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Good Question

Good Answer
Ven. S. Dhammika

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aAm"dokc y&[dwausmif;wdkuf
Bodhisukha Parahita Kyaung,
Young Buddhist Student Literacy Mission
Kathor, P.O. Badu-700128,
P.S. Barasat, 24 Parganas (N)
West Bengal, INDIA.
Tel & Fax # 0091-33-25263417
E-mail # ndbatha@gmail.com

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1? Ak'<0g'qdkwm bmvJ
2? tajccH Ak'<0g'
3? zefqif;&Sif t,ltqESifh Ak'<0g'
4? ig;yg;oDv
5? wrvGef
6? urRmef;bm0em
7? u&k%mESifh ynm
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10? Ak'<bmom0ifaumif;wpfOD;

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Contents

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Preface to Revised Edition


What is Buddhism
Basic Buddhist Concepts
Buddhism and the God-idea
The Five Precepts
Rebirth
Meditation
Wisdom and Compassion
Vegetarianinsm
Good Luck and Fate
Becoming a Buddhist

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q&mawmf. Encounters of Buddhism, Buddha Vcana,
Gemstones of the Good Dhamma ESifh All About Buddhism
ponfh pmtkyfrsm;tjyif Middle Land Middle Way - A Pilgrims'
Guide to the Buddha's India pmtkyfqdkv#if tdENd,ESifh eDaygEdkifiHrsm;&Sd
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Good Question Good Answer

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Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

jcif;jzifh wnfaqmufonf? xdk@a=umifh ody`Hod opPmonf wpfqifhcH


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aom b0ay;tajctaetrsKd;rsKd;rS ay:xGufvmonfh pdwf"gwfn_d;
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ol wpfOD;tm; pdwfxdef;csKyf&ef ody`Hu oGefoifay;EkdifpGrf;r&Sdyg?
+yD;cJhonfh ESpf 30 - avmufuwnf;u ody`HynmpGrf;yum;jzifh zGH@jzdK;
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r_ESifh tusifhysufr_rsm;xlajymaeqJjzpfonf? Ttcsufu ody`Hjzifh
vludk ydkrdkaumif;rGefol jzpfvmatmif rvkyfEdkifqdkonfh om"uyif

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

jzpfonf? ody`Hynmt& tpGrf;ukef wdk;wufonfh tqifho@dk


a&muf&Sd+yD; ,if;. tusKd;aus;Zl; toD;tyGifhrsm;udkvnf; vlonf
tjynfht0 &,lcHpm;Edkif+yD[k qdkEdkifaomffjim;vnf; tajccHtm;jzifh
twGif;ydkif;Y wpfpkHwpf&m ajymif;vJr_ r&Sdol (vl@AmvmeH) tjzpfudkom
ody`Hu tarGtjzpf csefxm;&pfavonf?
pifppf ody`Honf vl.ra&mifh&JEidk fr_ESifh tacsmifcdkvdkpdwfwdk@
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twGufyg vkkHjcKHa&;udk aqmif&Gufay;&ef vpf[if;onfh ody`H. wm0efrJh
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r_rsKd;udkyif jzpfay:apygonf?
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enf;jzifh rwnfaqmufEdkif/ touf&Sif &yfwnfa&;twGuf ckdifrmonfh
OD;wnfcsufrsm;udk ody`Hu ray;pGrf;Edkifay? pifppf ody`H[lonf obm0
tm;jzifh avmuDudpPoufoufomjzpf+yD; pdwfydkif; +idrf;csrf;vGwfvyf
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jzpfonfh &kyf0g'u &kyfydkif;qdkif&m om,mcHpm;r_rsm;xuf jrifhrm;onfh
pdwfydkif;&nfrSef;csufrsm;udk y,fcsonf?
,if;. vufa&G;pif tawG;tjrifESifh qufpyftrSefw&m;rsm;
udk qkyu
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wGif vlcsif;wlygvsuf &kyfydkif; pdwfykdif; t&nftaoG;csif; bma=umifh
uGmjcm;&oenf;qdkonfh ar;cGef;rsKd;u ody`H. tjrifrGJr_atmufwGif
tajzaysmufvsuf &SdaeygvdrfhOD;rnf?
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rltyfaom avmukwW&m pdwfonf tm&kHodtqifhudk ausmfvGef+yD;
qufpyftod pdEmr,e,frSvnf; vGefajrmufonf? qef@usifbuftm;

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

jzifh vl@todpdwfonf pkpnf; &,lxm;+yD;jzpfonfh udk;uG,f,Hk=unfr_/


tawG;tac:/ tEkynm ponfh oufqdkif&m tode,fy,frsm;xJwGif
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ESmt=unf/ v#mt=unfESifh udk,ft=unf"gwfrsm;onf ta=umif;
trsKd;rsKd;a=umifh (xufjruf=unfvifr_) tqifh tvGefedrfhyg;onf?
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udk em;vnf&mwGif uajymif;ujyef jzpf=u&onf? t0dZmudk
xkd;azmuf=unfhjcif; trnf&Sd pmtkyfxJwGif jyifopfynm&Sif eDudkvmpf
atmhzf qkqm (Nicholas of Cusa) u atmufygtwdkif; oHk;oyf
jycJhonf?
tm&kHodr#wGifom tajccHaom u|Efkyfwdk@. armufrmvS
onfh todynm[lor#um; pifppf rodawGa0r_ t0dZmom
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tm&Hkode,fy,f. tjyifzufodk@xGufvsuf (xdk;xGif;odjzifh)
qifjcifoHk;oyfjcif;jzifhom &&SdEdkifayonf?
trSefw&m;um; u|Efkyfwdk@. tjyifydkif; (0dOm%fig;yg;) Y
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rar#mfvifhEdkif/ tvm;wl tm&kHod/ qifjcifodwdk@jzifhvnf;
trSefw&m;udk r&Edkif? prf;oyfavhvmcsuf/ tm&kHod/ qifjcif
od [lonfh Tt&mrsm;tm;vHk;onf todynm A[kow
k
&&Sda&;twGufom taxmuftuly ud&d,mwefqmyvm
rsm; jzpf=uonf? trSefw&m;&&Sda&;twGuf r[kwf=u?
trSefw&m;um; twGif;ydkif; raem0dOm%fY oabmayguf
em;vnfr_rSom vm&rnf jzpfonf? usrf;pmtkyfrsm;onf

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

tawG;udk E_d;qGay;jcif;jzifh todynm A[kow


k udkom
&&SdapEdkifonf? trSefw&m;twGufrl ,if;onf twGif;ydkif;Y
om jzpfwnfvsuf&SdonfhtwGuf oifhrsufv;Hk tpHkudk twGif;
bufodk@ vSnfh&ayvdrfhrnf? xdk@a=umifh todynm A[kokw
&SmazGjcif;ESifh trSefw&m; &SmazGjcif;wdk@um; wjcm;pDom
jzpf=uonf?
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csuf trsKd;rsKd; ay;aumif; ay;=uygvdrfhrnf?
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A[kokw&Sda=umif; rsm;pGm 0ifhum;avh&Sd=uonf? pifppf wu,f
rodolrsm;uom xdkodk@ txifa&mufavh&Sd=u+yD; wu,fodolrsm;u
rl abmifusOf;ajrmif;vGef;aom tode,fy,f. tjzpfudk oabmayguf
onfhtwGuf rod[kyif 0efcHavh&Sd=uonf?
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vuf&mtjzpf pmtkyfwpftkyfa&;om;jyKpkonf? ol@pmtkyfxJwGif
pmay&wemrsm;/ tawG;tjrifrsm; tm;vkH; pkpnf;yg0ifonf[k ol
,lqonfh tqdkygpmtkyfukd ol@uJhodk@yifemrnf}uD;onfh a&;abmfa&;
buf ynm&SifwpfOD;tm; okH;oyfa0zefay;&ef awmif;yef+yD; oGm;jy
onf? TwGif tqdkygyk*~Kv
d fu puULwpf&Gufay:wGif olodwmawGa&m/
rodwmawGa&m tukefa&;csjy&efajymojzifh ynm&Sifq&m}uD;onf
tawG;eufeufjzifh xdkifcsvdkufonf? tcsdefawGom vifhoGm;onfhwikd f

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

olodonfht&m wpfpkHwpfckudkr# a&;Ir&Edkifjzpfaeonf? xdk@aemufwGif


'kwd,tar;udk qufpOf;pm;=unfhonf? TwGifvnf; q&m}uD;onf
olrodaom rnfonfht&mudkr# a&;csEdkifjcif;r&Sday? aemufqkH;wGif
ynm&Sifq&m}uD;onf olodor# tukefvkH;wkd@onf todrSef 0dZm
r[kwfrlI rodr_ t0dZmomjzpfa=umif; oabmaygufvmojzifh rme
us+yD; vufajrSmuft&_H;ay;oGm;onf?
TtcsufESifh ywfoufI a&S;acwf atoifjrdK@awmf.
tausmftarmf tbd"rRmq&m}uD; aqmhc&wWdtm; olodwmbmvJ[k
ar;onfhtcg aqmhc&wWdu igodwm wpfckyJ&Sdw,f/ tJ'gu ig[m
bmrSrodbl; qdkwmygyJ[lI ajzqdkcJhavonf?
ody`He,fvGef Ak'<bmom? ? Ak'<0g'onf ody`Hqdkif&m pdwfe,fy,fu
owfrSwfcsufxuf ydkrdkus,f0ef;onfh todynme,f&Sdjcif;a=umifh
acwfopfofdy`Hxuf omvGefonf? tm&kHodjzifh &onfhynmudka&m/
pdwfydkif;ysK;d axmifr_jzifh &onfh ynmudkyg Ak'< 0g'u vufcHonf?
tjyif;txef pl;pdkuf xm;tyfonfh pdwfudk avhusifh yGm;rsm;ay;jcif;jzifh
avmukwW&m tawG@t}uHKrsm;udk odjrifem;vnf qifjcifwwfvm
onf? TuJhokd@aom odjrifem;vnf qifjcifEdkifpGrf;rsKd;udk prf;oyf zef
yefjzifh prf;oyfIjzpfap/ t%k=unfh rSefajymif;jzifh =unfh&_Ijzpfap
r&Edkifay?
ody`Hu &SmazGawG@&Sdonfh trSefw&m;onf qifhyGm;trSef
w&m; (ynwf) jzpfI ajymif;vJEdkifonf? Ak'<ukd,fawmfwdkif &SmazG
awG@&SdcJhonfh trSefw&m;um; aemufqkH;tqifhjzpfI rajymif;vJEdkif?
tuif;rJhopPmac: y&rwtrSefw&m;jzpfI umvESifh tmumowdk@udk
vdkufIvnf; ajymif;vJjcif;r&Sdawmhay? xdk@jyifvnf; odyH`. a&G;cs,f
trSefw&m;ESifh Ak'<0g' rwlnDykHrSm - Ak'<u 0g'a&;&mudk jzpfap/ ody`H

10

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

awG@&Sdcsufukjd zpfap/ wpfjcm; t&mwpfckckudk jzpfap/ rnfonfh t&mudk


rqdk w&m;ao zufwG,frxm;=uzdk@&efom a[m=um;awmfrlonf?
oabmw&m;rsm;. aemufudk vdkufaernfhtpm; tm&kHcHpm;
r_rsm;udk uif;+idrf;apvsuf/ avmbw%Smudk avsmhcs/ y,fpGef@vsuf
tjypfrJhaom vltjzpfjzifh rnfodk@rnfykH rSefuefpGm usifho;kH aexdkifoGm;
&rnf qdkonfudkom Ak'<u OD;pm;ay;I a[mn$efawmfrlcJhygonf?
Tod@k v#if b0. t"dy`g,ftppftrSefudk &SmazGawG@&SdEdkifayonf ?
Ak'<w&m;awmft& vufawG@usifhokH;r_onf txl;yif ta&;
ygvSonf? avhvmoif,lr_ (y&d,wWd) udkom rsm;pGmaqmif+yD;/ vuf
awG@usifhokH;r_ (ydywWd) udk vkH;0a&Smifolonf [if;wpfcGufpmr# vuf
awG@csufjyKwfr_ r&SdbJ csufjyKwfenf;usrf;wGJ}uD;xJrS csufenf;rsm;pGmwdk@
udk tvGwf&GwfjyEdkifolESifhwlonf? vufawG@rus pmawG@r#jzifhum;
qmavmifrGwfodyfr_udk ajzazsmufIr&Edkif? vufawG@usifhokH;r_onf
todOm%f tvif;aygufa&;twGuf r&Sdrjzpf ta&;ygonfh a&S;ajy;
vkdtyfcsufjzpfonf? Zif*dk%f;uJhodk@aom Ak'<bmom*dk%f;wpfcsKd@wGif
tusifhudk todxuf OD;pm;ay;xm;=uonf? Tr#txdyif tusifhonf
ta&;ygaomt&mjzpf.?
ody`H. vkyfenf;vkyf[efu tjyifavmubufodk@ OD;wnf
onf? acwfopfody`Hynm&Sifrsm;onf 4if;wdk@. wpfudk,af wmf aumif;
pm;a&;twGuf obm0ywf0ef;usifESifh o[Zmwjzpfa&;udk vspfvsL&_
vsuf obm0w&m;ESifh o,HZmw t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk tjrwfxkwf
cs,fvS,f=uojzifh urBm*d[=f uD; Tr#txdnpfnrf;vm&jcif;jzpfonf?
Ak'<0g'. vkyfenf;vkyf[efu twGif;buf (vl@pdwf/raem0dOm%f) odk@
OD;wnfonf? twGif;pdwfw;kd wuf zGH@+zdK;a&;udkom tm&kHpdkufonf?
tajccHydkif;wGif Ak'<0g'u ae@pOfb0Y }uHK&qkH&onfh jzpf&yftzkHzkH/
tajctaetrsKd;rsKd;wdk@ESifh rnfodk@vdkufavsmnDaxGaexdkif&rnfudk oGef
oifay;onf? tqifhjrifhydkif;wGif pdwf"gwf&ifhusuf wdk;wufa&;

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

11

vufawG@avhusifhr_rsm;jzifh rdrdudk,fudkrdrd atmifEdkifausmfvGefEdkifap&ef


vl.}udK;yrf;r_udk tm;opfavmif;ay;onf?
Ak'<0g'Y y&rwfopPmw&m; jzpfaom edAmefudk udk,fwdkif
xdk;xGif;odjrifa&;odk@ a&S;&_onfh &kyfemrfobm0rsm;udk pl;pkduf&_jrif
EdkifpGrf;aom 0dy\emorm"d ysKd;axmifa&; pHepftjynfhtpkH&Sdayonf?
vufawG@qef+yD; ody`Henf;usaom TpHepfrSm pdwf. yuwdtajctae
ESifh v_yf&Sm;ykHrsm;udk t&Sdudk t&Sdtwdkif; &_jrifokH;oyffjcif;yif jzpfonf?
a,m*Dyk*~Kv
d fonf twGif;pdwfudk owd}uD;pGmjzifh &_rSwf&mwGif
trSm;trSefudk csdefpuf&aomw&m;ol}uD;ESifhwlonfxuf t&Sdudk
t&Sdtwdkif; vufawG@usus avhvmpl;pdkuf&aom ody`Hynm&SifESifh
ydkIwlavonf?
bmom,Ofaus;r_rJh ody`H? ? udk,fusifhw&m;pHrsm; uif;rJhojzifh
vlom;xkwpf&yfvkH;twGuf ody`Honf tE&m,f&Sdaom t&myifjzpf
onf? ae&mwumwGif olrygvsif r+yD;ojzifh bk&ifwpfql ozG,fjzpf
vmonfh puf,E&m;udk ody`Hu wDxGifcJhjcif;jzpfonf? usnfqefESifh
AkH;wdk@um; urBmh uH=urRmudk tqkH;tjzwfay;ydkifcGifh &&Sdxm;=uonfh
tm%m&Sifvlenf;pktwGuf ody`H. vufaqmifrGefrsm; jzpf=uonf?
tpGrf;xufvSonfh nLuvD,m;vufeufrsm;/ tqdyf"gwfaiG@vufeuf
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owfjzwfEdkifa&;twGuf ody`Hynmjzifhyif txl; okawoejyK wDxGif
xkwfvkyfxm;jcif;jzpfonf? vlom;trsm;pktzdk@rSm tqdkygvufeufrsKd;
pkHwdk@udk 4if;wdk@twGufyif okH;pGJ=uvdrfhrnf qdkonfudkrS a&a&vnfvnf
rod&&SmbJ &ifwxdwfxdwfESifh (urBmysufuyfqdk;=uD;udk) iHHhvifhae=u&
onf? ody`Honf vlom;tm; udk,fusifhw&m;vrf;n$efcsuf ray;Edkif
&kHr#ru vl@&rRufrD;v#Hudkyif rD;&Sdef ydkjyif;atmif avmifpmxdk;ay;vsuf
&Sdonf?

12

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

udk,fusifhw&m;rJh ody`Honf ysufpD;jcif; t"dy`g,fudkfomaqmif


+yD; ,if;onf vlom;udk,fwdkif &SmazGawG@&SdcJhonfh raumif;qdk;0g;
aumif}uD; jzpfvmonf? xkfd@xufqdk;onfrSm tqdkyg raumif;qdk;0g;
aumif}uD;u vlxuf tm;oefvmjcif;yifjzpf.f? bmoma&; ,Ofaus;
r_/ udk,fusifhoDv pm&dwWwdk@jzifhom rxdef;csKyfEdkifcJhaomf vlonf
raumif;qddk;0g;. 0g;rsKdpm;aomufjcif;udkcH&rnf? bmoma&;bufu
vrf;nefEdkifr_ r&Sdv#if ody`Hu urBm}uD;ufdk zsufqD;ypf&ef +cdrf;ajcmuf
aeav+yD? wpfck&SdonfrSm - ody`Hu Ak'<bmomuJhodk@aom bmoma&;

rsKd;ESifh ,SOfwGJ (yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf) Edkifrnfqdkygu vlwkd@ &dyf+rKH ajr0okef


udk +idrf;csrf;/ vkH+cKHr_wdk@jzifh aysmf&$ifzG,f twd+yD;onfh od&Da*[m
aecsifhpzG,furBm tjzpf ajymif;vJypfI &Edkifayonf?

&kyfydkif;u wdk;wufvmavav pdwfykdif;u qkwf,kwfav


jzpfaeonf? odk@jzifh ,ae@ urBmhae&m tawmfrsm;rsm;wGif aemufqkH;
ay: &kyfydkif;zGH@+zdK;r_rsm;u emrfydkif;qdkif&m wefzkd;rsm;udk v$rf;rdk;oGm;
=uav+yD? ody`HESifh bmoma&; yl;aygif;&ef ,ckumvrSmavmuf tyl
wjyif; vkdtyfonfh acwfrsKd; rnfonfhtcgurS r&dScJhzl;ay? ody`Henf;
rusonfh bmoma&;u tuef;ESifhwl+yD; bmoma&;rJh ody`Hum;
tusKd;ESifh wlavonf?
Ak'<0g'. pGrf;aqmifEdkiftm;? ? Ak'<0g'Y ynm[lonf olwpfyg;'kuQudk
rdrd'kuQESifhrjcm; oabmxm;Ekdifjcif; (u&k%mw&m;) tay: tajccH
onf? ody`Hynmum; tE&m,fyrf;onfh c&D;qkH; yef;wdkifqDodk@ wpf[kef
xdk; tajy;ESifvsuf&Sdonf? odk@jzpfI Ak'<0g'enf;jzifh acwfopfody`H.
OD;wnf&mvrf;a=umif; rSefuefatmif jyKjyifay;&rnf? TtwGuf Ak'<
"rR. tcef;uonf tvGefta&;yg.? tem*gwfwGif awmufajymif
vmOD;rnfh vl@,Ofaus;r_}uD;wpf&yfudk wnfaqmuf&mwGif ody`Hqdkif&m
okawoeESifh wDxGifr_tydkif;Y pdwfydkif;qdkif&mbufrS OD;aqmif vrf;
nefr_udk Ak'<0g'u ay;pGrf;Edkiftm;&Sdonf? avmavmqnfwGif tvGef

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

13

trif; EdkifvSonfh wDxGifqeff;opfr_rsm;. u|efyr_udk cH,l&if; ar#mfvifh


csufuif;rJhovdkjzpfvmaeonfh ody`Hqdkif&mwkd;wufjzpfay:r_rsm;twGuf
oifhawmfonfh OD;aqmifr_udk Ak'<0g'uay;Edkifonf?
tmvfbmwf tdkifpwdkif;u Ak'<bmomtm; *k%fjyKajymqdk
&mwGif acwfopfody`H. vdktyfcsufrsm;udk jznfhqnf;ay;Edkifonfh
wpfckwnf;aom bmomw&m;rSm Ak'<bmomyif jzpf&rnf [k
qdkcJhonf? aemufqkH;ay: ody`HawG@&Sdr_rsm;ESifh tH0ifcGifusjzpfap&ef
twGuf Ak'<0g'tm; rnfonfh jyifqifp&mr# rvkdtyfay? ody`HESihf
ody`He,fvGef tajctae&yfrsm;yg tusKH;0if+yD;jzpfI Ak'<bmomtaejzifh
ody`H. a&S@arSmufY rnfodk@r# tav#mhay;p&m rvdkyg? Ak'<bmomonf
vl.tZwWESifh vl@ywf0ef;usifY odk0Sufudef;atmif;vsuf&SdaeOD;rnfh
pGrf;tifrsm;udk &SmazGazmfxkwf&ef vludktm;ay;tm;ajrSmuf y&if;
bmoma&;ESifh ody`Ht=um;wGif aygif;ul; wHwm;ozG,f jzpfaeay
vdrfhrnf?
tumvdu"rR? ? wpfcsKd@aomt&m0wK odk@r[kwf oabmw&m;
wpfckonf acwfwpfacwftwGif;/ a'owpfck. abmiftwGif;Yom
&Sifoefjzpfwnfwwfonfh oabm&Sdonf? odk@&mwGif rD;zdkacsmifokH;
ypPnf;rsm;teuf qm;. iefaomt&omonf rnfonfha'o/ rnf
onfh umvY rqkdwnfjrJ.? ajymif;vJ ysufjy,foGm;jcif;r&Sday? wpfcsKd@
aom t&mESifh oabmw&m;wdk@onfvnf; qm;.oabm w&m;uJh
odk@yif tcsdef tuef@towf a'oabmifrsm;udk ausmfvGefEdkif =uonf?
w*dk;/ [d;k rm;ESifh &SdwfpyD;,m;wkd@uJhokd@aom q&m}uD;rsm;. vuf&m
wkd@udk vlrsKd;/ umvESifh a'ora&G; cHpm; zwf&_I &Edkifonf? ESpfaygif;
2500 - ausmf =umvm+yD; jzpfonfhwkdif Ak'< a'oemawmfrsm;.
tuif;rJh opPmw&m;awmfrsm;onf vlowW0gwkd@. tusKd;udk xd
a&mufpGm o,fykd;EdkifqJyifjzpfonf? ,ae@acwfvlom;rsm;tm;vkH;awG@
}uKHcHpm;ae=u&onfh qif;&J'kuQ taygif;. ta=umif; &if;Zmpfjrpfudk

14

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

Ak'<onff xdkpOfuwnf;u twdtus axmufjyawmfrlcJh+yD;jzpfonf?


ydpPorkyg'f a'oemawmft& tewW. tjzpfudk rodojzifh
t&m&mudk ig/ igh[mponfjzifh wG,fwm jrwfEdk; pGJvrf;rd=uonfh
twGuf 'kuQpuf0dkif;xJrS u|wfcGifh vGwfcGifh r&Edkif jzpfae=ujcif;
jzpfonf? tu,fIom igh[mtjzpfjfzifh odrf;ydkuf pGJvrf;&atmif
igqdkonfht&mudk,fwdkifu wu,fr&Sda=umif; aumif;pGm oabm
ayguf=urnfqdkygu vlwpfOD;csif;pD. jy\emrsm;rSonf urBmht}uD;
rm;qkH;jy\em&yfrsm;txdudkyg tjynfht0ajz&Sif;Edkif=urnfrSm aocsm
ayonf? twWpGJudk t+yD;owf r[kwo
f nfhwkdif tenf;i,f y,fazsmuf
Edkifv#ifyif rsm;pGm csrf;omcGifh&=urnfjzpf.? Oyrm - ightwGuf/ ighwdkif;
jynf twGuf/ ighbmom/ igh,Ofaus;r_twGufqdkaom txifpGJjzifh
tjzpfonf;pGm wdkufyGJ0ifvsuf &Sd=uonfh ,ae@acwfvlom;rsm;.
&ifxJrS twWpGJudk ,ckxuf tenf;i,f av#mhcsypfvdkufonfESifh vludk
vltjzpf ormorwfuspGm &_jrif vufcHvmEdkif=urnfjzpfygonf?
xdktcg cGJjcm;qufqHr_ae&mwGif wpfajy;nDyrljcif;jzifhtrkef;yGm;r_udk arwWmjzifhtid;taw; tmCmwudk onf;cHcGifv$wfr_jzifhusOf;ajrmif;onfh tjrifrsm;udk oabmxm; }uD;r_jzifhxdyw
f dkuf&ifqdkifr_udk yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_jzifhtpm;xkd; ajymif;vJypf&ef rnfodk@r# cufcJrnf r[kwaf wmhay?
avmavmqnfwGif urBmtESH@ qdk;0g;pGm &ifqdkifae=u&onfh t=urf;
zuf 0g'qdk;. "m;rdkf; jcdrf;ajcmufcHae&csdefrsKd;wGif Ak'<w&m; awmfrsm;.
wefzdk;udk odjrif+yD; azmfxkwfusifho;kH =uygrS pdwfcs&onfh vkkH cHr_
tppftrSefudk &,lEdkif=uygvdrfhrnf? ,ck a'gufwm eaENmbmo jrefrm
jyefqkdvdkufonfh Ak'<"rR aqG;aEG;csufrsm;trnf&Sd Tpmtkyfi,fwGif
Ak'<w&m;awmf. wefzkd;ESifh ywfoufI tjrifus,faprnfhf ar;ajz
aqG;aEG;csufrsm; rsm;pGmyif yg0ifvsuf&Sda=umif; awG@&ygvdrfh rnf?

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

15

vlwpfOD;csif;pD. &ifxJwGif +idrf;csrf;rS wpfurBmvkH;


+idrf;csrf;a&;&rnf? vGefcJhaomESpfaygif; 2500 - ausmfumvu
Ak'<a[mawmfrlcJhonfh
tewW0g'/
arwWm/
u&k%mponfh
avmuvrf;n$ef; w&m;awmfrsm;onf vl&Sdwkdif; vl@jy\em&yfrsm;
&SdaeOD;rnfh aemifvmrnfhacwftqufqufwGifyg xm0&a&S;ajy;
tvif;rD;&_;wefaqmiftjzpf OD;aqmifr_ay;EdkifOD;rnf omjzpfygownf;?

rSDjirf;
Religion in a Scientific Age by Ven. Dr. K. Sri Dhammananda.
Gems of Buddhist Wisdom, Published in 1996 by the Buddhist
Missionary Society, Malaysia.

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;
ar;?

17

? 'Dvdkqdk&if Ak'<0g'[m zDvdkqdkzD (Philosophy)


tawG;tac: wpf&yfr#om jzpfygovm;?

ajz?

Ak'0< g'qdw
k m bmvJ
ar;?
ajz?

? Ak'<0g'qdkwm bmygvdrfh?
? Ak'<duae+yD; Ak'<0g'qdkwJh a0g[m& jzpfvmwmyg? Ak'<d - Edk;
xjcif;vdk@ t"dy`g,f&avawmh Ak'<0g'qdkwm Edk;xjcif;
'\eygyJ? od'<wa*gwrqdkwJh yk*~dKvfudk Ak'<vdk@yJ vlawGu todrsm;
=uw,f? Ak'<[m oufawmf 36 ESpf t&G,frSm oludk,fwdkif Edk;xcJhol
jzpf+yD;awmh 'D Edk;xjcif;'\e (Ak'<0g') qdkwmudk a*gwrAk'<&J@ udk,f
awmfwdkif jzwfoef;vmcJh&wJh b0tawG@t}uHKawGtay:rSm tajccH+yD;
wnfaqmufxm;wmyJ jzpfygw,f? ,cktcg Ak'<0g'&J@ oufwrf;u
ESpfaygif; 2500 ausmfvmyg+yD? wpfurBmvHk; twdkif;twmt& Ak'<
bmom0if OD;a&[mvnf; oef;aygif; 300 ausmfcef@ &Sdaeygw,f?
+yD;cJhwJh ESpf 100 cef@u txdawmh Ak'<bmom[m tm&S'\e tqifh
avmufyJ us,fjyef@EdkifcJhwmyg? tckacwfrSmawmh Oa&myESifh tar&du
wdk@rSmyg tvGefyJ us,fjyef@pGm vdkufpm;vmae=uyg+yD?

? zDvdkqdkzD qdkwm zDvkd (Philo) ESifh qdkzD,m (Sophia) udk aygif;


xm;wmyg? zDvdku arwWmvdk@ t"dy`g,fxGuf+yD; qdkzD,mu
ynmvdk@ teuf&ygw,f? 'ga=umifh zDvdkqdkzD qdkwm ynmESifh ,SOfwJh
arwWm/ 'grSr[kwf arwWmESifh ynmygyJ? t"dy`g,fzGifhykH ESpfrsdK;vHk;u Ak'<
0g'udk tjynfht0azmfnef;Edkifygw,f? Ak'<0g'&J@ oGefoifcsufu &Sif;vif;
wduspGm oabmayguf em;vnfapzdk@twGuf todOm%fynm&J@ tqifh
udk tpGrf;ukef jrSifhwifzdk@ u;pm;&r,f/ owW0gawGtm;vHk;udk rdwfaqG
&if;csmawGvdk oabmxm;Edkifatmif t=uifemw&m;ESifh arwWmw&m;
udk wdk;jrSifhyGm;rsm;ay;&r,fqdkwmyJ jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh Ak'<0g'[m
zDvdkqdkzD qdk&ifvnf; [kwfygw,f? zDvdkqdkzD rnfumrwWr#awmh
r[kwfbl;/ tjrifhrm;qHk; zDvdkqdkzDvdk@yJ qdk&ygvdrfhr,f?
ar;?
ajz?

? Ak'<qdkwm uaum b,folygvJ?


? bDpD 563 ckESpfrSm tdENd,ajrmufykdif;u bk&ihfrsKd;EG,fxJrSm
uav;i,fwpfOD; arG;zGm;oef@pifcJhygw,f? ol[m pnf;pdrf
OpPmawG tv#Hy,f jynfhpkHpGmjzifh Zdrfusus aexkdif}uD;jyif;vmcJh&wmyg?
'gayrJh ol[m aemufykdif;usawmh 'DavmuDpnf;pdrf&dyf+idrfawGESifh vkH+cKH
pdwfcs&r_qkdwmawG[m xm0pOf csrf;ajr@aysmf&$ifr_twGuf tmrcHcsuf
ay;EkdifwJh t&mawGr[kwfbl;qkdwmukd odjrifoabmaygufvmcJhw,f?
ywf0ef;usifrSm olawG@jrif}uKHqkHcJh&wJh qif;&Jidjiif&r_'kuQpkawGuvnf;
ol@ukd tawmfyJwkefv_yfacsmufcsm;apcJhw,f? 'geJ@yJ ol[mb0&J@ +idrf;r_
ta=umif;cHw&m;ukd &SmazGzkd@qkH;jzwfvdkufw,f? touf 29 ESpft&G,f
rSm rdef;rESifhuav;ukd pGef@+yD;awmh tJ'Dacwf&J@ xdyfwef;bmoma&;
acgif;aqmif}uD;awGqDudk enf;cHoif,lzdk@ csOf;uyfcJhw,f? tJ'D q&m
}uD;awGuvnf; ol@ukd zdzdpD;pD; oifjyay;=uygw,f? 'gayrJh tJ'D q&m

18

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

}uD;awGxJrSmukd,fu b0'kuQawG[m bma=umifhjzpfay:vm&w,f/


tJ'D'kuQawGukd b,fvkdvkyf+yD; ausmfv$m;Ekdifrnfqkdwmukd wwfod em;
vnfol wpfa,mufrSryg0if=uygbl;? aemufqkH; ajcmufESpf=umr#
w&m;awGukd tywfwukwf }udK;pm; tm;xkwf+yD;wJhaemufrSmawmh
rodr_arm[awG tm;vHk;udk y,fazsmufEdkifpGrf;wJh ^m%fawmf wpfrsdK;
udk olydkifqdkifvmcJhygw,f? tJ'Duwnf;up+yD; ol@udk Ak'< (Edk;=um;+yD;ol)
vdk@ ac:vm=uawmhwmygyJ? bk&m;tjzpfudk a&muf awmfrl+yD;wJhaemuf
Ak'<[m 45 ESpf=um touf&SifaexdkifawmfrlcJhygw,f? 45 ESpfwm
umvwdkifwdkif olxdk;xGif;odjrifawmfrlcJhwJh opPmw&m;awmfudk owW0g
a0ae,sawGudk a[mnef;accwfawmfrl&if; tdENd,ajrmufydkif; wpfcGif
vHk;udk c&D;a'opm&D vSnfhvnfawmfrlcJhyg w,f?
Ak'<&J@ r[mu&k%mawmfESifh onf;cHr_ cEDw&m;awmfawGu
awmh tHh=o&avmufatmifudk }uD;rm;jrifhjrwfvSygw,f? axmifcsDwJh
vlawGudk wynfhom;orD;awG jzpfvmatmif a[mnefoGefoifawmf
rlcJhygw,f? oufawmf 80 t&G,frSm tdkrif;&ifha&mfr_ESifh emrusef;r_
'kuQawGudk cHpm;awmfrl&ayrJh +idrf;csrf;pGmESifhyJ y&dedAmefpH0ifawmfrlcJh
ygw,f?
ar;?

? rdef;rESifh uav;udk pGef@ypf+yD; awmxGufcJhwm qdkawmh


Ak'<rSm wm0efrJh&m ra&mufaybl;vm;?
ajz?
? Ak'<[m ol@rdom;pkudk tvG,fuav;ESifh pGef@ypf&ufcJhwm
awmh r[kwfygbl;? ol@taeESifh aemufqHk; pGef@cGg rjzpfcifrSm
umv tawmf=um pdk;&drfylyef+yD; qkwfqkwfqdkif;qdkif; jzpfaecJh&wmyg?
'gayrJh ola&G;cs,f qHk;jzwf&rSmu ol[m ol@rdom;pk wpfckwnf;
twGufvm;/ wpfavmuvHk; twGufvm; qdkwmygyJ? ol@&J@ }uD;jrwf
vSwJh r[mu&k%m "gwfcHu wpfavmuvHk;twGuf ol@udk,fol toHk;
cs cHoGm;r,fqdkwJhvrf;udkyJ aemufqHk; a&G;jzpfapcJhygw,f? ol@&J@ tepf
emcH pGef@v$wf &kef;uefcJhr_a=umifhvnf; wpfavmuvkHk; tusKd;rsm;

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

19

aewkef;ygyJ? ('ga=umif)h 'g[m wm0efrJh&m ra&mufwJhtjyif r}uKHpzl;


xl;uJ}uD;jrwfwJh pGef@v$wfr_ (r[my&dpPm*)1yJ jzpfygw,f?
ar;?

