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Ethernet Technology Training

Bhavik Joshi

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Agenda OSI Reference Model and Overview A Brief overview Layer 4 to Layer 7 Ethernet at Physical Layer Layer-1 Ethernet at Data Link Layer Layer-2 Examination

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OSI Reference Model


The OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) model defines layers in a network. Understanding the function of each layer is key in understanding data communication within Local, Metropolitan or Wide networks.

Layer 7 Layer 6 Layer 5 Layer 4


Layer 3 Layer 2

Layer 1

Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical

FTP, Telnet, HTTP, SMTP, DNS

TCP, UDP IP, IPX (Novell), ARP, RARP ATM, Frame Relay, PPP T1, SONET, WDM,

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OSI Vs. TCP/IP Reference Model OSI


Layer 7 Layer 6 Layer 5 Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1

TCP/IP
Application TCP/UDP IP Ethernet Ethernet Phy
Layer 5

Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical


Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1

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Data Encapsulation
Application:Send an email

SMTPEmail contents Application Layer: Email (SMTP)

TCP SMTPEmail contents Transport Layer: TCP TCP SMTPEmail contents Network Layer: IP

IP

MAC

IP

TCP SMTPEmail contents FCS Data Link Layer: Ethernet


Physical Layer: Transmits bit 0s and 1s on the media

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Data De-Encapsulation
Application: Receive an email

SMTPEmail contents Application Layer: Email (SMTP)

TCP SMTPEmail contents Transport Layer: TCP TCP SMTPEmail contents Network Layer: IP

IP

MAC

IP

TCP SMTPEmail contents FCS Data Link Layer: Ethernet


Physical Layer: Transmits bit 0s and 1s on the media

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LANs MANs and WANs

LAN Local Area Network


LANs are widely used to connect computers / workstations in company offices to share resources (e.g., printers) and exchange information in which network are restricted in size.

MAN Metropolitan Area Network


MANs are widely used to connect group of corporate offices which are restricted into region or city. It is basically bigger version of LAN. e.g., city wide regional network

WAN Wide Area Network


WANs are network which connects multiple MAN and LAN in Large Geographical area e.g., country wide national network

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The New Network Architecture

Transport

Business Subscriber

Service Provider

Residential Subscriber

IP

Hard QoS and Traffic Engineering Better bandwidth utilization/Scalability Protection Switching (50ms) OAM functions and TDM Support Any-to-Any VPN services Multicast support with Hard QoS

Carries all applications Internet Access IP VPN service

IP

Source : Metro Ethernet Forum

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Original Ethernet
RG-8 150 Coax-500 meters

UTP

RG-58 50 Coax- 186 (200) meters

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10Mbps Standard
10Base2: Thinwire coaxial cable (50ohm) with a maximum segment length of 200 meters uses BNC Connector 10Base5: Thick coaxial cable (50ohm) with a maximum segment length of 500 meters uses AUI connector 10BaseT: twisted pair wire (CAT5,5e) with a maximum segment length of 100 meters uses RJ45 connector 10BaseF: fiber optic cable with a maximum segment length of 2000 meters uses SC/LC connector

Note: 10BaseT means that it operates at 10Mbps uses baseband signaling on twisted pair.

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100Mbps Standard

100BaseTx: CAT5,5e UTP (unshielded twisted pair) cable covers maximum segment length of 100 meters uses RJ45 connector 100BaseFx MMF: Fiber optic cable covers maximum segment length of 2000 meters on Multimode Fiber (850nm) uses SC/LC connetor 100BaseFx SMF: Fiber optic cable covers maximum segment length of 10,000 meters on Single mode Fiber (1310/1550) uses SC/LC connector

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Gigabit Ethernet
1000BaseSX - Short Haul 275m 1000BaseLX - Long Haul 550m/5000m 1000BaseZX Very Long Haul 80km
All 8 wires used

1000BaseT - RJ45 UTP

Primarily a Backbone/Server technology


Basic Ethernet Technology but FASTER Although half duplex is supported it is not often implemented

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1000Mbps / 1GE Standard


1000BASE-SX (850 nm, MMF) 275m w/62.5um multimode, 550m w/50um multimode 1000BASE-LX (1310 nm, SMF/MMF) 550m w/50 or 62.5 um multimode, 5000m w/10um single-mode 1000BASE-ZX (80km, 1550nm, single mode) 1000BASE-T copper GigE 100m Copper UTP

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Line speeds (Types of Ethernet)

10Base-T
RX TX Pair Pair

100Base-T

100BaseFX

RX TX Pair Pair

GBIC

1 Gbps

10 Gbps

X2 XFP SFF

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Physical Layer Data Transfer

Signals are placed on wire or fiber via transceivers Problem is how to transmit 0s and 1s (signal encoding) in a robust fashion
Binary voltage encoding
Map 1 to high voltage Map 0 to low voltage Clock synchronization problem

How are consecutive 0s or 1s detected at node?

