the United Kingdom the series was originally seen on ITV stations but was not simulcast nationally until a screening run on BBC2 in 1998-1999. The initial screenings in two of the most major TV regions was opposite the second episode of the 13th season of BBC1's perennial sci-fi series Doctor Who, and although the ratings for the second episode of Terror of the Zygons fell by 2.3 million viewers from the first episode of the story,[12] the audience response was such that while Doctor Who's ratings for the season recovered almost immediately with the third episode of the story and continued to increase and climbed to well over 12 million, its commercial rival's audience and appreciation fell throughout the run to the disappointment of all concerned. In the United States, efforts to sell the series to one of the three networks for the 19741975 or 1975-1976 television seasons failed. The networks were uninterested in a project over which they had no creative control, being presented with the accomplished fact of twenty-four completed episodes. (Actually, Mandell had secured a 'handshake' agreement with a network executive in 1974, but after the man's termination, all his projects were abandoned.)[6] Undaunted, Abe Mandell created what he called his own Space: 1999 Network[7] and sold the completed program into first-run syndication directly to local stations. Much of the publicity mentioned the then-staggering three million pound budget: as a part of the American promotion effort, a glossy magazinesized brochure was produced, touting Space: 1999 as the Six-and-a-Half Million Dollar Series (an allusion to the then-popular American programme The Six Million Dollar Man) featuring American stars, American writers and American directors.[13] In the months leading to the beginning of the fall (autumn), 1975 television season (in the U.S., September is traditionally the month in which new TV series begin), Landau and Bain participated in special preview screenings in select cities.[3] Landau is said to have personally contacted editors of the widely read and influential TV Guide magazine in some markets to secure coverage of Space: 1999 in its pages upon learning of ITC's somewhat poor promotional efforts. While most of the U.S. stations that aired Space: 1999 were independent (such as powerful Chicago station WGN-TV, Louisville station WDRB-TV, Los Angeles station KHJ-TV, and New York City's WPIX-TV), a handful were affiliated with the major networks (such as Charlotte, North Carolina's WSOC-TV, at the time a strong NBC affiliate, and Fresno's KFSN-TV, at the time a CBS affiliate) and sometimes pre-empted

regular network programming to show episodes of the series; most U.S. stations broadcast the episodes in the weekday evening hour just before prime time or on weekends. The series was broadcast in 96 countries, mostly from 1975 to 1979. However, it aired in its entirety in very few countries. Often there were long gaps between first run and rerun or even within first run. It was shown in Italy as Spazio: 1999, Argentina, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, francophone Canada, and France as Cosmos: 1999, Denmark as Mnebase Alpha, Brazil and Portugal as Espao: 1999, Germany as Mondbasis Alpha 1, Sweden as Mnbas Alpha, Poland as Kosmos 1999 (19771979), Finland as Avaruusasema Alfa, Greece as 1999 (19891990), Hungary as Alfa Holdbzis, Spain, Chile, Venezuela, and Colombia as Espacio: 1999, Mexico as Odisea 1999, Turkey as Uzay 1999 and South Africa as Alpha 1999 (1976, dubbed into Afrikaans). Countries where the show was popular include Yugoslavia, Poland, Ethiopia, South Africa, Turkey, Iran, Greece, the Netherlands, Belgium, Portugal, Peru, Japan, Malaysia, Canada, Mexico, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan. One of the first previews of the series was in Australia on the Seven Network in July 1975, but the station later split the first series into two seasons. The second season was shown in 1979. In the UK, the episodes of the show's second season were shown sporadically over a period of a couple of years, starting in 1976 while the last episodes were still in production. In some regions the final first-run episodes appeared in 1978, more than a year after they were produced; in other regions of the UK the second series was never shown. In Canada, CBC Television was the broadcaster of Space: 1999 from 1975 into the 1980s. The first season in 1975-1976 was shown regionally on some CBC owned-andoperated stations, the airtime varying. With the start of the second season in September 1976, CBC Television upgraded Space: 1999 to full-network status, airing it Saturdays on all CBC owned-and-operated stations, with affiliated, privately-owned stations also offering the show on Saturdays. Most of the country saw Space: 1999 at 5 p.m. on Saturdays, a notable exception being the Atlantic Provinces in which it was broadcast at 6 or 6:30 p.m. (their time) or - as was the case in the summers - sometime earlier in the afternoon to accommodate live sports coverage, the airing of which crossed into or totally over the usual Space: 1999 airtime. After the 1976-1977 broadcast year (in which second season episodes were run and rerun), the show's ratings were sufficiently high for CBC Television to give the first season a full-network airing - and with further repeats - in 1977-1978. The French-language CBC Television, Radio-Canada, showed Cosmos: 1999 several times (both seasons) between 1975 and 1980, first on Mondays (19751976), then on Saturdays (19761977), then on Mondays (1979), and finally on Wednesdays (19791980).