? Ak'<[m oufawmf xif&Sm; r&Sdawmhygbl;? y&dedAmef


yoGm;yg+yD/ 'Dawmh b,fvkdvkyf+yD; Ak'<u vlawGukd
tultnDay;EdkifOD;rSmygvJ?
ajz?
? v#yfppf"gwfukd wDxGif az:xkwfcJhwJh zm&ma'; (Faraday)
uG,fvGefcJhyg+yD? ol az:xkwfcJhwJh v#yfppf"gwfuawmh
tusKd;yaewkef;ygyJ? vl;0pfypP&Sm (LuisPasteur) qkd&if a&m*g tawmf
rsm;rsm;twGuf ukxkH;awGukd az:xkwf csrSwfcJhygw,f? ol@&J@ aq;ody`H
awG@&SdcsufawGu toufaygif;rsm;pGmukd u,fwifaeqJygyJ? vD,kdem'kd
'g yifcsD (Leonardo da Vinci) &J@ tEkynm ajrmufvSwJh zefwD;r_awGu
vlawGukd &$ifjrL; wufuwhJ &oawG ay;aewkef;ygyJ? olawmfpifawGESifh
ol&Jaumif;awG[m vGefcJhwJh &mpkESpftawmf=um uwnf;u uG,fvGef
cJh=u+yDjzpfayrJh olwkd@ zefwD;cJh=uwJh vkyf&yfawGESifh atmifjrif jzpfxGef;
r_awGudk rsKd;qufopfawG zwf&_ od&Sd&wJhtcg yckH;ajymif; qufcHzkd@ pdwf
tm;awG xufoefapwkef;ygyJ? tvm;wl Ak'<[m oufawmf xif&Sm;
r&SdawmhayrJh ESpfaygif; 2500-ausmfvm+yD; jzpfonf@wdkif Ak'<&J@ vrf;n$ef
r_awGu vlawGukd tusKd;yqJygyJ? Ak'<&J@ pHerlemawGuvnf; vlawGukd
tm;wufapwkef;ygyJ? Ak'<&J@ E_wfuywfawmfawG[m vlawG&J@ b0awG
ukd tqkd;uae taumif;bufqDokd@ ajymif;vJay;aeqJygyJ? y&dedAmefy

1? orRmoarm"dqkyef tavmif;awmfrsm; vdkufemusifh=uHtm;xkw&f onfh


yg&rDjznfhjcif;qdkif&m pnf;rsOf;}uD;ig;csu/f "ey&dpPm* - pGef@EdkifcJvpS Gmaom
rif;pnf;pdrf/ &wem qif;jrif;ponfwdk@udk pGef@jcif;/ t*Fy&dpPm* - ajcvufpaom
udk,ft*gFtpdwftydkif;wdk@ukd pGef@jcif;/ ykwWy&dpPm* - om;orD;wdk@ukd pGef@jcif;/
b&d,y&dpPm* - r,m;udk pGef@jcif;/ ZD0dw y&dpPm* - rdrdtoufudk pGef@jcif;?

20

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

awmfrl+yD;aemuf &mpkESpfawGESifhcs+D yD; ol@&J@ t&Sdeft0gudk trsm;qkH;


&kdufcwfay;EkdifpGrf; oluawmhjzifh Ak'<yJjzpfygw,f?
ar;?
ajz?

? Ak'<uaum zefqif;&Sif (God) wpfqljzpfygovm;?


? Ak'<[m zefqif;&Sif wpfql r[kwfygbl;? ol[m zefqif;&Sif
wpfql jzpfa=umif; b,fwkef;urS rdef@jrGufawmf rlcJhwm
r&Sdovdk zefqif;&Sif&J@ om;awmfwpfyg;/ 'grSr[kwf wrefawmf wpfyg;
jzpfw,fvdk@vnf; b,fwkef;urS ra[mcJhygbl;? Ak'<[m ol@[mESifhol
jynfhpHk +yD;ajrmufol jzpf+yD;awmh olnef;jywJh enf;vrf;twdkif; vdkufem
usifho;Hk rnfqdk&if vlom;[m tzufzufrSjynfhpHkol tjzpfudk a&muf&Sd
Edkifw,fvdk@yJ a[mawmfrlcJhygw,f?
ar;?

? Ak'<[m zefqif;&Sif r[kwfcJhvdk@&Sd&if vlawGu bma=umifh


Ak'<udk udk;uG,f qnf;uyfae=uwmygvdrfh?1
ajz?
? udk;uG,fr_qdkif&m yHkpH enf;emawGuawmh trsKd;rsKd;ygyJ?
wpfpHkwpfa,muf[m zefqif;&Sifudk udk;uG,fylaZmf&mrSm
olwdk@&J@ csD;usL;oHudk zefqif;&Sifbk&m; =um;odvdrfhr,f/ tvSL0wKawG
udkvnf; vufcH+yD;awmh awmif;wJh qkudkvnf; jznfhqnf;ay;rSmyJqdkwJh
,Hk=unfcsufESifh tJ'Dzefqif;&Sif bk&m;/ bk&m;rudk csD;usL;w,f/ *k%fy
w,f/ vSL'gef;w,f/ qkawmif; ywWemy=uw,f? Ak'<bmom0ifawG
tzdk@rSmawmh tJ'Dvdk ylaZmf udk;uG,fr_rsKd;udk vkyfavhvkyfx r&Sd=uygbl;?
ylaZmfyHk aemufwpfenf;uawmh tjrwfwEdk; w&kdwaoxm;
tyfwJh wpfpHkwpfa,muf/ 'grSr[kwf wpfpHkwpf&mudk &dkaow,f
qdkwmudk jyovdkwJh tajctaersdK;rSmygyJ? qdkygawmh - pmoifcef;xJ

1? zefqif;&Sifudkom udk;uG,f qnf;uyfxku


d fonf/ vl vlcsif; udk;uG,f
qnf;uyfp&mrvdk[k qdkvkdonf?

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

21

q&m 0ifa&mufvmwJhtcg x&yf=uw,f/ vl}uD;vlaumif; wpf


a,mufESifh qHkwJhtcg vufqJGE_wfquf=uw,f/ trsdK;om; oDjcif;udk
wD;r_wfoDqdkwJh tcg tav;y=uw,f? 'gawG tm;vHk;[m av;pm;r_/
ylaZmfor_ ya=umif;jywJh trlt&mawGyJ jzpf+yD;awmh/ tJ'D wpfpHkwpfOD;/
wpfpHkwpf&m twGuf &dkaoav;pm;a=umif; az:nef;csuf jzpfovdk Ak'<
bmom0ifawG vkyfaqmifavh &SdwJh ylaZmfyHk enf;emvnf;yJ jzpfygw,f?
El;tdwJh ajczrdk;awmfay:rSm vufawmfukd ajzav#mhcs+yD; r[m
u&k%mawmft+yHK;udk aqmifawmfrlxm;wJh wifyvifacG Ak'<&kyfyGm;
awmf wpfql[m vlawG&J@ &ifxJrSm +idrf;csrf;r_ESifh arwWmyGm;rsm;=uzdk@
E_d;aqmfaeovdkygyJ? tar$;wdkif&J@ &eH@u oDv*k%fudk trSwf&apovdk
qDrD;&J@ tvif;u ynm&J@ *k%fyk'fudk az:aqmifaeygw,f? r=umcif
av;rSmyJ nSKd;ajcmuf EGrf;zwfoGm;=urJh yef;uav;awGuawmh wnf+rJ
cdkifrmr_ r&SdwJh oabmudk tm&Hk a&mufapygw,f? Ak'<udk &Sdcdk;ylaZmfwJh
tcdkuftwef@rSm a'oemawmfawGudk a[mn$efvrf;jyay;r_ twGuf
rdrdwdk@tay: wif&SdwJh Ak'<&J@ aus;Zl;awmf teEWawGudk tm&Hk,l ylaZmf
=uygw,f? 'g[m Ak'<bmomawG jyKvkyfwJh udk;uG,fylaZmfr_ oabm
w&m;yJ jzpfygw,f?
ar;?

? vlawGajymwm =um;zl;ygw,f? Ak'<bmom0ifawG[m


qif;wk (Idols) awGudk udk;uG,f=uw,f qdkygvm;?
ajz?
? 'DvdkrsKd; tajymawG qdkwmuawmh tJ'D pum;ajymwJh
yk*~dKvfawG&J@ a&vdkufvGJaer_/ rjynfh0r_udk xif[yfjywJh
az:xkwfcsufr#om jzpfygw,f? zefqif;&Sif God tjzpf udk;uG,fwJh
&kyfyHk 'grSr[kwf &kyfvHk;&kyfxkudk Idol ac:w,fvdk@ tbd"mefu zGifhqdkyg
w,f? txufrSm aqG;aEG;cJhovdk Ak'<bmomawG[m Ak'<udk zefqif;&Sif
wpfOD;jzpfw,fvdk@ r,lq=uygbl;? 'ga=umifh opfom; 'grSr[kwf owK
twHk;uav; wpfckudk zefqif;&Sif tjzpf b,fvdk vufcHvdk@ &EdkifyghrvJ?
udk;uG,fr_qdkif&m bmomawG tm;vHk;rSmyJ oufqdkif&m bmomawG

22

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

0g'awGudk azmfxkwf jyozdk@twGuf trSwfoauFw (Symbols) awGudk


toHk;jyKavh &Sd=uygw,f? wmtdkbmom (Taosim) rSm ydyuQawG
t=um; nDn$wfr#wr_udk trSwftom;jyKwJh ,if,ef; (Ying Yang)
udk toHk;jyKygw,f? qdufcfbmom (Sikhism) rSm qdk&if pdwf0dnmOf
uGef@jrL;v_yf&Sm;r_&J@ oauFwtjzpf "m;&Snf (The sword) udk tokH;
yygw,f? c&pf,mef bmomrSmawmh c&pfawmf&J@ ouf&Sdwnf&Sdr_udk
xif[yfapzdk@ ig;&kyf (The fish) udko;kH +yD;/ c&pfawmf&J@ tepfemcH
pGef@v$wfr_udk azmfusL;zdk@twGuf vuf0g;uyfwdkif =uufajc (The cross)
udk toHk;jyKygw,f? Ak'<bmomrSmawmh Ak'<[m t&m&m tzufzufu
+yD;jynfhpHkwJh vlom;&J@ tjzpfudk az:jyzdk@ twGuf Ak'<qif;wkawmfawGudk
tokH;jyKae=uwmyJ jzpfygw,f? Ak'< a'oemawmft& Ak'<qif;wkawmf
[m vlom;&JJ@ ta&;ygr_udk xif[yfapwmvnf;yJ jzpfygw,f? Ak'<0g'
[m vludkom t"duxm;+yD;awmh zefqif;&Sifudk A[kd ywJh 0g'rsdK;
r[kwfygbl;? 'ga=umifhvnf; +yD;jynfhpHkr_ESifh xdk;xGif;odjrifr_udk &SmazGwJh
tcg tjyifbuf Am[d& "rRawGxJrSm r&SmbJ udk,fhcE<mqdkwJh twGif;
buf tZwWomefrSmyJ &Sm&r,fqdkwJ@tcsufudkvnf; Ak'<&kyfyGg;awmf
udk;uG,fr_u azmfnef;aewmjzpfygw,f? 'Dawmh Ak'<0g'DawG[m zefqif;
&SifawG&J@ udk,fyGm;jzpfwJh (Idols) awGudk udk;uG,f=uw,f qdkwmu
awmh rrSefuefygbl;?
ar;?

? Ak'<bmom bk&m;ausmif;uefawGrSm Ak'<bmomawG[m


aiGpuULawGudk rD;&_d@vdk&_d@ESifh xl;qef;wJh trlt&mawG
trsdK;rsdK; vkyfae=uwm awG@&ygw,f? bma=umifhygvJ?
ajz?
? oabmw&m;udk em;rvnfwJh tcg t&m&m[m txl;
tqef;awGcsnf; jzpfaerSmygyJ? 'grsdK;awGudk txl;tqef;
vkyf+yD;y,fcsaerJhtpm; 'gawG&J@ twGif;oabm qdkvdkcsufudk em;vnf
od&SdvmatmifyJ }udK;pm;oifhygw,f? wpfcgwpfcg wpfcsdK@aom Ak'<
bmom0ifawG&J@ vkyf&yfawG[m Ak'<&J@ tqHk;trabmifudk ausmfvGef+yD;

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

23

awmh Ak'<0g'ESifh rudkufnDwJhem;vnfr_vGJrSm;wm/ vl+ydef;uuf t,l


onf;wmawGay:rSm tajccH+yD;vkyfae=uwmawG &Sdw,fqdkwm rSefyg
w,f? 'gayrJh 'DvdkrsdK; a&vdkufvGJae=uwmawG[m Ak'<bmom wpfck
wnf;rSmom r[kwfygbl;? wpfjcm;bmomawG tm;vHk;rSmvnf;yJ
r=umc% awG@jrif&wwfwmygyJ? Ak'<uawmh tao;pdwf wdwdusus
&Sif;vif; a[m=um;cJhwmygyJ? tjynfht0 em;rvnf&SmwJh wpfpHk
wpfa,muf twGufa=umifhawmh Ak'<tay: tjypfrzdk@avmufygbl;?
'DtcsufESifh ywfouf+yD; Ak'<udk,fawmfwdkif a[mawmfrlxm;wm
&Sdygw,f?
a&m*ga0'emawGudk }udwfrSdwf cHpm;ae&ol vlem wpfOD;
onf rdrdteD;tyg;Yaq;q&m}uD; &Sdygvsuf aq;uko
cH,lzdk@&ef tm;rxkwfbl;qdk&if TonfrSm aq;q&m}uD;&J@
tjypfr[kwfay?
tvm;wl udavom a&m*gjzifh zdpD;ESdyfpufr_ '%fudk tvl;
tvdSrfh cHae&ol wpfOD;onf Ak'<&J@ ulnD az;rr_udk &,lzdk@&ef
vHk@vrxkwfbl;qdk&if TonfrSm Ak'<. 0efwmr[kwaf y?1
Ak'<bmomudkjzpfap/ 'grSr[kwf wpfjcm;bmomw&m; wpfckck
udk jzpfap [kwdWywdW wdwdyy vdkufemusifhaqmifjcif; r&SdwJholawGu
tJ'D bmomw&m; tay:rSm rSm;w,frSefw,f qdk+yD; tqHk;tjzwf
ray;oifhygbl;? Ak'<&J@ rSefuefwJh w&m;awmfawGudk wwfodem;vnfcsif
&if Ak'<pmay yduwfawmfawGudk zwf&r,f/ Ak'<"rRESifh ywfowfvdk@
urf;usifwwfajrmufwJh yk*~KdvfawGqD csOf;uyf aqG;aEG;&r,f?
1? Zmwuedygw 28-9

24

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

ar;? ? Ak'<0g'[m odyfaumif;w,f/ odyfrSefw,fqdk&if Ak'<bmom


EdkifiH wpfcsdK@usawmh bmha=umifh qif;&JwGif;eufae
=u&wmygvdrfh?
ajz?
? qif;&Jw,fqdkwm pD;ygG;a&; &_axmifh wpfckwnf;u =unfh+yD;
ajymr,fqdk&ifawmh [kwfygw,f? Ak'<bmom EdkifiH wpfcsdK@[m qif;&J
=uygw,f? 'gayrJh qif;&Jw,fqdkwJh pum;[m b0t&nftaoG;
b0wefzdk;edrfhus qif;&JwmrsKd;udk qdkvdkw,fqdk&ifawmh Ak'<bmom
EdkifiHawG[m rqif;&JwJh tjyif ydkIawmifcsrf;om =uygao;w,f?
qdkygawmh tar&du[m urBmrSm pD;yGg;a&;t& csrf;om =uG,f0+yD;
vufeufESifh EdkifiHa&; t&vnf; tiftm;}uD;EdkifiH wpfck jzpfygw,f?
'gayrJh urBmh'kp&kduf txlajymqHk; EdkifiHvnf; jzpfygw,f? oef;csDwJh
tar&duef ouf}uD; &G,ftdkawG[m olwdk@ om;ajr;awG&J@ vspfvsL&_/
pGef@ypfjcif;cH&+yD;awmh bkd;bGm;&dyfomawGrSm txD;usefr_ a0'emESifh
uG,fvGefae=u&&Smygw,f? t=urf;zufr_ESifh uav;tcGifhta&; csKd;
azgufr_awG[mvnf; t"du jynfwGif;a&; jy\emawG jzpfaeygw,f?
tdrfaxmifa&;ydkif;rSm qdk&if pHkwGJ oHk;wGJv#if wpfwGJus E_ef;u
uGm&Sif;r_ESifh Zmwfodrf;ygw,f? npfnrf; &kyf&Sifvdk rsKd;awGuawmh
aygrSaygygyJ? aiGa=u;t& csrf;om=uyg&J@/ b0wefzdk;t&awmh odyf
qif;&J =uygw,f?
aemufOyrm ay;p&m wpfckuawmh pD;yGg;a&;t& aemufus
usef&pfwJh jrefrmEdkifiHygyJ? jrefrmhvli,f om;ajr;awGu rdbbdk;bGm;
awGudk &kdaoav;pm;=uw,f? &mZ0wfjzpfyGm;r_E_ef;uvnf; wpfjcm;
EdkifiHawGESifhpm&if odyfenf;yg;vSygw,f? uGm&Sif;jywfpJr_wdk@/ udk,fh[m
udk,f tqHk;pD&ifr_wdk@ qdkwmawGu r=um;pzl; oavmufygyJ? t=urf;
zufr_/ uav;tcGifhta&; csKd;azmufr_ qdkwmawGuvnf; r&Sd
oavmufygyJ? npfnrf; &kyf&Sifvdk[mrsKd;awGESifh umrr_qdkif&m vkyfief;
xlaxmifcGifh qdkwmawGuawmh &Sdukd r&Sd=uygbl;? pD;ygG;a&;zufu acwf

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

25

aemufus ae&pfayrJh b0wefzdk;ESifh ywfoufvdk@uawmh tar&duvdk


EdkifiHrsKd;xuf trsm;}uD; jrifhrm; omvGefvSygw,f?
'gayrJh pD;yGg;a&;&_axmifh wpfckwnf;u =unfh+yD;awmh Ak'<
bmom0if EdkifiHawGudk csrf;om/ qif;&J tqHk;tjzwf ay;vdk =uao;
w,f qdk&ifawmh *syefEdkifiHudkyJ jy&ygvdrfhrnf? ckacwf urBmrSm tcsrf;
omqHk;ESifh pD;yGg;a&;t& twdk;wufqHk; EdkifiHrsm; txJwGif *syefEdkifiH
vnf; wpfEdkifiHtygt0if jzpfygw,f? tJ'DrSm vlOD;a& 93 &mcdkifE_ef;[m
Ak'<bmom0iftjzpf cH,lolawGyJ jzpf=uygw,f?
ar;?

? Ak'<bmom0ifawG jyKvkyfwJh ukodkvfjzpf vkyfief;awG/


bmawG ta=umif; r=umc%qdkovdk r=um;od&
wmu bmha=umifhygvJ?
ajz?
? Ak'<bmom0ifawG taeESifh olwdk@ jyKvkyfwJh ukodkvjf zpf vkyf
ief;awGtwGuf [dwf[efxkwf+yD; yyv$m;v$m; vkyfp&m
rvdkbl;vdk@ cH,lxm;=uwJh twGufa=umifh jzpf&ifjzpfEdkifygw,f? +yD;cJhwJh
ESpftawmf=umu *syefAk'<bmomacgif;aqmif eDcdk ed&0efEdk (Nikkho
Nirwano) [m bmomaygif;pHk nDnGwfr_ wdk;jrSifha&; v_yf&Sm;r_twGuf
wefyJvwGefqk(Templeton Prize)udk &&SdcJhygw,f? tvm;wl r=umao;
cifuyJ xdkif;&[ef;awmfwpfyg;udk aq;ajcmuform;awGtay: ol@&J@
tusKd;aqmifr_vkyf&yftwGuf =oZmt&Sdeft0g}uD;vSwJh r*faq;aq;
(Magsaysay Prize) qk csD;jrSifhcJhygw,f?
aemuf xdkif;&[ef;awmf
wpfyg;jzpfwJh t&SifuE,yd0wf (Ven. Kantayapiwat) udkvnf;
aus;vuf awmydkif;awGu rdbrJh uav;oli,fawGudk ulnDapmifh
a&Smufay;r_ twGuf 1987 ckESpfrSm aemfa0EdkifiH qdkif&m uav;i,frsm;
+idrf;csrf;a&;qk (Norwegian Children's Prize) csD;jrSifhcJhygao;w,f?
aemuf+yD; tdENd, qif;&Jom;vlxk}uD;twGuf taemufwdkif;
Ak'<bmom0ifawGu vkyfaqmifay;wJh ukodkvfjzpf vkyfief;awG trsm;
tjym; &Sdygao;w,f? tcrJh pmoifausmif;awG/ uav;apmifha&Smuf

26

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

a&; meawG/ aq;ay;cef;awG/ wEdkifwydkif &yfwnfEdkifa&; twGuf


tao;pm; pufr_vkyfief;awG xlaxmif ay;=uygw,f? Ak'<bmom0if
awG[mvnf; wpfjcm;bmom0ifawGvdkyJ olwpfyg;udk ulnDapmifh
a&Smufjcif;[m bmoma&; usifhpOfwpfck jzpfw,fvdk@ cH,l=uygw,f?
'gayrJh Ak'<bmom0ifawGu rdrdudk,fudk emrnf}uD;atmifawmhjzifh
rvkyfoifh/ odkokdodyfodyf uav;yJ vkyfoifhw,fvdk@ ,lq=uwJh twGuf
a=umifh Ak'<bmom0ifawG&J@ ukodkvfjzpf vkyfief;awG ta=umif; r=um
c% r=um;=u&wmaerSmyg?

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

27

ygyJ? 'gayrJh Ak'<bmom pifydif*dk%f;awG tcsif;csif; wdkufyGJqifwm/ &ef


apmifwmawG r&SdcJh=uovdk tcsif;csif;rvdkvm;wJh/ trkef;ygG;wJh ty
trlawGudkvnf; rjyocJh=uygbl;? tckacwfrSmqdk&if *dk%f;uGJ
tcsif;csif;awG&J@ ausmif;uefbk&m;awGqDudk tjyeftvSef 0ifxGufoGm;
vm+yD;awmh twlwuG 0wfjyK=uwmrsKd;awGawmif &Sdvmyg+yD? 'DvdkrsKd;
onf;cH cGifhv$wfwm em;vnfpmemwmawG[m urBmrSmudk &Sm;&Sm;
yg;yg;ygyJ?
ar;?

ar;?

? Ak'<bmomrSm *dk%f;uGJawG bma=umifh 'Davmuftxd


rsm;rsm;pm;pm; uGJjym;ae&wmygvJ?
ajz?
? o=um;trsKd;tpm;awG trsKd;rsKd; &Sd=uovdkygyJ? o=um;ndK/
o=um;jzL/ o=um;r_ef@/ o=um;cJ/ o=um;&nf/ a&cJo=um; pHkvdk@ygyJ?
'gayrJh 'Do=um;rsKd;tpm;awG tm;vHk;[m o=um;awGcsnf;jzpf+yD;awmh
csKd=uwmcsnf;ygyJ? vdk&if vdkovdk enf;vrf;rsKd;pHkESifh toHk;yEdkifatmif
vdk@ yHkpH trsKd;rsKd;jzifh xkwfvkyfxm;wmyJ jzpfygw,f? Ak'<bmomvnf;
'Denf;vnf;aumif; twkdif;ygyJ? ax&m0g' Ak'<bmom/ psefAk'<bmom/
ysL;0g;vef; Ak'<bmom/ a,m*gpm&ESifh 0ZD&m,me Ak '<bmom *dk%f;
awGvnf; &Sdygw,f? 'gawG tm;vHk;[m Ak'<bmomawG jzpf+yD;awmh/
vGwfajrmufr_qdkwJh tESpfom&csif; twlwlyJ jzpf=uygw,f? Ak'<
bmom yHkpHawG tckavmuf axGjym; oGm;&wm[mvnf; tJ'D Ak'<
bmom*dk%f; xGef;um;wnf&Sd&m a'o&J@ ,Ofaus;r_aygif;pHkESifh vdkuf
avsmnDaxG&Sdatmifvdk@yJ jzpfygw,f? Ak'<bmom rsKd;qufopfawGESifh
vdkufavsmnDaxG&Sdapzdk@ Ak'<"rRudk acwftqufquf t}udrf}udrf
teufzGifh,lvmcJh=uygw,f? tjyifyef;tm;jzifh Ak'<bmom trsKd;trnf
awGpHkatmif uGJjym;=uayrJhvkd@ tESpfom&uawmh opPmav;yg;ESifh r*~if
&Spfyg;ygyJ? Ak'<bmom tygt0if wjcm;aom bmom}uD;awGrSmvnf;yJ
*dk%f;aygif;rsm;pGm/ tawG;tac: tkyfpkaygif;rsm;pGm uGJjym;=uwmcsnf;

? Ak'<bmomwpfckwnf;uom jrifhjrwfw,f/ rSefuefw,f qdk


awmh wjcm;bmomawGtm;vkH;[m rSm;,Gif;=uw,faygh?
ajz?
? Ak'<w&m;awmfudk em;vnf oabmaygufwJh b,fAk'<0g'DurS
wjcm;bmomw&m;awG[m rSm;,Gif;=uw,fvdk@ r,lq
1
ygbl; ? wjcm;bmomw&m;awGudk yGifhyGifhvif;vif; xdxdrdrd avhvm
qef;ppfvdkwJh olwpfOD;taeESifh tJonfvdkrsKd; rawG;ac:oifhygbl;? rwl
uGJjym;wJh wjcm;bmomw&m;awGudk qef;ppfavhvm&mrSm yxrqHk;
odxm;&rnfh tcsufu tJ'DbmomawGxJrSm trsm;tusKd;aqmifr_
b,favmufyg0ifovJ qdkwmygyJ? vlom;&J@ rsufarSmuf taetxm;
[m auseyfESpfodrfhavmufp&m r&Sdbl;2 vdk@yJ bmomw&m;awG tm;
vkH;u todtrSwf yxm;=u+yD;awmhvlom;&J@ vuf&Sd taetxm;udk
jrSifhwifcsifw,fqdk&if pdwfxm;ESifh tusifhp&kdufawGudk yjyifajymif;vJ
=uzdk@ vdktyfw,fvkd@vnf; tm;vkH;uyJ ,kH=unf=uygw,f? arwWm/
u&k%m/ cEWD/ apwem/ o'<gESifh vl@usifh0wfawG (*D[d0de,) awG yg0if
1? trSefudk trSeftwdkif; odjrifjcif;uom opPmjzpf+yD; rdrd t,l wpfckwnf;uom
rSefuef+yD; wpfjcm;t,lawGtm;vHk; rSm;,Gif;=uonf[k ,ljcif;onf tpGef;a&muf
rdp>mt,lwpfrsKd;om jzpfonf?
2? 'kuQHawblruH 0H - bkHoHk;yg;Y jzpf&or# 'kuQe,fxJwGif tygt0ifcsnf;
jzpfonf[k Ak'<bmomu ,lqonf?

28

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

wJh udk,fusifh oduQmw&m;awGudk bmomwdkif; vdkvu


dk yJ a[mnef;
1
=u+yD;awmh 'Dw&m;awG&J@ t=uGif;rJh jzpfwnfr_ udkvnf; vufcHxm;
=uygw,f? arwWm/ u&k%m pwJh 'D"rRa=umif;awGudk az:xkwf
&Sif;vif;zdk@twGufawmh oufqdkif&m bmompum;awG/ tac:ta0:
awGESifh oauFwawGudk (eD;pyf&m udk,fydkif[efawGESifh) oHk;E_ef; az:jy
=uygw,f? bmoma&;ydyuQawG/ armufrmr_awGESifh udk,fhig;udk,fcsOf
r_awG ay:aygufvm&w,f qdkwmuvnf; wpfzufowf usOf;ajrmif;
pGm oHk;oyfaz:jy=uwJh tcgvdkrsKd;awGrSmom jzpfwwf=uwmyg?
rwfcGufuav; wpfcGufudk 0dkif;=unfhae=uwJh vlwpfpkudkyJ
pdwful;ESifh rSef;q=unfh=uygpdk@? olwdk@txJrSm t*Fvdyf/ jyifopf/ w&kwf
ESifh tif'dkeD;&Sm;vlrsKd; wpfOD;pDwdk@ yg0if=uygw,f? t*FvdyfvlrsKd;u ajym
vdkufw,f 'grwfcGufuav;aygh wJh? jyifopfu 'gudk y,fcs+yD; tajz
ay;vdkufw,f r[kwfao;bl;av/ 'gu wpfaq (Tasse) yJ[mwJh?
w&kwfuvnf; ol@xifjrifcsufudk az:xkwfw,f rif;wdk@awG ajym=u
wm rSm;w,f/ 'gu aytd (Pei) ygwJh? tif'dkeD;&Sm;u tm;vHk;udk
[movkyf+yD; ajymcsvdkufw,f rif;wdk@awG awmfawmf t =uygvm;/
'gu u0ef (Cawan) yJav wJh?
tJ'DrSm t*Fvdyfu tbd"mefpmtkyf}uD; qGJziG fh+yD; 'DrSm
uefawmf oufaojyEdkifygw,f/ 'g[m cGufuav; (Cup) yJwJh/
uefawmfhtbd"mefu 'DvdkyJ qdkw,fAs vdk@ axmufjyw,f? 'gqdk
cifAsm; tbd"mefu trSm;}uD;yJ jzpfvdrfhr,f/ bmjyKvdk@vnf;qdkawmh
uefawmfh tbd"mefu 'gudk wpfaq (Tasse) vdk@yJ aoaocsmcsm &Sif;jy
xm;w,fav vdk@ jyifopfu jyefajymw,f? w&kwfu olwdk@ ESpfOD;vHk;
udk avSmifvdkuf+yD;awmh uefawmfh tbd"mefu cifAsm;wdk@&J@
tbd"mefawGxuf ESpfaygif; axmifcsD+yD; a&S;usw,f/ 'ga=umifh
uefawmfh tbd"mefuyJ trSefjzpf&r,f/ +yD;awmh w&kwfpum;ajymwJh
3? t=uGif;rJh jzpfwnfr_ (Form of Absolute)

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

29

olu urBmrSm vlOD;a& trsm;qHk;rdk@vdk@ 'g[m aytd (Pei) yJ jzpfudk


jzpf&r,f wJh? tJ'Dvdk 0kdif;zGJ@ jiif;cHk ae=uwkef;rSmyJ Ak'<bmom0if
wpfOD;a&mufvm+yD; cGufuav;xJu t&nfudk aomufcsvdkufw,f?
+yD;awmhrS 'gudk cifAsm;wdk@u cGufyJac:ac:/ wpfaqyJ qdkqdk/ aytdvdk@yJ
ajymajym/ u0efvdk@yJ oHk;okH; 'DcGufuav;&J@ &nf&G,fcsufuawmh
vlawG toHk;tpGJ jyKzdk@ygyJ? tjiif;yGm;r_udk &yf+yD; aomufyJ aomufoHk;
awmfrl=uyg? cdkuf&efyGm;r_udk z,f&Sm;+yD; a&qmr_udk jznfhodyfawmfrl
=uygvdk@ ajymjyw,f? 'g[m wpfjcm;bmomawG tay:rSm xm;&SdwJh
Ak'<bmom&J@ oabmxm;ygyJ?
ar;?
ajz?

? Ak'<bmom[m ody`Henf;vrf;aum usyg&J@vm;?


? 'Dtar;udk rajzcif ody`HqdkwJh a0g[m&udk t"dy`g,fzGifhqdk&if
ydkaumif;ygvdrfhrnf? tbd"meftzGifht& ody`Hqdkwm pHepf
wus avhvm pl;prf;&muae &&SdtyfwJh twwfynm todynmyJ jzpf
ygw,f? pHepfwusqdk&mrSm a,bk,s obm0 ed,mr oabmw&m;
awGudk az:xkwf+yD;/ wu,f ppfrSefwJh tcsuftvufawGudk vufawG@
usus &_jrif prf;oyfr_awGudk tm;udk;jyKwJh pHepfyJ jzpfygw,f? tJ'Dvdk
pHepftwGif; oGif;,lEdkifavmufwJh ynmESifh twdtus aoaocsmcsm
avhvm ppfaq; cHEdkifavmufwJh txufuqdkcJhwJh wwfodynmawG&J@
qifhyGm;ynm&yfawG tm;vHk;[m ody`HyJ jzpfygw,f?
Ak'<bmomrSm 'DzGifhqdkcsufESifh rudkufnDvSwJh tawG;tjrif
t,ltqawGvnf; &Sdaeygw,f? 'gayrJh Ak'<0g'&J@ t"duuswJh '\e
uawmh opPmav;yg; w&m;awmf (The Four Noble Truths) yJ jzpf+yD;
'DopPmw&m;awmf&J@ pH awG[m ody`Hynm zGifhqdkcsufawGESifh vHk;0
udkufnDvsuf&Sdygw,f? opPmav;yg; teuf yxrqHk; jzpfwJh 'kuQopPm
[m &Sif;vif;jyoEdkifwJh tawG@t}uHKwpf&yfygyJ? 'kuQ]qif;&Jjcif; tppf
trSef jzpfw,fqdkwmudk udk,fawG@ qHkpnf; jzwfoef;vdk@ &Edkifygw,f?
wdkif;wmcsifhwGufvdk@vnf; &Edkifygw,f? 'kuQjzpf&jcif;&J@ yuwd

30

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

ta=umif;&if;cH jzpfwJh w%Smork',udk 'kwd,ajrmuf t&d,opPmrSm


azmfjy+yD; 'gudkvnf; yxr opPmESifh tvm;wlyJ &Sif;vif; jyovdk@ &Edkif
w,f? udk,fwdkif qHkpnf; jzwfoef;vdk@ &Edkifw,f? wdkif;wmcsifhwGuf
vdk@vnf; &Edkifaumif;ygw,f? qef;jym;&_yfaxG;vSwJh/ 'grSr[kwf 'm&D
qefwJh (yl&m%fusrf;vm) a0g[m&awG oHk;+yD; ,kwWdjy &Sif;vif;zGifhqdkzdk@
u;pm;wmrsKd; vHk;0ryg&Sdygbl;?
wwd,ajrmuf t&d,opPm&J@ t&uawmh 'kuQ&J@ csKyf+idrf;&m
(edAmef) eda&m"opPmygyJ? 'kuQ&J@ csKyf+idrf;&mjzpfwJh 'Dtqifhudk wefcdk;
&Sifudk c,vdk@/ ,Hk=unfvdk@/ 0wfyqkawmif;vdk@ &,lEdkifwmrsKd; r[kwfbJ
'kuQjzpfyGg;apwJh ta=umif;&if;udk z,f&Sm;jcif;jzifhom obm0uspGm &&Sd
Edkifwm jzpfygw,f? 'g[m tvGefw&mrS &Sif;vif; odomvSwJh tcsuf
yg? pwkwajrmuf t&d,opPmuawmh 'kuQudk csKyf+idrf;apwJh vrf;pOf
r*~opPmygyJ? 'kuQudk csKyf+idrf;apzdk@&ef bmudkrS tm;udk;yp&mrvdkyJ t*Fg
&Spfyg;&SdwJh vrf;udkom usifh=uHtm;xkwfzdk@ vdkygw,f? +yD;awmh tJ'D
tusifhw&m;vrf;pOf&J@ vufawG@usr_udk prf;oyf=unfhzdk@vnf; Ak'<0g'u
vrf;zGifhay;xm;ygw,f? zefqif;&Sif tay: ,Hk=unf trSDo[J yr_awG
udk ody`Hynmu ypfy,fovdk Ak'<0g'uvnf; vufoifhrcHygbl;?
+yD;awmh p=um0Vm&J@rlv (Origin) ESifh jymef;r_ (working) awGudk
obm0ed,mr (Natural Law) t& Ak'<0g'u &Sif;vif;jyoygw,f?
'DtcsufawG tm;vHk;[m Ak'<0g'&J@ wu,fh ody`Henf;vrf;us
wJh tawG;tjrifawGyJ jzpf=uygw,f? wcg Ak'< taeESifh vlawGudk tpOf
ojzifh owday; E_d;aqmfavh&SdwJh tcsufwpfcku E_dufE_dufcwfcwf
avhvm pHkprf;r_ r&SdyJ rsufuef;,kH=unfr_udk ry=uvifh/ wpfpHkwpf&mudk
vufcH ,Hk=unftyfonf/ rcHtyfonfudk rqHk;jzwfrD ar;jref;em,l=u/
avhvmppfaq;=u/ pl;prf; csifhwGuf=u/ rdrdwdk@. tawG@t}uHKay:Yom
tm;udk;y qHk;jzwf=u qdkwmyJ jzpfygw,f? 'g[m Ak'<udk,fwdkif&J@
ody`HqefwJh pdefac:oHyJ jzpfygw,f? Ak'<u atmufyguJhodk@ rdef@awmfrlcJh
ygw,f?