Transmitted signals have a variety of problems


Attenuation Noise Dispersion

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Gigabit Ethernet Physical Layer

Physical Coding Sublayer


Synchronization Transmit
Performs 8b/10b encoding of MAC for physical layer transmission Generates idle when no data received from the MAC layer

Receive
Determines what needs to be sent up to MAC Performs 8b/10b decoding of physical layer data to be sent to MAC

Performs Auto-negotiation

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Gigabit Ethernet Physical Layer


8b/10b Encoding - Each byte from the MAC layer is encoded into a 10-bit code word for physical layer transmission High bit transition density DC Balance Separate code groups for signaling
MAC layer 10110011 Rate = 1.0 Gbps

8b/10b Encoder

Physical layer

0110101100 or 0110100011

Rate = 1.25 Gbps

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8b/10b Encoding & Decoding


Applies to Gigabit Ethernet over Fiber, 1000BaseX Based on Fiber Channel FC-1 Standard Before transmission, each 8-bit byte is translated to a 10-bit code group Ensure sufficient transitions for clock recovery Greatly increases the likelihood of detecting any single or multiple bit errors that may occur during transmission and reception of information. Limits the effective transmission characteristics, such as ratio of 1s to 0s, on the error rate. Code group decoded back to the original data at the receiver

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10Base-T and Hubs


10BaseT low cost RJ45 UTP
4 Port Hub

RX TX Pair Pair

Destination MAC

Source MAC

Layer 1 device Operates in Half Duplex Collisions, retransmissions, and FCS errors are an issue Repeats every received frame out every other outgoing interface

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CSMA/CD

Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Half-Duplex

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CSMA/CD and Collisions

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Collision Domain

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100Base-T and Switches


10BaseT/100BaseT low cost RJ45 UTP
4 Port Switch

100BaseFX MM fiber

RX TX Pair Pair

Destination MAC

Source MAC

Dont repeat signals out all interfaces like a hub Intelligent device which learns where a device exists on the network Reads frames which pass through it Create a MAC address table Connects different speed devices Full duplex, and no collisions

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Switching functions, and MAC address learning


Typically functions in Full-Duplex therefore can eliminate Collisions

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Access Ports vs. Trunk Ports

Non Tagged Frames

Access ports

Non Tagged Frames

Access ports

Trunk Ports Access ports

Non Tagged Frames

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Bridging Loops
Switch 1

Switch 2

Switch 3

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Spanning Tree ( STP )


Switch 1

Blocked

Switch 2

Switch 3

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Routers vs Switches
Router

WAN

Router

A Router creates and separates networks A Router contains the broadcasts with-in the network By using routers a node needs to know only the device on its local network, the router takes care of non-local devices Transmission is based on the destination IP Address Ethernet MAC Addresses have local significance only

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Half Duplex Transmission


CSMA / CD Traffic can be either transmitting or receiving a frame, but it cannot be doing both simultaneously. Collision is possible

SLOW

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Full Duplex Transmission


Simultaneous two way transmission Doubles the Bandwidth Collision Free Transmission

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Auto Negotiation
A process used to establish the link Each end station advertises capabilities to the other Each end station will configure themselves to the highest common denominator of capabilities Key parameters advertised Link Speed: 100Mbps / 10 Mbps Duplex: Half / Full Duplex mode Flow control capabilities After process is completed, link is established and ready to carry frames, IDLE word transmitted continuously on link Both devices must have Auto-negotiation enabled or disabled, otherwise a negotiation mismatch will result and link will not be established

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Auto Negotiation
Speed, Duplex, Flow Control Best common parameters negotiated For proper operation both directly connected devices need to auto negotiate Auto to Auto = Auto Auto to Manual = Half-Duplex on the auto side and manual setting on the manual set side Manual to Manual = Manual