Reception
Response to the series varied; some critics praised it as a classic, citing the fantastic production values and multi-layered storytelling ("Space: 1999 is like Star Trek shot full of methedrine. It is the most flashy, gorgeous sci-fi trip ever to appear on TV..." and "Space: 1999 is a visually stunning, space-age morality play...");[14][15] others panned it

for poor plotting and wooden acting, especially on the part of Barbara Bain ("the plots and characterisation on Space: 1999 have been primitive..." and "A disappointing collage of wooden characters, boring dialogue and incomprehensible plots...").[16][17] Isaac Asimov criticised the scientific accuracy of the series by pointing out that any explosion capable of knocking the Moon out of its orbit would actually blow it apart, and even if it did leave orbit it would take thousands of years to reach the nearest star. (He also praised the programme for its superbly accurate representation of movement in the low gravity environment of the Moon and for its clinical, realistic production design.)[18] Gerry and Sylvia Anderson were surprised and disappointed that the public (and critics) never granted them the suspension of disbelief given to other sciencefiction programmes.[19] In speaking about the show in 2010, Bain reflected: "We had some very good science fiction people as advisors who knew what they were talking about. For instance, they knew that sound up there wouldnt travel, and it would just be quiet up there. But then we wouldnt have a series, so we couldnt do that. There were various considerations that had to be made, but they were based on what is, or what was, known at the time. For all I know now its out of date. I dont really know." [20] She added that some of the technology on Space: 1999 has come to pass: "We made up a scanning device for Dr. Russell. Someone would simply be lying on the floor half dead, and I would [scan them] with this funny little thing that was a prop. I could read all his vital signs. They can pretty much do that [with a medical device] nowadays. There were times that we were playing with props that didnt read anything I just had a bunch of dialogue to say after. We had the Commlock. All of those things were on the verge of happening anyway. Now were way past it. When we made it, 1999 seemed so far away." [21]

Cancellation, reprieve and changes


Following the completion of the first series, the production team prepared for a second series to commence production in the autumn of 1975. Gerry Anderson had staff writer Johnny Byrne prepare a critical analysis of the first twenty-four episodes, assessing their strengths and weaknesses in order to mount a new and improved second year.[7] Byrne then commenced writing scripts in an improved first-series format: The Biological Soul, The Face of Eden, and Children of the Gods. He engaged British writer Donald James to develop his first-series format story The Exiles. The largest stumbling block for the staff had been having all material vetted by ITC's New York office. ITC's compromise was to hire a high-profile American staff writerproducer. At this time, Sylvia Anderson left her role as producer and Gerry Anderson's wife when they formally separated (and subsequently divorced). Fred Freiberger, whom Gerry Anderson had considered for the writing position, was then brought on board to help guide the series as a producer and acted as show-runner. Freiberger had produced the third and final season of Star Trek in 19681969 and eight episodes of the first season of The Wild Wild West (including one in which Martin Landau guest-starred) before being dismissed. Immediately after Space: 1999 he would go on to produce what would be the final season of The Six Million Dollar Man. His writing credits included Slattery's People, The Iron Horse, All in the Family, Petrocelli, and Starsky and Hutch.

