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Chapter 30 Key Terms: 1. ammonia- a highly toxic nitrogen-containing waste product of amino acid breakdown.

In the mammalian liver, it is converted to urea. 2. angiotensin- a hormone that functions in water regulation in mammals by stimulating physiological changes that increase blood volume and blood pressure. 3. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)- a hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released into the bloodstream by the posterior pituitary when blood volume is low; increases the permeability of the distal tubule and the collecting duct to water, allowing more water to be reabsorbed into the bloodstream. 4. bladder- a hollow muscular storage organ for storing urine. 5. Bowmans capsule- he cup-shaped portion of the nephron in which blood filtrate is collected from the glomerulus. 6. collecting duct- a conducting tube, within the kidney, that collects urine from many nephrons and conducts it through the renal medulla into the renal pelvis. Urine may become concentrated in the collecting ducts if ADH is present. 7. distal tubule- in the nephrons of the mammalian kidney, the last segment of the renal tubule through which the filtrate passes just before it empties into the collecting duct; a site of selective secretion and reabsorption as water and ions pass between the blood and the filtrate across the tubule membrane. 8. erythropoietin- a hormone produced by the kidneys in response to oxygen deficiency that stimulates the production of red blood cells by the bone marrow. 9. excretion- the elimination of waste substances from the body; can occur from the digestive system, skin glands, urinary system, or lungs. 10. excretory pore - an opening in the body wall of certain invertebrates, such as the earthworm, through which urine is excreted. 11. filtrate- the fluid produced by filtration; in the kidneys, the fluid produced by the filtration of blood through the glomerular capillaries. 12. filtration- within Bowman's capsule in each nephron of a kidney, the process by which blood is pumped under pressure through permeable capillaries of the glomerulus, forcing out water, dissolved wastes, and nutrients.

13. flame cell- in flatworms, a specialized cell, containing beating cilia, that conducts water and wastes through the branching tubes that serve as an excretory system. 14. glomerulus- a dense network of thin-walled capillaries, located within the Bowman's capsule of each nephron of the kidney, where blood pressure forces water and dissolved nutrients through capillary walls for filtration by the nephron. 15. hemodialysis- a procedure that simulates kidney function in individuals with damaged or ineffective kidneys; blood is diverted from the body, artificially filtered, and returned to the body. 16. homeostasis- he maintenance of a relatively constant environment required for the optimal functioning of cells, maintained by the coordinated activity of numerous regulatory mechanisms, including the respiratory, endocrine, circulatory, and excretory systems. 17. kidney- one of a pair of organs of the excretory system that is located on either side of the spinal column and filters blood, removing wastes and regulating the composition and water content of the blood. 18. Loop Of Henle- a specialized portion of the tubule of the nephron in birds and mammals that creates an osmotic concentration gradient in the fluid immediately surrounding it. This gradient in turn makes possible the production of urine more osmotically concentrated than blood plasma. 19. nephridium- an excretory organ found in earthworms, mollusks, and certain other invertebrates; somewhat resembles a single vertebrate nephron. 20. nephron- the functional unit of the kidney; where blood is filtered and urine formed. 21. nephrostome- the funnel-shaped opening of the nephridium of some invertebrates such as earthworms; coelomic fluid is drawn into the nephrostome for filtration. 22. protonephridium- an excretory system consisting of tubules that have external opening but lack internal openings; for example, the flame-cell system of flatworms. 23. proximal tubule- in nephrons of the mammalian kidney, the portion of the renal tubule just after the Bowman's capsule; recieves filtrate from the capsule and is the site where selective secretion and reabsorption between the filtrate and the blood begins. 24. renal artery- the artery carrying blood to each kidney. 25. renal vein- the vein carrying cleansed blood away from each kidney. 26. renin- an enzyme that is released (in mammals) when blood pressure and/or sodium concentration in the blood drops below a set point; initiates a cascade of events that restores blood pressure and sodium concentration.

27. tubular reabsorption- the process by which cells of the tubule of the nephron remove water and nutrients from the filtrate within the tubule and return those substances to the blood. 28. tubular secretion- the process by which cells of the tubule of the nephron remove additional wastes from the blood, actively secreting those wastes into the tubule. 30. urea- a water-soluble, nitrogen-containing waste product of amino acid breakdown; one of the principal components of mammalian urine. 31. ureter- a tube that conducts urine from each kidney to the bladder. 32. urethra- the tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body; in males, the urethra also receives sperm from the vas deferens and conducts both sperm and urine (at different times) to the tip of the penis. 33. uric acid- a nitrogen-containing waste product of amino acid breakdown; a relatively insoluble white crystal excreted by birds, reptiles, and insects. 34. urine- the fluid produced and excreted by the urinary system of vertebrates; contains water and dissolved wastes, such as urea.