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Testing for Auto Negotiation


If the test set is configured for auto-negotiation and connected to an autonegotiating interface it will show what the capabilities are of the link partner If the test set is configured for auto-negotiation and connected to a non-auto negotiating link partner it will display a message indicating that it is not receiving auto-negotiation messages This allows you to determine if the link partner is configured for auto-negotiation, and what its capabilities are Or determine if the link partner is not configured for auto-negotiation If the test set is configured for auto-negotiation and the test set displays that it has configured itself for half-duplex this may be the result of a duplex mismatch from an auto-negotiating to non auto-negotiating link It is important to know if the link partner is auto-negotiating or not and if not to be configured to match the manual configuration to obtain valid test results

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Flow Control
Used in Full Duplex mode only. A mechanism used to control network congestion and prevent traffic from being dropped If Receiver Station is congested it sends a PAUSE frame to the link partner and link partner will stop data transmission for a short time Flow control can be enabled or disabled
If Flow control is disabled and congestion occurs frames will be lost

PAUSE Frames
Uses a defined MAC control frame format Exclusive MAC address, L/T identifier Contains a time field that defines PAUSE time Receipt of a PAUSE frame causes device to cease transmission for PAUSE time

Station congested sends PAUSE frame

Station waits before resuming transmission

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Flow Control

100 Mbps

2 8

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Test with Flow Control

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Ethernet at Data Link Layer Layer 2

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Ethernet Frame Format


Preamble (7) SFD (1) DA (6) SA (6) L/T (2) Data (46-1500) FCS (4)

Same frame regardless of rate (10/100/Gigabit/10GigE LAN) Variable Frame Size must have integer number of bytes 64 - 1518 bytes excluding Preamble and SFD Note: Undersized frames (less than 64 bytes) are considered errored Oversized frames Jumbos (larger than 1518 bytes or 1522 with VLAN) are considered valid

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Ethernet Media Access Control (MAC)

Preamble (7) SFD (1) DA (6) SA (6) L/T (2) Data (46-1500) FCS (4)

Preamble Allows physical layer to detect carrier and acquire sync (7 bytes of alternating 1s and 0s) SFD - Start of Frame Delimiter Identifies the beginning of a frame (1 byte - 10101011)

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Ethernet Media Access Control (MAC) Ethernet Frame Fields


Preamble (7) SFD (1) DA (6) SA (6) L/T (2) Data (46-1500) FCS (4)

Addresses DA - Destination Address SA - Source Address Addresses have the following format - 00-80-C7-11-2D29 Each source address is unique First 3 bytes identify manufacturer, assigned by IEEE. Last 3 bytes are user value Length/Type Field use depends on frame type 802.3 frame - indicates length of data field (<=1500) Ethernet Type II (DIX) frame - indicates type of frame data (>=1536)

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The Ethernet Frame

Preamble (7) SFD (1) DA (6) SA (6) L/T (2) Data (46-1500) FCS (4)

Fields used for FCS calc

Data The payload FCS - Frame Check Sequence A 32 bit cyclic redundancy check performed on the frame for error detection. Frames with CRC errors are discarded at receiving station

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Frame Types
Unicast Frame Frame which is destined to a single destination Broadcast Frame Frame which is destined to all the destination on the network Destination MAC Address: FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF Broadcast traffic can be very polluting because all the stations on the network receive it and process it Multicast Frame Frame which is destined to a group of destinations Destination MAC address: 01-00-5E-xx-xx-xx More efficient than broadcast traffic Pause Flow control frame is a multicast frame

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Unicast

Unicast: Frames are sent from one device to only one other device. The destination address contains the MAC address of the destination

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Multicast
Multicast: Frames are sent from one device to many other devices which are part of the multicast group The destination address contains a multicast group address

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Broadcast
Broadcast: Frames are sent from one device to all other devices in the broadcast domain. The destination address is the Ethernet broadcast address of FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF

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Ethernet layers 2 and 1 with IPG and IFS

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SNAP, LLC, MAC

SNAP

L2c
OSI L2b Data Link Layer

SNAP LLC

LLC

Logical Link Control 802.2


Logical IEEE 802.3

L2a
IEEE 802.3

MAC PHY FDDI PMD

Ethernet v2

OSI Physical Layer

802.3 CSMA/ CD

802.5 802.11 Token WireRing less

Physical

Ethernet v2

PMD = Physical Medium Dependent PHY = Physical Layer Protocol MAC = Media Access Control LLC = Logical Link Control