Though Anderson and Grade were satisfied with this choice, Abe Mandell had concerns about why he was unemployed and available at the time.[6] Then ITC Entertainment President Sir Lew Grade abruptly cancelled the series' production in late 1975 when ratings in the United States had dropped during the later autumn months of the year. Grade had already been disappointed by the lack of an American network broadcast sale. Gerry Anderson and Fred Freiberger rallied and pitched the idea of a new series with the addition of the alien Maya. The argument was that an alien character on Moonbase Alpha would shake up the dynamic of interaction on the Moonbase and regain viewer interest in the United States. On the strength of Anderson and Freiberger's proposal of adding an alien character from the planet Psychon named Maya who could transform into any lifeform in the blink of an eye, Mandell approved a renewal of the series for a second year. In addition to the alien Maya character, to be played by Catherine Schell, were numerous other changes for what was branded as Year Two. The most visible change was the absence of Professor Bergman (Barry Morse). Morse's departure was due to a salary dispute, but he later claimed that he was glad to leave, and he had told Anderson: "I would rather play with grown-ups for a while." [22] With Morse gone, the role of the boffin on Alpha was filled completely by Maya, whose people's science was far in advance of mankind's. Also, her character was conceived to be able to provide "outside observation of human behaviour" as had been provided by the character of Mr. Spock on Star Trek. Maya shared Spock's logical approach to problem-solving and advanced intelligence, but differed in that she was a charming, fully emotional person. Most importantly, however, her Psychon abilities as a metamorph with the power of "molecular transformation" allowed her to convert herself into any living thing for an hour at a time, were designed to add a certain "wow" factor to the newly-revamped series. Maya had an impish sense of humour. When love-interest Tony Verdeschi offered her some of his home-brewed beer, Maya tried it, then turned herself into Mister Hyde. Schell had previously guest-starred as the Servant of the Guardian in the Year One episode Guardian of Piri. In addition to the cosmetic changes, the characters were "warmed up." Koenig and Russell went from a barely noticeable courtship to a physically passionate, full-fledged romance, in which the devotion ran so deep that they offered to die for each other (Brian the Brain). In addition to Bergman, Year One supporting characters Paul Morrow (Prentis Hancock), David Kano (Clifton Jones) and Tanya Alexander (Suzanne Roquette) were also removed from the cast (Paul and Tanya's disappearance is explained in the Powys Media book The Forsaken by John Kenneth Muir). Dr. Bob Mathias (Anton Phillips) was present in the first two Year Two episodes, was mentioned in the third episode, and then also disappeared without a trace. His character was replaced by several recurring physicians. Alan Carter (Nick Tate) was to have been written out of the series, but he had become so popular with fans that he remained. Sandra Benes (Zienia Merton) remained with the series in an on-again off-again association, but her name was shortened to "Sahn" and the character only appeared in a fraction of the episodes, albeit more prominently in some episodes than in many of those of the first series.

New characters Maya (an alien from the planet Psychon) and Security Chief Tony Verdeschi join Year Two Along with Maya, Tony Anholt was added to the cast in Year Two as Security Chief Tony Verdeschi, a character who neither appeared nor was ever mentioned in Year One. , His character was designed to serve primarily as a secondary male action hero, and became a romantic interest for Maya. No on-screen explanations were offered for the cast changes. One scene in The screen Metamorph mentioning Bergman's death was scripted and filmed, but cut from the final edit. The Moonbase Alpha Technical Manual produced by Starlog magazine picks up this explanation, stating Bergman died due to a faulty spacesuit per the scripted scene. Likewise, it was mentioned in this publication that Morrow and Kano had died in an Eagle crash between seasons, and explained that Dr. Mathias, supposedly Alpha's supposedly psychiatrist (although he seems to be more Russell's assistant) was on sabbatical doing research. Fred Freiberger felt that these characters were one dimensional and had n fan one-dimensional no support; he told Nick Tate that the audience would not remember them and that, as far as he was concerned, they were just "somewhere else" on Alpha, lost in the crowd of three hundred other people.[6] Other changes included the main titles and theme music. The montage of events from . "Breakaway" and the episode about to unfold featured in Year One was dropped in " favour of a special-effects sequence depicting the Moon being blown out of orbit into effects space. With Morse gone, Schell was featured in his place as a regular alongside Landau and Bain, and all three were depicted in action oriented images as opposed to the action-oriented mannequin-like stances Landau and Bain had assumed in the Year One main titles. New like series composer Derek Wadsworth new theme dropped Barry Gray's alternation Wadsworth's 's between stately, orchestral passages and funky rhythmic ones in favour of a more consistently contemporary piece. Rudi Gernreich's minimalist costume was considerably modified from the original 's unisex design to include an optional skirt for women and much more detail work on the tunic portion, including turtleneck collars, coloured stitching, patches and photo ID badges. In addition, colourful jackets generally red, blue or green became part of ges. most characters' ensembles.

