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# Pipe Stress Analysis Using CAESAR II

## Piping System Analysis

Why do we do it? What do we do? How do we model the piping system? How do we document the work?
When & Why Stress Analysis doc Analysis.doc

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## Pitfalls of Piping Flexibility Analysis

Just about any set of numbers can run through a piping program (GIGO) Elements used in piping programs have their limitations A good analysis addresses these limitations

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## Introduction to CAESAR II and Pipe Stress Analysis

3D Beam Element
A purely mathematical model All behavior is described by end displacements using F=Kx Basic parameters define stiffness and load (K and F, respectively)
Diameter, Diameter wall thickness, and length thickness Elastic modulus, Poissons ratio Expansion coefficient, density
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3D Beam Element
Behavior is dominated by bending Efficient for most analyses Sufficient for system analysis

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## Introduction to CAESAR II and Pipe Stress Analysis

3D Beam Element
Whats missing? g
No No No No No local effects (shell distortion) second order effects large rotation clash accounting for large shear load
Where wall deflection occurs before bending As in a short fat cantilever (vs. a long skinny cantilever)

Centerline support
No shell/wall
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3D Beam Example
Simple Si l cantilever bending: il b di

= P
L3 3 E I K )

(x = F
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## Evaluating Stress at a Point

Local coordinate system

## End loads and pressure through a free body diagram

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Stress Element
Longitudinal stress
F/A, PD/4t, M/Z (max. on outside surface)

Hoop stress
PD/2t

0 (on outside surface)

Shear stress
T/2Z, (V=0 on outside surface)

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## Introduction to CAESAR II and Pipe Stress Analysis

From 3D to 2D
With no radial stress the cube can be reduced to a plane.

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## Introduction to CAESAR II and Pipe Stress Analysis

Equilibrium
Stress times unit area = force Any new face must maintain equilibrium New face will have a normal and shear stress component

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## Introduction to CAESAR II and Pipe Stress Analysis

Mohrs Circle
Calculation of these new face stresses are symbolized through Mohrs circle

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## Named Stresses (Definitions)

Principal stress normal stress on the face where no shear stress exists Maximum shear stress face upon which shear stress is maximum

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## Principal Stresses: S1, S2, S3 Maximum Shear Stress: max so....

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Any complex stress on an element can be represented by the principal stresses (S1, S2, S3) and/or the maximum shearing stress (max)

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## Other Failure Concerns

Too much deflection (clash) Overloaded pump or flange (bearing/coupling failure or leak)

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## How Do We Measure Failure?

Maximum principal stress S1 (Rankine). p p ( )
Principal stress alone causes failure of the element. Wall thickness calculations due to pressure alone.

## Maximum shearing stress max (Tresca).

Shear, not direct stress causes failure. Common stress calculation in piping.

## Maximum distortion energy wd ( M i di t ti (von Mises). Mi )

Total distortion of the element causes failure. Octahedral shearing stress (Gmax) is another measure of the energy used to distort the element. This is known as equivalent stress.
Introduction to CAESAR II and Pipe Stress Analysis

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## How Do We Measure Failure?

These are just three Others include maximum strain and maximum total energy

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## Which Measure Do We Use?

Energy o d sto t o is t e most accu ate e gy of distortion s the ost accurate prediction of failure but maximum shearing stress is close and conservative. Piping codes often utilize their own mix (through the term stress intensity). CAESAR II can print either Tresca or von Mises stress in the 132 column stress report. Our (code) focus is maximum shearing stress.

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## How Do We Compare Failures? F il ?

Material Characteristics
Lab produces stress-strain characteristics stress strain for our alloy

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## Introduction to CAESAR II and Pipe Stress Analysis

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Material Characteristics
Direct (axial) load on a test specimen to yield and ultimate failure Gives E, Sy, Sult These terms vary with temperature

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## Introduction to CAESAR II and Pipe Stress Analysis

Lab Failure
If failure occurs at yield, the appropriate stress is calculated using the yield load Sy = Py/a And this is our limit max Sy/2
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Field Failure
If stress of interest (S1, max , oct) on the field element is greater than the lab element, failure is predicted

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## Piping Code Simplification

Us g the a Using t e maximum s ea ca cu at o u shear calculation max is the radius of Mohrs circle. max = (S1-S3)/2. So, (S1-S3)/2 Sy/2. Or (S1-S3) Sy Piping codes define (S1-S3) as stress intensity. Stress intensity must be below the material yield.
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More Simple?
Hoop stress (SH) is positive and below y p ( p yield due to wall thickness requirements (design by rule). Radial stress is zero, assume this is S3. Longitudinal stress (SL), assumed positive, must be checked only if it exceeds hoop stress, then S1=f(SL,) and (S1-S3)= f(SL,). So, ith hoop stress accounted with wall S with h t t d ith ll thickness, you need only evaluate longitudinal and shear stresses and compare the results with the material yield, Sy.
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If SL is negative, then SL becomes S3 and SH is S1. This produces a greater stress intensity of (SH SL). This is a concern for restrained pipe most commonly found in buried piping systems. Otherwise, as long as longitudinal stress is Oh l l d l below yield, the pipe material will not fail.