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

31

jrif&kH =um;&kHr#jzifh okd@r[kwf rd&dk;zvm xkH;pHjzpfumr#jzifh


vufrcHavESifh/ aumvm[va=umifh odk@r[kwf usrf;pmxJY
vm&Sdonf[lIvnf; vufrcHavESihf/ wpfqifhpum; =um;
umr#jzifh vnf;aumif;/ ta=umif;tusKd; qDavsmfr_ &Sdumr#
jzifhvnf;aumif; vufrcHavESifh/ =uHpnfpdwful; rSef;qI
vnf;aumif;/ olwyg;. pGrf;&nfudk txif}uD;Ivnf;
aumif; vufrcHavESifh/ igwdk@.q&mjzpfonf [lonfh
tawG;ESifhvnf; vufrcHavESifh? Tt&maumif;onf/
tjypfuif;onf/ ynm&Sdrsm; csD;usL;onf ponfwdk@udk rdrd
udk,fwidk f odjrifI vufawG@usifhokH; qnf;yl;aomtcg edAmef
odk@ a&S;&_ y.? xdkvrf;odk@ vdkufygav1?
'ga=umifh Ak'<bmom[m ody`HynmESifh pGyfcwfwl rudkufnD
onfhwdkif ody`Hoabm oufa&mufr_ tjynfht0 &Sdw,fvdk@awmh
qdkEdkifygw,f? wpfjcm;bmomawGESifh pm&if b,fbmomxufrqdk
Ak'<bmomu ydk+yD;awmh ody`Henf;usygw,f? 20 &mpkacwf&J@ ody`Hu0d
wpfOD;jzpfwJh tJvfbmwf tdkif;pwdkif;ef (Albert Einstein) &J@ Ak'<bmom
ESifh ywfowfwJh atmufyg xkwfaz:ajymqdkcsufu 'Dtcsufudk ykdrdk
cdkifrmapygw,f?
aemifwGif ay:xGef;vmrnfh tem*gwfbmoma&; qdkwm
p=um0Vmbmom (Cosmic Religion) yJ jzpf&ygvdrfhr,f/ tJ'D
p=u0Vm bmomqdkwm wpfoD;yk*~vqefwJh bk&m; (Personal
God) tpGJabmifudk ausmfvGef&r,f/ w&m;ao 0g'pGJESifh
w&m;aobmom&yfynm tpGJawGvnf; uif;&Sif; &ygvdrfh
1? t*Fkwfxdk&f ygVdawmf 188

32

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

r,f/ obm0udka&m "rRudkyg v$rf;cHrdwJh 'Dbmoma&;rsKd;[m


t&m&mudk avhvmodjriftyfwJh tawG@t}uHKawG/ obm0
"rRESifh qufpyfr_&Sd+yD; t"dy`g,fvnf; jynfh0wJh nDnGwf pkpnf;
r_awGuae ppfxkwf&&SdvmwJh bmoma&; todpdwftay:
tajccHwJh bmoma&;rsKd; jzpf&ygvdrfhr,f? Ak'<0g'[m
'DtcsuftvufawGudk jznfhqnf; ay;EdkifwJh pGrf;&nf&Sdygw,f?
tu,fI rsufarSmufacwf ody`Hynm&J@ vdktyfcsufawGudk
ajz&Sif;ay;EdkifwJh bmomwpfck &Sdw,fqdk&if tJ'Dbmom[m
Ak'<bmomyJ jzpf&ygvdrfhr,f?

tajccH Ak'<0g'
ar;?

? Ak'<&J@ t"duuswJh vrf;nefw&m;awmfawGuaum


bmawGygvJ?
ajz?
? bD;0dkif;wpfck&J@ bD;acG (&drf;uGif;) ESifh axmufwef;awG[m
ykHawmif;csufrrSm A[dk y=uovdk Ak'< w&m;awmfawG
tm;vHk;[m jrifhjrwfaom opPmw&m;av;yg;rSmyJ A[dk y=uygw,f?
-tJ'D opPm w&m;[m trsKd;tpm;tm;jzifh av;rsKd; av;pm; &Sdwm
a=umifh av;yg;vdk@ ajym&wmjzpfygw,f?
-tJ'Dw&m;udk oabmayguf em;vnfol[m jrifhjrwfol jzpfvmyg
w,f? tJ'ga=umifh jrifhjrwfaomvdk@ 0daooe y&wmyg?
-wu,fh yuwd tjzpftwkdif;yJ rSefuefwJh twGufa=umifh trSefw&m;
(opPm) vdk@ ac:qdk&wm jzpfygw,f?
ar;?
ajz?

? yxrqHk;aom t&d,opPmw&m;u bmygvJ?


? b0[m 'kuQ oufoufyJjzpfw,f qdkwJh tcsuf[m yxr

34

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

t&d,opPmygyJ?
b,fb0rSmyJjzpfjzpf/
b0wpfckckrSm&Sifoef
aexdkifw,fqdk&if qif;&Jjcif; 'kuQqdkwmudk rvGJraoG &ifqdkif&rSmygyJ?
'kuQwpfrsKd;r[kwf wpfrsKd;udk rcHpm;&bJESifhawmh b,fb0rSmyJ jzpfjzpf
&Sifoefaexdkifvdk@udk r&Edkifaumif;ygbl;? rtDrom emrusef; jzpf&r_/
xdcdkuf'%f&m&r_/ armyef;EGrf;e,fr_/ tdkrif; &ifha&mfr_awG tjyif aemuf
qHk; aoa=u ysufpD;&r_pwJh &kyfydkif;qdkif&m 'kuQpkawGESifhwuG txD;usef
jzpf&wm/ pdwf"gwf usqif;&wm/ pdk;&drf ylaqG;&wm/ pdwfpEdk;paemifh
rcsifhr&J jzpf&wm/ a'gojzpf&wmawGvdkrsKd; pdwfydkif;qdkif&m 'kuQawGudkyg
b0rSm &Sifoefaexdik fol rSefor# awG@}uHKcHpm;ae=u&wmygyJ/
ar;?
ajz?

? 'g[m tysufjrif 0g' tenf;i,f qef raebl;vm;?


? tysufjrif0g' (Pessimism) udk tbd"mefrSm jzpfp&m
&SdwmawG[m bmyJjzpfjzpf tqdk; taeESifhyJ jzpfay:vm
vdrfhrnfvdk@ awG;xifwwfwJh tusifh/ 'grSr[kwf tqdk;[m taumif;
xuf tiftm;owWd ydkrdk }uD;rm;w,fvdk@ ,lqwJh ,Hk=unfr_wpf&yf vdk@
zGifhqdkygw,f? Ak'<0g'[m 'D,lqyHk ESpfrsKd;vHk;ESifh reD;pyfovdk aysmf&$if
csrf;ajr@r_qdkwm &Sdw,f qdkwmudkvnf; rjiif;ygbl;? b0rSm b,folurS
jiif;uG,fvdk@ r&Edkifavmufatmifudk rSefuef+yD; odomvSwJh pdwfydkif;
&kyfydkif;qdkif&m 'kuQawGESifh &ifqdkifqHkpnf;+yD;awmh ouf&Sifaexdkif=u&
wmyJ jzpfw,fvdk@ &kd;&kd;vG,fvG,fav;yJ Ak'<0g'u qdkygw,f? urBmh
bmomw&m; trsm;pkawG&J@ t"duuswJh tajccH oabmw&m;awG
[m em;vnfzdk@awmif cufcJvSygw,f? 'grSr[kwf &Sif;vif; az:jyzdk@udk
rjzpfEdkifavmufwJh 'm&DawG/ ,kH=unfcsuf oufoufawGyJ jzpf=u
ygw,f? Ak'<bmomrSmawmh b,folrS ra&SmifvGJEdkifwJh tawG@t}uHK
awGudk tajcy+yD; pwifw,f/ vlwkdif; odxm;=uwJh/ vlwdkif;awG@}uHK
jzwfoef;&wJh t&m ('kuQ) ESifh pwifw,f? +yD;awmh 'D'kuQqdkwJh t&m
udkyJ 'Dvlom;awGtm;vHk;u ausmfjzwfzdk@ }udK;pm;ae=uwmyg? tJ'Dvdk

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

35

vlwpfOD;csif;pDwdkif;ESifh oufqdkif+yD; y"meuswJh 'kuQESifh 'D'kuQudk b,f


vdk z,f&Sm;ausmfvGefEdkifrSmvJ qdkwJh tcsufudkyJ wef;wef;rwfrwf pl;pl;
pdkufpdkuf a[mnefxm;wJh twGufa=umifhrdk@vdk@ Ak'<0g'onfomv#if
wu,fppfrSefwJh p=um0Vmbmom1 jzpfygw,f?
ar;?
ajz?

? 'kwd,ajrmuf t&d,opPmw&m;awmfu bmygvJ?


? 'kwd, opPmuawmh txufu qdkcJhwJh 'kuQ[lor#[m
vdkvm; awmifhwr_ w%Smork', ta=umif;cHa=umifh jzpf
w,f qdkwmygyJ? pdwfydkif;qdkif&m 'kuQawGudk &_jrifoHk;oyf =unfh&ifyJ
'Dapwodu'kuQ2awG[m w%Sma=umifh b,fenf;b,fyHk jzpfay:vm
&w,f qdkwmudk odjrifzdk@ rcufvSygbl;? wpfpHkwpf&mudk wrf;wrf;pGJ
jzpfaewJhtcg &Edkifajcvnf; r&Sdbl;qdk&if pdwf"mwf[m xdk;usoGm;
wwfw,f/ wpfpHkwpfa,muftay: udk,fu jzpfapcsifovdkrsKd;
jzpfrvmwJhtcg (udk,t
fh vdkygrvmwJh tcgrSm) vnf; pdwfqif;&J&wm
ygyJ? wpfjcm;vlawGu udk,u
fh dk vdkvm;ESpfoufwm/ ckHrifjrwfEdk; wefzdk;
xm;awGudk cH,lvdkayrJh wu,fhb0rSm tJonfvdkrsKd;awG jzpfrvmwJh
tcgrSmawmh xdcdkufcHpm;=u&ygw,f? vdkvm;wyfrufwJh twdkif; wpfpHk
wpf&mudk vuf0,fydkifydkif &&SdwJh tcgrsKd;rSmawmif tcgcyfodrf;/ tjynfh
t0 aysmf&$if auseyfEdkifao;wm r[kwfygbl;? bmjyKvdk@vnf;qdkawmh
tJ'D t&mudk &&Sd+yD; odyfr=umcifrSmyJ 'gudk +iD;aiG@vm+yD; pdwf0ifpm;r_
awG avsmhyg;oGm;wwfw,f? aemufxyf topftqef;awGudkyJ
wyfrufp yvmwwfw,f? 'gha=umifh &kd;&kd;uav; awG;=unfh&ifyJ
udk,fvcdk sifwJh t&mudk &&Sdjcif;qdkwJh tcsufuawmif cdkifrmwJh aysmf&$if
csrf;ajr@r_/ pdwfcs&wJh auseyfESpfoufr_rsKd;udk jznfhpGrf;ray;Edkifygbl;?
'g[m 'kwd, ork',opPm&J@ t"dy`g,fyJ jzpfygw,f? 'Dawmh udk,f
1? vlom;wpf&yfvk;H wpfajy;nD vufcHEdkifwJh bmom
1? pdwfylavmifqif;&J&r_

36

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

vdkcsifwJht&mudk &,lEdkifa&; wpfckwnf;twGufcsnf; wpdkufrwfrwf


&Sm=uHa&;xuf tJ'D vdkcsifr_udkyJ xdef;csKyfzdk@ u;pm;ayawmh? tJ'D vdkcsif
r_qdkwmuyJ vl&J@ auseyfa&mifh&Jr_ESifh aysmf&$ifcsrf;ajr@r_awGudk avsmhyg;
aysmufqHk;apwm jzpfygw,f?
ar;?

? 'Dvdkcsifr_ qENESifh awmifhwr_w%SmawGu b,fvdkvkyf+yD;


&kyfydkif; um,du 'kuQawGudk jzpfyGm;apygovJ?
ajz?
? [d[
k m+yD; 'D[m/ 'D[m+yD;awmh [d[
k m ponfjzifh b0
oufwrf;ESifhtr# vdkcsifwufrufr_awGu txl;ojzifh w%Smu
owW0gwpfOD; arG;zGm; ay:aygufapavmufwJh owWdjynfh pGrf;tif wpf&yf
udk qufwdkujf zpfapzdk@&ef zefwD;ay;ygw,f? 'DvdkESifh jyefvnf arG;zGm;
vmawmh udk,fcE<mqdkwmudk ydkifqdkif &&Sdvm=uwm jzpfygw,f? a&S@rSm
aqG;aEG;cJhwJh twdkif;yJ cE<mtdrfudk &vmwm[m 'g%f&m temw&awG/
a&m*gb, jzpfyGm;usa&mufr_awGudk rkcs &vG,fjzpfvG,fwJh cE<m
jzpfygw,f? tvkyf'g%fa=umifhvnf;yJ yifyef; arm[du
k f+yD;awmh qif;&J
Edkifw,f/ tdkrif;&ifha&mfr_ '%fudkvnf; cHpm;&w,f/ aemufqHk;rSmawmh
aojcif;w&m;ESifh ed*Hk;csKyf&wmygyJ? 'g[m b0opfawGudk jzpfapEdkif
pGrf;wJh twGufa=umifh vdkcsifr_ w%Smu um,du 'kuQawGudk jzpfyGm;
apyHkjzpfygw,f?
ar;?

? [kwfyg+yD/ 'Dtwdkif;om qdk&if vdkvm;r_udk &yfqdkif;vdkufwm


ESifh wpfpHk wpf&mudk b,fawmhrSvnf; &p&mvrf;r&dSawmh
ygbl;? 'grSr[kwf atmifjrifr_ qdkwmvnf; b,f awmhrS
&Sd=uawmhrSm r[kwfawmhbl;aygh?
ajz?
? [kwfygw,f? 'gayrJh 'Dae&mrSm Ak'<a[mawmfrlwmu
vdkcsifr_awG/ wyfrufr_awG/ udk,rfh Sm &SdESifh+yD;om;ESifh b,f
awmhrS rwif;wdrfr_awG/ +yD;awmh ydkI ydkI ydkifqdkifvdkr_awGu 'kuQ
taxGaxGudkyJ jzpfyGm;apygw,f? 'ga=umifh 'Dvdkcsifr_ umrdp>ENawG/

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

37

vdkvm;awmifhwr_ umrw%SmawGudkawmh &yfqdkif; ypfoifhw,fvdk@


a[mawmfrlygw,f? Ak'<u vdktyfr_1ESifh vdkcsifr_2udk cGJjcm;+yD; od=uzdk@/
+yD;awmh vdktyfwm awGudk }udK;pm;&SmazG jznfhqnf;=uzdk@ESifh vdkcsifwm
awGudkawmh wpfpwpfp avsm@cs+yD; yjyifoGm;=uzdk@ qHk;rawmfrlyg w,f?
vdktyfcsufukd jznfhqnf;ay;vdk@ &Edkifaumif;yg&J@/ 'gayrJh vdkcsifwmus
awmh tqHk;rJh acsmufwGif;vdkyJwJh? (b,fawmhrS jznfhrjynfh Edkifygbl;)?
r&SdrjzpfwJh/ tajccHuswJh/ jznfhqnf;ay;vdk@vnf; &Edkif
aumif;wJh vdktyfcsufawGqdkwm &Sdwwfygw,f? tJ'gawGtwGufawmh
u;pm;=uzdk@ oifhygw,f? tJ'De,fy,fudk ausmfvGefwJh qmavmif
rGwfodyfr_awG usawmh wpfpwpfp avsmhyg;oGm;atmifyJ }udK;pm;
oifh=uygw,f? vdk&if;ajym&&if - b0&J@ t"dy`g,f/ b0&J@ &nf&G,f
&if;u bmwJhvJ? auseyf ESpfodrfhr_&Sd+yD; aysmf&$ifcsrf;ajr@zdk@yJ r[kwaf y
bl;vm;?
ar;?
ajz?

? aemifb0ESifh ywfowfvdk@ pum;pyfrd+yDqdkawmh aemifb0


&Sda=umif; ckdifvHkwJh taxmuf txm;awG bmawGaum
&Sdygovm;?
? &Sdygw,f? taxmuftxm;awG wpfyHk}uD;ygyJ? 'gayrJh
'DudpPudk aemufrS us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ aqG;aEG;=u&atmif?

ar;?
ajz?

? wwd,ajrmuf t&d,opPmu bmygvJ?


? wwd, opPmuawmh 'kuQudk ausmfvGefvdk@&Edkifw,f/
'kuQudk ausmfvGef+yD;&if okc csrf;omudkvnf; &Edkifw,fqdk
wJh tcsufygyJ? 'DopPm[m opPmav;yg;teuf ta&;tygqHk;vnf;
jzpfygw,f? ta=umif;u 'DopPmt& - Ak'<u ppfrSefwJh oEWdokc
1? tajctaewpfcktwGuf r&Sdrjzpfvdktyfr_ (=Need)
2? tawmrowfEdkifonfh qENEdkifiHodk@ vdkufr_ (=Want)

38

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

(edAmefcsrf;om) ESifh auseyf ESpfoufr_qdkwmawG[m wu,f jzpfEdkif


a=umif; tmrcHcsuf ay;xm;vdk@ygyJ?
b0rSm }uHK&qHk&wwfwJh cHpm;r_ umr*k%f tm&kHawGudk
tuef@towfrJh awmifhwar#mfvifhwmrsKd;awG r&SdapyJ aysmf&$if csrf;ajr@
pGm/ b0rSm 0ifvmwwfwJh tcuftcJawGudk a=umuf&GH@pdk;&drfr_awG/
remvdk trkef;yGm;r_awG/ pdk;&drfa'gyGwmawGESifh rwkH@jyefyJ cE<D0g'ESifh
wnfwnf+idrf+idrf }uH@}uH@ cH+yD;awmh tusKd;rJhvSwJh qmavmif rGwfodyfr_
w%Smudk y,fpGef@+yD; ae@pOfb0rSm rarhravsmh aewwfxdkifwwf vm
atmif avhvmusifho;Hk oGm;r,f qdk&ifawmh b0rSm aysmfaysmf &$if&$if
vGwfvGwfvyfvyf&SdrSm trSefygyJ? tJ'DawmhrS b0[m jynfhpHkwJh
t"dy`g,fudk aqmifvdrfhr,f? rdrd wpfOD;wnf;&J@ wpfudk,faumif;qefwJh
vdktif qENawGudkcsnf; jznfhqnf; ay;aezdk@ odyftcsdef rvdkawmhwJh
twGuf udk,fhywf0ef;usifu wu,fh tultnD vdkolawGudk ulnDzdk@
tcsdefawG ydk&vmr,f? 'Dtajctaeudkfvnf; +idrf;csrf;r_ edAmef 1 vdk@ac:
wmygyJ? tvm;wlyJ pdwfydkif;qdkif&m apwodu 'kuQawG tm;vHk;uae
vGwfajrmufoGm;+yD qdk&ifawmh 'g[m wu,fhedAmef tppf ygyJ?

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

39

wnf+rJwJh oabm - tpPEyJ jzpfygw,f)? tdkrif;&ifha&mfr_/ aoa=u


ysufpD;&r_awG r&SdwJh oabm-tpPKwvnf; [kwfygw,f? 'DvdkESifh edAmef
qdkwm xm0&oabm jzpfygw,f? a'oESifh roufqdkifwJh twGuf
ta=umif;w&m;vnf;uif;/ tydkif;tjcm;vnf;uif;ygw,f? 'ga=umifh
edAmefqdkwm twWvnf;r[kwf/ tewWvnf; r[kwfwJh/ uef@owfvdk@
r&aumif;wJh teEoabmyJ jzpfygw,f? Ak'<uawmh edAmef[m
tjrifhjrwfqHk;aomcsrf;om r[moEdokc jzpfa=umif; edAmeH y&rH
okcH2 vdk@ rdef@awmfrlcJhygw,f?
ar;?

ar;?

? edAmefqdkwmbmvJ? edAmef[m b,fae&mrSm


wnf&SdygovJ?
ajz?
? edAmefqdkwm umva'oawGESifh rqdkifwJh/ umv a'ovGef
tajctae wpf&yfyJ jzpfygw,f? 'gha=umifh edAmefESifh ywf
oufvdk@ ajymqdk aqG;aEG;zdk@ 'grSr[kwf pOf;pm; awG;q=unfhzdk@ qdkwm
awmif tawmfav; cufcJygw,f? pum;vHk;awGESifh awG;qr_awGqdkwm
umv a'o tajctaewpf&yfudk az:jyzdk@ twGufavmufom vHk
avmufygw,f? tcsdefumvESifh roufqdkifvdk@ umvvGef tajctae
jzpfwJh edAmef[m a&G@avsmr_ oabm r&Sdygbl;? (ra&G@ravsmyJ

? 'gayrJh tJonfvdkrsKd; oabmudk aqmifwJh tajctae


wpf&yf &Sdw,fqdkwJh taxmuftxm;aum &Sdygovm;?
ajz?
? 'Dvdk taxmuf txm;rsKd;awmh r&Sdygbl;? okd@aomf edAmef
&Sdw,fqdkwmudk aumufcsuf csEdkifygw,f? umv a'o jymef;wJh
twdkif;tq wpf&yf&Sd+yD;/ vufawG@ rsufjrif 'd"rRjzpfwJh 'DurBm}uD;rSm
umv a'o jymef;wmudk axmuf&if tJonfvdkrsKd; umv a'o
rjymef;wJh twdkif;tq taetxm;wpf&yfvnf; &SdrSmyJvdk@
aumufcsufqGJvdk@ &ygw,f? 'ghtjyif edAmef&Sda=umif; taxmuftxm;
tcdkiftrm rjyEdkifonfhwdkifatmif edAmef&Sda=umif; a[mawmfrlcJhwJh
Ak'<jrGufqdkcsufpum;awmfawG &Sdygao;w,f? Ak'<u rarG;zGm;awmhjcif;-tZmwd/
rjzpfay:awmhjcif;-tEky`g'/
ryjyif rpD&if&jcif;-tocFw/ rpka0; raygif;qkHawmhjcif;toEMdp, jzpfaom wpfckaom "rRonf &Sd.? tu,fIom
T tZmwd/ tEky`g'/ tocFwESifh toEMdp, oabmwdk@
onf r&Sd=ujim;tHh/ arG;zGm;r_ Zmwd/ jzpfay:r_ Oyg'/ yjyif
pD&ifr_ ocFw/ aygif;qHkpkpnf;r_ oEMdp, wdk@rS vGwfajrmufjcif;
0drkwWd (edAmef) [lIvnf; r&SdEdkifay&m? pifppfrlum; tZmwd/

1? 'd"rRedAme (rsufarSmuf b0 csrf;om) udk qdkvdkonf? (rm*d,okw)f

1? "rRy' 204

40

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

tEky`g'/ tocFw/ toEMdp, wdk@ (trSefwu,f) &Sd=uonf


om jzpfaoma=umifh Zmwd/ Oyg'/ ocFw ESifh oEMdp,
wnf;[laom oHo&mrS vGwfajrmufjcif; 0drkwWd (edAmef) udk
odjrif&&SdEdkifonfomwnf;1 vdk@ rdef@awmf rlcJhygw,f?
edAmefudk udk,fwdkif aygufajrmuf &&SdvmwJh tcgrSom
aumif;pGmem;vnf odjrifvmrSm jzpf+yD;/ edAmefr& rcsif; rSmawmh y"me
tvkyfjzpfwJh "rRa&; tm;xkwfr_udkyJ qufvuf vkyfaqmif &yg
vdrfhr,f?
ar;?
ajz?

? av;ckajrmuf t&d,opPmuaum bmygvdrfh?


? av;ckajrmuf t&d,opPmuawmh 'kuQrS vGwfajrmuf&modk@
OD;wnfwJh vrf;pOf jzpfygw,f? tJ'gudkyJ tcsuftvuf
t*Fg&yf&Spfck yg0ifwJhtwGuf t*ur*fvdk@ ac:wGif+yD;/ tJ'DtxJrSm
orRm'dd-rSefuefpGm odjrifjcif;/ orRmouFy`-rSefuefpGm }uHpnfjcif;/
orRm0gpm-rSefuefpGm ajymqdkjcif;/ orRmurRE-rSefuefpGm jyKvkyf
aqmif&Gufjcif;/ orRmtmZD0-rSefuefpGm toufarG;jcif;/ orRm0g
,mr-rSefuefpGm tm;xkwfjcif;/ orRmowd-rSefuefpGm owd&Sdjcif;/
orRmorm"d-rSefuefpGm wnf=unfjcif;wdk@ jzpfygw,f? Ak'<bmom
usifhpOfxJrSm tJ'D&Spfyg;[m t"dutm;jzifh yg0if+yD;/ tJ'D usifhpOf
&Spfyg;udkyJ jynfhpHkonfxuf jynfhpHkatmif }udK;pm; usifhaqmif&ygw,f?
ynma&;/ ukd,fusipfh m&dwW/ vlr_a&;/ pD;yGm;a&;ESifh pdwf"mwfa&;&m pwJh
b0&J@ ta&;ygwJh rsufESmpm toD;oD;rSm r*~if&Spfyg;[m t"du ae&m
u yg0ifaewmudk awG@jrifEdkifygw,f? 'ga=umifh vlwpfOD; aumif;rGefwJh
b0wnfaqmufzdk@ESifh pdwf"gwf tqifhtwef; jrifhrm;vmzdk@ twGuf
vdktyfwJh t&mawGtm;vHk;[m r*~if&Spfyg;xJrSm yg0ifaeygw,f?
2? O'geygVawmf - 80

zefqif;&Sif t,ltqESifh Ak'0< g'


ar;?

? Ak'<bmom0ifawG[m zefqif;&Sif (God) bk&m;ocifudk


vufcH=uygovm;?
ajz?
? vufrcH =uygbl;? 'DtwGuf ta=umif;tcsufawG
trsm;}uD;yJ &Sdygw,f? bmomudk;uG,fa&;ESifh oufqdkifwJh
tawG;tac: (Religious Idea) awG/ txl;ojzifh zefqif;&Sif t,ltq
(The god idea) [m a=umuf&GH@pdk;&drfjcif;uae+yD; pwif ay:aygufvmcJh
wm jzpfw,fvdk@ acwfopfvlr_a&; ynm&SifawG/ pdwfynm&SifawG
,lq=uovdkyJ Ak'<uvnf; 'Dtwdkif; ,lqawmfrlcJhygw,f?
A[kH a0 o&%H ,Ed/ yAwmed 0emedp/
tm&mr&kuQapwsmed/ rEk\m b,wZdwm2?
a=umufpdwfr$ef;aewJh vlawG[m olwdk@ txGftjrwfxm;wJh
awm/ awmif/ opfyif}uD;awGqD oGm;=uw,f? olwdk@ udk;
uG,f&m apwDawGqD csOf;uyf=uw,f?

1? "rRy' - 188

42

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

a&S;OD;vl[m ol@tzdk@ &eftE&m,fawG 0dkif;aew,f qdkwmukd


od&SdcHpm;cJh&ygw,f? om;&Jwd&dp>mefawGudk a=umuf&w,f? tpma&pm
rjynfhpHkr_/ xdcdkuf'%f&m&&Sdr_ESifh a&m*gb,usa&mufr_ pwmawGudk
awG;yl&w,f? rdk;}udK;ypfwm/ v#yfpD;vufwm/ rD;awmifaygufuGJwm
pwmawGvdk tpOfojzifh }uHK&wwfwJh obm0 tE&m,fawGudkvnf;
a=umuf&GH@cJh&wmygyJ? 'DvdkESifh vHk+cKHpdwfcs&r_udk b,frSmrS &SmrawG@Edkif
jzpfaewJh a&S;OD;vl[m zefqif;&Sift,ltqudk awG;q,lcJhwmyJ jzpfyg
w,f? &nf&G,f&if;uawmh at;at;vlvl aevdk@&wJh tajctaersKd;
rSm csrf;ajr@ aysmf&$ifapzdk@/ tE&m,fESifh &ifqdkif&wJhtcg pGrf;tm;owWd
awGudk jznfhqnf;ay;zdk@ESifh uaomif;ueif; tajctaersKd;rSm oufom
&m&apwJh ESpfodrfhr_ay;zdk@ twGufygyJ? ,ae@rsufarSmuf acwfrSmvnf;
yJ vlawGqdkwm tusyftwnf; qdkufwJh tcgrsKd;rSmom ydk+yD;awmh
bmoma&;orm;awG jzpfvmwwf=uwm awG@Edkifygw,f? bk&m;wpfql
'grSr[kwf bk&m;trsm;tjym; udk;uG,fjcif;jzifh b0udk &ifqdkif&mrSm vdk
tyfwJh tiftm;awGudk &&Sdvm=uw,f qdkwmvnf; =um;rdygvdrfhrnf?
vdktyfwJhtcg qkawmif;w,f/ awmif;wJhtwdkif;vnf; jynfhwJhtwGuf
tJ'Dbk&m;udkyJ txl;yudk;uG,f=uwmjzpfw,fqdkwJh &Sif;vif;csuf ay;
wmudkvnf; =um;rdygvdrfhr,f? 'DtcsufawG tm;vHk;u zefqif;&Sif

(\&edrRme) 0g'[m a=umuf&GH@jcif;ESifh pdk;&GH@odrfi,fjcif;awGudk


wkH@jyefwJhtaeESifh ay:vmwmyJ jzpfw,fqdkwJh Ak'<a'oemawmf&J@
tqkdtrdef@udk axmufcHcsuf ay;ae=uovdkygyJ?
Ak'<[m ta=umufw&m;awGudk em;vnfoabm aygufvm
atmif }udK;pm;=uzdk@/ avmb&rRufawGudk avsmhcs=uzdk@ESifh b,fvdkrS
tajymif;tvJvkyfr&EdkifwmawGtwGuf t&Sdut
dk &Sdtwdkif; wnfwnf
+idrf+idrf owWd&Sd&Sd &ifqdkifwwfvmzdk@ vlom;awGudk oGefoif ay;awmfrlcJh
ygw,f? Ak'<[m vlom;awG&J@ ta=umufw&m;awGudk obm0ruswJh
rsufuef;,Hk=unfr_ESifh tpm;rxdk;cJhygbl;? ta=umif;tusK;d qDavsmfwJh

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

43

em;vnfoabmaygufr_ ynmESifhom tpm;xdk; ajzodrfhay;awmfrlcJh


ygw,f?

zefqif;&Sif (God) udk Ak'< vufrcH&wJh 'kwd, ta=umif;


w&m;uawmh 'Dt,ltqudk vufcHEkdifavmufwJh taxmuftxm;
wpfpHkwpf&m r&Sdvdk@ygyJ? olwdk@awG&J@ usrf;pmawGxJrSmom zefqif;&Sif&J@
a'oemawmfawGudk xnfhoGif;odrf;qnf;xm;w,f/ olwdk@uyJ zefqif;
&Sif&J@ oabmobm0awGudk em;vnf oabmayguf=uwm jzpfw,f/
olwdk@&J@ zefqif;&Sifuom trSefwu,f jzpfwnfvsuf &Sdw,f/ wpfjcm;
bmomawGrSm usawmh zefqif;&Sif[m wu,f&Sdwm r[kwfbl; qdk+yD;
ajymae=uwJh bmomawGuawmh wpfyHk wpfyif}uD;ygyJ? wpfcsKd@
bmomawGu zefqif;&Sif[m tzdk"gwf (ykvdif) jzpfw,fvdk@ qdk=u
w,f? aemufwpfcsKd@u zefqif;&Sif[m tr"gwf (xdvdif) jzpfw,f
vdk@ qdkjyefygw,f? aemufwpfcsKd@u zefqif;&Sif[m tzdkvnf; r[kwf
trvnf; r[kwfwJh eykvdifom jzpfw,fvdk@ qdk=uygw,f? 'Dbmom
a&;awG tm;vHk;[m olwdk@bk&m; trSefwu,f&Sda=umif; cdkifvHkwJh
taxmuftxm;awG wpfyHk}uD;&Sdw,fqdk+yD; auseyf tm;&ae=uayrJh
wpfjcm;bmomawGrSmvnf;yJ oufqdkif&m bmomtvdkuf bk&m;
udk,fpD &Sd=ua=umif;jyowJh taxmuftxm;awG usawmh ysuf&,fy
=uygw,f? bmom trsKd;rsKd;awG[m ppfrSefwJh/ cdkifrm+yD; ta&;ygwJh/
rjiif;omwJh taxmuftxm;qdkvdk@ wpfpHkwpfckrS rawG@&Sd&ao;wm
awmifrSyJ olwdk@awG&J@bk&m;awG trSefwu,f &Sd=uw,fqdkwm
twnfjzpfapzdk@ u;pm;&if; &mpk ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm tcsdefzef;vmcJh=u
ao;wm qef;awmh rqef;vSygbl;? Ak'<0g'DawG taeESifhuawmh cdkifrm
wJh taxmuftxm; r&rcsif; zefqif;&Sif0g'udk vufrcHEdkifygbl;?
zefqif;&Sif 0g'udk Ak'< vufrcH&wJh wwd, ta=umif;w&m;
uawmh 'DvdkrsKd; ,Hk=unfr_awG[m rvdktyfwJh twGufa=umifhygyJ?
wpfcsKd@uawmh p=um0Vm}uD;&J@ tpudk &Sif;jyzdk@twGuf zefqif;&Sif
bk&m; vdktyfw,fvkd@ tqdky=uw,f? 'gayrJh 'g[m ajymoavmuf

44

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

trSefESifh eD;pyfwmawmhjzifh r[kwyf gbl;? ody`Hynmu p=um0Vm}uD;


b,fvdk ay:xGef;cJhw,f qdkwmudk zefqif;&Sif0g'ESifh vHk;0 qufpyfr_
r&SdyJ ausausvnfvnf &Sif;vif; az:jyxm;+yD;yg+yD? aysmf&$ifcsrf;ajr@+yD;
t"dy`g,f&SdwJh b0wpfck ydkifqdkifzdk@ twGuf zefqif;&Siftay: ,Hk=unfr_
&SdrS jzpfr,fvdk@ qdkolawGvnf; &Sdygw,f? 'g[mvnf; 'Dtwdkif; r[kwf
bl;qdkwm vlwdkif; odomEdkifwJh udpPyJjzpfygw,f? ajrmufrsm;pGmaom
Ak'<bmom0ifrsm;tjyif oef;ESifhcsDwJh bk&m;rJh 0g'DawGESifh vGwfvyfpGm
awG;ac:olawG tm;vHk;[m zefqif;&Siftay: ,Hk=unfr_ r&Sd=uyJESifh
wefzdk;&Sd&Sd aysmfaysmf&$if&$ifESifh b0t"dy`m,f jynfh0pGmaexdkifvsuf &Sd=u
ygw,f? wpfcsKd@u'Dvdkvmao;w,f? tm;enf;wJhvlom;[m ol@[mol
ulnDu,frzdk@&m tif;tm;awmifhwif;r_ r&SdwJh twGuf bk&m;ocif&J@
wefcdk;owWd pGrf;tifawGtay: ,kH=unf tm;xm;zdk@ vdktyfw,fwJh?
'Dt,ltq[mvnf; obm0 rusvSygbl;? oHk;r&avmufatmif
ukd,fvuft*Fg roefpGrf;olawG/ }uD;rm;wJh taESmifh t,Suft[ef@
twm; jy\em&yfawGESifh &ifqdkifae&olawG[m b,fbk&m;udkrS ,Hk
=unfcsufr&SdbJESifh olwdk@ udk,fydkifpGrf;tif/ udk,fydkif &kef;uefv_yf&Sm;r_
awG oufoufESifhyJ tJ'Dt&mawGudk ajz&Sif;ausmfv$m; oGm;Edkif=uw,f
qdkwJh yk*~Kv
d fawG&J@ jzpf&yfawGudkvnf; r=umc% =um;od=u&rSmyg?
vludk u,frapmifha&Smufay;zdk@twGuf zefqif;&Sif bk&m;[m vdktyf
w,fvdk@ wpfcsKd@u qdkvmjyefao;w,f? 'DtawG;uawmh wuUdu
qefwJh u,fwifjcif;t,ltq1 udk vufcH,Hk=unfxm;ol twGufom
udkufnDrSmyg? Ak'<bmom0ifawGuawmh txufyg tqdkudk vufoifh
rcH=uygbl;? rdrd&J@ pdwfxm;udk jzLpifatmif vkyfzdk@/ tuef@towfrJh
arwWmESifh u&k%mw&m;awG wdk;yGm;apzdk@ESifh tuif;rJh jynfh0wJh ynm
jrifhrm;jynfhpkHapzdk@&eftwGuf vlom;wdkif;rSm pGrf;tm;udk,fpD yg&Sdvm
1? wuUdu0g' ] u,fwifjcif; tr_udk vkyfaqmif&eftwGuf u,fwifwwfol
u,fwif&Sifb&k m;&Sd&ef vdktyfonfqdkonfh wuUdu t,ltq

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

45

=uw,fqdkwJh tcsufudk Ak'<[m ol@&J@ udk,fawG@ tawG@tuHESifh ,SOf+yD;


odjrifawmfrlcJhygw,f? Ak'<[m aumif;uifbHkawGqD a&mufaewJh tm&kH
pdkufr_ (ar#mfvifhcsuf) awGudk ESvkH;om;awGqD ta&muf a&$@ajymif;
ay;awmf rlcJhygw,f2? vl[m rdrdudk,fudk rdrd em;vnf oabmaygufwJh
ynmjzifhomv#if }uHKqHkae=uwJh b0'kuQawG/ tcuftcJawGudk ajz
&Sif;EdkifrSm jzpfw,fvdk@ Ak'<u =uyfrwf vrf;nefawmfrlcJhwmyJ jzpfyg
w,f? (Ak'<[m vlom;udk u,fwif&Sifwpfql taeESifh u,fwifcJhwm
rsKd; vHk;0r[kwfygbl;)?
ar;?