The expansive Main Mission set, with its balcony and windows revealing the lunar surface, was replaced by a more compact Command Centre, supposedly deep underground. (Once again, this change was explained in the Year Two Writers' Bible and Technical Manual as necessary for security, but never shared with viewers). Medical Centre, Generator Section, Life Support and the Alphans' living quarters became smaller, while the interior of the Eagle command module was updated with additional buttons, flashing lights and television monitors, while the Eagle also lost a section of corridor (the galley/storage area) between the passenger module and the cockpit. (This was to accommodate its placement on Pinewood Soundstage "L", with the other standing Alpha sets; the Eagle was permanently affixed to the boarding tube/travel tube set and jammed between the travel-tube reception area and the Medical Centre.)[9] The sombre mood created in Year One by the effective use of light and shadow in the filming of Moonbase Alpha interiors was abandoned in favour of a generally brighter cinematography, and even the lettering used in signage and costumingmost noticeable on spacesuits and Eagle Transporter doorschanged to a simpler, less futuristic style. Production Designer Keith Wilson stated in an interview in Destination: Moonbase Alpha that he was always being ordered by Producer Fred Freiberger to make sets smaller, taking away the expansive (and expensive) feeling of the first series' interiors. Freiberger was very budget-conscious and, despite press releases to the contrary, the production team was working with less money this series.[6][7][23] If there had been a budget increase, the 'stagflation' economy of the seventies would have canceled it out. When interviewed, many of the actors state they were asked to accept less money, including Landau and Bain (who were the only ones with enough clout to be able to refuse). Freiberger emphasised action-adventure in Year Two stories to the exclusion of metaphysical themes explored in Year One. Of Year One, he commented, "They were doing the show as an English show, where there was no story, with the people standing around and talking. In the first show I did, I stressed action as well as character development, along with strong story content, to prove that 1999 could stand up to the American concept of what an action-adventure show should be."[24] Since Year One was quite serious in tone, one of Frieberger's ways to accomplish this objective was to inject humor into Year Two stories whenever possible, but much of it seemed to the more vocal fans to be forced, especially at the conclusion of an episode, where the Alphans were seen as jovial and light-hearted despite whatever violent or tragic events may have previously befallen them. Members of the Space: 1999 cast were disenchanted with the scripts. Martin Landau: "They changed it because a bunch of American minds got into the act and they decided to do many things they felt were commercial. Fred Freiberger helped in some respects, but, overall, I don't think he helped the show, I think he brought a much more ordinary, mundane approach to the series."[25] One particular episode ('All That Glisters', which dealt with the threat of an intelligent rock) was of such allegedly deficient quality that it sparked a confrontation between Freiberger and the cast. Landau disliked the story so strongly that he wrote the following notes on his copy of the script: "All the credibility we're building up is totally forsaken in this script!"; "...Story is told poorly!"; and "The character of Koenig takes a terrible beating in this script We're all shmucks!" Anholt

revealed that, "the more the cast complained about a script's flaws, the more intractable and unyielding Freiberger became." Dissatisfaction on Landau's part about scripts was not new to Year Two, though. Sylvia Anderson remembers that he often voiced criticisms of scripts during production of the first series.

