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CHAPTER I

Introduction

1.1 Background

Children are the source of hope and inspiration for society. That is why they have the right to be
brought up in a positive environment. But there are many children in the world who have become
synonymous with social deprivation at its worst. When we talk about such deprivation, the
situation with regards to Nepal does not different much.1

The problem of street children is universal and is comparatively very high in those countries
where there is rapid urbanization. The number of street children has grown in recent decades
because of widespread recession, political turmoil, civil unrest, increasing family disintegration,
natural disasters and growing urbanization.2

A street child or street kid is considered as a child who lives on the street – in particular, one that
is not taken care of by parents or other adults and who sleeps on the street because he or she does
not have a home.3 Child Workers in Nepal Concerned Centre (CWIN) defined “street children
are those children who are completely street based, working and living in the street. They could
be orphans or abandoned children or simply neglected or run ways they could be with or without
family. They could have little or no contact with their respective families.” 4 Child Act of Nepal
(1991) Article 2(Ka) defines child as “both boys and girls below 16 years”5. According to the
national census of Nepal 2001, out of total population 231,51,423, 41% are below 16 years and
the proportion of male and female children is equal.6

As in other countries drugs are strictly illegal in Nepal but have found their way into the market
place via various different channels. The easy access and availability of drugs has created an
extremely conducive social environment for people to start taking such substances, especially
among young people and children.2

For most street children taking drugs is inevitable while living on the streets. Their hardship and
adverse circumstances are some of the reasons children cite for doing drugs of one kind or
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another. While many street children perceive substance use as a tension reliever, they have also
experienced ill effects and a few even want to quit their addiction.2

As regards to glue sniffing, it has been viewed as one of the major coping strategies for street
children all over the world. However, the easy accessibility and availability remain temptations
for children to take up the habit of sniffing. Glue sniffing among street children is as serious
problem as abuse of any other substance. In Nepal there is no medical evidence to ascertain its
harmful effects, but studies carried out in several other countries in America and Africa have
proved the ill effects of glue sniffing on children. At times this act is even fatal, causing
immediate death after the inhalation of volatile agents.2

Glue sniffing amongst street children in Nepal can be taken as an initiation to the use of other
hard drugs. Addiction to glue sniffing is making street children more dependent on substances.
This dependency is resulting in an increase in street children getting different adverse social as
well as health consequences. 2

Many crimes have been committed by drug dependents in Nepal. Although street children are not
involved in violent and serious crimes, crimes like petty crimes committed for money support the
drug habit and so arrested by police often. As substance abuse or its habit causes serious
problems to family and community such as loss of money , loss of social prestige, fear of arrest,
fear of contracting diseases like HIV/AIDS , it is necessary to advise to stop or give proper path
to street children to keep away from such types of crimes.7

1.2 Statement of the Problem

WHO estimates that out of 100 million street children, more than three-fourth are from
developing world. A report based on the survey conducted by WHO indicated that it reaches
about 25-30 million in developed countries.8

In 1992, CWIN estimated that around 5000 have landed on the street of cities of Nepal.
Furthermore, the population of the street children in Kathmandu estimated by CWIN was around
1200 in 1996. CWIN was reported 330 new street children in Kathmandu in 1997; however they

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estimated total number around 1000. Their number has shot up three fold within 10 years and
this problem in Nepal will pose a real threat in future, especially if the current trend towards
unsupervised urbanization continues.9

Glue sniffing is relatively new trend in Nepal. It is fast becoming an addiction among street
children in Kathmandu. The current prevalent of glue sniffing is 51.7 percent among street
children in the Kathmandu Valley. 19.7 percent have started using glue two years ago, 34.4
percent started a year ago and 27.9 percent started just few months back.4

1.3 Rationale/ Justification of the Study

• According to the UNConvention on the Rights of the Child , every child has the right
to benefit from social security and protection from exploitation and drug abuse;
• Street children are part of our society who comprise large percentages among people
working in the street but often they are misbehaved by society and socially excluded
as well;
• Glue sniffing has been viewed as one of the major coping strategies for street children
all over the world and is as serious problem as abuse of any other substance;
• Glue sniffing is taken as a 'debut' drug by street children. Mostly street children begin
drug-taking by glue sniffing and end up on other, more hard-core, drugs. So, the
factors affecting glue sniffing will be crucial for management.
• As a personal interest of child health.

1.4 Research Question

What are the various factors, which contribute street children to sniff glue?