? zefqif;&Sifbk&m;om r&SdcJh&kd;rSef&if 'Dp=um0Vm}uD; b,fvdk


ay:xGef;vmwmygvdrfh?
ajz?
? 'Dar;cGef;udk tajzxkwfzdk@ }udK;pm;=uwJh 'm&D yHkaqmifr_
awG/ Zmwfvrf; ZmwfuGuf qifr_awGuawmh bmomwdkif;
vdkvrdk Sm &Sd=uwmygyJ? vlawG bmrSrnfrnf&& todOm%f rzGH@ +zdK;ao;
wJh [dak &S;a&S; acwfumvawGwkef;uawmh 'Dvdk 'm&D yHkaqmifr_awG
[m p=um0Vm}uD; (b,fvdkay:vmovJqdkwJh ar;cGef;twGuf) vHk
avmufwJh tajzjzpfcJhygw,f? tckacwfvdk &lyaA'/ euQwWaA'/ blrd
aA'pwJh ody`HynmawG xGef;um;+yD;jzpfwJh 20 &mpk acwfrSmawmhjzifh
ody`HawG@&SdcsufawGu tJ'D 'm&DawGudk acszsuf z,fxkwfypfvdkuf
yg+yD? ody`Hynmu zefqif;&Sif tawG;tac:tay: vHk;0 tajcryyJ
p=um0Vm}uD; pwifcJhyHkudk &Sif;jyxm;+yD;yg+yD?
ar;?

? p=um0Vm}uD; pwifyHkESifh ywfowfvdk@ Ak'<uaum b,fvdk


rsm; rdef@=um;awmf rlcJhygao;ovJ?

1?zefqif;&Sif. aumif;uifbkH rSaeI u,fwifr_tay: ,kH=unfol tjzpfrSonf


rdrd. pdwfxm; jzLpifr_tay: tajccHonf@ aumif;uH/ qdk;uHwd@k . aumif;usKd;/
qdk;jypftay:rSmom ,kH=unftm;xm;avh&Sdoltjzpf tjrifajymif;vJvmapjcif;?

46

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

ajz?

? pdwf0ifpm;zdk@aumif;wmu p=um0Vm}uD; pwifyHkESifh


ywfoufvdk@ Ak'<&J@ &Sif;vif;csufawG[m ody`HynmtjrifawG
ESifh vHk;0eD;yg;avmuf udkufnDaejcif;ygyJ? t*~nokwf1rSm p=um0VmESifh
ywfoufvdk@ Ak'<a[mawmfrlyHku - p=um0Vm}uD; ysufpD;oGm;w,f/
+yD;awmh ra&wGufEdkifavmufwJh ESpfawG toacsF=um+yD;awmhrS tck&Sd
aewJh taetxm;rsKd; jzpfvmatmif wa&G@a&G@wjznf;jznf;csif; jyef
vnf jzpfay:vmcJh&wmjzpfw,f? ueOD;owW0gtrsK;d tpm;awG[m
a&rsufESmjyifay:rSm pwifjzpfwnfvmcJh=uw,f? wpfcg aemufxyf
ESpfawG toacsF=um+yD;awmhrS &dk;pif;wJh ouf&SdrsKd; b0uae+yD; trsKd;
trnfpHk axGjym;wJh owW0gawG tqifhudk wa&G@a&G@csif; csDwufvmcJh=u
wmjzpfw,f? 'DjzpfpOfawGtm;vHk;[m tqHk;tprJh vnfywf+yD; obm0
ta=umif;w&m;awGESifhtnD qufvuf jzpfysufvdk@ ae=uwmyJ jzpfyg
w,fwJh?
ar;?

? zefqif;&Sif xm0&bk&m;wnf&Sdr_twGuf taxmuftxm;


wpfpHkwpf&m r&Sdbl;qdk&if qef;jym;wJh obm0vGefudpPawG
twGuf b,fvdk ,lqygovJ? odyg&ap?
ajz?
? qef;jym;wJh 'Dobm0vGef udpPawG[m zefqif;&Sif xm0&
bk&m;ocifawG trSefwu,f wnf&Sdr_twGuf oufao
taxmuftxm;awGyJ jzpfw,fqdk+yD; ,Hk=unfae=uolawG trsm;
tjym; &Sdygw,f?
a&m*gukoaysmufuif;r_ jzpf&yfwpfck ta=umif; cef@rSef;ajym
qdkr_awG =um;&wwfygw,f? q&m0efawGqDuwduswJh axmufcHxGuf
qkdcsufrsKd;usawmh b,fawmhrSr=um;&wwfygbl;? wpfpkHwpfa,muf
udk ab;tEW&m,fuae qef;qef;jym;jym;u,fwifcJhw,fqdkwJh wpfqifh
2? t*~nokwW - 'DCedum, - 27

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

47

pum;rsKd;udk =um;&wwfyg&J@/ tJ'Dta=umif;ESifh ywfoufvdk@ b,fvdk


jzpfysufcJhw,fqdkwJh rsufjrifxkwfazmfajymqdkwmrsKd;udkawmh r=um;&
wwfygbl;? 0wfyqkawmif;jcif;jzifh emrusef;jzpfaeolwpfOD; usef;rm
vmcJhw,f/ udk,fvuft*FgawG oefpGrf;oGm;w,fqdkwJh aumvm[v
ajym=uwmawGvnf; =um;&wwfygw,f? tJ'DtwGuf "gwfrSef&dkuf
jywmudk rjrifbl;ovdk q&m0ef olemyawG&J@ axmufcH ajymqdkwm
rsKd;vnf; r=um;&wwfygbl;? tJ'Dvdk cef@rSef;ajymqdkr_awG/ wpfqifh
pum;awGESifh aumvm[vawGudk cdkifvkHwJh taxmuftxm;awG
tjzpfESifhawmh tpm;xkd;ajymqkdvdk@r&ygbl;? jzpf&yfqef;awGtwGuf
cdkifrmwJh taxmuftxm;qdkwmuvnf; r&SdoavmufygyJ? wpfcg
wpfcg tJ'Dvdk &Sif;rjyEdkifwJht&mawGjzpfysuf+yD; qef;qef;jym;jym;jzpf&yf
awG ay:vmwwfwmuvnf; trSefyJjzpfygw,f? 'gayrJh tJ'DudpPrsKd;
awGudk &Sif;rjyEdkifwm[m zefqif;&Sifbk&m;&Sda=umif;udk oufaoxlwm
r[kwfbJ vlom; awG&J@ todOm%f rjynf@0r_udkyJ oufaoxlwm
jzpfygw,f?
acwfrDaq;0g;awG rxGef;um;ao;wJh/ a&m*gjzpfyGm; &jcif;&J@
ta=umif;&if;udkvnf; vlom;awG rodEdkifao;wJh [dak &S;acwf
umvawGqDu qkd&if bk&m;ocifu 'grSr[kwf bk&m;ocifawGu
(vlom;udk) '%fcwfwJhtaeESifh a&m*gjzpfyGm;jcif;qdkwmudk csrSwfcJhwm
jzpfw,fvdk@ ,kH=unfcJh=uygw,f? tckacwfrSmawmh a&m*gawGjzpf&wJh
ta=umif;w&m;awGudk vlawG odvm=u+yD;jzpfvdk@ aexdkifraumif;
jzpfvm&if oufqdkif&m aq;0g;awGudk rSD0Jvdkuf=uwmyJjzpfygw,f?
tckacwfvlawG a&m*gjzpf&wJhta=umif;&if;udk oabmayguf=uovdkyJ
p=um0VmESifhywfoufvdk@ vl@todOm%f wdk;wufjynfh0vmwJh wpfae@
rSm &Sif;rjyEkdifao;wJh obm0vGef jzpf&yfqef;awG&J@ ta=umif;&if;rSef
awGudkvnf; vlom;awGem;vnfEkdifpGrf;&SdvmrSm trSefygyJ?

48

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

ar;?

? xm0& bk&m;ocifrSm yHkomefawmf &Sdw,fvdk@ wpfcsKd@u


,kH=unf=uw,f? 'g[m jzpfEdkifygovm;?
ajz?
? 'Dvdkawmhjzifh r[kwaf o;ygbl;? wacwfwkef;uurBm}uD;[m
jym;csyfcsyfyJ jzpfw,fvdk@ vlawG tm;vHk;avmufu xifjrif
,lqcJh=uzl;ygw,f? 'gayrJh 'Dtjrif[m vHk;0 rSm;,Gif;cJhygw,f? tawG;
tac:wpf&yf&J@ rSefuefr_/ rSm;,Gif;r_qdkwmudk tJ'D tawG;tac:udk
vufcHolOD;a& tenf;trsm;udkvdkuf+yD; wdkif;wmqHk;jzwfvdk@ r&ygbl;?
ppfrSefwJh tcsuftvufawGudk pkpnf;+yD; pdppfoHk;oyfwJh enf;ESifhom
'DtawG;tac:[m rSefw,f rSm;w,fqdkwm ajymEdkifygvdrfhr,f?
? [kwfyg+yD/ zefqif;&Sif bk&m;ocifudk r,Hk=unf/ vufrcH
=ubl;qdk&if
Ak'<bmomawG bmudkrsm; ,Hk=unf=uyg
ao;ovJ?
ajz?
? vludkyJ ,Hk=unfwJh twGuf zefqif;&Sifudk Ak'<bmomu
r,Hkwmyg? vl/ vl@tjzpf (Human Being) [m wefzdk;
}uD;+yD;awmh ta&;vnf;ygw,f/ Ak'<qdkwJh tzufzufu jynfhpHkwJh
vlom;&J@ tjzpfodk@wdkifatmif wdk;wufjrifhrm;EdkifwJhpGrf;tif vlrSm
&Sdw,fv@dk ,Hk=unfw,f/ vlom;[m odrSm;awGa0r_ESifh qifjcifwHkw&m;
uif;rJhr_awG jzpfay:Edkifao;w,fvdk@vnf; ,kH=unfw,f/ Ak'<bmom0if
awG[m t&m&mwdkif;udk t&Sdut
dk &Sdtwdkif; &_jrifokH;oyfavh &Sd=uyg
w,f? trkef;yGm;jcif;udk arwWmESifh/ pdwfqdk;jcif;udk pdwf&Snfonf;cH r_ESifh/
trsufodk &efi;xm;wwfjcif;udk oabmxm;}uD;r_ESifh/ remvdk r&_pdrfh
wwfwmawGudk oem;nSmwmwwfjcif;ESifh tpm;xdk; ajymif;vJypf
&r,f/ Ak'<&J@ pHerlemawGudk twk,l+yD; "rRrdwfaqGawG&J@ ulnDyHhydk;r_/
vrf;nefr_awGtwdkif; }udK;pm;oGm;=ur,fqdk&if vlwdkif; vlwdkif;[m
txufuqkdcJhwJh tJ'D arwWm/ cED/ &ufa&mr_/ oem;=uifemr_pwJh
usifhpOfawGudk usifhaqmifvdk@ &Ekdifw,fqdkwm Ak'<bmom0ifawGu
,Hk=unfygw,f?

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

49

'Dae&mrSm Ak'<u rdef@awmfrlonfrSmvlom;udk oludk,fwdkifrSvGJvdk@ b,folurS ru,fEdkifbl;?


u,fq,fEdkifol u,frEdkifol&,fvdk@ &Sdudkr&Sdbl;? vl[m
vrf;ay:ajccs+yD; udk,fwdkif av#mufoGm;zdk@ vdktyfw,f?
Ak'<&SifawGuawmh olav#muf&rnfh vrf;udk &Sif;vif;
nef;jyEdkif&HkygyJ1 wJh?

ar;?

1? "rRy' - 165

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

ig;yg;oDv
ar;?

? wpfjcm;bmomawGrSm oufqdkif&mbk&m;&J@ynwfawmfawG
xJrSm vm&SdwJhtwdkif; trSm;trSefudk vufcHusifho;Hk =uyg
w,f? Ak'<bmomu tJ'Dzefqif;&Sifbk&m; qdkwmudk
vufrcHbl;qdkawmh Ak'<bmom0ifawGtzdk@ trSm;trSefudk
b,fvdk odjrifvufcH=uygovJ?
ajz?
? vdkvm;wyfrufr_ avmb/ pdwfqdk; cufxefr_a'goESifhodrSm;
awGa0r_ arm[awGtay: tajccH+yD; jzpfay:vmwJh udk,f/
E_wf/ pdwfv_yf&Sm;r_(uHokH;yg;) awG tm;vHk;[m edAmefESifh a0;onfxuf
a0;apwJhtwGuf qdk;0g;vSygw,f? &ufa&mpGm v'gef; pGef@}uJr_ 'ge/
tusKd;vdk jzLpifwJh arwWm/ usKd;a=umif; qifjcifwwfwJh ynmawGtay:
tajccHwJh udk,f/ E_wf/ pdwf vkyf&yfawG tm;vHk;[m edAmefoGm;&m
vrf;a=umif;udk ulnD&Sif;vif;ay;=uwJhtwGuf aumif;jrwf rSefuef=u
ygw,f?
xm0&ocif zefqif;&SifudkA[dk ywJh bmoma&;awGrSm trSm;
trSef cGJjcm;odjrifa&;qdkwm tJ'D bk&m;awG&J@ ynwfawmfawGxJrSm
vmwJh pHawGESifh nSd+yD;awmhrSyJ rSm;w,f/ rSefw,fvdk@ ,l&wm jzpfyg
w,f? vludk A[dk ywJh Ak'<bmomvdk bmomrsKd;rSmawmh rdrdudk,fudk rdfrd
eufeuf &_dif;&_dif; odjrifem;vnf wwfvmatmif tod^m%fydkif;udk

51

wpfqifh+yD;wpfqifh jrSifhwifay;&ygw,f? 'Dvdk udk,fh[mudk,fodjrif


oabmaygufr_tay:tajccHwJh udk,fusifhw&m;rsKd;uom ynwfawmf
vmtrdef@twdkif;vdkufem&wJhtusifhrsKd;xuf ydk+yD;awmhcdkifrmvSygw,f?
'DvdkESifh Ak'<bmom0ifawG[m trSm;trSef a0zef cGJjcrf;+yD;
od&Sdzdk@ twGuf atmufyg tcsufoHk;csufudk &_iJh+yD; vkyfaqmif=u&yg
w,f? 'gawGuawmh (1) &nf&G,f&if; apwem (The Intention)
(2) tusKd;quf urRzv (The Effect)
(3) vkyfaqmifr_ urR (The Act) wdk@ ygyJ? ('gawG[m
uHwpf&yf txajrmufatmif yvkyfjzpfwJh ae&mrSm yg0ifwJh tydkif;
awGygyJ)?
apwem/ tusKd;qufESifh vkyf&yf/ 'DoHk;csufv;Hk [m tJ'DuHudk
yvkyfol udk,fwidk fESifh oufqdkif+yD;/ tusKd;qufuawmh yvkyfol tjyif
(ywf0ef;usifu) wpfjcm;olawGESifhyg qufpyfaeygw,f? (ywf0ef;usif
tay:rSm vnf;yJ uHtusKd;ay;[m &dkufcwfwwfwJh oabmygbJ)?
tu,fI v'gef;csifwm/ v_dufvSJcifrifcsifwm/ todOm%f
ynmudk jrwfEdk;cHkrifwmawGtay:tajccHwJh &nf&G,f&if;apwemu
aumif;aew,fqdk&if - 'Dapwemu rdrda&m olwpfyg;yg ydkIydkI
twdkif;xuftvGef v'gef;jzpfatmif/ rsufESmcsKdom ysLiSg azmfa&Gwwf
vmatmifESifh ynmOm%f todw&m;udk ydkrdkwefzdk;xm;wwfvm
atmiftxd wGef;tm;ay;w,fqdk&if 'g[m tjynfht0 zGH@z;wm/
aumif;jrwfwm/ oDvtusifhESifh jynfhpHkwmawG jzpfvmwmygyJ?
'Dae&mrSm (E_dif;,SOf pOf;pm;&rnfh) rwluGJjym;wmav;awG &Sd
ygao;w,f? wpfcgwpf&HrSm udk,fu apwemaumif;ESifh vkyfaqmif
vdkufwm jzpfayrJh rdrda&m olwpfyg;yg b,folrS tusKd;rxl;yJvnf; jzpf
wwfygw,f? wpfcgwpf&Husawmh apwemu aumif;rGefvSwm r[kwf
ayrJh 'Dvkyf&yfu wpfjcm;olawGudk tusKd;y&if yaewwfygao;w,f?
wpfcgwpfavrSmawmh apwemaumif;ESifh aqmif&Gufjzpfwm udk,fu

52

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

awmh tusKd;&Sdyg&J@/ wpfyg;olawGtwGuf taESmifht,Suf jzpf&if jzpfae


wwfygw,f? 'Dae&mrSm udk,f&J@ vkyf&yfurRxJrSm taumif;tqdk;
a&m,Suf yg0ifaewmrsKd; jzpfaewwfygw,f? ('ga=umifh vdk&if;udk
qdk&&if) apwemudku qdk;aew,f/ tJ'Dapwemqdk;ESifh aqmif&GufwJh
twGuf rdrdESifholwpfyg;b,fol@udkrS tusKd;rybl;qdk&if - 'g[m pifppf
qdk;wm/ rSm;,Gif;azgufjyefrrSefuefwmygyJ? apwemu aumif;aew,f/
apwemaumif;ESifh aqmif&GufwJhtwGuf rdrda&m olwpfyg;yg tusKd;
rsm;=uw,fqdk&if 'g[m pifppf tjynfht0 aumif;jrwfrSefuef+yD;
razgufjyefwmygyJ?
ar;?
ajz?

ar;?

? 'gqdk Ak'<bmomrSm udk,fusifhqdkif&m usifhxHk;wpf&yf


&Sdygao;ovm;?
? &Sdygw,f? ig;yg;oDv[m Ak'<bmom&J@ tajccH udk,fusifh
oDvygyJ?
(1) ouf&SdowW0gawGudk owfjzwfwm 'grSr[kwf
nSOf;qJESdyfpufwmawGudk a&Smif&Sm;jcif;/
(2) cdk;0Suf vdrfnmr_ ryjcif;/
(3) umr*k%fudpPawGrSm azgufjyefusL;vGefr_ ryjcif;/
(4) vdrfvnf ajymqdkr_ ryjcif;/
(5) t&ufESifh rl;,pfaq;0g;rsm; roHk;pGJjcif;wdk@ygyJ?
? 'gayrJh wpfcgwpfav owfjzwfr_[m vdktyfw,f qdkwm
aocsmygw,f? a&m*gawG jzpfyGm;apEdkifwJh ydk;r$m;awGudk
ESdrfeif; acszsuf&wmawG/ udk,fhudk owfawmhr,f wuJuJ
vkyfaewJh oludk ckcH&wmrsKd;awG vdktyfvm&ifaum
b,fvdkygvJ?

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

53

ajz?

? 'Dvdkar;cGef;rsKd; ar;wJhvltzdk@awmh owfjzwfr_qdkwm vdktyf


aumif; vdktyfrSm trSefygyJ? 'gayrJh 'Dydk;r$m;awG/ rdrdukd
owfawmhrnfh wuJuJ vkyfaewJh yk*~KdvfawG&J@ udpPudkaum xnfhrpOf;
pm;awmhbl;vm;? rdrd[m touf&Sif aexdkif&wmudk jrwfEdk;ovdkyJ
olwdk@awG[mvnf; touf&Sif aexdkifvdk=uolawGcsnf;ygyJ? ul;puf
a&m*gydk;awGudk
ESdrfeif;acszsufzdk@
qHk;jzwfvdkuw
f Jhtcg
ol@&J@
apwemxJrSm tqdk;ESifhtaumif; tm;+ydKifa&m,Suf+yD; yg0ifae=u
w,f? 'Dvdkvkyfwm udk,fhtwGufawmh aumif;yg&J@ tvkyfcH&ol tzdk@rSm
awmh raumif;&kd; trSefygyJ? 'ga=umifh 'Dtaetxm;rsKd;rSm owfjzwfr_
qdkwm vdktyfaumif;vdktyfrSm jzpfayrJh 'g[m pifppf aumif;wJh
oabmawmh r[kwfygbl;?
ar;?

? Ak'<bmom0ifawG[m yk&GufqdwfESifh =urf;ydk;awGudkawmif


odyfnSmwmavh &Sd=uw,f qdkwmuaum b,fvdkygvJ?
ajz?
? Ak'<0g'DawG[m owW0gawGtm;vHk; tay:rSm cGJjcm;r_r&SdyJ
wajy;nD wpfoabmwnf;xm;+yD; cHkrifoem;wwfwJh
u&k%m w&m;rsKd;udk yGm;rsm;tm;xkwfavh &Sd=uygw,f? Ak'<0g'DawGu
awmh 'DurBm}uD;ukd ouf&SdoufrJh t&mawGtm;vkH; wajy;nD pkaygif;
jzpfwnfvsuf &Sd=uwJh urBmjzpfw,f/ t&m0wKawGESifh owW0gawG
tm;vHk;rSm ae&m (udk,fydkif&yfwnfcsuf) ESifh tvkyf (udk,fydkif
aqmif&Gufcsuf) udk,fpD &Sd=uw,fvdk@ &_jrif=uygw,f? obm0&J@
[efcsufnD jzpfwnfr_udk vlom;awGu wdrf;yg; ysufpD;apwmwdk@/
azmufvSJazmufjyef jzpfapwmwdk@ rvkyfrdcifrSm vlom;taeESifh owd
}uD;pGm xm;oifhw,fvdk@ cH,l=uygw,f? awmawmif a&ajr obm0udk
ajrvSefzsufqD;+yD; udk,v
fh dkb jynfh0a&; wpfckwnf;udkom t"du
xm;wJh/ jyefvnfysKd;axmifa&;qdkwmrsKd;udk vkH;0*&krxm;bJ obm0
t&if; tjrpfawGudk Edkifvdkrif;xuf zsufvdkzsufqD;vkyf+yD; tuif;rJh
nSpfxkwf okH;pGJae=uwJh a'owcsKd@qDu tusifhp&dkufqdk;awGudk

54

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

=unfhyg? (tJ'Da'oawGrSm) obm0u (vludk) jyefvnfwGef;vSefvm


yg+yD/ avxktv$m[mvnf; tqdyo
f ifhvmaew,f/ jrpfa&awG[m
npfnrf;vmae=u+yD; aemufqHk;rSm jrpfa=umif;awG aumoGm;=uw,f/
vSywJh owW0grsKd;aygif;rsm;pGmawG aysmufqHk;oGm;=uw,f/ awmawmif
awG wdkufpm;yef;wD;vm+yD;/ &moDOwkawGvnf; ajymif;vJazmufjyef
rrSefuefawmhygbl;? tu,fI vlawGuom 'DvdkrsKd; ESdrfeif;zsufqD;
owfjzwfr_awGudk enf;enf;yg;yg; jzpfjzpf qifqifjcifjcif &Sd=ur,fqdk&if
'Davmuf qdk;0g;wJh tajcrsKd;txd qdkufa&mufzG,f&m r&Sdygbl;?
vlom;awGtm;vHk; ouf&Sdavmuudk ydkrdkwefzdk;xm;wwfwJh tusifh
wdk;yGm;vmatmif u;pm;oifh=uyg+yD? 'gu yg%mwdygw qdkwJh yxr
oduQmyk'f&J@ qdkvkdcsufygyJ?

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

55

ar;?

? vufrxyf&ao;yJESifh vdifudpP jzpfyGm;wmrsKd;uaum


rSm;,Gif;wJh umrr_yJwJhvm;?
ajz?
? ESpfOD;om;t=um; tjyef tvSef oabmwlcspf=unf&if;ESD;r_
(trSef wu,f ,Hk=unfpdwfcs&r_) &Sd=uw,f qdk&ifawmh
'g[m rSm;,Gif;wJhtr_ r[kwaf wmhygbl;? odk@ayrJhvnf; &kyfoabmt&
vdifqufqHw,fqdkwm rsKd;yGm;apwwfwJh udpPjzpfw,fqdkwmudk rarh
oifhygbl;? vufrxyf&ao;yJESifh trsKd;orD;wpfOD; udk,f0ef &Sdvm+yDqdk
&if odyfcufcufcJcJ ajz&Sif;&wJhtjzpfrsKd; a&mufoGm;wwfygw,f?
'ga=umifh qifjcifajrmfjrifavh &SdolawGuawmh vufrxyfrcsif; vdifudpP
ry=uwm taumif;qHk;yJvdk@ cH,l=uygw,f?
ar;?

ar;?

? wwd, oduQmyk'fu rSm;,Gif;azmufjym;wJh umrusL;vGef


wmrsKd; ryvkyf&vdk@ qdkxm;w,f? rSm;,Gif;azmufjyefwJh
umrusL;vGefr_ qdkwmuaum b,fvdkygvJ?
ajz?
? vdrfvnfvSnfhjzm; pnf;&Hk;w,f/ umrudpP ta=umif;y+yD;
aiGnSpfw,f/ 'grSr[kwf twif;tusyfy+yD; wpfpHk
wpfa,mufudk umr qufqHw,fqdk&if 'gawG[m rSm;,Gif; azmufjyef
wJh umrr_awGygyJ? tdrfaxmif&SifwpfOD; taeESifhuawmh udk,&fh J@
tdrfaxmifzuftay: opPmapmifhodyghr,fvdk@ xm;&SdcJhwJh uwdu0wfudk
vnf; csKd;azmuf&ma&mufwJhtwGuf wpfjcm;wpfa,mufESifhazmufjym;
w,fqdk&if rSm;,Gif;wJh umrr_ (umarokrdp>mpm&) ygyJ? 'g[m udk,&fh J@
tdrfaxmif zuftay:rSm opPmr&Sd uwdrwnf&mvnf; a&mufygw,f?
vdifudpP qdkwm wu,fqdk vlESpfOD;t=um; wu,fcspf=uwm/
&if;ESD;=uwmudk azmfaqmifwmyJ jzpfoifhygw,f? 'DvdkrsKd; wu,fwrf;
cspfcif&if;ESD;=uawmhrSvnf; pdwfcsrf;omr_ tjynfht0 &Sd=urSm
jzpfygw,f?

? vdrfnm ajymqdkw,f qdkwmuaum b,fvdkygvJ? vdrfr


ajymyJ aevdk@aum jzpfEdkifajc &Sdyg&J@vm;?
ajz?
? wu,fhudk rvdrf rnm r+zD;r+zef;yJESifh aexdkifvdk@udk rjzpfEdkif
avmufwJh vl@r_todkif;t0dkif;ESifh vkyfief;cGifrsKd;rSm usifvnf
&w,fqdk&ifawmh tJonfavmuf xdwfvef@p&maumif;avmufatmif
qdk;qdk;0g;0g; jcpm;aewJh taetxm;rsKd;udk ajymif;vJ pGef@cGgoifhygw,f?
tcuftcJawGESifh }uHK&wJhtcg twwfEdkifqHk; rSefrSefuefuef &kd;&dk;
om;om;ESifh vufawG@usus udkifwG,f ajz&Sif;avh&Sdol[m Ak'<0g'D/ Ak'<
bmom0ifygyJ?
ar;?

? aumif;yg+yD/ t&ufaomufwmESifh ywfoufvdk@ enf;enf;


yg;yg;uav; aomufwmqdk&ifaum (udk,fusifhoDvudk)
odyfxdcdkufEdkifyghrvm;?
ajz?
? vlawG t&ufaomuf=uw,fqdkwm t&omcHzdk@ twGuf
r[kwyf gbl;?
wpfa,mufwnf;
aomufw,fqdk&if
wif;usyfwJh tajctaeawGuae w'*Ftm;jzifh vGwfajrmufr_ &&Sdzdk@
twGuf aomufwmjzpfw,f? trsm;ESifhaomufwmusawmh tJ'D

56

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

vlawGESifh wpfoabmwnf; jzpf+yD; vdkufavsmnDaxG jzpfapzdk@ twGuf


aomuf=uwmyJ jzpfygw,f? t&ufqdkwm enf;enf;yg;yg;uav;
aomufwmESifhyJ todpdwfudk uwdrf;uyg; jzpfap+yD; owdvufvGwf
jzpfwwfygw,f? trsm;tjym;aomufwmqdk&ifawmh vHk;0ysufpD;oGm;
rSmygyJ?
ar;?

? rjzpfpavmufuav; aomufwmESifhawmh oDv[m rysuf


pD;Edkifbl;vdk@ xifygw,f? ysufEdkifygao;ovm;? aomufwm
uvnf; wu,fhenf;enf;yg;yg; qdk&ifayghav?
ajz?
? ysufEdkifygw,f? 'Dtenf;tusOf;uav;udkawmif
raomuf& raeEdkifbl;qdk&if tJ'DoduQmyk'f aqmufwnfr_
ESifh qHk;jzwfcsufcsr_[m rcdkifrmvdk@yJaygh? b,fvdkvJ cdkif&J@vm;?
ar;?

? ig;yg;oDv qdkwm wm;jrpfcsuf oufoufcsnf;yJvm;?


bmawG rvkyf&/ b,f[mawG a&Smif&rnf qdkwmcsnf;yJ
zdajym+yD;awmh bmawG b,f[mawGawmhjzifh vkyf&r,f
qdkwm rsKd;uaum rygbl;wJhvm;?
ajz?
? ig;yg;oDv[m Ak'<bmom&J@ tajccH udk,fusifhw&m;ygyJ?
ig;yg;oDv&J@ tus,ft0ef;[m Tr#wGifom r[kwfao;yg
bl;? vl[m trltusifhqdk;awGudk (udk,fwdkif) odjrif+yD; tJ'gawGudk
&yfqdkif; a&Smif=uOfjcif;jzifh tpysKd;&ygr,f? 'Dtcsufu ig;yg;oDv[m
bm twGufvnf; qdkwJh tajzygyJ? trltusifhqdk;awGudk &yfqdkif;+yD;wJh
aemufrSmawmh trltusifhaumif;awGudk wdk;yGm;yvkyfzdk@ pwifygawmh?
Oyrm jy&&if pum;ajymqdkr_ 0pDuH qdkygawmh rkom;ajymqdkwmudk
a&Smif=uOfjcif;jzifh pwif&ygr,f? tJ'Daemuf oifhawmfwJh tcsdef
(tajctae) rSm rSefaompum;udk El;nhHodrfarG@pGm ajymqdkwwfvm
atmif avhusifh,l&r,fvdk@ Ak'<u rdef@awmfrlcJhygw,f?

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

57

rkom;ajymqdkr_udk a&Smif=uOfjcif;jzifh opPmpum;udk qdkol


jzpfvmw,f? tm;udk;xdkufol/ ,Hk=unfpdwfcs&ol/ rSDcdkxdkufol
jzpfvmw,f? olrsm;awGudk xdcdkufepfemapEdkifwJh *kH;acsm
pum;udk a&Smif=uOfjcif;jzifh wnf=unfol jzpfvmw,f?
olESpfOD;t=um; em;vnfr_ vGJwmawG jzpfvmatmif 'Dpum;
[dak jym/ [dkpum; 'DajymrsKd; rajymbl;? roifhrwifhjzpf+yD;
uGJjym;aeolawGudk jyefvnf &if=um;aphay;+yD; rdwfaqGawG
=um;rSmawmh ydkrdkcdkifrmvmatmif aqmif&Gufay;avh &Sdw,f?
nDnGwfat;csrf;r_udkyJ =unfEl;ESpfouf jrwfEdk;ol jzpfw,f?
ol@ajympum;awG&J@ OD;wnfcsufuvnf; nDnGwfa&;ygyJ?
=urf;wrf;&kdif;jywJh pum;rsKd;ukd a&Smif=uOfjcif;jzifh ol@pum;
awG[m tjypfuif;wJhpum;/ em;0ifcsKdwJ@pum;/ uef@uGuf
p&mr&SdwJhpum;/ ESvHk;om;udk &kdufcwfapwJhpum;/ ,Ofaus;
zG,f&mwJhpum;/ vlrsm;pk oabmusavmufwJ@pum;awG
jzpfvmwmygyJ? odrfzsif;wJhpum;awGGukd a&Smif=uOf+yD;awmh
tcsdeftcgESifhvdkufzufwJhpum;/ rSefuefwhJpum;/ "rRESifh
pyfvsOf;whJpum;/ Oya'o (usifhpOf/ pnf;urf;/ vkyfenf;
vkyf[ef) ESifh pyfvsOf;whJpum;/ ta&;yg+yD; wefzdk;&SdwhJ pum;/
tcgtcGifhoifh+yD; a=umif;uskKd;qDavsmfwJh pum;/ vdk&if;uswJh
pum;rsKd;awGudk ajymqdkavh&Sdol jzpfvmw,f1?