Production of Series Two


With the last-minute renewal from Grade, the production team hit the ground running. Byrne's script The Biological Soul, involving the Alphans' encounter with the unstable Mentor of the planet Psychon and his biological computer Psyche which drew sustenance from the mental energy of intelligent beings, was re-written to include the new character Maya and the rest of the format changes. Production began on 26 January 1976 and was scheduled to last a mere ten months due to the already-late renewal order. To fulfil the scheduling requirement, Freiberger came up with the "double-up script" solution. During "double-up" instalments, two first-unit production teams would film two episodes simultaneously. Landau and some of the supporting cast would be given expanded roles and would film an episode on location or sets constructed for that story in Pinewood's Soundstage "M" while Bain and the remaining supporting cast (also in expanded roles) would film their episode in the standing Alpha sets on Soundstage "L". Landau and Bain would then be given minor roles in the opposing episodes. This costand time-saving measure was used to complete eight stories: The Rules of Luton/The Mark of Archanon, The AB Chrysalis/Catacombs of the Moon, A Matter of Balance/Space Warp and Devil's Planet/Dorzak. A ninth episode, The Beta Cloud, was intentionally scripted with only one-day's worth of work for the Landaus to allow their planned holiday to the French Riviera not to delay the series' production; the four supporting cast members (Schell, Anholt, Tate and Merton) were the recipients of much greater than usual exposure. Relations between new producer Freiberger and the Year One veterans were strained. Landau complained about stories he felt were light-weight or absurd when compared to the previous year's efforts. His feelings can be summed up from comments written on the cover of a script: "I'm not going out on a limb for this show because I'm not in accord with what you're (Freiberger) doing as a result ... etc. I don't think I even want to do the promos I don't want to push the show any more as I have in the past. It's not my idea of what the show should be. It's embarrassing to me if I am not the star of it and in the way I feel it should be. This year should be more important to it, not less important to it ... I might as well work less hard in all of them."[26] Johnny Byrne has gone on record saying that Freiberger was a good man and good producer, but not good for Space: 1999. He had gotten them a second year after the cancellation, but the changes he made did not benefit the programme.[26] Principal photography came to an end on 23 December 1976 with The Dorcons. An article regarding a third series was printed in the trade papers: "Now entrenched in its successful second season boom, ITC is looking forward to a third season with more fantastic events and additions, although mum's the word at the studio. They will only say that Maya and Miss Schell will be kept in and that the budget may be raised again, But that's all until final preparations and an official announcement are made."[6]

Broadcast and reception of Series Two


Year Two did nevertheless fare admirably on CBC Television in Canada, airing in English in a family viewing period, late Saturday afternoons before the hockey broadcasts, with a mostly undisrupted run and rerun of all 24 episodes from September 1976 through September 1977. And Year Two episodes ran in French Canada-wide during the same broadcast year, in early evening on Saturdays. Ratings were sufficient for a full additional year's transmission of Year One in the English CBC Saturday programming slot in 1977-1978. Episodes of both Year One and Year Two were repeated regionally in Canada in English and French through the early-to-mid-1980s. YTV Canada broadcast both seasons with reportedly good ratings in 1990-1992, in a late Saturday afternoon airtime closely matching that of the CBC English network in the 1970s. In contrast to its airing on the CBC, the presentation of Year Two was not as consistent elsewhere in the world. In certain UK regions, some Year Two episodes did not air until nearly two years after they were produced, while the regional ITV station HTV (serving Wales and West of England) did not pick the series up until 1984, and then only showed nineteen out of the twenty-four episodes from series two (the last episodes were not screened in Wales until the series was broadcast by Bravo on the Sky Satellite network in the mid 1990s). Plans were nevertheless put in place for a third season, but still dropping ratings and fewer syndication and commercial sponsor sales contributed to the series' cancellation. Landau faulted Lew Grade's foray into film production; the projected budget for the third season was, coincidentally, equivalent to the advertising budget for Raise the Titanic, and some commentators have suggested that it came down to one or the other.[25] However, since Raise the Titanic did not start principal photography until 1979 (and was not advertised or released until the following year), it is more likely that money which ITC might have allocated to a third season of Space: 1999 instead paid for the production of the company's Return of the Saint television series. Fan and critics' responses to the new series varied. Some missed the mystical plotlines, feature-film ambiance and the "British-ness" of the first series. Others embraced the new characters, down-to-earth characterisations and pulsing action beats. Comparisons with Star Trek were inevitable and used by both camps to show how the series had been either saved or destroyed by the format change.