1.5 Objectives

1. General Objectives

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To explore the various factors, which contribute street children to sniff glue

2. Specific Objectives

• To identify demographic factors affecting glue sniffing of the street children


• To find out the reasons why street children sniff glue
• To assess knowledge about harmful effects of glue sniffing on health

1.6 Variables

Dependent Variables
The street children who get glue sniffing

Independent variable
• Family support
• Age of the street children
• Knowledge about harmful effects of glue sniffing
• Educational status of the street children
• Peer pressure
• Peer influence
• Pleasurable experience
• Availability of glue
• Hunger

1.7 Conceptual Framework

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Fig: 1

1.8 Operational Definition

a) Glue: A sticky substance used for joining things; generally used in shoes, carpet etc.

b) Sniffing: The substance directly sprayed into the mouth and nose.

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c) Glue sniffing: The practice of breathing of certain types of glue as a drug, so as to
become excited or to escape from reality. In this, glue is dropped into a polythene bag and
is inhaled continuously by taking short breaths into the bag while taking long deep
breaths from the bag.

d) Kawad: The place where solid waste like plastic, metal, glasses, paper etc. are sold by
street children.

e) Caste/Ethnicity: Caste /ethnicity will be categorized under Brahmin/ chhetri, Indigenous


group, Dalit and others.

f) Age: The age of street children (10-16 years) will be categorized into 3 groups with the
class interval of 2.

g) Education: It refers to the formal education achieved by the street children. This is categorized
as illiterate, primary, secondary and higher education. It will be measured in terms of numbers of
grade.
• Illiterate- Children having no formal education.
• Primary education- Formal education up to grade 5. It will be measured in terms of number of
grade.
• Secondary education- Education from grade 6 to 10. It will be measured in terms of number of
grade.

h) Knowledge about harmful effects of glue sniffing:


Mostly glue sniffing affects brain and nervous system. However, long term exposure to
glue sniffing can produce significant damage to heart, lungs, liver and kidney.

• Good knowledge: who could state three harmful effects mentioned above.
• Satisfactory knowledge: who could state one harmful effect mentioned above.
• Poor knowledge: who have been unable to state at least one effect mentioned above.
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CHAPTER II
Literature Reviews

Global

It is estimated that through out Latin America, there are over 40 million children aged 3-18 years,
living and working on the streets. 75 percent of them work to supplement the family income.
They beg, sell trinkets, shine shoes and wash cars to bridge the gap between impossible poverty

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and survival. The remaining 25 percent are homeless with no family; they slept in abandoned
building under bridges, in shop drawings and in city parks. 10

Street children cited a number of reasons for being on the streets. These include earning income,
being orphaned, abuse by stepfathers/stepmothers/some relatives, inadequate care and support by
parents or guardians and peer pressure.

The study revealed that the majority (35.3 percent) of the street children gave earning income for
their families as their main reason for being on the streets .Just over thirty percent (30.7 percent)
said they were orphans and did not have care-givers while 18.3 percent said they were abused by
parent(s), 7.3 percent were employed to work on the streets and 6.4 percent had committed a
misdemeanor and had run away from home. 11

For example Satiffman colleagues (1987) reported the rate of drug use among homeless group
was five times higher than their home based peers.12
Street children use a wide variety of substances. The price and availability of these substances
have a major influence on the behavior of substance user.eg. choices regarding the type and
method of substance use. The reason street children use substances are many and are closely
linked to their problem and their situation.13

One in ten teenagers is a drug addict, of these 56 percent smoke, 26 percent inhale and 5.4
percent inject. According to one of the study carried out with 118 street children, 72.9 percent
use cigarettes, 18.6 percent use tobacco, 30.5 percent alcohol, 51.7 percent dendrite and 30.5
percent marijuana.14

115 male street children aged 6 to 16 years were interviewed at the time of their admission to an
observation home of Delhi. More than half (57.4 percent) of the subjects had indulged in
substance use before coming to the observation home. The agents consumed were nicotine (44.5
percent), inhalants (24.3 percent), alcohol (21.8 percent) and cannabis (26.4 percent). On
application of multiple logistic regressions, maltreatment of the child by family members was
found significant predictor of substance use in the study group. So substance use in street
children is associated with unstable homes and maltreatment. 15

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Drug abuse among street children in Bangalore, of the 281 children assessed for drug use 197
were drug users and 84 were non drug users. Among them, 76 percent tobacco smoker, 45.9
percent tobacco chewing, 42.1 percent alcoholic, 48 percent inhalants, 15.7 percent cannabis and
2 percent use opoids. The age of onset of use ranges from 10-13 years.16