1? rZPsdredum,-179

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

wrvGef
ar;? ? vlom;[m b,fuae vmcJh+yD;awmh b,fqDudk
oGm;rSmygvJ?
ajz?
? 'Dtar;twGuf jzpfEdkifajcu oHk;rsK;d &Sdygw,f? zefqif;&Sifudk
,Hk=unfolawGuawmh - owW0gawGudk rzefqif;cifrSm
vl[m ray:aygufao;yJ bk&m;ocif&J@/ bk&m;ocifawG&J@ zefqif;vdkwJh
qENjzpfay:r_uaewqifh vlay:aygufvmcJh&wm jzpfw,fwJh/ 'DvdkESifh
ol[m ouf&Sdaexdkifoljzpfvm+yD; aexdkif&whJ b0rSm bmudk,=Hk unf+yD;
bmawG aqmif&Gufw,fqdkwhJ tcsufay: rlwnfvsuf xm0&
aumif;uifbkH/ 'grSr[kwf xm0& i&JbkHqDudk oGm;rSmyJwJh? vlom;
0g'DawGESifh ody`Hynm&SifawGuawmh obm0 ta=umif;w&m;awG
a=umifh vlowW0gawG ay:aygufvmcJh=uw,f/ ouf&Sifaexdkifw,f/
aoqHk;w,f/ +yD;awmh tpaysmufoGm;awmhwmygyJwJh? Ak'<bmom
uawmh 'Daz:jycsuf ESpfrsKd;vHk;udk vufrcHygbl;? yxr t,ltqu
,Hk=unfr_ESifha&m tusifhp&dkufESifhyg oufqdkifwJh ar;cGef;aygif;rsm;pGmudk
ay:xGufvmapygw,f? oef@pifrGef jrwfwJh bk&m;ociftaeESifh trSef
wu,fom owW0gawGudk zefwD;aewm jzpfw,fqdk&if a=umufp&m
aumif;avmufatmif yHkysufyef;ysufESifh arG;zGm;vmolawG/ wpfcsKd@u

59

arG;csdefrwdkifrD aooGm;=uovdk/ wpfcsKd@usawmh vaphvdk@arG;vmwm


awmif taoyJ arG;vmjyefw,f? 'gawGudk b,fvdkjzpfw,fqdkwm
&Sif;jyzdk@awmifrSyJ cufcJvSygw,f? zefqif;&Sif0g' taeESifh &Sif;jyzdk@ cuf
vSwJh aemuftcsuf wpfckuawmh vlwpfOD;[m urBmay:rSm vl@ouf
wrf; ESpf 60-70 r# ouf&Snfaexdkif+yD; 'DumvtawmtwGif; olvkyf
cJhwJ@raumif;wmawG twGuf i&JrSm xm0& 'kuQawGudk (rqHk;wrf;)
cHpm;&awmhr,fqdkawmh 'g[m enf;enf;uav;rS w&m;&m usyHkray:
ygbl;? 'Dvdk ESpf 60-70 r# umvtwGif; bk&m;w&m;udk r,Hk=unf
cJh&kHESifh 'grSr[kwf tusifhuav; raumif;cJh&HkESifhyJ xm0&'kuQawGudk
(eifhaeatmif) rcHpm;xdkufao;ygbl;? tjyeftvSeftm;jzifh vl@ouf
wrf; tESpf 60-70 r# umvtwGif; aumif;aumif;rGefrGef aexdkifcJh&Hkr#
uav;jzifh aumif;uifbkHrSm trw okcawGudk xm0& cHpm;&zdk@qdkwJh
twGufvnf; yrm%enf;aew,f qdkwmygyJ?
'kw,
d t,ltqu yxr,lqcsufxuf rsm;pGm ykdaumif;+yD;
'DtcsufrSefuefa=umif; ody`H taxmuftxm; wpfcsKd@vnf; &Sdaeyg+yD?
'gayrJh odyfta&;ygwJh ar;cGef;awGudkawmh ckxd tajz rxkwf Edkifao;yg
bl;? okwfydk;ESifh r rsKd;O qdkwJh uvmyfpnf; (cell) ESpfckwdk@&J@ &dk;pif;wJh
aygif;pnf;r_uae b,fvdkvkyf+yD; tajccH&kyfw&m;[m tHhrcef; &_yfaxG;
ayGvDvSwJh todpdwfwpfcktqifhESifh jzpfay:vmcJh&wmygvJ? aemuf+yD;
awmh tcktcg 0dnmOfta=umif;rsm;/ t=um;tjrifta=umif;rsm;
ponfwdk@udk pepfwus avhvmwJh yg&qdkifudkvdk*sD (Parapsycology)
udk ody`Hynm&J@ tpdwftydkif;wpfcktjzpf todtrSwf yxm;+yDqdkawmhh
pdwfcsif; qufoG,fr_ w,fvDyoDvdk tajccHpdwf&J@ oabmw&m;awG
udkawmh &kyfEG,fwJh pdwf&J@yHkomeftjzpfESifh xnfh oGif;ajymqdkzdk@u
awmh cufwkef;ygyJ?
Ak'<bmomuawmh vl[m b,fuae vmcJh+yD; b,fqDudk
qufoGm;OD;r,fqdkwm auseyfzG,f taumif;qHk; jzpfvmatmif &Sif;
vif;jyozdk@ urf;vSrf;zdwfac:ygw,f? aowJh tcg (aocgeD;umvrSm)

60

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

tckb0 jzpfysufawG@uHcJh&wJh tm;vkH;aom udkif;nGwfwdrf;,drf;r_awG/


tuufw&m;awG/ tpGrf;tpawG/ tusifhp&dkufawGESifh twlwuG
jzpfay:vmwJhpdwf1u ydoaE< rsKd;aphudk jyefvnf jzpfyGm;apygw,f?
'DvdkESifh owW0g[m pwifydoaE<wnf arGzGm;vm+yD;awmh rlvu
ygvmwJh tusifhp&dkufawGua&m/ ywf0ef;usifu zefwD;whJ yk*~v tajc
taeawGt&yg b0qdkwm jzpfay:vdk@vmygw,f? ('DrSm zefqif;&Sif
vkH;0ryg0ifcJhbl;qdkwm owdcsyfyg)? rlvuygvmwJh yk*~vduoGifjyif[m
udk,[
fh mudk,f pdwfydkif;qdkif&mt& tajymif;tvJ jzpfatmif u;yrf;r_
awGa=umifh ajymif;vJEdkifovdk ynma&;/ rdb (rdom;pk) ywf0ef;usif
=oZmvrf;rdk;r_ESifh vl@tzGJ@tpnf;pwJh jyifytajctaeawGa=umifhvnf;
yJ ajymif;vJoGm; Edkifygao;w,f? ao+yD;wJh aemufrSmawmh b0opfudk
ol@[mESifhol wzef jzpfay:apjyefygw,f? 'DvdkESifh aovdkuf arG;vkduf
jzpfpOf[m odrSm;awGa0r_ t0dZmESifh vkdvm; wyfrufr_ w%SmqkdwJh
rlvESpfjzma=umifhjzpfwJh oHo&mvnfr_ r&yfrcsif; qufwdkuf jzpfysuf
aerSmyg? rlvESpfjzm &yfpJoGm;wJhtcgrSmawmh xyfrH rarG;zGm;awmhbJ
edAmefqdkwJh tajctae wpf&yfudk &&SdvmrSmjzpfygw,f? 'g[m
Ak'<bmomawG&J@ aemufqHk; tEdr &nfrSef;csufjzpf+yD; b0&J@ OD;wnf
csufvnf;yJ jzpfygw,f?
ar;?

? pdwf[m cE<mudk,f wpfckuae aemufcE<mudk,f wpfckqDodk@


b,fvdkvkyf+yD; a&mufoGm;wmygvJ?
ajz?
? 'gudk a&'D,dkvd_if;wpfckvdk oabmxm;+yD; awG;=unfhprf;yg?
a&'D,dkv_id f;qdkwm tpu pum;vHk;awG/ aw;*DwawG
r[kwfyJ vd_if;trsKd;rsKd;uae xkwfv$ifhwJh toHv_dif;j'yfpGrf;tifr#om
jzpfygw,f? tJ'D vd_if;udk xkwfv$ifhvdkuw
f mESifh wyifeuf v_dif;[m
tmumoxJ a&mufoGm;+yD;/ tJ'Duae wqifh oHvdkuf"gwfESifh qGJ,l
1? r&%moEMaZmpdwf

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

61

vdkufwJh tcg usawmh a&'D,dkpifwmu rlvxkwfv$ifhvdkufwJh aw;*Dw


awG pum;vHk;awG twdkif;yJ zrf;,lem;qifolawG =um;=u&ygw,f?
'g[m pdwfoabmw&m;ESifh wlnDaeygw,f? ao+yD;wJhaemufrSmvnf;
pdwfpGrf;tifawGudk ydoaE< rsKd;aphu vufcHqGJ,lvdkufwmyg? oaE<
om;avmif;}uD;xGm;vmawmh tJ'DydoaE<pdwf[m OD;aESmufrSm A[kd y
vm+yD; tJ'Duae wpfqifh Oy"d &kyfopftaejzifh jzpfvmawmhwmygyJ?
ar;?

? owW0gwpfOD;[m vlom;tjzpfESifhcsnf; b0opfudk &wwf


ygovm;?
ajz?
? 'Dvdk r[kwfygbl;? owW0gwpfOD; oGm;jzpfEdkifwJh bkHmeawGu
trsm;}uD;yJ &Sdygw,f? wpfcsKd@owW0gawG txufewfbHkawG
qDrmS jzpfEdkifovdk wpfcsKd@usawmh i&JrSm jzpfEdkifygw,f? wpfcsKd@vnf;
qmavmifrGwfodyfaewJh +ydwWmb0rSm oGm;jzpfEdkifygao;w,f ponf
jzifh trsm;tjym;ygyJ? ewfbHkewfeef;awGqdkwm wu,fh ae&mmeawG
r[kwfbJ El;nHhodrfarG@wJh &kyfcE<mrsKd;udkyJ ydkifqdkif=u+yD;awmh emrf w&m;
taeESifhom trsm;tm;jzifh aysmf&$if=unfEl;zG,f m&kHawGudkyJ
cHpm;&olawG wnf&SdwJ@ tajctae wpf&yfr#om jzpfygw,f? wpfcsKd@
aom bmomawGrSmusawmh xm0& wnf+rJwJh wu,fhbkHme wpfck
tjzpf rSm;,Gif;pGm ,Hk=unfxm;=uwJh tJ'DaumifuifbHkrSm jzpfzdk@ta&;
odyftm;pdkuf u;yrf;=u&ygw,f? 'gayrJh 'g[m 'Dtwdkif; r[kwfbJ
rwnf+rJwwfwJh wjcm;t&mawG tm;vHk;vdkyJ aumif;uifbkH
(ewfbkHewfeef;) qdkwmawG[mvnf; xm0&r[kw=f uygbl;? tJ'DrSm
oufwrf;aphvdk@ pkaw&wJ@ owW0g wpfOD;taeESifh vl@jynfrSmvnf;
jzpfEdkifygao;w,f? tvm;wlyJ/ i&JbkHqdkwm[mvnf; wu,fh ae&m
mewpfck r[kwfbJ El;nHhwJh &kyfcE<mrsKd;udk ydkifqdkif=u+yD; emrfw&m;
taeESifhom t"dutm;jzifh pdk;&drf qif;&Jr_ tedm&kH oufoufudkyJ
cHpm;&olawG wnf&SdwJh tajctae wpf&yfr#om jzpfygw,f?

62

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

jydwWmbkHb0qdkwmvnf; tJ'DvdkygyJ? El;nhHwJh &kyfcE<mudk ydkifqdkif=u


w,f? umv=umanmif;pGmyJ auseyfa&mifh&Jr_ qdkwmrsKd; vHk;0r&SdbJ
qmavmifrGwfodyfpGm cHpm;ae=u&ygw,f? qdkawmh - ewfbHk ewfeef;
om;awG[m t"dutm;jzifh aysmf&$if=unfEl;r_udk cHpm;=u&ygw,f?
i&JESifh +ydwWmbkHom;awGu qif;&J'kuQawGudkyJ ae@w"l0 cHpm;=u&yg
w,f? vlom;uawmh xHk;pHtwdkif; okc'kuQawG a&maESm cHpm;=u&
wmyJ jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh vl@b0 vl@bHkmeESifh wpfjcm;wpfjcm;aom
bHkmeawG&J@ t"du uGmjcm;csufuawmh &kyfcE<m zGJ@pnf;yHkESifh cHpm;r_
tawG@t}uHK t&nftaoG;awGygyJ?
ar;?

? b,fbHkmerSm oGm;jzpfr,f qdkwmudkaum b,fvdkvkyf


qHk;jzwfygovJ?
ajz?
? b,fbkHmerSmoGm;jzpfr,f/ b,fb0 taetxm;rsKd;udk
ydkifqdkifr,f qdkwmtwGufawmh urR (aumif;r_/ raumif;r_
awGudk txajrmufapwJh apwem&if;) [m ol@csnf;oufouf r[kwf
ayrJh ta&;tygqkH; tcsufyJ jzpfygw,f? urRqdkwJh pum;vkH;&J@
t"dy`g,fu vkyf&yf (Action) jzpf+yD;/ tJ'D vkyf&yfawGudk txajrmuf
apwJh &nf&G,f (aphaqmf) csuf apwemudk nef;ygw,f? wenf;ajym&
&if twdwfb0u b,fvdkawG;ac:cJhw,f/ vkyf&yfawGudk vkyfaqmif&m
rSm b,fykHb,fenf; vkyfudkifcJhw,fqdkwJhtcsufu owW0gawGudk
trsm;}uD; cs,fvS,f+yD; tqkH;tjzwfay;ygw,f? tvm;wlyJ tck
vuf&Sdb0rSm vlom;[m bmawGudk b,fvkdawG;awmqkH;jzwfw,f/
bmawGtay: b,fvkdyrlaqmif&Gufw,fqdkwJh tcsufuyJ ol[m
tem*gwfrSm b,fbkHb0rSm b,fvdktwef;tpm; oGm;jzpfr,fqdkwJh
udpPudk udkifwG,f zefwD;oGm;ygvdrfhr,f?
odrfarG@El;nH@wJh pdwfxm;&Sdol/ oem;=uifemwwfolawG[m
ewfbkHewfb0awGESifh csrf;omaysmf&$ifr_awGudk cHpm;cGifh&SdwJh vl@b0rSm
jzpfzdk@ tvm;tvm&Sdygw,f? pdk;&drfa=umifh=ur_}uD;olawG/ pdwfxJ

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

63

roufromESifh ylaqG;0rf;enf;+yD; rausrcsrf;EkdifolawG/ 'grSr[kwf &uf


pufvGef;wJh pdwfxm;p&dkuf&SdolawGuawmh i&Jb0ESifh 'kuQyifv,fa0&
wJhvl@qif;&J b0rsKd;udk &wwfygw,f? wpkHw&mudk wrf;wrf;pGJ
jzpfaewJh umrkyg'gef tm;}uD;olawG/ &ufpuf,kwfedrfhwJh pdwfxm;&dSol/
b,fawmhrS a&mifh&Jwif;wdrfr_r&SdwJh qEN&m* tm;}uD; olawGuawmh
tcsdefESifhtr# qmavmifrGwfodyfae&wJh +ydwWmb0rsKd;/ vljzpf&ifawmif
rSyJ awmifhw&r_awG/ vdkbrjynhfr_awGESifh vHk;vnf vdkufae&wJh b0rsKd;
ukdyJ &wwfygw,f? pdwfydkif;qdkif&m tusifhp&dkufawG[m tckvuf&Sd
b0rSm pGrf;tm;aumif;&if aumif;oavmuf vmrnfhb0rSmvnf;
(tusKd;quf wpf&yftaeESifh) qufvuf jzpfay:aeOD;rSmygyJ? 'gayrJh
vlrsm;pkuawmh vl@tjzpfudk jyefvnf&&Sd=uwmyJ rsm;ygw,f?
ar;?

? 'gqdk&if vl&J@ uHw&m;ucsnf; vludk tqHk;tjzwfay;wm


r[kwfbJ/ vluvnf;yJ uHw&m;udk tajymif;tvJ jzpf
atmif vkyfEdkifw,faygh?
ajz? ? odyfvkyfEdkifwmaygh? rSefuefwJh tm;xkwfr_ (orRm0g,mr)1
[m r*~if&Spfyg;teuf wpfcktygt0if jzpfae&wm
'ga=umifhyJaygh? pGrf;tifawG b,favmufyJ pdkufxkwf&xkwf&/ tusifh
p&dkufawG b,favmufyJ cdkifcdkif/ 'g[m rSefuefwJh tm;xkwfr_
orRm0g,mrtay:rSmyJ wnfrSDaeygw,f? 'gayrJh tcsKd@vlawGu
twdwfu ygvmwJh raumif;wJh tusifhp&dkufqdk;awG&Jh =oZmv$rf;rdk;r_
atmufrSmyJ b0wpfav#mufvkH; aexdkifoGm;=uw,f? 'gudk ajymif;vJ
ypfzdk@ ru;pm;bJESifh 'Draumif;r_awGa=umifh jzpf&wJh 0rf;enf;zG,f
tusKd;qufawG&Jh om;aumiftjzpf cHoGm;=uw,f? 'DvlawG[m tJ'D
tysufqefwJh trltusifhawGudk rajymif;vJ rpGef@ypfrcsif; 'kuQyifv,f
1? orRm0g,mr ] rdrduH=urRmudk rdrdudk,w
f kid f zefwD;vsuf taumif;qHk; jzpfatmif
tm;xkwrf _

64

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

a0ae=uOD;rSmyg? tJonfvdkrsKd; pGJuyfaewJh tusifhqdk;awGqdkwmu


=umav pGef@y,fzdk@ cufavygyJ?
Ak'<bmom0ifawGuawmh 'Dtaetxm;ukd em;vnf=u
w,f? 'ga=umifh 0rf;enf;zG,f tusKd;qufawGudk jzpfay:apwJh pdwfxm;
p&dkufqkd;awGudk xdef;csKyfzdk@/ 0rf;omp&m/ &$ifvef;csrf;ajrhzG,f&mawGudk
jzpfay:aprnfh trltusifhaumif;awG wkd;yGm;apzkd@ tpOfojzifh }udK;yrf;
=uygw,f? udk,fr_ E_wfr_awGudk ryvkyf rajymqdkjcif;jzifh xdef;csKyfvdk@

&Edkifovdk raemuH&J@ tusifhp&kdkuf tpGJtvrf;awGudkvnf; yjyif


ajymif;vJvdk@ &Edkifygw,f? w&m;bm0em yGm;rsm; tm;xkwfr_[m
raemuHudk yjyifEdkifwJh enf;vrf;wpfckygyJ? Ak'<0g'DawG&Jh b0pOf
wpfckvkH;[m tjypfuif;jzLpifwJhESvkH;om;/ vGwfvyfwJh pdwfxm;rsKd;
xm;wwfatmifavhusifh ysKd;axmif,l&wmyJ jzpfygw,f? Oyrm

tm;jzifh onf;cHwwfwmESifh oem;=uifemwwfwm[m +yD;cJhwJh


b0uwnf;u tjzpffrsm;+yD;/ av;eufwJh tusifhp&dkuf wpfckjzpfcJhr,f
qdk&if tJ'Dp&dkuf&J@ obm0[m vuf&dSb0rSmvnf;yJ jymef;vmrSmygyJ?
vuf&Sdb0rSmvnf; tJ'Dp&dkuf[m xyfrH+yD; yGm;rsm;OD;r,fqdk&ifawmh
vmrnfhtem*gwf b0rSmvnf;yJ tJ'Dp&dkuf[m ydkrdktm;aumif;/ ydkrdk
+yD;awmh pGJ+rJ odomvmrSm rvGJygyJ? 'g[m (oHo&mESifh csD+yD;) a&&Snf
pGJuyfvmcJhwJh tusifhp&dkufqdk;awGqdkwm =umav acszsufpGef@y,f
&cufavyJqdkwJh &Sif;vif;odomEdkifwJh tcsufyJ jzpfygw,f?
onf;nnf;cHwwfol/ oem;nSmwmwwfolrsKd;udk b,folurS
awmf&kHESifh pdwfqdk;atmif rvkyfEdkifwJhtwGuf tJ'DvdkvlrsKd;rSm ti;
taw;vnf; r&Sdawmhygbl;? 'DvkdvlrsKd;twGuf ol&Jh awG@uHjzwfoef;&
wmawG[mvnf; aysmf&$ifcsrf;ajr@p&mawGcsnf; jzpfaeygvdrfhr,f?
aemufwpfcsufu onf;nnf;cHEdkif&nf&Sd+yD;/ oem;nSmwm
wwfwJh p&dkufobm0[m yk*~KdvfwpfOD;twGuf t&ifb0uae tck
vuf&Sdb0xJudk tusifhp&dkufwpfcktjzpf ygvmwmyJjzpfw,f qdkapOD;
awmh/ 'gayrJh ol[m tckrsufarSmufb0rSm tJ'Dtusifhuav;udk vspf

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

65

vsL&_xm;r,f/ ydkrdk+yD;awmh &Sifoefcdkifrmvmatmif/ wdk;wufyGm;rsm;


vmatmif wpkHw&m raqmif&Gufbl;qdk&if tJ'Daumif;wJhtusifhawG
p&kdufawG[m jznf;jznf;csif; ,kwfavsmhtm;aysmhvm+yD;awmh aemuf
b0rSm vkH;0 aysmufysufuG,foGm;Edkifygw,f? onf;nnf;cHwmwdk@/
oem;nSmwmwwfwmwdk@qdkwmawG r&Sdoavmuf tm;enf;acgif;yg;
ol wpfOD;tzdk@rSmawmh 'Db0rSma&m aemifb0awGrSmyg tJ'Dta=umif;
awGa=umifh jzpfvmwJh 0rf;enf;zG,ftusKd;qufawGudk cH,l&if; udk,fh
pdwfudk,frEdkifol/ a'goukrRm&/ &ufpufol}uD;rsKd; jzpfoGm;wwfyg
w,f? aemufqkH;ajym&&if tckb0rSm udk,fhpdwfuav;rS udk,frEdkif
wm/ a'gotdk;jzpfae=uwmawG[m +yD;cJhwJh b0uae ygvmwJh pdwf&Jh
tusifhp&kdufqdk;vdk@yJ qdkygpdk@? tJ'Dp&dkufaysmh p&dkufqdk;awG[m raumiff;
usKd;awGudkyJ ay;w,fqdkwm vufcH,kH =unf+yD;awmh 'gawGudk ajymif;
vJypfzdk@ u;pm;yg? tJ'D tysufpdwfawG&Jh ae&mrSm tyoabmqefwJh
pdwfxm;aumif;awGESifh tpm;xdk;ypfvdkufyg? u;pm;r,fqdk&if wu,f
vnf; jzpfEdkifwJh tJ'DpdwfnHhawGudk t+yD;wkdif acszsufEdkifw,fqdk&if
awmh tJ'Dpdwfaysmh/ pdwf&l;awG&J@ qdk;usKd;awGuae t+yD;wdkif
vGwfuif;oGm;rSmygyJ? tu,fI tJ'Dp&kdufqdk;awGudk tm;aysmhoGm;
ap&HkavmufyJ wwfEdkifw,fqdk&ifawmh aemufb0rSmvnf;yJ 'gawG
[m tm;enf;wJh yHkpHESifh xGufay:vmtHk;rSmygyJ? aemufb0rSmvnf;yJ
ay:vmwJh p&dkufqdk;awGudk t+yD;wdkify,fowfzdk@ qufvufu;pm;
oGm;r,fqdk&ifawmh vufusef p&dkufqdk;awG[m t+yD;wdkif csKyf+idrf;oGm;
EdkifwJhtwGuf rESpfrd@zG,f tusKd;qufawG tm;vHk;uae vHk;0 vGwf
ajrmufEdkifygao;w,f?
ar;?
ajz?

? wrvGefb0ESifh pyfvsOf;vdk@ trsm;}uD; aqG;aEG;cJh=uyg+yD?


vlawG[m ao+yD;wJhaemuf b0opfrSm jyefjzpf=u
a=umif; cdkifvHkwJh taxmuftxm;aum &Sdygovm;?
? wrvGefb0ESifh ywfoufvdk@ Ak'<bmomawG&J@ t,ltqudk

66

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

axmufcHwJh ody`Hqdkif&m taxmuftxm;awG tckdiftrm&Sdygw,f? 'gh


tjyif Akk'<bmomawG&J@ 'Dt,ltq[m taxmuftxm; tcdkiftrm&Sd
wJh wpfckwnf;aom wrvGefb0qdkif&moD0&D vnf;yJjzpfygw,f?
aumif;uifbkH wnf&dSa=umif; taxmuftxm;wpfpHkwpf&m rawG@&o
vdk ao&ifjywfwmyJ/ bmrSjyefjzpfraeawmhqdkwJh t,ltqtwGuf
vnf; taxmuftxm; r&SdoavmufygyJ? vGefcJhwJh ESpfaygif; 30
umvtwGif; pdwf0dnmOfqdkif&m ynm&SifawG[m b0a[mif;u jzpf&yf
awGudk jyefajymif; ajymjyEdkifolwpfcsKd@udk avhvmokawoeycJh=uygw,f?
erlemtjzpfajym&&if t*FvefrSm 5 ESpft&G,f uav;rav; wpfa,muf
u ol@&Jh b0a[mif;u rdcifzcifawGudk rSwfrda=umif; xkwfazmf ajymqdk
cJhygw,f? wpfjcm;olwpfOD;&J@ jzpf&yfawGudk ajymjywJh ykHpHtwdkif;yJ olr
udk,fwikd f&J@ twdwfb0u tjzpftysufawGudk wdwdusus ajymjyyg
w,f? pdwfynm&SifawG pkyHa&muf&Sdvm=u+yD; &mcsDwJhar;cGef;awG ar;=u
wmudkvnf; ajzqdkcJhygw,f? pydefEkdifiHu &Gmwpf&GmrSm olr aexdkifcJh&ykH/
tJ'D&Gm&Jh emrnf/ olr aexdkifcJhwJhvrf;ESifh tdrfeD;em;csif;awG&Jh emrnf
awG/ tJ'Dwkef;u olr&Jh ae@pOfb0awGudk tao;pdwf ajymjyygw,f? +yD;
awmh olr[m um;wdkufcH&+yD;/ aemufESpf&uft=umrSm tJ'D '%f&mESifh
yJ uG,fvGefcJh&ykHawGudk rsuf&nf awGawGus&if; ajymjy&Smygw,f? pdwf
ynm&SifawGu olr ajymjywJhtcsufawGudk vdkufvH pkHprf;=unfhawmh
tm;vkH; trSeftwdkif; jzpfaewm awG@=u&ygw,f? tJ'D 5-ESpf orD;
uav; ajymjywJhemrnfESifh pydefrSm wu,fyJ &Gmwpf&Gm&Sdygw,f?
tJ'D&Gm&Jh vrf;xJrSmvnf; olr ajymjywJh ykHpHtwdkif;yJ tdrfwpfvkH;
&Sdygw,f? ukefukef ajym&&if tJ'DtdrfrSm aexdkifcJhwJh touf 23-ESpf t
&G,f trsKd;orD;uav;wpfa,muf vGefcJhwJh ig;ESpfu um;wdkufcH&vdk@
uG,fvGefcJhw,f qdkwmudkvnf; od=u&ygw,f?
uJ/ pydefudk wpfacgufrSvnf; ra&mufzl;ao;wJh t*Fvefol
touf 5 ESpft&G,f uav;rav;u tJ'gawGudk twdtus odaew,f
qdkwm b,fvdkvkyf jzpfEdkifajc &SdrSmvJ? 'DvdkrsKd; jzpf&yfawG[m 'Dr#

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

67

wGifom r[kwfygbl;? Am*sD;eD;,m;wuUodkvf pdwfynmmeu ygarmuQ


tdef; pwDAifqif (Ian Stevenson) u ol&JpmtkyfxJrSm tJ'DvdkrsKd;
vl0ifpm; 'gZifaygif;rsm;pGmudk az:jyxm;ygw,f? ol[m b0a[mif; jyef
ajymif;ajymjyEdkifwJh (Zmwd\&Om%f&wJh) vl0ifpm;awGudk 25 ESpf=um
avhvmokawoeycJhwJh emrnf}uD; ody`Hynm&SifwpfOD; jzpf+yD;awmh/
ol&J@avhvmawG@&SdcsufawGu wrvGefb0ESifh ywfowfwJh Ak'<w&m;
awmftwGuf odyftm;&SdwJh taxmuftxm;wpf&yf jzpfcJhygw,f?1
ar;?

? wrvGefb0udk jyefajymif; trSwf&Edik fpGrf; &Sdw,f qdk+yD;


ajymae=uwmawG[m rm&fewf (ewfqdk;) awG&J@ vkyf&yfyJ
jzpfw,fvdk@ wpfcsKd@u ajymaumif; ajym=uygvdrfhr,f/
'gqdk&ifaum?
ajz?
? udk,f&J@ ,Hk=unfcsufESifh rudkufnDwJh t&mwdkif;udkawmh
rm&fewfawG&J@ vkyf&yfyJjzpfw,fqdk+yD; 'Dtwdkif; y,fcsvdk@
r&Edkifygbl;? wu,faqG;aEG;vdkw,fqdk&if tawG;tac: wpf&yfudk
vufcHzdk@&ef obm0uswJh jzpf&yfawGudk xkwfjyvmwJhtcg qifqif
jcifjcif&SdwJh t,ltq tajymtqdkawGudkyJokH;yg? tJ'D,kwWdwefwJh
jzpf&yfawG[m obm0rusbl;/ rm&fewfvufcsufa=umifh jzpfwmyJqdkwJh
t,lonf;wJh toHk;tE_ef;awGudk roHk;rdygapeJ@ (a&Smifyg)?
ar;?

? rm&fewfESifh ywfoufvdk@ ajym&&if t,lonf;wmyJ jzpf


w,fvdk@ qdkxm;avawmh wrvGefb0ESifh ywfouf&if
vnf;yJ 'g[m enf;enf;awmh t,lonf;&m a&mufw,f
vdk@ rqdkEdkifaybl;vm;?

1? zwf&_&ef - Twenty

Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation and Cases of Reincarnation


Type, University of Press of Virginia, Charlotteville USA 1975.

68

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

ajz?

? t,lonf;r_ (Superstition) qdkwmudk tbd"mefu= a=umif;


usKd; qufEG,fr_ay:wGif tajcrcH/ 'd"rR tajctaeawG
udkvnf; y"merybJ arSmftwwfwdk@/ rsufvSnfhwdk@ qdkif&mawGrSmvdk
tawG;pdwful; oufoufay:rSmom tajcyawG;ac:wJh ,Hk=unfr_vdk@
zGifhqdkygw,f? rm&fewf&Sda-umif;ESifh ywfoufvdk@ ody`Hynm&Sif wpfOD;OD;u
pl;pl;pdkufpdkuf avhvm+yD;a&;om; az:xkwfcsuf wpfckckudk xkwfjyEdkifr,f
qdk&ifawmh rm&fewf,Hk=unfr_[m t,lonf;r_ r[kwaf wmhbl;vdk@vufcH
&ygvdrfhr,f? 'gayrJh rm&fewfESifhywfoufvdk@ tJ'Dvdk avhvm pl;prf;wJh
okawoersKd;vkyf=uwm r=um;rdao;ygbl;? 'DvdkrsKd; udpPawGu dk avhvm
zdk@&efvnf; b,fody`Hynm&SifurS wul;wuy+yD; 'kuQcHcsifrSm r[kwf
ygbl;? 'ga=umifh rm&fewf&Sda=umif; taxmuftxm;r&Sdbl;vdk@yJ qdk&yg
vdrfhr,f? 'gayrJh aqG;aEG;cJh=u+yD;wJhtwdkif;yJ wrvGefb0qdkwJh t&m[m
trSefwu,f jzpfysufvsuf&Sdw,fvdk@ ,lq&wJh taxmuftxm;awmh
&Sdygw,f? 'gha=umifh wrvGefb0qdkif&m ,kH=unfr_[m jzpf&yfrSef
taxmuftxm; tenf;i,fay:rSm tajccHw,fqdk&ifyJ 'g[m t,l
onf;r_vdk@ rqdkEdkifawmhygbl;?
ar;?

? aumif;yg+yD/ 'gqdk&if wrvGefb0udk ,Hk=unfvufcHwJh


ody`Hynm&Sif wpfa,mufwavaum &Sdygao;ovm;?
ajz?
? &Sdygw,f? oluawmh 19 - &mpk +Adwdo# ynma&;pHepfESifh
ody`Hbmom&yfudk rdwfqufay;cJhol aomrwfpf [wfpfav
(Thomas Huxley) yJ jzpfygw,f? ol[m 'g0if oD0&Dudk umuG,fajymqdk
ay;wJh yxrqHk;aom ody`Hynm&Sifvnf; jzpf+yD;awmh vl0ifpm;udpP[m
rsm;pGm jzpfEdkifajc&SdwJh t,ltq wpf&yfjzpfw,fvdk@ ,Hk=unfolvnf;
jzpfygw,f? ol@&J@ emrnfausmf pmtkyfwpftkyjf zpfwJh Evolution and
Ethics and other Essays pmtkyfxJrSm tckvdk a&;om;cJhygw,f?
,if;wdk@. rl&if;usrf;pmrsm;xJwGif (rwluGJjym;pGmjzifh)
rnfodk@yif &SdESifhae=uonfjzpfap/ b0ul;ajymif;jcif; udpPY

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

69

um; jAm[R%0g'ESifh Ak'<0g'tawG;tjrifrsm;rSm p=um0Vm


jzpfpOfrSonf vlom;jzpfpOf tygt0iftxd tusKd;t=umif;
qufpyfr_&Sd&Sd ,kwWdusus azmfjycsufrsm;udk pkpnf;xm;onfh
t"dy`g,frsm;jzifh wnfaqmufxm;=uavonf? r#r#ww&SdvS
onfh Tazmfjycsufonf wpfjcm;aom bmomt,l0g'qdkif
&m oD0&Drsm;xuf rsm;pGm qDavsmfr_&Sdygonf? aygh&$wfpGm
awG;ac:oHk;oyfwwfolrsm;rSty tajccHvGJrSm;aeonfh ,lq
csuf wpf&yftjzpf Tt,ludk rnfolurS ysuf&,fyvdrfhrnf
r[kwaf y? qifhuJ ajymif;vGJr_ jzpfpOf oD0&DuJhodk@yif T b0
ul; '\eonfvnf; jzpf&yfrSef e,fy,fxJY tajcyxm;
avonf? tjiif;yGm;r_udk nSdE_dif;jcif;jzifh ajz&Sif;Edkifovdk
Tb0ul;udpPYvnf; qifhuJajymif;vJr_ oD0&DuJhodk@yif
tvm;wl tajz&Smr_rsKd;udk &,lEdkifygw,f?
ody`Hynm&Sif tdkifpwkdif;&J rdwfaqGwpfOD;jzpfwJh emrnfausmf
qdG'fcsfvlrsKd; euQwWaA'ESifh &lyaA'ynm&Sif ygarmuQ *lpw-zf
px&efbm-*f (Gustaf Stromberg) uvnf; wrvGefb0qdkif&m t,l
tqwpf&yfudk atmufygtwdkif; az:xkwfa&;om;cJhygw,f?
vlom;[m urBmajrjyifay:rSm aemufxyfwpf}udrf jyef
vnf 0ifpm;vmEdkifw,f/ r0ifpm;Edkifbl; qdkwJh tcsufay:rSm
tjrifawGtrsKd;rsKd; uGJvGJae=uygw,f? 1936-ckESpf rSmawmh
tdENd,tpdk;& tm%mydkifawGu odyfpdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;
wJh udpPwpf&yfufdk tptqkH; pl;prf;azmfxkwfcJh=uygw,f?
o#EDa'0D (Shanti Devi) qkdwJh a'vD rdolav;wpfOD;[m
olrudk tckb0rSm rarG;zGm;rD wpfESpfcefu a'vDuae rdkif
500 uGma0;wJh rkwW&ma'orSm aemufqHk; jzpfysufcJhwJholr&J@
twdwfb0a[mif;udk rSefuefpGm azmfxkwfajymqdkEdkifcJhyg
w,f? tJ'D b0wkef;u olrcifyGef;ESifh uav;&J emrnfawG/

70

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

aexdkifcJhwJh tdrfyHkpHESifh b0jzpfpOfawGudk ajymjycJhygw,f?


pHkprf;a&;aumfrD&Sifu olrudk aqGa[mif; rsKd;a[mif;awGqD
ac:aqmifoGm;+yD; awGqHkay;awmh olr&Jajym=um;csufawG
tm;vHk;[m rSefuefa=umif; aqGrsK;d awGu 0efcH ajymqdkcJh=uyg
w,f? tdENd,u vlawGtwGufawmh vl0ifpm;udpPqdkwm
tqef;tjym;vdkawmif r,lq=uygbl;? 'gayrJh tJ'D
rdef;uav;&J b0a[mif;u jzpf&yfrsm;pGmudk trSeftwdkif;
rSwfrdaeao;wmudkawmh wthHw=o jzpf=u&ygw,f?
(b0ul;ayrJh) rSwfOm%f[m rarhraysmufwJh obm0 &Sdw,f
qdkwJh t,ltqudk 'Djzpf&yfESifh wjcm;tvm;wl jzpf&yfawGu
cdkifrmatmif tm;jznfhay;wJh om"uawGyJ jzpfw,fvdk@
,lqEdkifygw,f?
xif&Sm;wJh +Adwdo# ody`Hynm&SifwpfOD; jzpf+yD;awmh
,leufpudk (UNESCO) tzGJ@}uD;&J@ nef=um;a&;r;csKyfvnf; jzpfwJh
ygarmuQ *sL;vD,ef[wfpfav (Prof. Julian Huxley) uvnf; wrvGef
b0[m ody`HtjrifESifh vHk;0 wxyfwnf;usw,fvdk@ ,lqygw,f?
txl;y xkwfvkyfxm;onfh xkwfv$ifh ud&d,mu
wdusonfh a=u;eef;wpfapmifudk xkwfv$ifh ouJhokd@ aovGef
+yD;aemuf wpfenf;enf;tm;jzifh xkwfv$wftyfaom xm0&
wnfjrJaom 0dnmOftwWabm qdkonfht&mudk vufrcHEdkif
p&m ta=umif; vHk;0r&Sdyg? u;rJha=u;eef;pmonf toGifopf
&kyfzGJ@pnf;r_wpfck tjzpfjzifh vufcHpufud&d,mESifh qufoG,f
rdonfh tcgwGifrSom (a=u;eef;pm tjzpfrSonf &kd;&dk;)
pmwpfapmif jyefjzpfoGm;onf qdkwmudk owdcsyf&rSm jzpfyg
w,f? xkdenf;twdkif;yJ owW0gwdk@. odpdwf0dnmOf jzpfay:
vmykHESifh ywfoufI wpfenf;enf;tm;jzifh &kyfuvmyf

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

71

taeESifh jzpfay:rvmrcsif; awG;awmr_/ cHpm;r_[lIvnf;


vHk;0 r&SdEdkifay? u|Efkyfwdk@. emrfcE<mrsm;onf trSefwu,f
jzpfwnfvsuf &Sdonf[lIyif pOf;pm;I r&Edkifavmufatmif
udk &kyfcE<mrsm;ay:wGifom rSDcdkae&ayonf? pifppf emrfcE<m
[lonf cE<m pifppfr[kwfbJ jzpfwnfr_ oufoufom
jzpfacsonf? (a=u;eef;pmudk &kd;&dk;pm tjzpfjzifh) v$Jajymif;
vufcH&,lonfh pufodk@ a&S;&_xkwfv$io
fh nfh a=u;eef;pm
wpfapmifuJhodk@yif (rdbavmif;rsm; jzpf=uonfh) trsKd;om;
trsKd;orD;wdk@tm; tvm;wl qufoG,fr_udk jzpfay:apaom
xkwfv$ifhykH wpfrsKd;udk u|Efkyf pOf;pm;=unfhrdayonf? odk@&m
wGif vltrsm; jrifom odomonfhtwdkif; emruQE<mtm;
vufcHonfh ud&d,mpuftjzpf toHk;awmfcHrnfh tqdkyg
wpfpHkwpf&mESifh qufoG,frdjcif;jzifh todpdwf trSefwu,f
ay:xGef;rvmrcsif; p=um0VmtESH@ ysH@vGifhaernfh toD;oD;
aom erlem twWabmrsm;rSty aojcif;. aemufuG,f0,f
bmrS r&Sday?
tar&duef pufr_enf;ynm&Sif [ife&Dazmh'f (Henry Ford) wdkfvdk
odyfvufawGqef+yD; urBmod ausmf=um;olawGuawmif wrvGef
b0&Jh jzpfEdkifajc &SdyHkawGudk awG@&SdcJh=uygw,f?
wrvGefb0 t,ltq[m zefqif;&Sif0g' ( theistic idea)
ESifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ &kyf0g' (Materialistic idea) ESifh aomfvnf;
aumif; rwlnDrlI aemifb0rSm vlom;&Jh wdk;wufa&;twGuf
xyfqifh tcGifhtvrf; (Second chance) ay;xm;ygao;w,f? 'Dtcsuf
awGa=umifh azmh'f[m wrvGefb00g'udk pdwfyg0ifpm;cJhwm jzpfygw,f?
olu tckvdkqdkcJhygw,f?