The abortive Year Three


While the third series of Space: 1999 never actually entered production, the producers and studio had originally intended continuing the show. As filming on Year Two came to its conclusion, it became apparent that this was simply not going to happen and the series ended with the episode "The Dorcons". However, during production of the later episodes of the second series, plans for the shape of the third year began to develop:

The third year would have been far shorter than the previous two, with only 13 episodes. This was intended as a budgetary compromise between the quantity and quality of episodes.

Maya was considered to be the breakout character of the series, and very early on the producers began grooming her for her own spinoff show, which was at own one point intended to run concurrently with series three of Space: 1999 Had this 1999. project gone ahead, Maya would have also been absent from Space: 1999 This 1999. [6] "Maya" series was also intended to run for 13 episodes a year.

Message From Moonbase Alpha and the aborted cinematic revival

Message From Moonbase Alpha (Premiered Sept 13th, 1999) starring Zienia Merton as Sandra Benes Filmed on 29 August 1999, Message From Moonbase Alpha is a fan-produced mini produced miniepisode made with the co-operation and involvement of Space: 1999 script editor operation ript Johnny Byrne, who penned the script. Filmed inside a private house on a remarkable , working replica of a small section of the Main Mission set and utilising the original utilising prop of Koenig's Command Center desk and Sandra Benes's original Year Two Alpha 's uniform, the short film was first shown at the Space: 1999 Breakaway Convention[27] in Los Angeles, California on 13 September 1999 the day the events in episode 1 of the 1999the series were supposed to take place. With the permission of (then) copyright owners Carlton Media International, the film included brief clips from seven episodes to rlton illustrate the deserted Moonbase Alpha and the Alphans'' exodus to planet Terra Alpha. Previously unused footage shot for the Year Two title sequence and The Last Enemy was used to create a sequence showing the Moon being affected by a gravitational disturbance and thrown into an unknown solar system. Short excerpts from 12 other excerpts episodes appeared in a montage as Sandra Benes recalls her life on Alpha. The seven minute film features Zienia Merton reprising her role as Sandra Benes delivering a final message to Earth as the only crew member left on Moonbase Alpha while a massive exodus to a habitable planet, Terra Alpha, takes place with the rest of the crew. This basically gave the series the finality it never had in its initial run. asically Modified versions of Message From Moonbase Alpha are available on the Space: 1999 Bonus Disk in the U.S. and Canada, and on a DVD bonus disc in France and in Italy. The original version appears as a bonus feature on the Space:1999/UFO - The Documentaries DVD produced by Fanderson.

Around the same time 'Message From Moonbase Alpha' was being filmed, Johnny Byrne and Christopher Penfold attempted to revive the franchise as a movie series, similar to the way Star Trek had been revived cinematically in the late 1970s. The first film would have picked up the story several years after the series ended, and would have featured a heavily-redesigned Moonbase Alpha. Ultimately the project failed, and nothing came of it.[28]

Space: 2099
In February 2012, ITV Studios America and HDFILMS officially announced their intention to produce a reimagining of Space: 1999, to be titled Space: 2099.[29]

Other media formats


The series has been translated into other media. All the episodes have been adapted in novelisations (except, for some reason, "Earthbound", though this may be because E.C. Tubb was working from a different script of "Breakaway" in which Commissioner Simmons was killed when the Moon was torn out of Earth orbit) and the authors of these works have written a number of original stories. Several comic book series were published and, in the US, a series of audio adaptations were recorded on record albums with the younger audience in mind. Main article: List of Space: 1999 books and other media