Interface of substance abuse and child prostitution intervening in the lives of slums and street
children in Kampala- Uganda, among the street children 8 out of 10 children interviewed using
one or more substances abuse ranging from paint thinner to cannabis and heroin. The reasons
behind are: cheap and easy to get, mode of survival for children living on the street because it
helps them face the danger and challenges of being in the street comfortably.17

National

According to the center, most of the children living in the streets right now left their homes at the
age of eight because of various problems happened in their families. These problems mainly
caused by step mother, family conflicts, poverty, lack of awareness, orphanage and some of them
wanted in search of better opportunities in the big cities. Most of the children living in the streets
depend on begging from others, working as porters and construction workers in the construction
sites inside of the cities and in the neighboring villages of the cities. In addition to begging and
working, sometimes they also do stealing, robbing, and smoking. Their activities already created
big problem in Nepali society. 18

According to CWIN estimation there are 5000 street children in Nepal and around 400-600 are
based in the Kathmandu Valley. Glue sniffing is relatively new trend in Nepal. It is fast becoming
an addiction among street children in Kathmandu.

The current prevalent of glue sniffing is 51.7 percent among street children in the Kathmandu
Valley. 19.7 percent have started using glue two years ago, 34.4 percent started a year ago and
27.9 percent started just few months back. Street children, who do not even smoke or drink
alcohol often, sniff glue. Glue sniffing can be termed as ‘group activity’ among street children.

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95.1 percent children use glue with friends, 77 percent use glue in peer influence and 60.7
percent children sniff glue daily. 2

CHAPTER III
Research Methodology

3.1 Study design

It was a cross-sectional, descriptive and exploratory study to identify the factors which contribute
street children to sniff glue.

3.2 Study method

Both qualitative as well as quantitative methods were applied in the study.

3.3 Site selection


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This study was conducted in Kathmandu valley, the capital of Nepal. It was selected purposively
because most of the street children located in the Kathmandu valley.

3.4 Study population

The study population was the street children of age 10-16 years who have sniffed glue within the
past 6 months.

3.5 Sampling Frame

All the street children of age 10-16 years who were found in 7 different kawad of Kathmandu

3.6 Sampling technique

Quota sampling

3.7 Sample size

In 7 different kawads, there were 42 street children who have sniffed glue last 6 months
preceding the study.

3.7 Tools of data collection

Interview schedule

The structured and semi-structured questions were used to collect the data to explore the factors
associated with the glue sniffing among street children.

Case study

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Few case studies were done to explore the factors affecting glue sniffing among street children.

3.8Techniques

Following data collection techniques were applied to collect primary data for the study:
Interviews with street children who have sniffed glue last 6 months period preceding the study.

3.9 Eligibility Criteria

3.9.1 Inclusion Criteria

All the street children (10-16 years) from selected 7 different kawads who have been sniffing
glue during the past 6 months preceding the study were included the study.

3.9.2 Exclusion Criteria

All the children other than selected kawads and children beyond 10-16 years.
3.10 data processing and Analysis

• Raw data were properly edited and coded in the same day of data collection with the view
to simplify the data entry;
• Data analysis was done in terms of percentage distribution;
• Merging of responses was done, as necessary , for this responses for which frequency
were found to be significantly smaller to derive necessary conclusions;
• Sorting out of responses like not applicable , could not state/ not stated , not mentioned
and no response from the general data were done to make the analysis effective; and
• Triangulation and validation of the data between various findings was done as necessary.

3.11 Validity and Reliability

Validity and reliability of the study was ensured by the following measures:

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• Pre-testing of the tools was done prior to the study in a similar population and necessary
arrangements and corrections were made, and as far as possible, the questions were set in
the simple Nepali language to ensure reliable data , and time required was estimated by
the process of pre-test;
• Researcher himself was involved in the entire process of data collection;
• Orientation and appropriate supervision to the enumerator by researcher ;
• A thorough review of the complete questionnaire was done and the editing of the data
will be done in the same time;

3.12 Limitation of the study

• Due to small study sample the outcome of the research may not generalize the entire
target population and
• The study was limited in time and resource.

3.13 Ethical Considerations

• The study was conducted strictly under the National Guidelines developed by the Nepal
Health Research Council (NHRC);
• Written letter of permission was obtained from the campus and related NGOs prior to the
data collection;
• Informed consent was obtained from the interviewees/ participants;
• Confidentiality and privacy of the information provided by the interviewees/ participants
was maintained as far as possible;
• The collected data was used only for the objective of the study;
• Refusal rights of the participants were rejected.