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IPG and IFS


The Physical Layer rate 125 Mbps incase of 100M Ethernet Port and 1250Mbps incase of 1 GigE port. IPG = Idle time between the transmission of 2 consecutive frames. IPG is at least 12bytes. Minimum allowed IPG is 96 bit time: 96 nanoseconds at Gigabit Ethernet rate (1000BX) 0.96 microseconds at Fast Ethernet rate (100BT) 9.6 microseconds at Ethernet (10BT) If frames are transmitted with minimum IPG the traffic is transmitted at maximum rate IFS : InterFrame Spacing is at least 20 bytes which includes IPG, Preamble and SFD

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Frame Rate
Ethernet Frame Data size = 64 to 1518 bytes = 512 to 12144 bits Overhead = 7 bytes (Preamble) + 1 byte (SFD) + 96 bits (IPG) = 160 bits Frame rate = Max data rate / (Data size + Overhead)
If max data rate is 1 Gbps (1000B-X) and data size is 64 bytes: Frame rate = 1,488,095 Fps If max data rate is 100 Mbps (100B-T) and data size is 64 bytes: Frame rate = 148,809 Fps If max data rate is 10 Mbps (10B-T) and data size is 64 bytes: Frame rate = 14,880 Fps

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Frame Rate and Efficiency If we take the example of Gigabit Ethernet we see that efficiency increases with the frame length It also applies to 10BaseT and 100BaseTX
Data size Overhead per frame Frames per second
1,488,095 844,594 234,962
119,731

Total bits lost (overhead)

Percentage of bandwidth lost

64 Bytes (512 bits) 128 Bytes (1024 bits) 512 Bytes (4096 bits)
1024 Bytes (8192 bits)

160 bits 160 bits 160 bits


160 bits

238,095,238 23 % 135,135,135 13 % 37,593,984 3.7 %


19,157,088 1.9 %

1518 Bytes (12144 bits)

160 bits

81,274

13,003,901 1.3 %

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Jumbo & Oversized Frames


Data field beyond 1518 bytes up to 65535 bytes (vendor dependent) 1518 bytes frame
98.7 % Efficiency

9018 data bytes


99.97% Efficiency

Why Jumbo then?


Increase efficiency Decrease CPU time

FCS becomes less efficient for frames above 12000 bytes

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Runts and Undersized Frames


RUNT: A frame that is greater than 2 bytes and less than 64 bytes, it has an SFD and a bad FCS (CRC error). Generally fragments are caused by collisions, but may be caused by faulty network equipment (e.g. network adapters, hubs, etc.) Fragments are everyday occurrences on moderately to heavily utilized networks.
Undersize frame: The frame which frame size is less than 64 bytes but there is no FCS Error.

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VLAN Virtual Local Area Netwok

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VLANs

VLAN 1 Broadcast Domain

VLAN 2
Broadcast Domain

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VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network)

Preamble (7) SFD (1)

DA (6)

SA (6) VLAN (4) L/T (2) Data (46-1500) FCS (4)

TPI Priority CFI VLAN ID 16-bits 3-bits 1-bit 12-bits

4 byte VLAN Specified in IEEE 802.1q/p Developed to segment LANs and add traffic differentiation Extends Ethernet frame size from 1518 to 1522 bytes Contains 4 fields

Tag Protocol Identifier (fixed at hex 81-00 for Ethernet) Frame Priority Settings (000 through 111) Canonical Frame Identifier (used only in Token Ring) VLAN ID (specifies the VLAN group ID)

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Port Based Vlans


Vlan 1 Vlan 2 Vlan 3

Vlan 1

Vlan 2

Vlan 3

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Tagged Based Vlans


Vlan 1 Vlan 2 Vlan 3

Vlan 2

Vlan 1

Vlan 1

Vlan 3

Vlan 2

Vlan 3

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VLANs

Switches can be part of multiple Vlans

Vlans can transcend into different switches in different locations

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VLan, Access, and Trunk Links

Access

Trunk

No Vlan Option Required

Use The Vlan Option

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Why would a provider use VLAN?