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## Other Failures Do Occur

Through the wall Through-the-wall cracks on components subject to thermal strain
Not immediate Low cycle and high cycle fatigue

Again, over time

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## Introduction to CAESAR II and Pipe Stress Analysis

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Effects of thermal strain were investigated and addressed by A.R.C. Markl et. al. in the late 40s and into the 50s.

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## Yield Is Not the Only Concern

Yield is a primary concern for forceprimary force based loads which lead to collapse. But other, non-collapse loads exist.

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## Introduction to CAESAR II and Pipe Stress Analysis

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Deadweight loads must satisfy equilibrium (F in F=Kx is independent) or collapse. Displacement-based loads such as thermal strain can satisfy static equilibrium through deformation and even local structural yielding. Here, x in F=Kx is independent but material yield will limit K and therefore F.
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## Are There Strain Limits?

Going cold to hot may produce yield in the hot state but there will also be a residual stress in the system when it returns to its cold condition

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## Are There Strain Limits?

But what if this residual cold stress exceeds its cold yield limit?

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## Are There Strain Limits?

Yield will occur at both ends of every thermal cycle This is low cycle fatigue Failure will occur in only a few cycles (Try this with a paper clip.)

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## Shakedown and Its Limits

Initial yield is acceptable. This is known as shakedown. But to avoid low cycle fatigue failure, the overall change in stress installed to operating must be less than the sum of the hot yield stress and the cold yield stresstwo times yield!
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## Shakedown and Its Limits

Yielding is acceptable; The pipe shakes shakes down any additional strain. Expansion stress range (Syc+Syh). The code equations limit this stress to (1.25Sc+1.25Sh). The stress at any one state (hot or cold) cannot measure this fatigue stress range.
(One limit for S is based on Sy: S=2/3 Sy, so Sy=1.5S)
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## But Were Not Done

Yet other systems have been in service, cycling for many years, only to fail later in life. This is evidence of high cycle fatigue.

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## Introduction to CAESAR II and Pipe Stress Analysis

Material Fatigue
Polished bar test specimens will fail through fatigue under a cyclic stress The higher the stress amplitude, the fewer cycles to failure
Fig. 5-110.1, Design Fatigue Curves from ASME VIII-2 App. 5 Mandatory Design Based on Fatigue Analysis

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## Piping Material Fatigue

This is reflected in the allowable stress by the cyclic reduction factor f.

Expansion stress Se f(1 25Sc+1 25Sh) f(1.25S +1.25S ). To address ratcheting, the force-based stress (SL) will reduce this acceptable stress amplitude. Therefore, Se f(1.25Sc+1.25Sh-SL).
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## Some Components Fail Sooner Than Others

Failures occurred at pipe connections, bends and intersections. Markls work examined the cause of these fatigue failures

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## Introduction to CAESAR II and Pipe Stress Analysis

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Bend Failure
Pipe bends ovalize as they bend This makes them more flexible And makes them fail sooner than a butt weld
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Component Fatigue
Markl tested various piping components and plotted their stress and cycle count at failure.

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## Introduction to CAESAR II and Pipe Stress Analysis

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Stress Intensification
Rather than reduce the allowed stress for the component in question, this SIF (or i) increases the calculated stress. Stress = Mi/Z.
i= S bw S el

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## Introduction to CAESAR II and Pipe Stress Analysis

In-Plane/Out-Plane
Process piping distinguished between in inplane bending and out-plane bending In-plane bending keeps the component in its original plane Out-plane bending pulls the component out of its plane

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## Introduction to CAESAR II and Pipe Stress Analysis

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In-Plane/Out-Plane

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## Markls Work in Todays Code

Markl extended his findings to several pipe components and joints. This work appears in Appendix D. Pay attention to the notes.