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CHAPTER IV
Findings of the Study

4.1 Profile of street children

4.1.1 Area
In the study, the total numbers of respondents were 42 from 7 different area/kawad of
Kathmandu valley. Among them 28.6 percent of respondents were from Mahaluxmisthan
followed by Samakhushi (16.7 percent) and Gwarko (14.3 percent).

Table 1: Area wise distribution of street children

Number Percent
Kawad Mahaluxmisthan 12 28.6
Gwarko 6 14.3
Kalo Pool 5 11.9
Seto Pool 5 11.9
Samakhushi 7 16.7

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Dilli bazar 2 4.8
Thamel 5 11.9
Total 42 100.0

4.1.2 Age
The study shows that highest percentage of respondents was in age group 13-14 years (59.5
percent) followed by 15-16 years (26.2 percent) and 10-12 years (14.3 percent).
Table 2: Age wise distribution of respondent

Number Percent
Age 10-12 years 6 14.3
group
13-14 years 25 59.5
15-16 years 11 26.2
Total 42 100.0

4.1.3 Caste/ Ethnicity


Most of the respondents (45.2 percent) were found to be from Brahmin/Chhetri followed by
indigenous group (42.9 percent). The indigenous group includes Lama, Rai, Magar, Tamang,
Gurung, and Limbu. The category Dalit (11.9 percent) includes Kami, Damai and Sarki.

Table 3: Caste wise distribution of respondent

Number Percent
Ethnicity Brahmin/ Chhetri 19 45.2
Indigenous group 18 42.9
Dalit 5 11.9
Total 42 100.0

4.1.4 Education
Concerning the education level, children having primary level education comprised 85.7 percent.
Likewise children having secondary level education comprised 4.8 percent and illiterate
accounted 9.5 percent.
Table 4: Level of education of the respondent

Number Percent
Education Illiterate 4 9.5
level
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Primary education 36 85.7
Secondary education 2 4.8
Total 42 100.0

4.1.5 Migration status


Kathmandu is capital of Nepal where there is all facilities and opportunities, people of different
district concentrated here for different purpose. Majority of street children found here from
outside the Kathmandu valley. Among them 69 percent of the respondent has been living on the
street more than 1 year followed by 6 months to 1 year (31 percent).
As already mentioned, most of the children came from outside the valley, the means how they
came to street children came to street are different but most of them came due to ran away from
home i.e. 52.4 percent followed by with friends ( 33.3 percent).
Table 5: Reasons for coming to street

Number Percent
Reasons With family 2 4.8
Run away from home 22 52.4
Run away from work 2 4.8
With friends 14 33.3
With relative/villager 2 4.8
Total 42 100.0
Various push and pull factors are contributed to migration status of street children. Among them
domestic violence (40.5 percent) and abuse & exploitation (19.0 percent) are major factors. The
other factors include seeking employment, lack of food, deprivation from education etc.
Table 6: Reasons for leaving home

Number Percent
Reasons Domestic violence 17 40.5
Lack of food 7 16.7
Seeking employment 7 16.7
Deprivation from education 1 2.4
Peer pressure/influence 1 2.4
Abuse& exploitation 8 19.0
Just wondering 1 2.4
Total 42 100.0

4.2 Glue sniffing


4.2.1 Knowledge about glue sniffing

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Most of the children (90.5 percent) get knowledge about glue sniffing from their friends who are
being on the street, followed by adults (7.1 percent).
Table 7: Knowledge about glue sniffing

Number Percent
Friends from work 1 2.4
Friends on the street 38 90.5
From adults 3 7.1
Total 42 100.0

4.2.2 Initiation of glue sniffing


Age of first experience with glue varies with age. Almost two third of total respondents reported
their first experience before reaching the age of 10 years. And the medium age of first experience
was also 10 years.

Table 8: Age of first experience of glue by single year

Number Percent
Age 7 year 2 4.7
8 year 4 9.5
9 year 8 19.1
10 year 13 30.9
11 year 8 19.1
12 year 4 9.5
13 year 2 4.7
14 year 1 2.4
Total 42 100

4.2.3 Pattern of glue sniffing


All the respondents were sniffed glue daily. Among them 71.4 percent respondents were sniffed
glue more than 5 times daily followed by 2 to 5 times daily (28.6 percent).