Video/DVD/Blu-ray releases
The series was released on home video in the 1990s, with each cassette (or volume) featuring two episodes. In 2001, it was released on DVD in the UK by Carlton Media, both in single disc volumes (each volume contained four episodes) and also as two complete season boxed sets (titled as "Year One" and "Year Two") comprising six discs each. Each DVD also contained various extra features, including a variety of archive production material, memorabilia, and interviews with the cast and crew from the time the series was being made. In 2005, Network DVD reissued Series One in the UK as a Special Edition seven-disc boxset. For this release, to coincide with the series' 30th Anniversary, each episode was digitally restored by creating new 35mm film elements (a new interpositive made from the original negative which is then used to make further copies). High Definition digital transfers were then made from the interpositives using a state-of-the-art Philips Spirit DataCine. Each frame was digitally cleaned up and colour-balanced, and the image was then processed with noise reduction (to reduce the film grain) before then being manually cleaned up to remove any remaining scratches and flaws. This vastly improved the picture quality in comparison to the previous DVD releases, however the restoration process has actually made some of the space scenes (that involve special effects and model work) less realistic due to increased brightness and contrast (a comparison can be viewed here). This boxset also included a new set of extra features that were not on the Carlton DVD releases, including featurettes on "Concept & Creation" and "Special Effects & Design" (edited from an earlier "Fanderson" documentary made in 1996), as well as a two-part Clapperboard special on Gerry

Anderson from 1975, and also a brand new 70-minute documentary entitled "These Episodes" in which Anderson, Christopher Penfold, Johnny Byrne, Zienia Merton and David Lane reflect on the making of key episodes from the first series. Also included in the set are two booklets: a 24-page Episode Guide for the first series, and a 32-page "Production Notes" booklet. The audio options are Dolby Digital 5.1 for all episodes, with original mono for most episodes, and also a "music only" option for most episodes. There are also audio commentaries by Gerry Anderson on the episodes "Breakaway" and "Dragon's Domain", and text commentaries available on the episodes "The Last Sunset" and "Space Brain". Network DVD began a similar restoration process for Series Two in 2007, but this has yet to materialise and there is no current scheduled release date. A&E Home Video has released the entire series on DVD in Region 1 in various incarnations. It was initially released in 8-volume sets between 2001-2002. On 24 September 2002, a 16-disc "Mega Set" boxset featuring all 48 episodes of the series was released. On 31 July 2007, A&E released Space: 1999 - Complete Series, 30th Anniversary Edition. This is essentially the same as the 2002 "mega set" release (and does not use the 2005 hi-def remasters), but does includes a special bonus disc full of extra features.[30] Network DVD released Series One on Blu-ray in the UK on 1 November 2010, and simultaneously re-released their Special Edition DVD box set of Series One with new artwork at the same time.[31] Season One was released on Blu-ray in the U.S. on 2 November 2010 by A&E Home Entertainment.[32]

References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. ^ British Film & Television Institute (BFI ScreenOnline) ^ Space: 1999 premiere episode, Breakaway ^ a b Willey, Martin. "Space: 1999 in the USA". The Catacombs: International Guide. http://www.space1999.net/users/catacombs/main/pguide/viu.html. Retrieved 16 August 2009. ^ Willey, Martin. "Catacombs Credits Guide: Guest Cast: B". The Catacombs. http://www.space1999.net/catacombs/main/crguide/vcgab.html. Retrieved 16 August 2009. ^ Willey, Martin. "Catacombs Credits Guide: Guest Cast: D". The Catacombs. http://www.space1999.net/catacombs/main/crguide/vcgad.html. Retrieved 16 August 2009. ^ a b c d e f g h i Destination: Moonbase Alpha Telos Publications 2010 ^ a b c d e f g The Making of Space: 1999 Ballantine Books 1976 ^ The Complete Gerry Anderson: The Authorised Episode Guide Reynolds & Hearn ^ a b c d e The Making of Space: 1999, Ballatine Books, 1976 ^ Destination: Moonbase Alpha Telos Publications 2010. ^ Breakaway episode guide at Fanderson - The Official Gerry Anderson Website ^ Doctor Who Television Companion, page 378, David J Howe & Stephen James Walker, Telos Books, 2003 ^ The Making of Space: 1999, Ballantine Books, 1976 ^ Benjamin Stein, Wall Street Journal, 7 November 1975 ^ John Stanley, San Francisco Datebook, 7 September 1975 ^ Arielle Emmett, Science Digest, November 1975 ^ John Javna, Best of SF TV, 1987 ^ Asimov 1975 ^ Destination: Moonbase Alpha, Telos Publications, 2010 ^ Reesman, Bryan (27 April 2011). "Barbara Bain Looks Back But Stays Forward Focused". Attention Deficit Delirium. http://www.bryanreesman.com/blog/2011/04/27/barbara-bain-looksback-but-stays-forward-focused/. Retrieved 25 January 2012.