Over-subscription for tiered service Prioritize traffic ensure low priority is

dropped during periods of congestion


If bandwidth on Service B spikes to

1 Gigabit trunk

800 Mbps, only 200 Mbps of Service A traffic will pass, the rest is discarded
Ethernet Access Device

A=20% B=80% Service A Service B

600 Mbps Service 800 Mbps Service Low Priority Traffic High Priority Traffic

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Traditional 802.1Q

Untagged Ethernet Frame


Destination Address Source Address EtherType Upper-Layer Protocol Data FCS

Tag Insertion

Tagged Ethernet Frame


Destination Address Source Address

802.1Q Tag
TPID CoS Priority
C F I

VLAN ID

EtherType

Upper-Layer Protocol Data

FCS

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802.1Q Case Study

Switch

Switch Dot1Q Trunk VLAN 10

Physical

VLAN 10

VLAN 20

VLAN 20

VLAN 10

Logical
VLAN 20

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Anatomy of the 802.1Q Tag

Ethernet Frame
Destination Address Source Address

802.1Q Tag
TPID CoS Priority
C F I

VLAN ID

EtherType

Upper-Layer Protocol Data

FCS

The Q-Tag contains:


16-bit Tag Protocol Identifier (TPID), EtherType 0x8100 3-bit Layer-2 Class-of-Service Priority Field (Values 0-7) 1-bit Canonical Format Identifier (CFI) used for Token Ring & FDDI 802.1Q, normally set to zero 12-bit VLAN Identifier (Values 0-4095)

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What if the Customer & Service Provider Use 802.1Q?


Provider Perspective

CE Switch

PE Switch

Service Provider Network w/ 802.1Q

PE Switch

CE Switch

Customer Perspective
Dot1Q Trunk CE Switch CE Switch

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Q-in-Q Tunneling Mechanics (Ingress)

Untagged Ethernet Frame

Tagged Ethernet Frame


802.1Q Tag

Q-in-Q Frame
802.1Q Tag 802.1Q Tag

Service Provider Network CE Switch PE Switch

The Customers Frame with tag (C-Tag) is shifted and a Service Provider tag is inserted The Service Provider uses the S-Tag to switch the frame. Various customer traffic is kept separate by the S-Tag

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Q-in-Q Tunneling Mechanics (Egress)

Q-in-Q Frame
802.1Q Tag 802.1Q Tag

Tagged Ethernet Frame


802.1Q Tag

Untagged Ethernet Frame

Service Provider Network PE Switch CE Switch

The Service Provider S-Tag removed before switching the frame to the customer

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Anatomy of Q-in-Q

Ethernet Frame

802.1Q Service Provider Tag (S-Tag)

802.1Q Customer Tag (C-Tag)

D A

S A

TPID

CoS Priority

D E

VLAN ID

TPID

CoS Priority

C F I

VLAN ID

EtherType

Data

FCS

The TPID identifies the frame as 802.1Q. The S-Tag TPID is vendor proprietary. Some vendors use a unique TPID for the S-Tag to identify the frame as Q-in-Q. The C-Tag TPID is always 0x8100. Some common S-Tag TPID values: 0x9100 0x9200 0x88a8 The Canonical Format Identifier (CFI) has been redefined to be used for Discard Eligible (DE), similar to Frame Relay DE. Set when customer bursts over their Committed Info Rate (CIR) Network discards frames with DE set when congestion is experienced

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Enterprise VLAN
VLAN 100 VLAN 100

VLAN 200

VLAN 200

VLAN 200

TRUNK Voice VLAN 200 Data VLAN 100

TRUNK Voice VLAN 200 Data VLAN 100 VLAN 100

VLAN 100 VLAN 100

VLAN 200 VLAN 200


TRUNK Voice VLAN 200 Data VLAN 100

VLAN 100

VLAN 200

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Metro Ethernet and Vlans

Trunk Link

Trunk Link

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Enterprise / Metro Ethernet ? And VLANs


VLAN 100 VLAN 100

VLAN 200

VLAN 200

VLAN 200

TRUNK VLAN 200 VLAN 100

TRUNK VLAN 200 VLAN 100

VLAN 100

VLAN 100 VLAN 100

VLAN 200 VLAN 200 TRUNK VLAN 200 VLAN 100 VLAN 200

VLAN 100

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Testing with Vlans


Tagged Ports

1 2 Non Tagged Ports 3 2 TRUNK

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Provider Environment VLANS - 802.1Q in 802.1Q ( VLAN Stacking)