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Table 9: Daily pattern of glue sniffing
Number Percent
Frequency 2-5 times 12 28.6
> 5 times 30 71.4
Total 42 100.0

4.2.4 Why do children sniff glue and become addicted?


Street children reported to have sniffed glue due to various reasons. They are get heavenly
pleasure (52.4 percent) followed by addiction (21.4 percent). Others are coping with hunger and
belong to group.

Table 10: Reasons for glue sniffing

Number Percent
Reasons To cope with hunger 6 14.3
To belong to group 5 11.9
Addicted 9 21.4
To get heavenly pleasure 22 52.4
Total 42 100.0

Similarly, majority of the respondents started sniff glue for experimenting pleasure (71.4 percent)
others started this habit from as a result of peer influence (21.4 percent) while some started this
by peer pressure (7.1 percent).

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Table 11: Reasons for addiction

Number Percent
Reasons Peer influence 9 21.4
Peer pressure 3 7.1
For pleasure 30 71.4
Total 42 100.0

4.2.5 Knowledge about harmful effects of glue sniffing


All the respondents known that glue sniffing is injurious to health. Among them two third
respondents have satisfactory knowledge about harmful effects of glue sniffing followed by good
knowledge (23.8 percent) and poor knowledge (9.5 percent).
Table 12: Levels of knowledge about harmful effects of glue sniffing

Number Percent
Knowledge Satisfactory knowledge 28 66.7
Good knowledge 10 23.8
Poor knowledge 4 9.5
Total 42 100.0

4.2.6 Perception about glue sniffing


Most of the respondents reported that they want to stop glue sniffing (71.4 percent).

Table 13: Children who want to rid the addiction

Number Percent
No 12 28.6
Yes 30 71.4
Total 42 100.0

All of the respondents were accepted that street children are easily addicted to glue sniffing due
to various reasons. They are easy availability of glue (81.0 percent) followed by affordable and
high desired (7.1 percent each) and others (4.8 percent).

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Table 14: Perception for addiction

Number Percent
Affordable 3 7.1
Easily available 34 81.0
Kind of high desired 3 7.1
Others 2 4.8
Total 42 100.0

4.3 Case Studies


Case: 1
“Drugs and alcohol are a major part of this life”
I’m a 16-year-old boy. I have no family and have been living on the streets for the last 2 years. I
ran from home because I could not tolerate physical abuse from my parents. I was suffering a lot
and finally, one day, decided to go to Kathmandu and make my own living. I’m self-dependent
and do whatever I like to do with my own money. Here's there is no one to boss me around,
telling me what to do and what not to do.
In the beginning, I found it difficult to fit in with the street boys and the surroundings, but I
gradually got adjusted to street life. Of course it takes a lot of determination to survive here. But
what I like is the freedom. The rest of the time, I work as a Tempo conductor and I have to work
really hard, shout a lot to alert the passengers. This untimely job is stressing me and my health is
also deteriorating.
After arriving on the street, I soon found out that drugs and alcohol are a major part of this life.
I’ve tried everything that is available on streets, ranging from cigarettes and tobacco to alcohol
and ganja. By now, I have become kind of an addict, so it is very hard for me to resist when
everyone around me is taking some sort of drug.
It’s been a year since I started sniffing glue (dendrite). I learned about it through a street friend.
One trip is enough for me to last for a whole day but if the trip comes down sometime, I take it
again. I know this sniffing habit is bad for my health even though I used to sniff glue for belong
to group. I frequently suffer from chest pains and can’t stop my hands and body from shaking.
I’ve also seen my friends suffering from abdominal pain. I want to quit this habit but have been
failing to do so. Whenever I see someone sniffing, I get tempted.

Case: 2
He frequently suffers from chest pains, abdominal pain as a result of glue sniffing
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A 13 years old boy living on street near Samakhushi says that he came to Kathmandu for the first
time in search of work with some villagers. His family still lives in Kavreplanchowk
(Panouti/Khopasi) but he left his home a year ago.
He came to Kathmandu expecting a life of comfort and luxury. He had also heard that it is easy
to earn money here. But when he came to Kathmandu he found that the situation was completely
different from what he had heard earlier. The person who had promised him to provide with a
good job left him alone on the street. Due to this reason he had to work as a rag picker to earn his
living. After arriving on the streets, he faced a lot of trouble from bullies and policemen. He says
he smokes cigarettes daily and drinks heavily whenever he has enough money. He is strongly
into glue sniffing. He started this habit 1 year ago and says he usually sniffs with his friends in a
group.
Even though he is well aware of the actual use as well as its adverse effect of the glue, he spends
Rs.100 per day and sniffs 2-5 times a day and wishes to go on sniffing all day if possible. For
him, one trip lasts only for 10 to 15 minutes. After sniffing he becomes very quiet and sober and
starts hallucinating and feeling pleasure. He wants to give up this habit, but when sees someone
sniffing he just cannot resist it and also becomes sick.
According him, street children get into this habit easily because of wide accessibility and also
due to a popular belief among street children that it gives a feeling of euphoria in their language
psycho. He frequently suffers from chest pains, respiratory infection and has also seen his friends
die as a result of addiction to glue sniffing.