72

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

uefawmfh touf 26-ESpf t&G,frSm vl0ifpm; t,ltq


udk vufcHjzpfcJhygw,f? 'Dvkd vufcHzdk@twGuf bmoma&;
t&Sdeft0g v$rf;rdk;cH&wmrsKd; vHk;0 r&dScJhygbl;? vkyfief; tawG
tuHuawmif auseyfr_tjynft0 ray;EkdifcJhygbl;? rsuf
arSmuf b0uae pkpnf;jzwfoef;cJh&wJh tawG tuHawGudk
aemifvmrnfhb0rSm csokH;vdk@ r&Edkifaumif;bl;qdk&if tvkyf
qdkwmvnf; tv[\ygyJ? vl0ifpm;udpPudk awG&Sd&wm
[m p=um0Vm&J jzpfpOfudk awG&Sd&ovkdygyJ? udk,fh&J@ tawG;
tac: tawG@t}uHKawGudk wdk;wufaumif;rGefvmatmif
vkyfzdk@&m tcGifhtvrf;&Sdao;w,fvdk@ oabmaygufvdkufyg
w,f? tcsdefumvqdkwJh t&mrSm &Snfvsm;r_/ wdkawmif;r_
qdkwJh tuef@towf r&Sdygbl;? ('ga=umifhvnf;) u|efawmf
[m tcsdefem&D vufwH&@J aus;u|efb0rS vGwfajrmufcJh&yg
w,f? yg&rD (xl;c|ef xufjrufr_) qdkwm[mvnf; tawG@
tuHwpf&yfygyJ? wpfcsKd@uawmh 'g[m (zefqif;&Sifay;tyfcsD;
ajrSmufwJh) vuf aqmifym/ 'grSr[kwf yifudk,fpGrf;&nfyJ
jzpfw,fvdk xifjrif=uykH&ygw,f? pifppfrSmawmh 'g[m
b0tqufqufuae ygvmwJh/ &ifhusufwJh tawGtuH
awG&J tusKd;qufyJjzpfygw,f? wpfcsKd@olawG[m wpfjcm;ol
awGxuf yg&rD&ifhoef=uavawmh ydkrdk+yD; todu,f=uwm
aygh? u|efawmfhtzdkawmh vl0ifpm;udpPawG&Sdcsufudk tawmf
av; =unfEl;ESpfodrfhr_ jzpf&ygw,f? tckaqG;aEG;cJhwmawGESifh
pyfvsOf;vdk rSwfwrf;rSwf&mawG &Sd=u&ifvnf; vlawG&J
pdwfxJ oufom&mav; &=uavatmif pmtjzpfa&;=uprf;
yg? u|efawmfh taeESifh &Snfvsm;/ &ifhusuw
f Jh b0tjrifESifh
,SOfwJh +idrf;csrf;r_&oudk wjcm;vlawGudkvnf; r#a0ay;vdk
ygw,f?

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

73

'Dawmh - wrvGefb0qdkif&m Ak'<bmom a'oemawmfawGudk


axmufcHcsufay;wJh ody`Htaxmuftxm;wcsKd &Sdukd&Sdygw,f? Ak'<
bmom&J@ wrvGefb00g'[m,kwWdwefwJh tjrifjzpfwJhtjyif/ zefqif;&Sif
0g'ESifh &kyf0g'awGu tajzray;EdkifwJhar;cGef;awGudk ajzqdkaewmyJ jzpfyg
w,f? tm;wufoa&mvnf; &SdvSygw,f? xyfqifh tcGifhtvrf;
(Second Chance) r&Sd/ 'Db0rSm vkyfrdrSm;cJh+yD;wJh trSm;awGudk jyefjyif
cGifhr&/ 'Db0u &,lcJhwJht&nftcsif;awG/ tpGrf;tpawGudk ykdrdkaumif;
rGef wdk;wufatmif vkyfzdk@&efvnf; tajctaeray;awmhwJh b0oD0&D
rsKd;xufqdk;wm b,frSm &SdygOD;rSmvJ? Ak'<&J@ tqdkt&awmh 'Db0rSm
edAmef r&Edkifao;bl;qdk&ifawmifrS aemufaemifb0awGrSm qufvuf
u;pm;oGm;EdkifwJh tcGifhtvrf;&Sdao;w,f? tckb0rSm vkyfrSm;rdxm;
wmawGudk aemufb0rSm jyefvnfyjyifcGifh&Edkifao;w,f? vkyfrSm;rdcJh
or#awGxJu trSefoifcef;pmudk xkwf,lEdkifao;w,f? 'Db0rSmrvkyf
EdkifcJh/ r&,lEkdifcJhwmawGudk vmrnfhb0rSm vkyf,lvdk@&Edkif ao;wmyJwJh?
uJ - b,favmufaumif;wJh a'oemawmfygvJ?

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

75

a'gou ol rodvdkufyJESifhudk jzpfay:vmcJhwmjzpfw,f? w&m;bm0em


tm;xkwfr_u tckvdkpGJuyfaewJh pdwftpGJtvrf;awGudk y,fpGef&mrSm
vdktyfwJh todpdwf"gwfESifh pGrf;tifawG wkd;wufjzpfay:vmatmif tul
tnDay;ygw,f?
ar;?

urRmef;bm0em
ar;?
ajz?

? bm0em yGm;rsm;r_ qdkwmu b,fvdkygvJ?


? bm0em yGm;rsm;w,fqdkwm pdwf&J@ vkyfyHkuidk fyHkawGudk tod
&Sd&SdESifh ajymif;vJypfzdk@ u;pm;wmyJ jzpfygw,f?
w&m;tm;xkwfr_ (Meditation) qdkwmudk ygVdbmomtm;jzifh bm0em
vdkac:+yD;/ wdk;yGm; atmifvkyfjcif;/ wdk;wufyGm;rsm;apjcif;vdk t"dy`g,f
&ygw,f?
ar;?
ajz?

? w&m;tm;xkwfr_[m odyfta&;ygygovm;?
? [kwfygw,f? ta&;}uD;wJh udpPwpfckygyJ? b,favmufyJ
taumif;jzpfapcsifwJh qENxufoefygap/ ,cifh,cifu
vkyfenf;vkyf [efawG twdkif;yJ vkyfudkifqkH;jzwfjzpfatmif wGef;ydk@aewJh
qENw%Sm tpGJawGudk ry,frvSefEdkifrcsif; b,ftajymif;tvJrS jzpfvm
rSmr[kwfygbl;? Oyrm - rdef;rtay: onf;cHcGifhv$wfEdkifr_ acgif;yg;wJh vl
wpfOD;[m ol[mol oabmaygufvmwma=umifh cktcsdefup+yD; ig[m
udk,rfh def;rtay: onf;cHcGifhv$wf+yD;awmh nSmnSmwmwmyJ qufqHawmh
r,fvdk ydkif;jzwfxm;w,fqdkygawmh/ 'gayrJh aemufwpfem&Davmuf
t=umrSmyJ ol[m rdef;rudk t&ifutwdkif; atmfaigufawmhwmygyJ?
'Dvdkjzpf&wm[m owdvpfoGm;vdk@ jzpfygw,f? onf;cHwwffavhr&SdwJh

? urRmef;w&m; tm;xkwfwm[m tE&m,f &SdEkdifw,fvdk


=um;zl;ygw,f? [kwfrSefygovm;?
ajz?
? touf&SifzdktwGuf qm;"gwf vdktyfwm rSefayrJh qm;
tav;csdef wpf uDvdk*&rfudk wpf}udrfwnf;ESifh pm;ypfvdkuf
r,fqdk&ifawmh aoEdkifygw,f? tvm;wlyJ ,aeacwfrSm vlvlolol
&yfwnfEdkifa&;twGuf armfawmfum;[m r&Sdrjzpf vdktyfvSygw,f? 'g
ayrJh ,mOfpnf;urf; rvdkufembl;/ 'grSr[kwf rl;aewkef; um;armif;r,f
qdk&ifawmh um;qdkwm tE&m,f&SdwJh ,E&m;wpfck jzpfoGm;Edkifygw,f?
w&m;tm;xkwfr_qdkwmvnf; 'Denf;twkdif;ygyJ? pdwf"gwf=uH@cdkifa&;
twGuf w&m;bm0emyGm;rsm;tm;xkwfr_[m r&SdrjzpfvdktyfvSygw,f?
'gayrJh rdkufrJvGJrSm;wJh enf;vrf;awGESifhom tm;xkwfr,f qdk&ifawmh
tcuftcJawGESifh wdk;rSmygyJ? wcsKdvlawGrSm odrfi,fwJhpdwf/ ta=umif;
rJh a=umufpdwfESifh pdwfupOfuvsm;jzpfr_awGvdkrsKd; tcuftcJawG&Sdwwf
=uygw,f? w&m;tm;xkwfwm[m olwdk@awG&J@ tcuftcJawGudk
csufjcif;vufiif; ukpm;ay;rSmyJvdk@ ,lqxm;=uw,f/ olwdk@ pwiftm;
xkwf=uw,f/ wpfcgwpfcgrSmawmh olwdk@awG[m ydkrdkqdk;0g;wJh tcuf
tcJawGESifh &ifqdkifwwf=u&ygw,f? udk,f@rSm 'DvdktcuftcJawGom &SdcJh
vdk@&Sd&if q&m0ef&J@ tultnDudk t&if&,l+yD;awmhrS w&m;tm;xkwf
wmu ydkaumif;ygw,f? aemuf wcsKd@usawmh udk,fwwfEdkifwmxuf
ydkydk+yD;awmh tm;xkwf=uw,f? wjznf;jznf;csif; wqifh+yD;wqifh tm;
xkwf&r,f@tpm; odyf}uD;rm;wJh pGrf;tifawG okH;zef;+yD; tcsdefawG
t=um}uD; tm;xkwf=uavawm@ r=umcifrSmyJ ajcukefvufyrf;usoGm;
wwf=uygw,f?

76

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvwwWm;)

'gayrJh w&m;tm;xkwf&mrSm uH&wJh tcuftcJ trsm;pk


uawmh om;ydkufaumif bm0em (Kangaroo Meditation) vdk@ ac:&rnfh
[dpk yfpyf 'Dpyfpyf tm;xkwfenf;a=umifh jzpf&wmrsm;ygw,f? wpfcsKd@
vlawGu q&mwpfOD;OD;qDoGm;enf;cH+yD; tJ'Dq&mhenf;uav;twdkif;
vdkufvkyf=unfhw,f? wpfcg pmtkyfxJrSm enf;emuav;wpfcsKd@ zwf
&wmESifh 'Denf;uav;udkvnf; prf;=unfhjyefw,f? wpfywfcef@ =um
awmh emrnfausmfurRmemp&d, q&mwpfOD; olwdk@r@uav;qDudk u
vmwmESifh tJ'Dq&m&J@ enf;awGESifh t&ifu &xm;+yD;om; enf;uav;
awGudk aygif;pyfa&mar$+yD;awmh tm;xkwfzdk@ vkyfjyefyga&m? 'DvdkESifh
odyfr=umcifrSmyJ olwdk@&xm;wJh enf;awGu (tarbkwf csnfiifovdk)
ajz&Sif; r&Edkifavmufatmifudk &_yfaxG;oGm;wwf=uygw,f? om;ydkuf
aumif ckefovdkyJ enf;wpfckuae aemufenf;wpfck/ q&mwpfOD;uae
aemufq&mwpfOD; ponfjzifh tm;xkwf=uwm[m rSm;,Gif;vSygw,f?
pdwfydkif;qdkif&m tcuftcJ wpfpHkwpf&mvnf;r&Sd/ obm0uswJh enf;rSef
vrf;rSef twdkif;vnf; tm;xkwfwm jzpfw,f qdk&ifawmh w&m;bm0
em yGm;rsm;tm;xkwfjcif;qdkwm[m rdrdudk,fwdkiftwGuf rdrdvkyfEdkifwJh
taumif;qHk; tvkyfudk vkyfjzpfjcif; tppfygyJ?
ar;?
ajz?

? urRmef; trsKd;tpm;u b,favmuf&SdygovJ?


? urRmef;tm;xkwfol a,m*DwpfOD;csif;pD taeESifh xl;uJ+yD;
&SdwwfwJh tcuftcJawGudk ajz&Sif;ay;Edkifatmif 'grSr[kwf
wpfOD;csif;&J@ oD;oef@pDjzpfwJh pdwftaetxm; (p&kduf) tvdkuf wdk;wuf
r_&Sdatmif pDpOfxm;wJh urRmef;trsKd;trnf tawmfrsm;rsm;udk Ak'<
a[mawmfrlcJhygw,f? 'gayrJh toHk;trsm;qHk;ESifhtoHk;tusqHk; urRmef;
awGuawmh tmemyge\wdESifh arwWmbm0emwdk@yJ jzpf=uygw,f?
ar;?

? tmemyge\wdudk tm;xkwfvdkw,fqdk&if b,fvdktm;


xkwf&ygovJ?

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;
ajz?

77

? vG,fulwJh enf;tqifhuav;awGESifh pwif&ygvdrfhr,f?


'gawGuawmh tusOf;csKyfajym&&if yD (P) av;vHk;ygyJ?
Place - ae&m/ Posture - udk,f[eftaetxm;/ Practice - vufawG@ tm;
xkwfavhusifhyHkESifh Problems - tcuftcJrsm; jzpf=uygw,f?
(1) ae&m - w&m;tm;xkwfzdk@ oifhawmfwJh ae&mrsKd; jzpfzdk@
vdktyfygw,f? odyf+yD;awmhvnf; qlqlnHnH r&Sd
(jzpfEdkif&if vHk;0eD;yg; wdwfqdwf+idrfoufwJh)/
wpfjcm; taESmifht,Suf qdkwmvnf; r&SdwJh
tcef;wpfcef;vdk ae&mrsKd;aygh?
(2) udk,ftaetxm; - oufawmifhoufom &SdwJh
udk,ftae txm;udk a&G;cs,f+yD; xdkif&ygw,f?
(trsm;tm;jzifhawmh) wifysOfacG+yD; xkdifwm[m
aumif;wJh taetxm;ygyJ? xdkifwJhtcg acgif;tHk;vdk
tcif; xlxlwpfckay:rSm xdkifcsvdkufyg? a=umudk
qef@+yD; udk,fae rwfrwfxm;/ vufawGudk
wifyvifacGay:rSm &G&Guav; cs+yD; rsufvHk;udk
nSifompGm rSdwfxm;yg? a=umudk rwfrwfqef@xkwfvdk@
&avmufwJh ukvm;xkdifay:rSmvnf; xdkifr,fqdk&if
xkdifEdkifygw,f?
(3) vufawG@tm;xkwfyHk - ususee xdkif+yD;wJh aemufrSm
awmh wu,fhtm;xkwfr_ pwifyg+yD? rsufv;Hk uav;
rSdwf+yD;xdkifcsvu
dk fwmESifh xGufav 0ifav&J@ v_yfcwfr_
ay:rSmom pl;pdkufodrSwfvdk@ ae&ygr,f? touf&_dufr_
udk a&wGuf odrSwfvdk@ jzpfap/ 'grSr[kwf (touf _duf
r_udk vdkuf+yD; jzpfay:aewJh) 0rf;Adkuf&J@ ydefr_ azgif;r_udk
jzpfap owdESifh &_rSwf&ygr,f?
(4) tcuftcJ - pwiftm;xkwf+yDqdkwmESifh twm;tqD;
tcuftcJawGESifhawmh awG@rSmygyJ? cE<mudk,ftESH@

78

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)


[dak e&m onfae&mawGu ,m;,Hwm/ 'l;acgif;u
anmif;udkufvmwmrsKd;awG awG@&wwfygw,f? 'Dvdk
jzpfvm+yDqdk&if v_yf&Sm;r_ wpfpHkwpf&mrybJ
cE<mudk,fudk azmhazmhuav;xm;+yD; aeomatmif
u;pm;&if; toufudkyJ pl;pdkuf+yD; rSefrSef _dufaeyg?
pdwfxJrSm tawG;rsKd;pHk 0ifa&mufvmwwf+yD;
toufr_tay: pl;pdkufxm;wJh owduav;
ysH@vGifhxGuo
f Gm;wwfygao;w,f? xGufav0ifavudkyJ
tm&kHpl;pdkuf rSwf&if; onf;nnf;cHwJh enf;ESifhom
ay:vmor# tcuftcJawGudk vGefajrmufEdkifygw,f?
'Denf;twdkif; qufoGm;&ifawmh aemufqHk;rSm
tawG;0ifa&mufr_uvnf;yJ avsmhyg;oGm;r,f/
tm&Hkpl;pdkufr_zufu ydkrdktm;aumif;vm+yD;awmh
pdwf&J@euf_dif;wJh +idrfoufat;csrf;r_udk
&&SdoGm;Edkifygw,f?

ar;?

? w&m;tm;xkwf&mrSm b,favmuf=um=um
tm;xkwfoifhygovJ?
ajz?
? pwiftm;xkwfwJh yxrygwfrSm wpfae@udk 15 - rdepf/
aemuftygwfawGrSm wpfywf ig; rdepfpD tcsdefudk wdk;jrSifh,l
+yD; 45- rdepfa&mufatmiftxd wdk;jrSifhtm;xkwfyg? ae@pOfykHrSeftm;
xkwfjzpfwJh &ufowWygwf tenf;i,f t=umrSmyJ pl;pdkuftm; aumif;
vmwm pwifawG@jrif&ygvdrfhr,f? tawG;ysH@vGifhr_awG enf;onfxuf
enf;vm+yD; wu,fh at;csrf;+idrfoufr_orm"d &Edkifygw,f?
ar;?

? arwWmbm0em yGm;w,fqdkwmuaum b,fvdkygvJ? b,f


vkdrsm; vufawG@ usifhaqmif&ygao;ovJ?

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

79

ajz?

? tmemyge\wd urRmef;ESifh tom;us+yD;awmh tJ'D


tmemyge\wdudkyJ ykHrSeftm;jzifh qufvuf yGm;rsm;tm;
xkwfae+yDqdk&if arwWmbm0emudkvnf; pwiftm;xkwfvdk@ &yg+yD?
tmemyge\wd tm;xkwfvdk@ +yD;qkH;wJhtcgwdkif; arwWmbm0emudk
wpfygwf ESpf}udrf/ oHk;}udrfcef@pD tm;xkwfoifhygw,f? yxr taeESifh
rdrdudk,fudk rdrd tm&kHy+yD;awmh tckvdk arwWmyGm;oifhygw,f? ig[m
usef;rmaysmf&$ifygap/ +idrf;at;csrf;omygap/ tE&m,fuif;ygap/ ighESvkH;
om;Y trkef;w&m;uif;+yD; arwWmw&m;jzifh &$rf;pdkjynfhz;ygap qdkwJh
pum;rsKd;udk udk,fh[mudk,f pdwfESifh &Gwfqdk+yD;awmh yGm;rsm;&ygw,f?
tJ'DaemufrSmawmh
- udk,fu cspfESpfvkdvm;tyfwJh (yD,) yk*~Kdvf/
- rcspf rrkef;/ r&if;ESD;wJh (rZ) yk*~Kdvf/
- udk,fESifh trkef;yGm;aewJh &efol (a0&D) yk*~Kv
d f awGukd
wpfrsKd;+yD; wpfrsKd; tpOftwdkif; wpfOD;csif;pD txufu qdkcJhwJh arwWm
yGm;rsm;enf;twdkif; rdrdudk,fESifh xyfwl yGm;rsm;&ygw,f?
ar;?

? 'Dvdk arwWm bm0em yGm;rsm;jcif;jzifh b,fvdkrsKd; tusKd;


aus;Zl;awG &&SdEdkifygao;ovJ?
ajz?
? arwWmbm0emudk rSefuefwJh pdwfxm;ESifh yHkrSefom yGm;rsm;
r,fqdk&if odyf+yD;awmh tyoabmaqmifwJh tvm;tvm
aumif;awGudk awG@jrif&rSmjzpfygw,f? (yxr taeESifh) rdrd[m rsm;pGm
cspfcifESpfvdkzG,faumif;ol/
tjypfuif;oltjzpf
udk,fh[mudk,f
xifjrifvmrSm jzpfygw,f? udk,fu cspfESpfvdkvm;wJh yD,yk*~KdvfawG
tay:rSm xm;&SdwJharwWm[mvnf; ydkrdk+yD; jrifhrm;wdk;yGm;vmwmudk
jrifawG@&ygvdrfhr,ff? tjrifoabmxm;csif; rwdkufqdkifolawGESifha&m/
udk,fESifh rywfoufbJ bmodbmom aeolawGESifhyg &if;ESD;cifrifvm+yD;
awmh rdwfaqGjzpfvmwmudkvnf; udk,fawG@}uHK&rSmjzpfygw,f?
wpfcsKd@yk*~dKvfawG tay:rSm udk,fuxm;&SdcJhwJh raumif;pdwf raumif;

80

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

81

}uHawG 'grSr[kwf rcHcsifpdwf awG[mvnf; avsmhyg;oGm;+yD;awmh


aemufqHk; tJ'Dvdk pdwfrsKd;awG vHk;0aysmufuG,foGm;wmudk awG@Edkifyg
w,f? arwWmyGm;rsm;wJhtcg udk,fodxm;wJh aexdkifraumif;ol/
raysmfr&$ifEdkif jzpfaewJhol/ tcuftcJ &ifqdkifae&olawGudkvnf;
xnfhoGif;yGm;rsm;vdk@ &Edkifygao;w,f? +yD;awmh oufqdkif&m yk*~dKvfawG
&J@ tajctaeawG ododomom wdk;wufaumif;rGefvmwmudkvnf;
t}udrf}udrf awG@&OD;rSmyJ jzpfygw,f?

r[kwfygbl;? w&m;tm;xkwfr_ESifh &if;ESD;u|rf;0if+yD;om; yk*~dKvfawGqD


u teD;uyfoifjyay;r_udk &,lwmuawmh ydkaumif;wmaygh? wpfck qdk;
wmu udk,fbmvkyfaevdk@ vkyfaerSef;awmif rodwJh &[eff;yk*~Kdvf/ vl
yk*~Kv
d fwcsKd@u olwdk@udk,folwdk@ urRmemp&d,tjzpf cH,lae=uwm
awG awG@&SdaewmygyJ? 'ga=umifh emrnf*k%fowif;aumif;+yD; r#r#ww
okH;oyf/ qkH;jzwfwwfwJh q&mrsKd;/ Ak'<pmayt&mrSmvnf; u|rf;u|rf;
usifusif&SdvSwJh yk*~KdvfrsKd;udk a&G;jzpfatmif u;pm;zdk@ygyJ?

ar;?
ajz?

ar;?

? 'gu b,fvdk jzpfEdkifzG,f &dSygovJ?


? xdkufxu
dk fwefwef wdk;wuf aumif;rGefvmwJhtcg
pdwf[modyftm;aumif; xufjrufwJh vufeufud&d,m
wpfck jzpfoGm;ygw,f? rdrd&J@ pdwfpGrf;tifudk owdrl avhvm+yD; wpfjcm;
yk*~dKvfawGqD ydk@v$wfEdkifr,fqdk&if pdwf&J@ pGrf;tm;[m tJ'Dyk*~dKvfawG
tay: tusKd;oufa&mufr_&SdEkdifygw,f? 'DvdkrsKd; udk,fawG@jzpf&yfawG
awmif }uKHaumif; }uHKzl;=urSmyg? vlawGjynfhusyfaewJh tcef;wpfckxJ
a&mufaewkef; wpfpHkwpfa,mufu udk,u
fh dk =unfhaew,fvdk@ txif
a&mufvmw,fqdkygawmh/ vSnfhywfodkif;0dkif; =unfhvdkufawmhrSaocsm
oGm;w,f? [kwfyg&J@/ wpfpHkwpfa,mufu udk,u
fh dk p aewmyJ? 'g[m
wpfjcm; yk*~dKvfwpfOD;&J@ pdwfpGrf;tifudk ukd,fu b,fvdk vufcH
xdodvdk@ &Edkifw,fqdkwJh oabmjzpfygw,f? arwWmbm0em yGm;rsm;
w,fqdkwmvnf; 'Dtwdkif;ygyJ? wpfjcm;yk*~dKvfawG tay:xm;&SdtyfwJh
tyoabmpdwfawGudk arG;jrLw,f/ +yD;awmh 'gudk udk,fu arwWm
yGm;rnfholawGqD wjznf;jznf;csif; ydk@v$wfw,f/ 'gygyJ?
ar;?
ajz?

? w&m;tm;xkwfwwfatmif oifjyay;rnfh q&mqdkwm


aum vdktyfygovm;?
? q&m&,fvdk@ owfowfrSwfrSwf vdktyfwmawmhjzifh

? pdwfa&m*guk q&m0efawG/ pdwfynm&SifawGuawmif


w&m;tm;xkwfr_ukd us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ tokH;csae=u+yDvdk@
=um;&ygw,f? 'gaum [kwfygovm;?
ajz?
? [kwfygw,f? tcktcg w&m;tm;xkwfr_udk xda&mufwJh
pdwfukx;kH wpf&yftjzpf vufcHvm=uyg+yD? ta=umajy
avsmh+yD; em;em;aeae oufawmifh oufomjzpfapzdk@/ a=umufpGJa&m*g1
awGudk y,fazsmufzdk@/ udk,fh&Jhtodpdwfudk jyef+yD;awmh aqmufwnfzdk@
&ef (vdktyfwJh) udpPawGrSm usef;rma&;vkyfom; (pdwfuk q&m0ef)
rsm;pGmwdk@[m w&m;tm;xkwfap+yD;ukwJh enf;udk tokH;yae=uyg+yD?
vlom;&Jh pdwf"mwfydkif;a&;&mrSm Ak'<&Jh Om%ftajrmf tjrifawmf[m
[d;k a&S;a&S; acwfawGu tusKd;aqmifawmfrlcJhovdkyJ tckacwfrSm
vnf; tusKd;yay;aewkef;ygyJ?

1? Phobias - wpHkw&mudk pGJvrf;+yD; tvGeftrif; a=umufwwfrkef;wwfonfh


pdwaf &m*grsm;? Oyrm - Hydrophobia a&a=umufwwfwJh acG;&l;jyefa&m*g?

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

u&k%mESifhynm
ar;?

? u&k%mESifh ywfoufwJh ta=umif;t&mawG/ ynmESifh


oufqdkifwJh tcsuftvufawGudk Ak'<bmom0ifawGqDu
r=umc% qdkovdk =um;&ygw,f? 'Da0g[m& ESpfvHk;&J@
t"dy`g,fubmygvJ?
ajz?
? wpfcsKd@aom bmoma&; w&m;awGu oem;=uifemwwf
jcif; u&k%mESifh tusKd;vdkcifrifr_ arwWmudk (odyftoGif
wl+yD;) odyfta&;ygwJh pdwfydkif;qdkif&m t&nftaoG;awGtjzpf vufcH
,lqxm;=uyg&J@? 'gayrJh qifjcifawG;ac: odem;vnfr_qdkwJh ynm
wdk;wufatmifawmh vrf;zGifhray;=uygbl;? tusKd;oufa&mufr_uawmh
odyfoem;nSmwmwwfol wpfOD;taeESifh ol[m odyfpdwfxm; aumif;
ayrJh &dk;tol/ ynmenf;ol/ 'grSr[kwf todOm%fuif;rJhol tjzpfESifh
pcef;odrf;&wmygyJ?
ody`Hynmvdk wpfjcm;aom awG;ac:ajrmfjrifr_ qdkif&m pHepf
awGuawmh u&k%mtygt0if tm;vHk;aom pdwf&J@ tytrl
(apwoduf) awGudk xdef;csKyfxm;wJh tajctaersKd;rSmrSyJ ynmudk
taumif;qHk;tqifh wdk;wufatmif vkyfEdkifr,fvdk@ ,Hk=unf=uygw,f?
'Dt,ltqa=umifh jzpfay:vm&wJh tusKd;qufuawmh ody`Hynm[m
tusKd;yr_awGESifhtwl xdk;azmuf0ifa&muf ae&m,lvmw,f? tJ'D

83

tcgrSm ody`Hqdkwm vlom;tusKd;udk aqmif&ef twGufom jzpfw,f/


vludk xdef;csKyfjc,fvS,fzdk@ r[kwfbl;qdkwmudkawmif arhoGm;=uw,f?
tEkjrLAHk;ESifh ppfrufa&;&m pwmawG wdk;wuf jzpfxGef;vmatmif ody`H
u0dawGu olwdk@&J@ pGrf;tm;awGudk b,favmuftxd tm;opfavmif;
Edkif=uOD;rSmygvdrfh ? (txufu qdkcJhwJh) bmoma&;awGu a=umif;usKd;
qifjcifr_ESifh wwfodem;vnfr_awGudk arwWmESifh ,Hk=unfr_vdk w&m;awG
&J@ tE&m,fawG tjzpf &_jrif=uygw,f? (olwdk@ twGufawmh arwWmESifh
,Hk=unfr_ o'<guom t"duus+yD; ynmu 'Davmuf ta&;rygbl;)?
ody`Hynm &_axmifhu =unfh&ifawmh 'DarwWmESifh ,Hk=unfr_ qdkwmawG
[m a=umif;usKd; qifjcifwwfr_ESifh "rR"dmefusr_ twGuf t[ef@twm;
awGyJvdk@ jrif=uygw,f1? 'ga=umifhvnf; ody`Hynmzufu wdk;wufvm
wmESifhtr# bmoma&;zufrSmawmh csKd@,Gif; qkwf,kwfvm&wm jzpf
ygw,f? (txufu qdkcJhwJh bmoma&;awGESifh rwlnDwJh) Ak'<bmom
taeESifhuawmh u&k%ma&m ynmyg wdk;wuf&r,f/ tuif;rJh r#r#
ww&Sd+yD;/ +yD;jynfhpkHwJholrsKd; jzpf&r,fvdk@ oGefoifay;ygw,f? t,ltq
oufoufa=umifhcsnf; r[kwfbJ b0tawG@tuH tay:rSm tajccHwm
a=umifhvnf; Ak'<bmom[m ody`Hynm&J@ apma=uma0zefr_ESifh prf;oyf
ppfaq;r_awGudk pdefac:&JwJh bmomyJ jzpfygw,f?
ar;?

? Ak'<bmom w&m;awmft& ynmqdkwmuaum


b,fvdkygvJ?
ajz?
? tjrifhrm;qkH;ynmqdkwm tm;vkH;aom ocFg&w&m;awG
[m pifppftm;jzifh rjynfhpkHr_ ('kuQ)/ tcdkuftwef@r#om
jzpf+yD; rcdkifjrJwJh (tedpP)/ tpkd;&wmr[kwfwJh (tewW) oabmawGr#
om jzpfw,fvdk@ &_jrifwmjzpfygw,f? 'Dvdkem;vnf oabmayguf
&_jrifwm[m tuif;rJh vGwfvyfr_yJ jzpf+yD;awmh edAmefvdk@ ac:qdk&wJh
1? bmoma&;ESifh ody`Hynmwdk@&J@ tpGef;wpfzufpD a&mufae=uykH jzpfygw,f?