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B31.1 Appendix D

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B31.3 Appendix D

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## B31.3 SIF Example

B31.3 Sample SIF Calculations p
Welding elbow or pipe bend Input Pipe OD : Pipe wall : Bend radius : Reinforced fabricated tee with pad or saddle Input Pipe OD : Pipe wall : Pad thickness : 10.75 0.365 15 10.75 0.365 10 10.75 0.365 30 10.75 0.365 50 10.75 0.365 0 10.75 0.365 0.25 10.75 0.365 0.365 10.75 0.365 0.5

1.368 1.641

1.000 1.167

2.688 2.266

2.215 1.911

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## B31.1 SIF Example

B31.1 Sample SIF Calculations p
Welding elbow or pipe bend Input Pipe OD : Pipe wall : Bend radius : Reinforced fabricated tee with pad or saddle Input 10.75 0.365 15 10.75 0.365 10 10.75 0.365 30 10.75 0.365 50 Pipe OD : Pipe wall : Branch OD : Branch wall : Branch OD at tee : Pad thickness : 10.75 0.365 4.5 0.237 0 10.75 0.365 4.5 0.237 5 0.25 10.75 0.365 4.5 0.237 0.365 10.75 0.365 4.5 0.237 0.5

## Intermediate Calculations tn = 0.365 0.365 R= 15 10 r= 5.193 5.193

0.365 30 5.193

0.365 50 5.193

Intermediate Calculations tn or tnh = 0.365 r or Rm = 5.193 5 193 tnb = 0.237 rm = 2.132 rp = 2.250 h= 0.070

h=

0.203

0.135

0.406

0.677

1.641

1.167

3.234 3.124

2.688 3.471

2.215 3.471

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## Introduction to CAESAR II and Pipe Stress Analysis

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To Summarize:
Unchanging loads (loads that do not vary with system distortion weight, pressure, spring preloads, wind, relief thrust, etc.) must remain below the material yield limit. Strain-based loads (thermal growth of pipe, pp ) movement of supports) must remain below the material fatigue limit Several piping codes such as the transportation codes also limit operating stress
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## A Review of the Basic Concerns

Force based Force-based loads are limited by yield
But also! Permanent or temporary? These are primary loads and they produce sustained and occasional stresses

## Strain-based loads are limited by fatigue

These are secondary loads and they produce expansion stresses

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## Piping code equations:

Power Piping
B31.1, ASME III, B31.5, FBDR (, EN-13480?) Most stringent limitations Sample Equations
Sustained: Slp + (0.75i)Ma/Z < Sh Expansion: iMc/Z < f(1.25Sc + 1 25Sh S t i d) E i iM /Z f(1 25S 1.25Sh Sustained) Sustained + Occasional: Slp + (0.75i)Ma/Z + (0.75i)Mb/Z < kSh

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## Piping code equations:

Process Piping
B31.3, ISO 15649 Wider applications Sample Equations
Let Sb = {sqrt[(iiMi)2+(ioMo)2]}/Z p Sustained: Slp + Fax/A + Sb < Sh Expansion: sqrt(Sb2 + 4St2) < f(1.25Sc + 1.25Sh Sustained) Sustained + Occasional: Slp + (Fax/A + Sb)sus +(Fax/A+Sb)occ < kSh
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## Piping code equations:

Transportation Piping
B31.4, B31.8, TD/12, Z662, DNV Based of proof testing and yield limits Addresses compression Sample Equations
Let Sb = {sqrt[(iiMi)2+(ioMo)2]}/Z Sustained: Slp + Sb < 0.75Sy Expansion: sqrt(Sb2 + 4St2) < 0.72Sy Operating: Sustained + Expansion < Sy
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## Piping code equations:

FRP (GRP) Pipe
BS 7159, UKOOA (ISO14692) Different materials different concerns Equations evaluate the interaction of hoop and axial stress Based B d on d i strain rather than stress design i h h (but =E)

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## Introduction to CAESAR II and Pipe Stress Analysis

Design by Analysis

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## Introduction to CAESAR II and Pipe Stress Analysis

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Design by Analysis
The design cycle
Collect data (with assumptions) Generate the model and load sets Run the analysis Check the assumptions Diagnose any problems Re-run with fixes Document the analysis
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## The Design Cycle

Model
A system model, not a local model

Analyze
Its just F = KX

Evaluate
Check the design limits

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## Introduction to CAESAR II and Pipe Stress Analysis

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Is It a Good Model?
Focus on stiffness boundary conditions and stiffness, loads. Consider the stiffness method assumptions (remember, its only an approximation). Run a simple sensitivity study when youre unsure.
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A Sensitivity Study
Treat CAESAR II as a black box. Examine the effects of a single input modification. Determine the sensitivity of the results to that particular piece of data. Examples: nozzle flexibility, friction, support location, restraint stiffness.
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Verifying Results
Equilibrium exists in static analyses.

You can verify coordinates of key positions. ii Check the plotted deflections.
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Design Limits
Pipe failure (stress) Pipe Deflection Equipment loads

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## Use a Sensitivity Study:

To improve the values To improve your p y confidence

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Which Is Better

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## Introduction to CAESAR II and Pipe Stress Analysis

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Summary
Basic stresses reviewed Failure theories reviewed SIFs introduced Load case (stress) type introduced Expansion case explained Code equations summarized

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