Case: 3
“I also started sniffing glue after seeing my friends doing it.
I am boy of 14 years old living on Bhanu’s Kawad near Mahaluxmisthan, Lalitpur. I have a
family in Hariwoun VDC of Sarlahi but I don’t live with them. It has been more than a year since
I left home. Since then I’ve been living on the street. I had to leave my home with my friend
because of domestic violence. After arriving on the streets, I started working in hotels and
restaurants. Being on the street and coming to meet other friends from the streets, I started using
substances like cigarettes and tobacco. Then I slowly got into other drugs. I came to know about
“glue sniffing” from a friend two years ago. I used to see them sniffing from plastic bag. I also
started sniffing glue after seeing my friend do it.

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I have been sniffing for more than 2 years. I use the Indian one with my friends. I earn money
and buy from the shop where I spend more than Rs.100 per week. I sniff 2 – 5 times daily. The
amount I use gives me a trip for an hour. Not only do I feel happy but also I get pleasure from it.
I like the trip that it gives me. After getting the trip I enjoy myself. Sometimes I suffer from
coughing but it gets cured by itself. I know its side effect and have seen the effect on my friend.
By seeing the effects in my friend I want to give it up, but I can’t help it. I don’t see any good
reason for giving up. I always see my problems in front of me. The problems of my life always
haunt me, so to get away from them I have to sniff. There is no other alternative for me besides
sniffing.
Case: 4
“I am now addicted to glue.”
I am a boy of 12 years old and I come from Gorkha district. I came to Kathmandu in search of
work along with my family. I do have a family, but I don’t live with them. I have been on the
streets for 6 months. When I first arrived on the streets, I worked as a 'khalasi’ tempo conductor.
After some time working as a conductor, I could not continue with the late nights and hard work.
I later worked in a teashop as a 'Kanchha' washing dishes and cleaning the place. I am tired of all
this hard work, and right now I don’t work at all. While staying on the streets, I have known a lot
of hardship, but the worst was when I had to go to sleep on an empty stomach and got beaten up
by the ‘dadas’ bullies and policemen.
I know about all kinds of drugs and alcohol but I just take cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana and
dendrite. I first learnt about dendrite from a friend about a year ago. I prefer the Indian brand and
I take it with my friends. Two to three of us share a tube of dendrite, which is about quantity of
20 ml. We spend about Rs 30 every day buying dendrite. I sniff dendrite everyday and it lasts for
at least half an hour. The main reason I sniff dendrite is for a feeling of blissfulness. The other
reason why I use glue is because when I sniff, I tend to forget all my sorrows, including my
hunger. I know the real use of dendrite but I am not aware of its harmful effects.
After sniffing dendrite, I get the urge to do many things I have always wanted to do. One thing I
don't like is that I tend to fight with my friends when I am high. I don’t think I want to quit
sniffing dendrite because I just love sniffing it, I am now addicted to it. I see no reason to quit.
Even if I quit sniffing it, I know I will get into it again sooner or later because to survive on the
streets you need some means of adjusting to the kind of life here.

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CHAPTER V
Discussion
The chapter discusses the implication of the study findings; relate the findings with other
relevant data published by other researchers and also compare the conclusions with the purpose
of study i.e. factors which contribute street children to sniff glue.

1. General characteristics of sample population


Highest percentage of respondents was in age group 13-14 years (59.5 percent) followed by 15-
16 years (26.2 percent) which is differ from CWIN study-2002, in which only 44.1 percent are in
that age group.
Most of the street children were found to be from Brahmin/Chhetri (45.2 percent) followed by
indigenous group (42.9 percent). The indigenous group includes Lama, Rai, Magar, Tamang,
Gurung, and Limbu. The reason might be poverty, family and social conflict and negligence by
parents as most of the adolescent leaving home for domestic violence (40.5 percent) and abuse &
exploitation (19 percent) but one of the study carried by CWIN-2002, found the reasons were
domestic violence (36.4 percent) and peer pressure/ influence (14.4 percent).