84

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

wu,fhvkHjcKH pdwfcs&r_/ wu,fh aysmf&$ifcsrf;omr_qDudk OD;wnfaewm


yJjzpfygw,f? 'gayrJh Ak'<udk,fawmfwdkifu 'DtjrifhqkH;ynmtqifhESifh
pyfvsOf;+yD; odyfrsm;rsm;pm;pm; a[mrufawmf rrlcJhygbl;1? olrsm;awG
ajymwJhtwdkif; vG,fvG,fuav;ESifh ,kH=unfw,fqkd&ifvnf; 'g[m
wu,fhynmppfppf r[kwfao;ygbl;? ppfrSefwJh ynmqdkwmu rdrd
udk,fudk rdrd wdkuf&dkuf odjrifem;vnfwmyJ jzpfygw,f? tJ'DtqifhrSm
awmh ynm[m usOf;ajrmif;r_r&SdbJ yGifhvif;r_&Sdvmw,f/ w,loefqkH;
jzwfwmxuf ywf0ef;usifu tjrifawGudk xnfhoGif;qkH;jzwffwmrsKd;
jzpfvmw,f/ udk,fhtjriftxif usOf;usOf; uav;udk zufwG,fqkwf
udkif ae&wmxuf udk,ftjrifESifh rudkufnDwJh jzpfpOfjzpf&yfawGudk
vnf; owdjyK pdppfokH;oyfwwfvmw,f/ tay:,H tjrifESifh wiful;
qkH;jzwfwm/ bufvdkufwmrsKd;awGxuf ydkjyD; "rR"dmefusus &_jrifwwf
vmw,f? yxrqkH; t}udrftjzpf uH&wJh 'grSr[kwf pdwfv_yf&Sm;zG,f
taumif;qkH; t&mawGudk (rpOf;rpm;) vufcHwmrsKd;awGxuf tcsdef
,l oHk;oyf+yD;awmhrS tjrifawG/ ,Hk=unfcsufawGudk wnfaqmufwwf
vmw,f? udk,fht,ltqESifh wu,fhjzpf&yfu wjcm;pD/ rudkufnD
a=umif; odvm&wJh b,ftajctaersKd;rSmrqdk udk,t
fh ,ltqudk
pGef@v$wfzdk@ toifh&Sdvmw,f? yEdkifcJwJh tckvdk qHk;jzwfr_awGudk
yEdkifpGrf;&SdwJh yk*~dKvfuom wu,fhynm&Sdoljzpf+yD;/ trSefw&m; (opPm)
udk em;vnfwJh tqifhudk pifppf aygufajrmuf a&muf&Sdolvnf;
2 ? TY ynmtjym;okH;yg;&SdykHudk odxm;oifh.? 1-okwr,ynm ] olwpfyg;xHrS
=um;jrif/oif,ljcif;jzifh &aomynm/2 - pdEWmr,ynm ] rdrdukd,fwdkif=uHpnf
awG;ac:I&aomynm/ 3 - bm0emr,ynm ]bm0emyGg;rsm;r_jzifhom
xkd;xGif;odjrifI &Edkifaomynm? a[majymjyo&kH oufouffjzifh r&Edkif
udk,fwdkifpdkufxkwfusifh=uHjcif;jzifhom aygufajrmufojd rifEdkifaomt&mjzpfI
TtjrifhqkH; bm0emr,ynm twGuf wdkuf&kduf - eDwwenf;tm;jzifh rsm;pGm
a[mawmfrrljcif;jzpfonf?

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

85

jzpfygw,f? ajymwJhtwddkif;vdkufem&wJh ,Hk=unfr_oufouf enf;vrf;


u bmrScufcufcJcJr&Sdygbl;? Ak'<&J@ r*~ifvrf;pOfrSmawmh jywfom;
&JwJh - owWd/ xdef;odrf; atmifhtnf; onf;nnf;cHEdkif&nf&Sdr_ - cED/
yvG,fjyifvG,fr_ - rk'kESifh tqifhjrifhwJh todOm%f - ynmawG &Sdzdk@
vdktyfvSygw,f?
ar;?

? 'Dtqifh a&mufEdkifwJh olu r&Sdoavmuf enf;yg;vdrfhr,f


vdk@ xifygw,f? vltenf;i,fr#om usifhoHk;vdk@&wJh
bmomqdk&if Ak'<bmom&J@ OD;wnfcsufu b,fvdkygvJ?
ajz?
? [kwfygw,f? vlawGtm;vHk;uawmhjzifh Ak'<0g'udk usifho;Hk zdk@
tckxd tqifoifh rjzpf=uao;ygbl;? 'ga=umifh vlawGtm;
vkH; vdkufemusifho;kH Edkifatmif/ cyfvG,fvG,fuav;ESifh em;vnfEkdif&if
+yD;a&mqdk+yD; trSefw&m;tay: tajcrcHwJh bmoma&;rsKd;udkom oif
=um;ykd@csay;oifhw,fqdk&ifawmh tJ'g[m odyf&,fp&maumif;rSmygyJ?
Ak'<0g'&J@ OD;wnfcsufu opPmodwJh tqifhxd aygufajrmufzdk@ygyJ? 'gayrJh
'Db0'Dudk,f&J@ tjzpfESifh tJ'Dtqifhxd raygufa&mufEdkifao;&if awmifrS
yJ vmrnfhb0wpfckckrSm aygufajrmufodjrifEdkifzdk@twGuf tqifoifh jzpf
oGm;Edkifygw,f? oifhawmfwJh vrf;n$efr_awGudk &,lEdkifvkd@ rdrd&Jh tod
Om%f tqifhtwef;udk jrSifhwifEdkifolawG[mvnf; trsm;tjym;ygyJ?
Ak'<0g'DawG[m wjcm;yk*~KdvfawGESifh w&if;wESD; +idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf; "rR
a&;&mawGudk ol@tjrif udk,f@tjrif nSdE_dif;ESD;aESmavh&Sd=uwm[mtJ'D
twGufa=umifhygyJ? Ak'<u r[mu&k%mawmfESifh ,SOf+yD; owW0g a0ae
,sawGudk oGefoifay;awmfrlcJhwmyg? (jrwfAk'<usifhxkH; ESvkH;rl=uwJh) Ak'<
0g'DawGuvnf; u&k%mw&m;ESifhyJ "rRudk vufqifhurf; jzef@csdvm
=uwm jzpfygw,f?

86

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

ar;?

? 'gqdk u&k%myGm;rsm;yHk ta=umif;qD a&mufyg+yD?


Ak'<a'oemawmf tvdkus u&k%mw&m;qdkwmuaum
b,fvdkygvJ?
ajz?
? vl@p&dkuf&J@ todOm%fydkif; qdkif&mrSm ynmjymef;ovdkyJ
cHpm;r_ydkif; qdkif&mrSmawmh u&k%mu jymef;ygw,f?
u&k%m[m ynmvdkyJ vdkvm;tyfwJh vl@t&nftaoG; wpf&yfjzpfyg
w,f? u&k%m (Compassion) qdkwJh a0g[m&udk Co + Passion qdkwJh
a0g[m& ESpfvHk;ESifh aygif;pyfxm;wmyg? Co - twlwuG + Passion jyif;jywJh cHpm;r_vdk@ t"dyg`,f&+yD; Compassion - olwpfyg; 'kuQudk rdrd
'kuQESifhrjcm; wpfoabmwnf;xm; cHpm;jcif; ]u&k%m1 jzpfvmyg
w,f? wpfpHkwpfa,muf 'kuQa&mufaewmudk awG@&wJhtcg ol@ae&mrSm
udk,fomqdk&if b,favmufcHpm;&rSmvJqdkwJh udk,fcsif;pmpdwfESifh
tJ'Da0'emudk ajzazsmufay;zkd@ 'grSr[kwf avsmhyg;oGm;apzdk@ tm;xkwf
w,fqdk&if 'g[m u&k%mygyJ? 'Dawmh Ak'<bk&m;&SifrSm&SdwJh t&nf
taoG;awGvdkyJ rdrd. tusKd;udk r#a0ay;r_/ wpfyg;olawGudk tm;ay;
ESpfodrfhr_/ udk,fcsif;pmr_/ a=umifh=updkuf+yD; apmifha&Smufwwfr_pwJh
aumif;jrwfwJh vl@t&nf taoG;awG[m u&k%mapwoduf&J@ t*Fg&yf
awGyJjzpf=uygw,f?
u&k%mw&m; vufudkifxm;ol wpfOD;taeESifh wjcm;olawGudk
ta&;w,ly+yD; cspfcifwm[m ol@udk,fol tav;xm;+yD; cspfcifwwf
wmuae pwifw,fvdk@ rSwf,lEdkifygw,f? udk,fh[mudk,f wu,f
em;vnf oabmaygufcJhvdk@&Sd&if wpfjcm;olawGudkvnf; wu,fpmem
em;vnfedkifrSmyg? rdrdtwGuf b,ft&m[m taumif;qHk;jzpfovJ
qdkwmudk od&SdcJhvdk@&Sd&if wpfjcm;olawGtwGufvnf; bmtaumif;qHk;
1? y&'kauQ or`awW om"leH reH twWem0d, ud&d,wDwd u&k%m
(] olawmfaumif;wdk@. ESvkH;om;Y olwyg;'kuu
Q kd udk,fh'kuQESifhrjcm;
cHpm;apwwfonfhtwGufa=umifh u&k%m[kac:onf?)

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

87

jzpfr,f qdkwmudk od&SdEdkifrSm jzpfygw,f? udk,fhtwGuf cHpm;ovdkyJ


olrsm; twGufvnf; pmemcHpm;Edkifygw,f? 'ga=umifh Ak'<0g't& wpfpHk
wpfa,muf&J@ pdwfydkif;qdkif&m wdk;wufaumif;rGefa&;[m wpfjcm;olawG
&J@ omr_emr_udk &_iJhwwfr_ESifh qufpyfjzpfay:wwfwmrsKd; jzpfw,fvdk@
qdkygw,f? Ak'<&J@tckb0jzpfpOf(Ak'<0if)udk =unfh&ifyJ 'Dtcsuf[m
ay:vGifvSygw,f? Ak'<[m ol@udk,fusKd; (Ak'<wp&d,) twGuf ajcmufESpf
=um=um u;pm;usifhaqmifawmfrlcJh+yD;/ bk&m;tjzpf a&mufawmfrl+yD;wJh
aemuf b0wpfav#mufvHk;umvrSmawmh vlom;avmuwpfckvHk;&J@
tusKd;oufouftwGufyJ pGrf;aqmifay;awmfrlcJhwmjzpfygw,f?
ar;?

? udk,fhtusKd; vkyfaqmifvdk@+yD;awmhrSyJ olrsm; tusKd;udk


taumif;qHk; jzpfatmif aqmif&Gufay;Edkifr,f qdkcJh&if
'g[m wpfudk,faumif;qef&m ra&mufaybl;vm;?
ajz?
? trsm;tusKd;aqmifr_ qdkwmESifh wpfudk,faumif;qefr_
qdkwmudk wpfckESifhwpfck[m qef@usifbuf jzpfw,fvdk@
csnf; &_jrifwwf=uygw,f? 'DudpPrSm Ak'<0g'uawmh rdrd&,f/ olwpfyg;
&,fqdk+yD; wuGJwjym;pDtaeESifh &_jrifraebJ wpfom;wnf; (wajy;
tnD) tjzpf oabmxm;ygw,f? olwyg;udk rdrdESifhxyfwl wpfwef;
wnf; wpfoabmwnf;xm;Edkifvkd@&Sd&if udk,fhusKd; udk,fhpD;yGm;udk wu,f
wrf; aqmif&Gufw,fqdkwm[m wpfjcm;olawG&J@ tusKd;pD;yGm;udk
aqmif&Guf&mvnf; a&mufwmygyJ? 'gurS u&k%mppf u&k%mrSef jzpf
+yD; Ak'<a'oemawmfqdkwJh rudkfo&zlay:rSm u&k%mw&m;[m tvSy
qHk;aom ausmufrsuf wpfyGifhyJ jzpfygw,f?

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

oufowfvGwf
ar;?

? Ak'<bmom0ifwpfOD;[m oufowfvGwf pm;oifhw,f


r[kwfygvm;?
ajz?
? oufowfvGwfqdkwm rvdktyfvSygbl;? Ak'<udk,fawmfwdkif
u oufowfvGwfokH;cJhwm r[kwo
f vdk ol@wynfhom;awG
udkvnf; oufowfvGwform;awG jzpf=uzdk@ a[mnefawmfrrlcJhygbl;?
tcktcgrSm Ak'<bmom0ifaumif;yDowJh oufowfrvGwfolawG renf;
vSygbl;?
ar;?

? tom;ig;pm;w,f qdk&if owW0gwpfOD; aoqHk;&r_twGuf


pm;oHk;olrSm oG,f0dkufaomtm;jzifh wm0ef&Sd&ma&mufyg
w,f? 'g[m yg%mwdygwqdkwJh yxroduQmyk'fudk
csKd;azmuf &maum rusaybl;vm;?
ajz?
? [kwfygw,f? tom;ig;pm;oHk;ol[m tJ'Dom;aumif ao
qkH;&r_twGuf oG,f0dkufaomenf;ESifh wpfpdwfwpfydkif;tm;
jzifh wm0efruif;ygbl;? 'gayrJh oufowfvGwfpm;&ifvnf; 'Dtwdkif;
ygyJ? opfoD; opf&GufawGrSm tayguftyJh rygbJESifh yef;uefxJ pdrf;zyf
vwfqwfpGm a&muf&SdvmEkdifatmif pdkufysKd;olu pdkufcif;awGxJ
ydk;owfaq; tqdyf &nfawG zsef;ay;&w,f? wpfcg vlawG okH;pGJae

89

=uwJh cg;ywfu;wdk@/ vufqGJtdwfwdk@ vkyfzdk@ om;a&awG/ qyfjymtqD


xkwfvkyfa&;ESifh wjcm; axmifcsDwJh tvm;wl xkwfukefjyKvkyfr_awG
twGuf wd&dp>mef awGudk owfjzwf=u&w,f? wpfenf;r[kwf
wpfenf; - wjcm;owW0g wpfOD;OD; aoa=u&r_ESifh oG,f0dkufaomtm;
jzifh rqufpyfyJESifhawmh touf&Sif &yfwnfzdk@qdkwm[m jzpfudk
rjzpfEkdifwJh udpPygyJ? 'g[m 'kuQopPm&J@ o&kyfouef wpfckr#om jzpf
ygw,f? (avmurS rxGuf ajrmufEdkifao;or#) avmuDb0jzpfpOf[m
okcrzuf 'kuQoufoufr#om jzpfygw,f? ig;yg;oDv yxroduQmyk'f
udk aqmufwnf&mrSm owW0gawG aoqkH;&r_twGuf udk,fhtaeESifh
wdkuf&dkufwm0effr&Sd&avatmif u;pm;apmifhxdef;zdk@yJ vdktyfygw,f?
ar;?
ajz?

? r[m,me Ak'<bmomawGuawmh tom;rpm;=uygbl;?


? 'g rrSefuefygbl;? w&kwf r[m,me Ak'<bmomawGu
oufowfvGwfpm;wmudktxl;tav;xm;=uayrJh *syefESifh
wdAuf r[m,meawGuawmh bkef;=uD;a&m wum/ wumrawGyg
tom; pm;=uygw,f?
ar;?

? 'gayrJh Ak'<bmom0if wpfOD;qdk&ifawmh (bmyJjzpfjzpf)


oufowfvGwf pm;oifhw,fvdk@ ,lqrdygw,f?
ajz?
? yk*~Kdvf ESpfOD;&dSw,fqdkygawmh? wpfOD;u wu,fh wdwdusus
oufowfvGwform;? 'gayrJh ol[m wpfudk,af umif;qef
w,f/ av;pm;p&mqdkv@dk bmrSvnf;r&Sdbl;/ aumufuspf,kwfrmw,f/
aemuf wpfOD;u oufowfvGwform;awmh r[kwfbl;? 'gayrJh olu
wjcm;olawGudk nSmwmwwfw,f/ av;pm;zdk@vnf; aumif;w,f/ r#r#
ww&Sd+yD; =uifemwwfw,f? uJ - 'Dvdkomqdk&ifaum olwdk@ESpfOD;
teuf b,folu ydk+yD;awmh Ak'<bmom0ifaumif; wpfOD;jzpfrSmygvJ?

90

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

tar;yk*~Kv
d f?
tajzyk*~Kdvf?

? ('Dvdkomqdk&ifawmh) av;pm;avmufwJh*k%f&Sdol/
oem;nSmwmwwffolu ydkjyD;awmh Ak'<bmom0if
aumif; yDowmaygh?
? bma=umifhygvdrfh?

tar;yk*~Kv
d f?

? 'Dvkdyk*~KdvfrsKd;u pdwf"gwfa&;&m t& jrifhrm;w,f


qdkwmodomwJh twGufa=umifhrdk@aygh?
tajzyk*~Kdvf?
? rSefygw,f? tom;rpm;wJh yk*~Kdvf[m pdwfxm;
,kwfnH@ol jzpfEdkifao;ovdk/ tom;pm;ayrJh
pdwfxm;jzLpifjrifhjrwfolvnf; jzpfEkdifygao;w,f? Ak'<a'oemawmf
t&
ESvkH;&nf oef@pifjrifhrm;a&;uom t"dujzpf+yD;awmh/
bmpm;w,f/ bmrpm;bl;qdkwJhtcsufu ta&;rygvSygbl;? tom;
vkH;0rpm;a&;udk tav;xm;=uoavmuf wpfudk,faumif;qefwm/
av;pm;avmufwJh *k%f&,fvdk@ r&dSatmifukd ,kwfnhHwm/ &ufpuf
wwfwm/ remvdk0efwdk usOf;ajrmif;wmawGusawmh tm&kHrpdu
k f=uwJh
Ak'<bmom0ifawGvnf; trsm;tjym;ygyJ? wkd;wufaumif;rGefvm
atmif vkyfzkd@&m rvG,fulvSwJh ESvkH;om;awGudk vspfvsL&_xm;=u+yD;
awmh bmrScufcufcJcJ r&SdvSwJh tpm;taomufav;udkyJ &r,f&Smae
=uwmomjzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh tom;pm;okH;olyJjzpfjzpf/ tom;
a&Smif=uOfolyJjzpfjzpf Ak'<0g't&qkd&ifawmh pdwfxm;jrifhjrwfa&;uom
t"du ta&;t}uD;qkH;vdk@ rSwf,loifhygw,f?

uHESifh=urRm
ar;?

? arSmftwwfwdk@/ aA'if/ ,=wmwdk@ESifh ywfoufvdk@uaum


Ak'<u b,fvdkrdef@=um;awmfrlcJhygovJ?
ajz?
? Ak'<u a&S;jzpf twyfa[mjcif;/ tumtuG,f vufzJG@
aqmifjcif;/ ajr=uH (taqmufttkHtwGuf ae&ma&G;ay;)
jcif;/ edrdwfzwfjcif;/ r*Fvm&SdwJh tcsdeftcga&G;ay;jcif;pwmawG[m t,l
onf;r_ oufoufr#om jzpfw,fvdk@ owfrSwfawmffrlygw,f? ol@&J@
wynf@ om0uawGudkvnf; 'DDvdkudpPrsKd;awGudk tavhtvmry=uzdk@
twdtvif;yJ wm;jrpfawmfrlcJhygw,f? Ak'<u 'gawGudk twwfi,f
(Low Arts) awGtjzpf a[mawmfrlcJhygw,f?
TavmuY Trnfaom twwfi,frsKd; (atmufvrff;)
wdk@udk aqmif&Gufjcif;jzifh toufarG;r_y=uwJh or%
jAm[R%awGvnf; &Sd=uw,f? rSm;,Gif;wJh toufarG;r_awG
jzpfwJh tJ'Dtwwfi,fqdkwmawGuawmh vuQ%m ta&;
ta=umif;udk =unfh+yD; uHtqdk;taumif;udk a[mjcif;/ edrdwf
aumufjcif;/ tdyfrufzwfjcif;/ uHedrfholtm; uHaumif;atmif
yjyif (,=wmacs) ay;jcif;/ uHapmifh ewforD;qDrmS qk
awmif;ay;jcif;/ vmbfcHwhJ ajruGufa&G;ay;jcif; pwmawGygyJ?

92

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

&[ef;a*gwruawmh 'DvdkrsKd; twwfi,fawGESifh rSm;,Gif;pGm


toufarG;jcif;awGudk a&Smif=uOfawmfrlw,f?1
ar;?

? Ak'<u 'Davmuf wdwdusus a[mxm;ygvsufESifh vlawGu


'gawGudk bmha=umifh vdkufpm; ,kH=unfae=uwmygvdrfh?
ajz?
? 'DvlawG&J@ avmb}uD;r_/ a=umuftm;}uD;r_/ rodawGa0r_
wkd@a=umifhygyJ? Ak'<w&m;awmfawGudk em;vnfoabmayguf
vmwmESifh wpfydifeufwnf; puULp/ owWKpuav;awG/ *gxmrEef
twdktpuav;awGudk ,kH=unftm;xm;&wmESifhpm&if rdrd&J@ jzLpifwJh
ESvkH;om;u ydkjyD;awmhawmif tumtuG,f ay;Edkifao;w,fqdkwm
vdyfywfvnfoGm;=urSmyg? 'DvdkoabmaygufoGm;olawG[m tJ'D *gxm/
rEef/ ,=wmpwmawGudk tm;rudk;=uawmhygbl;? Ak'<a'oemawmfawG
t&awmh/ udk,fusio
fh Dv&Sdwm/ oem;nSmwmwwfwm/ wwfod em;
vnfwm/ onf;cHwwfwm/ cGifhv$wfwwfwm/ &ufa&mwwfwm/
opPmapmifhodwmpwJh wjcm;aumif;jrwfwJh *k%f&nfawG &SdwmuyJ
vlukd trSefwu,f tumtuG,fay;+yD;awmh wu,fh tvm;tvm
aumif;awGudk zefwDf;ay;EddkifpGrf;&Sdw,fv@dk qdkygw,f?
ar;?

? taqmifvufzGJ@awG[m wu,f pGrf;w,f/ rpGrf;bl;qdkwm


odyg&ap?
ajz?
? taqmifvufzGJ@awG a&mif;cs+yD; toufarG;aewJh yk*~Kv
d f
wpfOD;ESifh todtu|rf; jzpfzl;ygw,f? olu ol@vufzGJ@awG
[m uHaumif;atmif/ tvm;tvmawG aumif;atmif pGrf;aqmifay;
Edkifw,fvdk@ qdkygw,f? +yD;awmh rif;[m eHygwfoHk;ckudk a&G;,lzdk@ pGrf;
aqmifEdkifvdrfhr,fvdk@vnf; tmrcHygw,f? 'gayrJh pOf;pm;p&maumif;
wmu olajymwJhtwdkif;om trSefwu,f jzpfcJhvdk@&Sd&if ol udk,fwdkif
1? 'DCedum,/ y- wGJ 9-12

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

93

usawmh bma=umifh oef;u,fola;wpfOD; jzpfrvm&wmvJ? ol@&J@


vmbfac:vufzGJ@awGom wu,f tvkyfvkyfw,f/ pGrf;w,fqdk&if
ol@taeESifh bma=umifh xDt}udrf}udrf rayguf&wmvJ? ol uHaumif;
wmqdkv@dk ol@arSmfvufzGJ@awGudk rdkufrJpGm 0,f,ltm;ay;ae=uwJh
azmufonfawG &Sdaeao;wm wpfckavmufyJ &Sdygw,f?
ar;?

? uJ-'gqdk&if/ uHa=umifh jzpfwm/ uHaumif;wm qdk+yD;


ajymvdk@&EdkifwJh t&mrsm; aum&Sdygao;ovm;?
ajz?
? uHaumif;jcif; (Luck) qdkwJh a0g[m&udk yk*~dKvf wpfOD;
wpfa,muftwGuf taumif;tqdk; bmyJjzpfjzpf jzpfor#
ta=umif;w&m;uawmh uHyJ/ 'g[m uHtvSnfhtajymif;a=umifh
jzpf&wm/ =urRmudk,fu n_d;vdk@/ vef;vdk@ jzpf&wmvdk@csnf;yJ worwf
wnf; ,lqwJh,Hk=unfr_ vdk@ tbd"mefu zGifhqdkygw,f?
Ak'<uawmh 'Dvdk uH,Hk 0g'rsKd;udk tjywftowf y,fcsawmf
rlcJhw,f? t&m&mwdkif;rSm tJ'Dt&m jzpfysufzdk@&eftwGuf wduswJh
ta=umif;w&m;wpfck 'grSr[kwf ta=umif;w&m;awG trsm;tjym;
&Sd+yD;awmh tJ'Dta=umif;w&m;ESifh tusKd;w&m;[m qufpyfaewmyJ
(ta=umif;uif;+yD; jzpfw,fqdkwmudk r&Sdbl;) vdk@ rdef@awmfrlcJhygw,f?
Oyrm ajym&&if - aexdkif raumif;/ rtDrom jzpfvmw,fqdk&if tJ'D
vdk jzpf&atmif vHkavmufwJh ta=umif;w&m;&Sdw,f? vl@cE<mudk,fESifh
a&m*gydk;awG xdawG@r_&Sd&r,f/ a&m*gydk;awG 0ifa&muf+yD; ajcukyf,lEdkif
avmufatmif cE<mudk,f tm;enf;aewmjzpf&r,f? (tJ'DtajctaerSm
aexkdifraumif;bl;qdkwmjzpfvmwmygyJ)? tJ'DjzpfpOfrSm a&m*gydk;awG0if
a&mufvmr_/ cE<mudk,f tm;enf;aer_qdkwJh ta=umif;w&m;ESifh aexdkif
raumif;jzpfr_qdkwJh tusKd;w&m;wdk@t=um;rSm wduswJh qufpyfr_
&Sdaeygw,f? bma=umifhvJqdkawmh a&m*gydk;awG[m cE<mudk,fxJ
0ifa&mufvm+yD;aemuf rlvuwnf;u cE<mudk,fxJrSm &SdaewJh a&m*g

94

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

+yD;pHepf t%kZD0&kyf (Cell) awGudk wdkufcdkufw,f/ 'DwdkufyGJa=umifh aexdkif


raumif;jcif;qdkwm jzpfvm&jcif; jzpfw,fvdk@ odxm;vdk@ygyJ?
'gayrJh/ pma=umif; ao;ao;av;awG a&;xm;wJh puULp
av;awGudk 0wfqifwm (aqmifwm) ESifhyJ csrf;omvmw,f/ pmar;yGJ
atmifw,fqdkwJh jzpfpOfESpfck t=um;rSmawmh b,fqufpyfr_udkrS &Sm
rawG@Edkifbl;? Ak'<0g'&J@ tqdkuawmh - ta=umif;w&m;wpfcku 'grS
r[kwf ta=umif;w&m; trsm;tjym;u tusKd;w&m;wpfckudk jzpfay:
apwmyJ jzpfw,f? uH&,f/ tcGifhtvrf;&,f qdkwmawGa=umifh
jzpfvmwm r[kwfbl;? uHaumif;w,f qdkwmudk pdwfyg0ifpm;olawGu
aiGawG/ pnf;pdrfOpPmawG wpfyHkwpfacgif;}uD; &,lEdkifa&; twGufcsnf;
tpOfojzifh vHk;yrf;ae=uw,f? Ak'<uawmh ESvkH;om;ESifh pdwf"gwf
wdk;wufzdk@uom ydkta&;}uD;a=umif; rdef@rufawmfrlcJhygw,f? Ak'<
rdef@rufawmfrlwmu -

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

raumif;r_wdk@rS uif;a0;atmif a&Smif=unfjcif;/ t&ufao


pm aomufpm;r_wdk@Y tavhtx rjyKjcif;/ w&m;oabmwdk@
Y rarhravsmhjcif;wdk@onfvnf; aumif;jrwfaom }uD;yGm;
a=umif; r*Fvmrnfay.?
olwxl;wdk@Y &dkaoav;pm;or_jyKjcif;/ udk,u
fh dkudk,f ESdrhfcs
pGm jyKrlwwfjcif;/ a&mifh&JvG,fjcif;/ ol@aus;Zl;udk odwwf
jcif;/ tcgtm;avsmfpGm w&m;em,lavh&Sdjcif;wdk@onf aumif;
jrwfaom }uD;yGm;a=umif; r*Fvmwdk@aywnf;?1

E_wfr_ vufr_wdk@Y av;eufpGmoif,lI aumif;pGm u|rf;usif


wwffajrmufjcif;/ aumif;pGmusiffhaqmifjcif;/ aumif;rGefpGm
ajymqdk qufqHjcif;wdk@onf taumif;qkH;aom }uD;yGm;
a=umif; r*Fvmjzpfay.?
trdtbwdk@tm; jyKpkvkyfau|;jcif;/ om;r,m;wdk@tm;
csD;ajrSmufaxmufyHhjcif;/ tjypfrJhaom toufarG;jcif;wdk@
onfvnf; }uD;yGm;a=umif; r*Fvmrnfay.?
ay;urf;csD;jrSifhjcif;/ w&m;ojzifhusifhaqmifjcif;/ aqGrsK;d
Omwdwdk@tm; ulnDapmifha&Smufjcif;/ tjypfuif;rJhaom ty
trlwdk@udkom vkyfaqmifavh&dSjcif;wdk@onfvnf; }uD;yGm;
a=umif; r*Fvmrnfay.?

95

1? okwWedygw/ 216 - 265

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

t&Sifa*gwr/ oifhavsmfwJh pl;prf;qifjcifr_udk jyKygOD;vdk@


rdef@awmfrlwJh twGufa=umifhvnf; tu|Efkyf taeESifh tvGef@
tvGefrSyJ xyfavmif;I ESpfaxmif;tm;& jzpf&ygao;w,f?
wjcm;wjcm;aom bmom *kd%f;q&m}uD;awGuawmh
tu|Efkyfvdkvluo
dk m wynfhtjzpf odrf;oGif;Edkifr,fqdk&if
Oygvd[m ighwdk@&J@wynf@ jzpfvm+yD qdk+yD; wpf+rdK@vkH;tESH@
au;a=umf=urSm rvGJygyJ? 'gayrJh 'Dae&mrSmawmh t&Sif
a*gwru oifhavsmfwJh pHkprf;qifjcifr_udk yOD;avmh/ oifhvdk
xif&Sm;oltzdk@ pl;prf;qifjcifr_y+yD;awmhrS vkyfjcif;[m
aumif;w,fvdk@ qdkazmf &ao;w,f2 vdk@ Oygvdu av#muf
xm;ygw,f?

Ak'b
< mom0ifaumif;wpfOD;
ar;?

? tck aqG;aEG;cJhwJh ta=umif;t&mawGtm;vkH; pdwfyg 0if


pm;p&mawGcsnf;ygyJ? Ak'<bmom0ifaumif; wpfOD; b,fvdk
vkyf+yD; jzpfvmEkdifw,fqdkwmvnf; &Sif;vif;prf;ygOD;?
ajz?
? Ak'<vufxufawmfwkef;u OygvdqdkwJh yk*~KdvfwpfOD;&SdcJhw,f?
(wpfae@rSm) bmomjcm;wpfOD;jzpfwJh tJ'Dyk*~Kv
d f[m Ak'<ESifh
0g'csif; ,SOf+ydKiftEkdif,l+yD; Ak'<tm; olukd;uG,fwJh bmom1okd@ pnf;&kH;
oGwfoGif;&atmifqdk+yD; Ak'<txHawmfokd@ a&muf&SdvmcJhygw,f? 'gayrJh
tJ'DvdkaqG;aEG;+yD;wJhaemufrSmawmh Ak'<tay: odyf=unfndkav;pm;oGm;
wma=umifh csufcsif;yJ ol[m Ak'<om0u wpfOD;tjzpfcH,lzdk@ qkH;jzwf
vdkufygw,f? Ak'<u oifhawmfwJh pkHprf;avhvmr_udk yygOD;/ oifhvkdxif&Sm;wJh
yk*~Kv
d fwpfOD;tzdk@ pl;prf;qifjcif+yD;rS qkH;jzwfvkyfudkifoifh
w,f vdk@rdef@ awmfrlvdkuw
f ,f?
2? *sdef;bmom

97

Ak'<0g'rSm em;vnfr_ynm[m ta&;tygqHk;aom t&mygyJ?


'Dvdkem;vnfr_&atmif tcsdef apmifhwefapmifh&w,f? 'ga=umifh pdwfapm
+yD;awmh Ak'<bmomxJ r0ifvdkufygESifhOD;? tcsdef,l+yD;awmh ar;cGef;awG
xkwf/ tajz&Sm/ tjyefjyef tvSefvSef oHk;oyf+yD;awmhrS qHk;jzwfcsufcsyg?
Ak'<uawmh wynfhaemufvdkuf rsm;wmavmufudk vkdvm;awmfrrlygbl;?
ola[mwJh w&m;a'oemawmfawG tay:rSm wu,f vufawG@usus
av;av;eufeuf qifjcifor_y+yD;wJhaemufrS em;vnf oabmaygufvdk@
vkdufemusifhaqmifwJh olrsKd;awGudkom vdkvm;awmfrlwm jzpfyg w,f?
ar;?

? 'DvdkrsKd; av;av;eufeuf pHkprf;qifjcif+yD;wJhaemuf


Ak'<w&m;awmf awGudk vufcHEdkifwm awG@&Sd&vkd@ Ak'<
bmom0ifwpfOD; tjzpf cH,lvdkw,f qdk&ifaum
b,fvdk vkyf&yghrvJ?

1? Oygvdow
k -W ---379

98

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;

ajz?

? 'gqdk&if - Ak'<bmom bkef;}uD;ausmif;wpfausmif;qDodk@ 'grS


r[kwf Ak'<bmom tpkta0; wpfckqDodk@ oGm;a&muf
qufoG,fyg/ olwdk@ESifh tjrifcsif; zvS,fyg/ Ak'<a[m w&m;awmfawGudk
xyfavmif; oif,lyg/ tJ'g taumif;qHk;ygyJ? tm;vHk; tqifoifh
jzpf+yDqdkawmhrS o&%*kHo;Hk yg; aqmufwnfvdkufwmESifh yDjyifwJh Ak'<
bmom0ifaumif; wpfOD; jzpfoGm;awmhwmygyJ?
ar;?
ajz?

? o&%*kH oHk;yg; qdkwmuaum bmawGygvJ?


? o&%*kH (]udk;uG,ftm;xm;p&m) qdkwmu vlawG pdwf
"mwfn_d;i,f+yD; olwkd@vkHcHpdwfcs&r_&Sdzdk@ vdktyfwJh tcgrsKd;rSm
csOf;uyfavh&Sd=uwJh t&mygyJ? 'Dtm;xm;p&m o&%*kaH wGqdkwmu
awmh yHkpHtm;jzifh trsKd;pHkygyJ? vlawGqdkwm &$if&$ifysys r&SdwJh tcgrsKd;rSm
olwdk@&J@ rdwfaqG taygif;toif;awGqDudk csOf;uyf=uw,f? pdk;&drfpdwf
wdk@ a=umufpdwfwdk@ r$ef;aewJh tcgrsKd;rSmqdk&if vGJrSm;wJh ar#mfvifhcsuf
awG/ ,kH=unfr_awGqDudkawmif a&mufoGm;wwfao;wmyJ? aocgeD; us
awmh xm0&aumif;uifbHkqdkwJh t&mrsKd;udkawmif t,lpGJ+yD;awmh
tm;udk;oGm;Edkifao;w,f? 'gayrJh Ak'<uawmh 'gawGtm;vHk;[m wu,fh
vufawG@usr_tay: tajccHwJh vHkcHaEG;axG;r_rsKd;udk ay;EdkifpGrf;wJh t&m
awG r[kwaf o;a=umif; tckvdk rdef@awmfrlcJhygw,f?
'gawG[m ppfrSefwJh/ jrifhjrwfwJh tm;udk;p&m (o&%)
tppf awGr[kw/f 'kuQtm;vHk;rS vGwfajrmufapwJh t&mawG
vnf; r[kw=f u?
Ak'< "rRESifh oHCmqdkwJh udk;uG,fp&m oHk;rsKd;udk ,kH=unf
udk;uG,fjcif;/ qif;&Jr_ 'kuQopPm/ 'kuQawGudk jzpfapwJh
ta=umif;cH ork',opPm/ 'kuQawGuae uif;a0;wJh
'kuQcsKyf+idrf;&m eda&m"opPm/ tJ'D eda&m"&J@ ta=umif;cH

99

r*~if&Spfyg;qdkwJh r*~opPm/ 'DopPmav;yg;udk odjrifem;vnf


oabmaygufjcif;awGuom wu,fppfrSefwJh udk;uG,fp&m/
tjrifhjrwfqHk;jzpfwJh tm;xm;p&m/ 'kuQqif;&JawG tm;vHk;
uae vGwfajrmufapwJh rSDcdkp&mtppf}uD; jzpfw,fvdk@ a[m
awmfrlcJhygw,f1?
Ak'<udk udk;uG,fwm[m Ak'<udk,fawmfwdkif odjrifawmf rlcJhwJh
opPmOm%fawmfESifh tzufzufu +yD;jynfhpHkwJhvlom;&J@ tjzpfudk Ak'<
a&muf&SdawmffrlcJhovdk rdrdukd,fwdkifvnf; &,lEdkifw,fqkdwJh ,kH=unf
r_udk jzpfapygw,f?
"rRudk ,Hk=unfudk;uG,fwm[m r*~if&Spfyg; vrf;pOfay:rSm rdrd
b0udk wnfaqmufa&;/ opPmav;yg;udk odjrifem;vnfa&;twGufyJ
jzpfygw,f?
oHCmudk ,Hk=unfudk;uG,fwm[m r*~if&Spfyg; vrf;pOfudk
vufawG@ usifhaqmifawmf rlae=uwJh oHCmawmfawGtm;vHk;&J@ txHrS
yHhydk;/ aphaqmfay;r_ESifh OD;aqmifvrf;nefr_udk cH,lwmyJjzpfygw,f? 'Dvdk
o&%*kH oHk;yg;udk cH,laqmufwnfvdkufwmESifh Ak'<bmom aumif;wpf
OD; jzpfvm+yD;awmh edAmefodk@ a&S;&_wJh r*~ifvrf;ay:rSm yxrqHk;aom
ajcvSr;f wpfvSrf;udk vSrf;csvdkufol jzpfoGm;ygw,f?
ar;?