Standard Ethernet Frame

Preamble

Source Length / SFD Destination MAC Address MAC Address Type

Data

FCS

Ethernet Frame with Vlan Tag


Preamble Source SFD Destination MAC Address MAC Address

Etype and 802.1Q TAG

Length / Type

Data

FCS

Ethernet Frame with 802.1Q in 802.1Q Provider Tag


Preamble Source SFD Destination MAC Address MAC Address

Etype and 802.1Q TAG

Etype and 802.1Q TAG

Length / Type

Data

FCS

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Priority and Priority Queues


Manufactures have different defaults Defaults can be changed A high priority on one device might be a lower priority on another device It is recommended to use prioritization instead of flow control to control the flow of traffic Switch Brand A Switch Brand B Queues 1 2 0-1 2-3 Priority 1 2 Queues Priority 0-2 3-4

3
4

4-5
6-7

3
4

5-6
7

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Class of Service (CoS)


CoS 5 CoS 3 CoS 2 CoS 2 CoS 5 CoS 3

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Ethernet Vs. SDH

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SDH/Ethernet Comparison
Layer 1 - SDH Ethernet L1 & L2

Application Presentation Session Transport IP ATM SDH Network Datalink Physical

Application Presentation Session Transport Network Datalink Physical IP Ethernet Ethernet

OSI Layer Model

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SDH/Ethernet Comparison

SDH Designed for voice traffic


Synchronous

Ethernet Designed for data traffic


Asynchronous

OC-12 RING

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SDH/Ethernet Comparison
SDH Designed for voice traffic
Fixed frame size

Ethernet Designed for data traffic


Variable Frame size

SDH

Ethernet

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SDH/Ethernet Comparison
SDH Designed for voice traffic
Constant bit rate

Ethernet Designed for data traffic


Bursty traffic

Bit Rate SDH Ethernet time

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Ethernet Services

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Metro Ethernet
End User Service Provider End User

Demarcation Point Customer Device 3550 7609

Demarcation Point

7609

7609

7609
Edge 7609 7609 Access

Access

Edge

Customer Device

Core
3550

LAN

Switched based Architecture Uses VLAN for the switching in the network Major Players Cisco 6509/7609/15454 Nortel - 8600

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L1 Metro Ethernet Services


Customer Ethernet Switches SONET / SDH Ring

Providers Switch

Providers Switch

Providers Switch

Transparent Frame in Frame out service with no MAC awareness Provider Switches configured to map between Switches and Ports Customer switches learns addresses

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L2 Metro Ethernet Services


Customer Ethernet Switches SONET / SDH Ring

Providers Switch

Providers Switch

Providers Switch

Bandwidth available at less than 1Gig or 100Meg rates Provider Switches auto-learn every local MAC Address Each packet directed to appropriate destination Switch / port Provider Switches exchange MAC location information

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Common Ethernet Offerings


Single 1G pipes (DWDM) Multiple 1G pipes (DWDM) Multiple 1G pipes (CWDM) Ethernet over SDH Virtual Private Line Ethernet Fibre Channel (1G and 2G) 10G Ethernet

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Private Line Service (1G) (CWDM)

Point to Point Optical Network

Location B

Central Office
Location A

Point to Point 1 GigE pipe only Physical Layer Only No frame aware devices in circuit path (L1)

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Testing Private Line Service (1G) (CWDM)

Point to Point Optical Network


FST-2802
Location A

Location B

Central Office

Generate Traffic at customer premise Loopback at CO can be done by 2802 or hard loop

FST-2802

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Private Line Service (2G+) (CWDM)

Location A

CWDM Optical Network

Central Office
Handoff

Location B

Point to Point Multiple GigE pipes in one location (2-4) Physical Layer only (L1)

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Private Line Service (2G+) (CWDM)

Location A

CWDM Optical Network

Hard Loop

Location B

or
Central Office

Generate traffic between customer premises or to central office Loopback at CO can be done by 2802 or hard loop Multiple 1Gig pipes must be tested at multiple locations

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Ethernet over SDH (Private Line) -Fractional 1G Transport Service

Customer GigE Switch

SDH Link
Ethernet Link A
Cisco 15454

Ethernet Link B

SDH Ring OC-48 or OC-192

Getting more complex point to point or switched 10/100 and Gigabit interfaces Not always a full Gigabit configurable bandwidth in STS increments Flow control may be enabled