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Concerning the education level, children having primary level education comprised 85.7 percent
and illiterate accounted only 9.5 percent but different results were found by CWIN -2002 that 46
percent children were illiterate.
Most of the children came from outside the valley, the means how they came to street children
came to street are different but most of them came due to ran away from home i.e. 52.4 percent
followed by friends (33.3 percent) which is differ from CWIN study-2002, in which 28.8 percent
were ran away from home and 22 percent were with friends.

2. Glue sniffing
A strong influence of friends from the streets has pushed them into the habit of glue sniffing. A
majority of street children said that it was friends on the street (90.5 percent) who are taught
them and which were similar to the CWIN study 2002. About two third (64.2 percent) of the
respondent reported their first experience before reaching ten years and used to sniff glue in
order to survive in cold weather, remove tension and feel relax by sharing the glue ( dendrite)
with friends.
CWIN-2002, found that 60.7 percent street children used to sniff glue. And among daily users
54.1 percent respondents sniffed 2 to 5 times. In my study, all respondents were sniffed glue
daily. And among daily users 71.4 percent were sniffed glue more than 5 times followed by 2 to
5 times (28.6 percent).
CWIN-2002, found that to forget hardship and worries, to take challenge for survival and easy
available were the main reasons for substance abuse. My study finding is also similar that is for
pleasure (71.4 percent) followed by habit (21.4 percent) and coping hunger (14.3 percent).
Similarly, which are differ from CWIN-2002 study findings that was peer influence (77 percent )
followed by pleasurable experience( 14.6 percent).
All the respondents known that glue sniffing is injurious to health. Among them two third
respondents have satisfactory knowledge (66.7 percent) about harmful effects of glue sniffing
followed by good knowledge (23.8 percent) and poor knowledge (9.5 percent). Likewise, 71.4
percent street children are wanted to quit the addiction to become a good person in the society
where as 28.6 percent children are wanted to continue this habit because of to belong to group
member.

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All of the respondents were accepted that street children are easily addicted to glue sniffing due
to various reasons. They are easy availability of glue (81.0 percent) followed by affordable and
high desired (7.1 percent each).

CHAPTER VI
Conclusion
The main explorating fact of the study is that street children in Kathmandu are much vulnerable
to substance use especially glue sniffing. Reason for children choosing to live on the street is
associated with dysfunctional family. This population runs the risk of exposing not only to the
substance use but also they run the risk of physical and psychology stress. They are deprived
children, denied not only of their rights as children but also of their childhood. Without guidance,
education and security they are heading towards an uncertain future. The risk is associated with
negative impact on child socialization process as well as health and well being of such
population. Therefore, combating substance use among such population appears to be
challenging work, which requires understanding the socio-economic as well as cultural context
of using such substance.
In the sample population, most of the respondents run away from home due to poverty, family
and social reason. Because they did not get care from their parents and suffered various forms of
exploitation and abuse.

25
Drug use has become phenomenon among street children since the early 1990s and currently
glues sniffing (dendrite) is fast becoming an addiction among street children in Kathmandu. It
has been seen as ‘debut’ drug for street children, often those who do not even smoke or drink
alcohol, are into sniffing glue. Easy availability of glue in the shop is the main key factor of
addiction.
Glue sniffing among street children should be understood along with the phenomenon of existing
unfair social and labour relations. Combating against such abuses requires ensuring fundamental
rights of children and reducing exploitative forms of child labour in the long run.
In short, there is urgent need to launch social action programme to generate awareness against
glue sniffing among street children if we want to see a safe environment for the future of nation.

Recommendation
• Awareness campaign should be conducted about the harmful effects of glue sniffing
especially on children.
• Anti-drugs programmes such as education campaign should be integrated with child
development programme.
• The shopkeepers should be made aware about ill effects of glue on children and should be
punished for selling such substances to children.
• The government should regulate the production, transportation and consumption of glue.
• Peer educator programme should be launched by involving peer group in order to educate
and inform harmful effects of glue.

26
References
1. Pradhan G, Young Survivor on the Street Working with Street Children in Nepal: An
experience of CWIN, CWIN; 2002.

2. Rai A, Ghimire KP, Shrestha P, et.al. Glue Sniffing Among Street Children in Kathmandu
Valley, CWIN; 2002.

3. Dictionary Labour Law talks (available at http:// encyclopedia.laborlawtalk.com/street


child.) Accessed on 14th April 2008.