21. ^ Reesman, Bryan (27 April 2011). "Barbara Bain Looks Back But Stays Forward Focused". Attention Deficit Delirium. http://www.bryanreesman.com/blog/2011/04/27/barbara-bain-looksback-but-stays-forward-focused/. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 22. ^ Morse pp. 287288 23. ^ In an interview in Destination: Moonbase Alpha, Freiberger is quoted as saying that the second series episodes were brought at 185,000 USD eacha significant amount less than the 235,000 USD budgeted for each first-series episode (and the supposed 270,000 USD per episode budget ITC promotions indicated as allotted for the second series). Another clue is the lack of an on-screen credit for RAI in the second series; this seems to indicate their one-third contribution (75,000 USD) to the budget was removed. Left with 160,000 USD, when one adds the reported 25,000 USD increase from ITC, Freiberger's claim of 185,000 USD becomes valid. 24. ^ Clark & Cotter 1980, pp. 5861 25. ^ a b Hirsch 1986, pp. 4447 26. ^ a b Destination: Moonbase Alpha Telos Publications, 2010 27. ^ Willey, Martin. "Breakaway: 1999 Convention Report". The Catacombs: International Guide. http://www.space1999.net/catacombs/main/w2con99.html. Retrieved 17 September 2009. 28. ^ "Interview: Keith Young talks about his Space:1999 Blueprints and the Revival you never got to see". 1 August 2009. http://www.republibot.com/content/interview-keith-young-talks-abouthis-space1999-blueprints-and-revival-you-never-got-see. Retrieved 16 August 2009. The interview also contains a preproduction sketch of the re-designed Main Mission set. 29. ^ http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/space-2099-television-remake-288601 30. ^ http://www.tvshowsondvd.com/releases/Space-1999-Complete-Series/6716 31. ^ Network DVD - Bluray release details 32. ^ http://www.blu-ray.com/news/?id=4910

Works cited

Asimov, Isaac (28 September 1975). "Is 'Space 1999' More Fi Than Sci?". New York Times: p. 2:1. Clark, Mike; Cotter, Bill (November 1980). "An Interview With Fred Freiberger". Starlog (40): 5861. Hirsch, David (July 1986). "Martin Landau Space Age Hero". Starlog (108): 44 47.

Further reading

Bentley, Chris (2005). The Complete Gerry Anderson: The Authorised Episode Guide. Foreword by Gerry Anderson. Reynolds & Hearn Ltd. ISBN 1-90311197-8. Drake, Chris (1994). "UFO" and "Space 1999". Boxtree. ISBN 1-85283-393-9. Morse, Barry (2007). Remember with Advantages. USA: McFarland and Company. ISBN 0-7864-2771-X. Muir, John Kenneth (2005). Exploring "Space 1999": An Episode Guide and Complete History of the Mid-1970s Science Fiction Television Series. McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-7864-2276-9. Wood, Robert E (2010). Destination: Moonbase Alpha - The Unofficial and Unauthorised Guide to SPACE: 1999. Telos Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84583034-2. Keazor, Henry (2012). "`A Stumble in the Dark: Contextualizing Gerry and Sylvia Andersons `Space: 1999", in: Alexander Geppert (ed.), Imagining Outer Space. European Astroculture in the Twenthieth Century, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke/Hampshire 2012, p. 189 - 207. ISBN-10: 0230231721

External links

Space: 1999 at the Internet Movie Database Space: 1999 at TV.com Eagletransporter.com the web's premier visual reference resource for Space 1999 Eagle Transporter models and replicas Journey to Where Con Space: 1999 convention in Austin, TX 1618 July 2010 The Catacombs A comprehensive guide to Space:1999 Space: 1999 at the BFI's Screenonline Space: 2099 Space:1999 modernising and spinoff

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