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Testing Ethernet over SDH

Loopback Mode

SDH Link

Ethernet Link A SDH Ring OC-48 or OC-192

Ethernet Link B

Hard loop generally no longer certainty Depends on network element (L1 or L2) 2802 generates traffic at customer premise, 2802 in loops traffic back 2310/2510A is used to troubleshoot SDH ring

location B

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Virtual Private Line Ethernet

Demarcation Point
CPE

Demarcation Point 7609 7609 3550


Access CPE

3550 10/100 Ethernet


Access

7609
Edge

7609
Edge

Gigabit Ethernet

7609
Core

7609

Gigabit Ethernet

10/100 Ethernet

Most Complex Switched service (L2 device) VLANs are utilized 10Mb, 50Mb, 100Mb, 200Mb, 500Mb, or 1000Mb links Link Partner is near end NE instead of far end test set

MPLS

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Single Ended Turn-Up

Demarcation Point 7609 7609

Demarcation Point

3550 Customer Device Access


GigE

7609 Edge 7609


Core

7609

3550

Edge 7609

Access

Loopback Mode Testing Center

or

Single tech is dispatched to customer site Test is controlled through the Test Center Test Center sends traffic Traffic is returned via loop back at customer site or tested head-to-head

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Fibre Channel (uncommon)

Location A

CWDM Optical Network


Location B

Central Office
Handoff

Transmits Fibre Channel over CWDM circuit Used for Storage Area Networks True QoS guarantee Same as Private Line Ethernet, just different protocol

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10G Ethernet (future)

Location A

Alcatel/Cisco

10GigE Optical Network


Central Office
Location B

Handoff

10 GigE using Optical Transport Used both as Transport and for Customer Sites Test similar to 1G Ethernet

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Ethernet Testing Methodologies

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Testing Methods
Out of Service Test
Layer 1 Loopback Layer 2 Loopback End to End Testing Round Trip Delay

In-Service Test - Bidirectional Monitoring


- Monitoring in Through Mode - Monitoring with Splitter / Tap port - Monitoring on Mirrored port

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Layer 1 Loopback
Out of service testing
Near-end Far-end
Access Element/ Ethernet Device Access Element/ Ethernet Device

Loopback testing: Hard-wire Loopback (Layer 1) (non-switched networks)

LOS ACTIVE
STATUS

LOS ACTIVE
STATUS

TX

TX

FST-2802
RX RX

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End to End testing


Out of service testing

Specify the far-end Test Pad's source address as the destination address for the first TestPad and vice versa Source address for the TestPad can be found under the Summary tab

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End to End testing


Out of service testing End-to-end testing Select Traffic and specify the traffic load type If 1G Ethernet: select Laser Off to turn laser on Select Start Traffic on both TestPads View and verify results

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Loopback Testing
Out of service testing
Near-end Far-end

(Switched networks) Manual Loopback:


LOS
ACTIVE

LOS
ACTIVE

STATUS

STATUS

TX

TX

FST-2802 (Data Source)


RX RX

FST-2802 (Unit reverses source and destination MAC addresses)

Far-end device:

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Loopback Testing
Out of service testing (Switched networks) Automatic Loopback: On transmitting TestPad select Loop Up to put receiving TestPad in loopback mode Select Start Traffic Verify results When test is complete, select Loop Down

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Round Trip Delay


Out of service testing

Setup and configure a Loopback test Define a profile with an Acterna payload If 1G, turn laser on Start traffic Verify on Results Panes the following Link Stats:
Delay, Max (s) Delay, Min (s) Delay, Avg (s)

TIMESTAMP

TIMESTAMP

TIMESTAMP

TIMESTAMP

TIMESTAMP

TIMESTAMP

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Testing Bi-directional Monitoring


Sit on a link and monitor traffic in both directions Filter on customer traffic or watch link for errors Requires a dual port 2802

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Test Access Points- In-line


CE

FST-2802

Customer Edge

Provider Edge
PE

WAN

Through modeIn-line
FST-2802
PE PE

Through modeIn-line

CE
CE

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Test Access Points- Splitter- Optical Tap

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Test Access Points- Mirrored Port

Mirror Port

MirrorED Ports

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Q&A

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