4. CWIN, Fact Sheet on Glue Sniffing Among Street Children in Kathmandu, CWIN; 2001.

5. National Planning Commission, Constitution of Nepal;1990

6. Central Bureau of Statistics, National Planning Commission, Kathmandu, Nepal; 2001.

27
7. Pant , Nur Prasad, MPH 5th Batch, Institute of Medicine, Maharajgunj, Adolescent Health

8. Street Children: The Situation in East and Southern Africa and the Need For a Strategic
Global Response ( Available at www. House.gov/international
relations/109/sex091305.pdf. accessed on 13th April, 2008)

9. CWIN, Street Children in Nepal (available at http:// www.cwinnepal.org) accessed on


14th April 2008.

10. Eluvoyage production, web designer, Street children- Latin America. ( http:// street-
children.eduvoyage.com/ )

11. A Study on Street Children in Zimbabwe: Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children and
Adolescent in Zimbabwe( available at http:// www.unicef.org)accessed on 20 April 2008

12. Chen, Xiaojin, Taylor et.al. Early sexual abuse, street diversity and drug use among
female homeless and runaway in Midwest, Journal of Drug Issues; 2004

13. WHO, Working with the street children, a training package on substance use, sexual and
reproductive health including HIV/AIDS and STD, WHO/MSD/MDP/00.14; 2000

14. Hindu online (in) 28/3/2005, Smoking, drinking rampant among street children study, the
Articles- tobacco, ORG, Tobacco news and information.

15. Pagare D, Meena GS, Singh MM, et.al. Risk Factors of Substance Use Among Street
Children from Delhi , Department of Community Medicine, Maulana Azad Medical
College, New Delhi;2003.

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16. Benegal V, KulBhushan, Sheshadri S, et.al. Drug Abuse among Street Children in
Bangalore Project in collaboration between the National Institute of Mental Health and
Neurosciences, Bangalore and the Bangalore Forum for the Street and Working Children

17. Kasirye Rogers, Interface of Substance abuse and Child prostitution intervening the lives
of slums and street children in Kampala Uganda.

18. Xinhaunet, street children a big problem in Nepal, Kathmandu Post; 26/02/2002

Annexes
Questionnaire

Section A
Identification data:

Respondent's ID No.: ………… Date: ………………


…………

Address of Kawad: …………………………..

Section B
1. Age of respondent
a. 10-12 yrs ( ) b. 13-14 yrs ( ) c. 15-16 yrs ( )
2. Ethnicity
a. Brahmin/ Chhetri ( ) b. Indigenous group ( )
c. Dalit ( ) d. Others…………
3. Education of the respondent
a. Illiterate ( ) b. Primary education ( )
c. Secondary education ( )
4. How long have you been on the street?

29
a. 6 months-1 year ( ) b. >1 year ( )
5. How did you come to the streets?
a. With family ( ) b. Run away from home ( )
c. Run away from work ( ) d. With friends ( )
e. With relatives / villages ( ) f. Others……………………
6. Why did you come to the street?
a. Domestic violence ( ) b. Lack of food (
)
c. Seeking employment ( ) d. Deprivation from
education ( )
e. Peer pressure/ influence ( ) f. Abuse &
exploitation ( )
g. Just wandering ( ) h. Other………………
………..
7. How did you know about glue sniffing?
a. Friends from work ( ) b. Friends on the street (
)
c. From adults ( ) d. Others…………………….

8. Do you sniff glue daily?


a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )
8.1If yes, how many times you sniff glue?
a. 1 time ( ) b. 2-5 times ( ) c. >5 times
( )
9. At which age did you first experience glue? ………………year

10. Why did you sniff glue?


a. To cope with tension ( ) b. To cope with hunger
( )
c. To be strong ( ) d. To have enough strength to
fight ( )
e. To belong to group ( ) f. Addicted
( )
g. To get heavenly pleasure ( ) h. Others………………….
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11. How did you become addicted to it?
a. Peer influence ( ) b. Peer pressure
( )
c. For pleasure ( ) d. Others…………..
12. Is glue sniffing harmful for health?
a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )
12.1 If yes, what are the harmful effects?
a. Good knowledge ( ) b. Some knowledge
( )
c. Poor Knowledge ( )
13. Do you want to get rid of this addiction?
a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )
13.1 If yes, why? …………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………. ………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………..……..…
…........................................................................................................................
...........................
13.2 If no, why? ……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………..
14. In your opinion, do the street children get easily addicted to glue sniffing?
a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )

14.1 If yes, why?


a. Affordable ( ) b. Easily available ( )
c. Kind of high desired ( ) d. Enough money on hand ( )
e. Others……………..

Thank You

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