? oifhb0rSmaum o&%*kH oHk;yg;udk pwifaqmufwnf


+yD;uwnf;u b,fvdk tajymif;tvJawGrsm;
&Sdygao;ovJ?
ajz?
? vGefcJhwJh 2500 ausmf twGif;rSm ra&wGufEdkifavmuf
atmif rsm;jym;wJh olawmfpifAk'<bmom0ifawG&J@ enf;vrf;
twdkif; ygyJ? rdrdtaeESifhvnf; Ak'<w&m;awmfawG[m 1? "rRy' 189 - 192

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;
100

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

- cufcJ=urf;wrf;r_awG=um;rSm todw&m; tvif;a&mifudk aqmif


=uOf;ay;w,f?
- t"dy`g,fuif;rJhvSwJh b0udk t"dy`g,fawGESifh jznfhay;w,f?
- rdrdb0udk OD;aqmif vrf;nefzkd@ nSmwmwwfr_/ oem;=uifemwwfr_
pwJh udk,fusifhw&m;awGudk oGefoifay;w,f?
- aemifvmrnfhb0rSm pdwfxm;jzLpifr_ESifh +yD;jynfhpHkr_awGudk b,fvdk
&,lEdkifw,f qdkwmudkvnf; oGefoifay;ygw,f?

ygyJ? rdwfaqGaumif; wpfOD;omqdk&if oif[m bmyJjzpfaeae t&Sdudk


t&Sdtwdkif; vufcHEdkif&r,f? +yD;awmh oifhqENudk todtrSwfy tav;
xm;rSmyJ? rdrdtjrif ajym&&ifawmh 'Dyk*~dKvf[m oifhudk ol@bmomxJ
odrf;oGif;pnf;&Hk;Edkifa&;twGuf rdwfaqGa,mif aqmifxm;wJh rdwfaqG
wk oufoufyJ jzpfygvdrfhr,f? oifhtay: olwdk@&J@ qENukd twif;
jymef;zdk@ u;pm;olawG[m b,fawmhrS oifh&J@ ppfrSefwJh rdwfaqG
aumif;awG jzpfrvmEdkifbl;qdkwm rSwf,lxm;oifhygw,f?
ar;?

tdENd,&J@ a&S;acwf uAsmq&m wpfOD;u Ak'<ta=umif;


atmufygtwdkif; pyfqdkcJhygw,f?
Ak'<udk udk;uG,fqnf;uyfjcif;/
Ak'<*k%fawmfudk csD;usL; zGJ@qdkjcif;/
Ak'<udk csD;ajrSmuf ylaZmfjcif;/
Ak'<"rRudk vdkufemusifho;kH jcif;qdkwm orRm'dda&S;oGm;&SdwJh yrlusifhaqmifjcif;ygyJ?
'DzGJ@qdkcsufwpfckvHk;udk rdrd odyfoabmusygw,f?
ar;?

ajz?

101

? u|efawmfhudk oludk;uG,fwJh bmomodk@ ul;ajymif;zkd@


tjrJwrf; u;pm; odrf;oGif;aewJh oli,fcsif;wpfOD;
&Sdygw,f? ol@bmomw&m;udk rdrdu vHk;0pdwf0ifpm;vdk@
r&wJh ta=umif; ajymjyayrJh ol@taeESifh rdrdudk
rcGJEdkifbl;jzpfaejyefw,f? tJ'g b,fvdk vkyf&yghrvJ?
? oifh taeESifh yxrqHk; em;vnfxm;&rSmu 'Dvl[m
oifh&J@ ppfrSefwJh rdwfaqGaumif;wpfOD; r[kwfbl;qdkwm

? 'gayrJh olu rdrdtm; oludk;uG,fwJh bmomudk


olESifhtwlwuG yg0ifudk;uG,fapcsifwmyJ
jzpfw,fvdk@qdkaejyefygw,f?
ajz?
? rdrdukd;uG,fwJh bmomw&m;udk wpfjcm;olawGudk r#a0
ay;jcif;[m rGefjrwfygw,f? 'gayrJh/ r#a0jcif; (Sharing) ESifh
twif;jymef;jcif; (Imposing) [m rwlnDbl;qdkwmudk oifhrdwfaqG
oabmaygufykH r&ygbl;? rdrdrSm yef;oD;wpfvkH;&Sdw,fqdkygawmh/ tJ'D
yef;oD;&J@ wpfjcrf;udk oifhudkr#ay;w,f? oifuvnf; vufcHw,f? 'g[m
r#a0r_ygyJ? 'Dvkdr[kwfbJ oifu u|Efkyfukd tckvdkajymvmw,fqdkygawmh
- u|efawmfawmh enf;enf;pm;xm;+yD;yg+yD/ 'gayrJh 'Dyef;oD;jcrf;av;udk
awmh vufcHapcsifygw,fqdk+yD; vufrcHrcsif; twif; wdkufwGef;vm
w,fqdk&if 'gudk r#a0jcif;vdk@ ajymvdk@r&awmhygbl;?
oifhrdwfaqGvdk vlpm;awGu r#a0r_wdk@/ arwWmwdk@/ oabm
xm;}uD;r_wdk@vdk pum;vkH;vSvSawGudk wGifwGifokH;+yD; olwdk@&Jh r&dk;om;r_
udk zkH;uG,fzkd@ u;pm;wwf=uw,f? 'gayrJh b,favmufyJ tajym
aumif;aumif;/ olwdk@&J@ trlt&mawGu tcsKd;ajyrSm r[kwfovdk
qdk;wmuawmh qdk;aerSmygyJ/ wudk,faumif;qefw,fqdkwmvnf;
ay:vGifaerSmygyJ?
ar;?

? 'gqdk&if ol@udk b,fvdkvkyf cGJcGm&ygrvJ?

102
ajz?

a'gufwm eaENmbmo (umvuwWm;)

? 'gu tvG,fuav;yg? yxr - oifhudk,foif igbmvdkcsif


wmvJ qdkwm udk,hfpdwfudkudk,f &Sif;&Sif;uav;xm;vdkuf
prf;yg? 'kwd, - pdwfxJrSm qkH;jzwfxm;wJh twdkif; wdkwdk&Sif;&Sif;yJ ol@ukd
ajymjyvdkufyg? wwd, - 'DudpP tay: rif;b,fvdk ,kH=unfovJqdkwJh
tar;rsKd; ('grSr[kwf) rif;[m u|EfkyfESifhtwl awG@qkHyGJwufa&mufvdkwJh
qEN bmha=umihf r&Sd&wmvJqdkwJh ar;cGef;rsKd; ol@bufu ar;vmwwfyg
w,f? 'Dvkdom ar;vmcJh&if tpwkef;u qkH;jzwfxm;wJh twkdif;yJ
&Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;/ ,Of,Ofaus;aus;ESifh cyfwnfwnfav;yJ xyfajymjy
vdkufyg?
tckvdk oifh&J@ zdwfac:r_ twGuf aus;Zl;awmh wifygw,f/
'gayrJh u|EfkyftaeESifh oifh&J@qENESifhtnDawmh ryg0ifEdkifbl;?
bma=umifhygvJ
'guawmh u|EkfyfudpP oufoufyJ/ u|Efkyf rvmcsifbl;?
'DawG@qkHyGJrSm vlawmfvlaumif;awG awmfawmfrsm;rsm;
wufa&muf=urSm?
,kHawmh,kHygw,f? 'gayrJh vdkufrvkyfEkdifygbl;? 'gygyJ?
u|Ekfyfu oifhudk tav;xm;vdk@ tckvkd ac:wmyg?
oifu tckvkd tav;xm;az:&vdk@ 0rf;omygw,f? 'gayrJh/
u|Ekfyf ryg yg&apeJ@ tu,fI oifhbufuom &Sif;&Sif;
vif;vif;/ pdwf&Snf vuf&Snf/ wnhfwnfhrwfrwf xyfajym+yD;
yg0ifaqG;aEG;zdk@ jiif;vdkuf&if aemufqkH;rSmawmh ol@bufu
vufav#mhoGm;rSmyg? 'Dvdkvkyf&wm[m enf;enf;awmh
rsufESmylp&maumif;ygw,f? 'gayrJh wpfjcm;olawG tay:rSm
rdrd&J@ ,kH=unfcsufawG/ qENawGudk twif;wkdufwGef; jymef;
ay;vdk@r&aumif;bl;qdkwm vlawGodxm;zdk@ txl;yJta&;}uD;
vSygw,f?

Ak'<"rRaqG;aEG;csufrsm;
ar;?

103

? Ak'<bmom0ifawG taeESifhuaum wpfjcm;bmom0ifawG


udk rdrdwkd@&J@ Ak'<"rRudk r#a0 oifhygovm;?
ajz?
? [kwfygw,f? r#a0oifhwmygyJ? Ak'<bmom0if trsm;pk[m
r#a0wmESifh twif;wdkufwGef;jymef;wm rwlbl;qdkwmudk
aumif;aumif;oabm ayguf=uw,fvkd@ xifygw,f? Ak'<0g'qdkif&m
ta=umif;t&mawGudk vlawGu ar;=uw,fqdk&if ajymomajymyg?
rar;&ifawmif ajymwef ajym&rSmygyJ? wu,fvdk@ vlawG&J@ tajymtqdk
tokH;tE_ef;awG/ tytrlawGu aqG;aEG;csuftay: vufoif@rcHbl;qdk
wm tcsufjyae&ifawmh olwkd@qENukdyJ OD;pm;ay;yg?
aemufwpfcsuf owdcsyf&rSmu "rRa&;&mawGudk today;
jzef@a0&mrSm a[majymjyor_enf;ESifh jzef@a0wmxuf vufawG@ usifh
okH;r_enf;ESifh jzef@a0wmu ydkrdkxda&mufw,fqdkwmygyJ? "rRta=umif;
oGefoifjyo&mrSm- tpOfojzifh "rR"dmefusus/ nSifnSifomom/
pdwf&Snfvuf&Snf/ tav;teuf w&dkwao&dSygap? "rRtvif;[m
udk,f&J@tajymtqdkESifh aqmif&Gufyrlor#aom vkyf&yfawG&J@ a&S;ajy;
taeESifh vif;vufawmufyEkdifygap? oifa&m u|Ekfyfyg "rRa&;&mawGudk
aumif;pGm wwfod+yD;/ tjynf@t0 usifhokH;r,f/ wpfjcm;olawGudkvnf;
apwemt&kd;cH oufoufjzifh jzef@a0ay;r,fqdk&if tm;vkH;twGuf
tuskKd;xl; teEudk rvGJwrf;&,lEdkif=urSmyJ jzpfygw,f?

Preface to Revised Edition


This book was first written in 1987 in response to the
increasing
interest
in
Buddhism
amongst
Singaporeans. To my surprise and delight, it has
turned out to be very successful. The Buddha
Dhamma Mandala Society, Singapore, alone has
printed 30,000 copies and it has been translated into
several languages including Tamil, Chinese and
Nepali. Requests to for copies have come from as far
away as Australia, Argentina and the Seychelle
Islands. In July this year, I visited a remote hermitage
high in the Himalayas in Ladakh only to discover that
the abbot had not only read Good Question, Good
Answer but greatly appreciated it. All this had
convinced
me
that
this
little
book's
style and contents has filled an important need and
that revision and enlargement would enhance its
value. Hence this new edition. Those wishing to
reprint "Good Question, Good Answer" or translate it
may do so without writing for permission. However,
we would appreciate it if you send us two copies and
let us know how many copies have been printed.

Ven. S. Dhammika
Singapore 1991

[01]

What is Buddhism?
-ooOoo-

QUESTION: What is Buddhism?


ANSWER: The name Buddhism comes from the word 'budhi'
which means 'to wake up' and thus Buddhism is the philosophy
of awakening. This philosophy has its origins in the experience
of the man Siddhartha Gotama, known as the Buddha, who was
himself awakened at the age of 35. Buddhism is now 2,500 years
old and has about 300 million followers worldwide. Until a
hundred years ago Buddhism was mainly an Asian philosophy
but increasingly it is gaining adherents in Europe, Australia and
America.
QUESTION: So Buddhism is just a philosophy?
ANSWER: The word philosophy comes from two words 'philo'
which means 'love' and 'sophia' which means 'wisdom'. So

philosophy is the love of wisdom or love and wisdom, both


meanings describe Buddhism perfectly. Buddhism teaches that
2
What is Buddhism?

the end, his great compassion made him give himself to the
whole world. And the whole world still benefits from his
What is Buddhism?

we should try to develop our intellectual capacity to the fullest so


that we can understand clearly. It also teaches us to develop love
and kindness so that we can be like a true friend to all beings. So
Buddhism is a philosophy but not just a philosophy. It is the
supreme philosophy.

QUESTION: Who was the Buddha?


ANSWER: In the year 563 B.C. a baby was born into a royal
family in northern India. He grew up in wealth and luxury but
eventually found that worldly comforts and security do not
guarantee happiness. He was deeply moved by the suffering he
saw all around and resolved to find the key to human happiness.
When he was 29 he left his wife and child and set off to sit at the
feet of the great religious teachers of the day to learn from them.
They taught him much but none really knew the cause of human
suffering and how it could be overcome. Eventually, after six
years study and meditation he had an experience in which all
ignorance fell away and he suddenly understood.
From that day onwards, he was called the Buddha, the Awakened
One. He lived for another 45 years in which time he travelled all
over the northern India teaching others what he had discovered.
His compassion and patience were legendary and he had
thousands of followers. In his eightieth year, old and sick, but
still happy and at peace, he finally died.

QUESTION: Wasn't it irresponsible for the Buddha to walk


out on his wife and child?
ANSWER: It couldn't have been an easy thing for the Buddha
to leave his family. He must have worried and hesitated for a
long time before he finally left. But he had a choice, dedicating
himself to his family or dedicating himself to the whole world. In

sacrifice. This was not irresponsible. It was perhaps the most


significant sacrifice ever made.
QUESTION: The Buddha is dead so how can he help us?
ANSWER: Faraday, who discovered electricity, is dead, but
what he discovered still helps us. Luis Pasteur who discovered
the cures for so many diseases is dead, but his medical
discoveries still save lives. Leonardo da Vinci who created
masterpieces of art is dead, but what he created can still uplift
and give joy. Noble men and heroes may have been dead for
centuries but when we read of their deeds and achievements, we
can still be inspired to act as they did. Yes, the Buddha is dead
but 2500 years later his teachings still help people, his example
still inspires people, his words still change lives. Only a Buddha
could have such power centuries after his death.
QUESTION: Was the Buddha a god?
ANSWER: No, he was not. He did not claim that he was a god,
the child of a god or even the messenger from a god. He was a
man who perfected himself and taught that if we follow his
example, we could perfect ourselves also.
QUESTION: If the Buddha is not a god, then why do people
worship him?
ANSWER: There are different types of worship. When someone
worships a god, they praise him or her, making offerings and ask
for favours, believing that the god will hear their praise, receive
their offerings and answer their prayers. Buddhists do not
indulge in this kind of worship. The other kind of worship is
when we show respect to someone or something we admire.
When a teacher walks into a room we stand up, when we meet a
dignitary we shake hands,when the national anthem is played we
salute. These are all gestures of respect and worship and indicate

our admiration for persons and things. This is the type of worship
Buddhist practise. A statue of the Buddha with its hands rested
gently in its lap and its compassionate smile reminds us to strive
4
What is Buddhism
to develop peace and love within ourselves. The perfume of
incense reminds us of the pervading influence of virtue, the lamp
reminds us of light of knowledge and the flowers which soon
fade and die, reminds us of impermanence. When we bow, we
express our gratitude to the Buddha for what his teachings have
given us. This is the nature of Buddhist worship.
QUESTION: But I have heard people say that Buddhists
worship idols.
ANSWER: Such statements only reflect the misunderstanding
of the persons who make them. The dictionary defines an idol as
"an image or statue worshipped as a god". As we have seen,
Buddhist do not believe that the Buddha was a god, so how could
they possibly believe that a piece of wood or metal is a god? All
religions use symbols to express various concepts. In Taoism, the
ying-yang is used to symbolise the harmony between opposites.
In Sikhism, the sword is used to symbolise spiritual struggle. In
Christianity, the fish is used to symbolise his sacrifice. And in
Buddhism, the statue of the Buddha also reminds us of the
human dimension in Buddhist teaching, the fact that Buddhism is
man-centred, not god-centred, that we must look within not
without to find perfection and understanding. So to say that
Buddhist worship idols is not correct.
QUESTION: Why do people burn paper money and do all
kinds of strange things in Buddhist temples?
ANSWER: Many things seem strange to us when we don't
understand them. Rather than dismiss such things as strange, we
should strive to find their meaning. However, it is true that
Buddhist practice sometimes has its origin in popular superstition
and misunderstanding rather than the teaching of the Buddha.
And such misunderstandings are not found in Buddhism alone,
but arise in all religions from time to time. The Buddha taught

with clarity and in detail and if some fail to understand fully, the
Buddha cannot be blamed.
There is a saying:
What is Buddhism?

If a man suffering from a disease does not seek


treatment even when there is a physician at hand, it is
not the fault of the physician. In the same way, if a man
is oppressed and tormented by the disease of
defilements but does not seek the help of the Buddha,
that is not the Buddha's fault. -- JN 28-9
Nor should Buddhism or any religion be judged by those who
don't practise it properly. If you wish to know the true teachings
of Buddhism, read the Buddha's words or speak to those who
understand them properly.
QUESTION: If Buddhism is so good why are some Buddhist
countries poor?
ANSWER: If by poor you mean economically poor, then it is
true that some Buddhist countries are poor. But if by poor you
mean a poor quality of life, then perhaps some Buddhist
countries are quite rich. America, for example, is an
economically rich and powerful country but the crime rate is one
of the highest in the world, millions of old people are neglected
by their children and die of loneliness in old people's homes,
domestic violence and child abuse are major problems. One in
three marriages end in divorce, pornography is easily available.
Rich in terms of money but perhaps poor in terms of the quality
of life. Now if you look at some traditional Buddhist countries
you find a very different situation. Parents are honoured and
respected by their children, the crime rates are relatively low,
divorce and suicide are rare and traditional values like
gentleness, generosity, hospitality to strangers, tolerance and
respect for others are still strong. Economically backward, but
perhaps a higher quality of life than a country like America. But

even if we judge Buddhist countries in terms of economics alone,


one of the wealthiest and most economically dynamic countries
in the world today is Japan where 93% of the population call
themselves Buddhist.
6
What is Buddhism?

seem very different but at the centre of all of them is the Four
Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path. All major religions,
Buddhism included, have split into schools and sects. But the
different sects of Buddhism have never gone to war with each
What is Buddhism?
7

QUESTION: Why is it that you don't often hear of


charitable work being done by Buddhists?
ANSWER: Perhaps it is because Buddhists don't feel the need
to boast about the good they do. Several years ago the Japanese
Buddhist leader Nikkho Nirwano received the Templeton Prize
for his work in promoting inter-religious harmony. Likewise a
Thai Buddhist monk was recently awarded the prestigious
Magsaysay Prize for his excellent work among drug addicts. In
1987 another Thai monk, Ven.Kantayapiwat was awarded the
Norwegian Children's Peace Prize for his many years work
helping homeless children in rural areas. And what about the
large scale social work being done among the poor in India by
the Western Buddhist Order? They have built schools, child
minding-centres, dispensaries and small scale industries for selfsufficiency. Buddhist see help given to others as an expression of
their religious practice just as other religions do but they believe
that it should be done quietly and without self-promotion. Thus
you don't hear so much about their charitable work.

other and to this day, they go to each other's temples and worship
together. Such tolerance and understanding is certainly rare.

QUESTION: Why are there so many different types of


Buddhism?
ANSWER: There are many different types of sugar: brown
sugar, white sugar, rock sugar, syrup and icing sugar but it is all
sugar and it all tastes sweet. It is produced in different forms so
that it can be used in different ways. Buddhism is the same: there
is Theravada Buddhism, Zen Buddhism, Pure Land Buddhism,
Yogacara Buddhism and Vajrayana Buddhism but it is all
Buddhism and it all has the same taste - the taste of freedom.
Buddhism has evolved into different forms so that it can be
relevant to the different cultures in which it exists. It has been
reinterpreted over the centuries so that it can remain relevant to
each new generation. Outwardly, the types of Buddhism may

QUESTION: You certainly think highly of Buddhism. I


suppose you think your religion is right and all the others are
wrong.
ANSWER:
No Buddhist who understands the Buddha's
teaching thinks that other religions are wrong. No one who, has
made a genuine effort to examine other religions with an open
mind could think like that either. The first thing you notice when
you study the different religions is just' how much they have in
common. All religions acknowledge that man's present state is
unsatisfactory. All believe that a change of attitude and
behaviours is needed if man's situation is to improve. All teach
an ethics that includes love, kindness, patience, generosity and
social responsibility and all accept the existence of some form of
Absolute.
They use different languages, different names and different
symbols to describe and explain these things; and it is only when
they narrowmindedly cling to their one way of seeing things that
religious intolerance, pride and selfrighteousness arise.
Imagine an Englishman, a Frenchman, a Chinese and an
Indonesian all looking at a cup. The Englishman says, "That's a

cup". The Frenchman answers, "No it's not. It's a tasse". The
Chinese comments, You're both wrong. It's a pet". And the
Indonesian laughs at the others and says "What fools you are. It's
a

cawan."

The Englishman gets a dictionary and shows it to

the others saying, "I can prove that it is a cup. My dictionary


says so". "Then your dictionary is wrong", says the Frenchman
"because my dictionary clearly says it is a tasse". The Chinese
scoffs at them. "My dictionary is thousands of years older than
yours, so my dictionary must be right. And besides, more people
speak Chinese than any other language, so it must be a
While they are squabbling and arguing with each other, a
8
What is Buddhism?

pet".

depends on behaving in specific ways. And once again behaviour


is open to testing. Buddhism dispenses with the concept of a
supreme being, as does science, and explains the origins and
workings of the universe in terms of natural law. All of this
certainly exhibits a scientific spirit. Once again, the Buddha's
constant advice that we should not blindly believe but rather
question, examine, inquire and rely on our own experience, has a
definite scientific ring to it. He says:
"Do not go by revelation or tradition,do not go
by rumour, or the sacred scriptures, do not go

Buddhist comes up and drinks from the cup. After he has drunk,
he says to the others, "Whether you call it a

cup, a tasse, a

pet

or a cawan, the purpose of the cup is to be used. Stop


arguing and drink, stop squabbling and refresh your thirst". This
is the Buddhist attitude to other religions.
QUESTION: Is Buddhism scientific?
ANSWER: Before we answer that question it would be best to
define the word 'science'. Science, according to the dictionary is:
"knowledge which can be made into a system, which depends
upon seeing and testing facts and stating general natural laws, a
branch of such knowledge, anything that can be studied exactly".
There are aspects of Buddhism that would not fit into this
definition but the central teachings of Buddhism, the Four Noble
Truths, most certainly would. Suffering, the First Noble Truth, is
an experience that can be defined, experienced and measured.
The Second Noble Truth states that suffering has a natural cause,
craving,which likewise can be defined, experienced and
measured. No attempted is made to explain suffering in terms of
a metaphysical concept or myths. Suffering is ended, according
to the Third Noble Truth, not by relying on upon a supreme
being, by faith or by prayers but simply by removing its cause.
This is axiomatic. The Fourth Noble Truth, the way to end
suffering, once again, has nothing to do with metaphysics but

What is Buddhism?

by hearsay or mere logic, do not go by bias


towards a notion or by another person's
seeming ability and do not go by the idea 'He is
our teacher'. But when you yourself know that
a thing is good, that it is not blameble, that it is
praised by the wise and when practised and
observed that it leads to happiness, then follow
that thing." So we could say that although
Buddhism in not entirely scientific, it certainly
has a strong overtone and is certainly more
scientific than any other religion. It is
significant that Albert Einstein, the greatest
scientist of the twentieth century said of
Buddhism:
"The religion of the future will be a cosmic
religion. It should transcend a personal God
and avoid dogmas and theology. Covering both
natural and spiritual, it should be based on a
religious sense arising from the experience of
all things, natural and spiritual and a
meaningful unity. Buddhism answers this
description. If there is any religion that would

cope with modern scientific needs, it would be


Buddhism."
-ooOoo-

ANSWER: All of the many teachings of the Buddha centre on


the Four Noble Truths, just as the rim and spokes of a wheel
centres on the hub. They are called 'Four' because there are four
of them. They are called 'Noble' because they ennoble one who
understands them and they are called 'Truths' because,
corresponding with reality, they are true.
QUESTION: What is the First Noble Truth?
ANSWER: The First Noble Truth is that life is suffering. To
live, you must suffer. It is impossible to live without
experiencing some kind of suffering. We have to endure physical
suffering like sickness, injury, tiredness, old age and eventually
death and we have to endure psychological suffering like
Basic Buddhist Concepts

11

loneliness, frustrations, fear, embarrassment, disappointment,


anger, etc.

[02]

Basic Buddhist Concept


-ooOoo-

QUESTION: What are the main teachings of the Buddha?

QUESTION: Isn't this a bit pessimistic?


ANSWER: The dictionary defines pessimism as 'the habit of
thinking that whatever will happen will be bad,' 'or 'The belief
that evil is more powerful than good.' Buddhism teaches neither
of these ideas. Nor does it deny that happiness exists. It simply
says that to live is to experience physical and psychological
suffering which is a statement that is so obvious that it cannot be
denied. The central concept of most religions is a myth, a legend
or a belief that is difficult or impossible to verify. Buddhism
starts with an experience, an irrefutable fact, a thing that all
know, that all have experienced and that all are striving to
overcome. Thus Buddhism is truly a universal religion because it
goes right to the core of every individual human being's concern
with suffering and how to avoid it.
QUESTION: What is the Second Noble Truth?
ANSWER: The Second Noble Truth is that all suffering is
caused by craving. When we look at psychological suffering, it is
easy to see how it is caused by craving. When we want

something but are unable to get it, we feel frustrated. When we


expect someone to live up to our expectation and they do not, we
feel let down and disappointed. When we want others to like us
and they don't, we feel hurt. Even when we want something and
are able to get it, this does not often lead to happiness either
because it is not long before we feel bored with that thing, lose
interest in it and commence to want something else. Put simply,
the Second Noble Truth says that getting what you want does not
guarantee happiness. Rather than constantly struggling to get
what you want, try to modify your wanting. Wanting deprives us
of contentment and happiness.
QUESTION: But how does wanting and craving lead to
physical suffering?
12
Basic Buddhist Concepts
ANSWER: A lifetime wanting and craving for this and that and
especially the craving to continue to exist creates a powerful
energy that causes the individual to be reborn. When we are
reborn, we have a body and, as we said before, the body is
susceptible to injury and disease; it can be exhausted by work; it
ages and eventually dies. Thus, craving leads to physical
suffering because it causes us to be reborn.
QUESTION: If we stop wanting altogether, we would never
achieve anything.
ANSWER: True. But what the Buddha says is that when our
desires, our craving, our constant discontent with what we have
and our continual longing for more and more does cause us
suffering,then we should stop doing it. He asks us to make a
difference between what we need and what we want and to strive
for our needs and modify our wants. He tells us that our needs
can be fulfilled but that our wants are endless - a bottomless pit.
There are needs that are essential, fundamental and can be
obtained and this we should work towards. Desires beyond this
should be gradually lessened. After all, what is the purpose of
life? To get or be content and happy.

QUESTION: What or where is Nirvana?


ANSWER: It is a dimension transcending time and space and
thus is difficult to talk about or even think about. Words and
thoughts being only suited to describe the time-space dimension.
But because Nirvana is beyond time, there is no movement and
so no aging or dying. Thus Nirvana is eternal because it is
beyond space, there is no causation, no boundary, no concept of
self and not-self and thus Nirvana is infinite. The Buddha also
assures us that Nirvana is an experience of great happiness. He
says:
"Nirvana is the
(Dhammapada 204 )

highest

happiness".

Basic Buddhist Concepts

13

QUESTION: But is there proof that such a dimension exist?


ANSWER: No, there is not. But its existence can be inferred. If
there is a dimension where time and space do operate and there is
such a dimension - the world we experience, then we can infer
that there is a dimension where time and space do not operate Nirvana. Again, even though we cannot prove Nirvana exists, we
have the Buddha's word that is does exist. He tells us:
"There is an unborn, a not-become, a notmade, a not-compounded. If there were not,
this unborn, not-made, not-compounded, there
could not be made any escape from what is
born, become, made, and compounded.
Therefore is there made known an escape from
what is born, made, and compounded." -- Ud
80
We will know it when we attain it. Until that time, we can
practise.
QUESTION: What is the Fourth Noble Truth?

ANSWER: The Fourth Noble Truth is the Path leading to the


overcoming of suffering. This path is called the Noble Eightfold
Path and consists of Perfect Understanding, Perfect Thought,
Perfect Speech, Perfect Action, Perfect Livelihood, Perfect
Effort, Perfect Mindfulness, and Perfect Concentration. Buddhist
practice consist of practising these eight things until they become
more complete. You will notice that the steps on the Noble
Eightfold Path cover every aspect of life: the intellectual, the
ethical and economic and the psychological and therefore
contains everything a person needs to lead a good life and to
develop spiritually.
-ooOoo-

QUESTION: Do Buddhist believe in god?


ANSWER: No, we do not. There are several reasons for this.
The Buddha, like modern sociologists and psychologists,
believed that religious ideas and especially the god idea have
their origin in fear. The Buddha says:
"Gripped by fear men go to the sacred mountains,
sacred groves, sacred trees and shrines". - Dp 188
Primitive man found himself in a dangerous and hostile world,
the fear of wild animals, of not being able to find enough food, of
injury or disease, and of natural phenomena like thunder,
lightning and volcanoes was constantly with him. Finding no
security, he created the idea of gods in order to give him comfort
Buddhism and the God-idea

[03]

Buddhism and the God-idea


-ooOoo-

15

in good times, courage in times of danger and consolation


whenthings went wrong. To this day, you will notice that people
become more religious at times of crises, you will hear them say
that the belief in a god or gods gives them the strength they need
to deal with life. You will hear them explain that they believe in
a particular god because they prayed in time of need and their
prayer was answered. All this seems to support the Buddhas
teaching that the god-idea is a response to fear and frustration.
The Buddha taught us to try to understand our fears, to lessen our
desires and to calmly and courageously accept the things we
cannot change. He replaced fear, not with irrational belief but
with rational understanding.
The second reason the Buddha did not believe in a god is
because there does not seem to be any evidence to support this
idea. There are numerous religions, all claiming that they alone
have gods words preserved in their holy book, that they alone
understand gods nature, that their god exists and that the gods of
other religions do not. Some claim that god is masculine, some
that she is feminine and others that it is neuter. They are all
satisfied that there is ample evidence to prove the existence of

their god but they laugh in disbelief at the evidence other


religions use to prove the existence of another god. It is not
surprising that with so many different religions spending so
many centuries trying to prove the existence of their gods that
still no real, concrete, substantial or irrefutable evidence has been
found. Buddhists suspend judgement until such evidence is
forthcoming.
The third reason the Buddha did not believe in a god is that the
belief is not necessary. Some claim that the belief in a god is
necessary in order to explain the origin on the universe. But this
is not so. Science has very convincingly explained how the
universe came into being without having to introduce the godidea. Some claim that belief in god is necessary to have a happy,
meaningful life. Again we can see that this is not so. There are
millions of atheists and free-thinkers, not to mention many
Buddhists, who live useful, happy and meaningful lives without
16
Buddhism and the God-idea

not know, such myths were adequate, but in the 20th century, in
the age of physics, astronomy and geology, such myths have
been superseded by scientific fact. Science has explained the
origin of the universe without recourse to the god-idea.

belief in a god. Some claim that belief in gods power is


necessary because humans, being weak, do not have the strength
to help themselves. Once again, the evidence indicates the
opposite. One often hears of people who have overcome great
disabilities and handicaps, enormous odds and difficulties,
through their own inner resources, through their own efforts and
without belief in a god. Some claim that god is necessary in order
to give man salvation. But this argument only holds good if you
accept the theological concept of salvation and Buddhists do not
accept such a concept. Based on his own experience, the Buddha
saw that each human being had the capacity to purify the mind,
develop infinite love and compassion and perfect understanding.
He shifted attention from the heavens to the heart and
encouraged us to find solutions to our problems through selfunderstanding.

QUESTION: You say there is no evidence for the existence


of a god. But what about miracles?
ANSWER: There are many who believe that miracles are proof
of gods existence. We hear wild claims that a healing has taken
place but we never get an independent testimony from a medical
office or a surgeon. We hear second-hand reports that someone
was miraculously saved from disaster but we never get an eyewitness account of what is supposed to have happened. We hear
rumours that prayer straightened a diseased body or strengthened
a withered limb, but we never see X-rays or get comments from
doctors or nurses. Wild claims, second-hand reports and rumours
are no substitute for solid evidence and solid evidence of
miracles is very rare.
However, sometimes unexplained things do happen, unexpected
events do occur. But our inability to explain such things does not
prove the existence of gods. It only proves that our knowledge is
as yet incomplete. Before the development of modern medicine,
when people didnt know what caused sickness people believed
that god or the gods sent diseases as a punishment. Now we
know what causes such things and when we get sick, we take

QUESTION: But if there are no gods how did the universe


get here?
ANSWER: All religions have myths and stories which attempt
to answer this question. In ancient times, when many simply did

QUESTION:What does the Buddha say about the origin of


the universe?
ANSWER: It is interesting that the Buddhas explanation of the
origin of the universe corresponds very closely to the scientific
view. In the Aganna Sutta, the Buddha described the universe
being destroyed and then re-evolving into its present form over a
period of countless millions of years. The first life formed on the
surface of the water and again, over countless millions of years,
evolved from simple into complex organisms. All these
processes are without beginning or end, and are set in motion by
natural causes.
Buddhism and the God-idea
17

medicine. In time when our knowledge of the world is more


complete, we will be able to understand what causes unexplained
phenomena, just as we can now understand what causes disease.
QUESTION: But so many people believe in some form of
god, it must be true.
ANSWER: Not so. There was a time when everyone believed
that the world was flat, but they were all wrong. The number of
people who believe in an idea is no measure of the truth or
falsehood of that idea. The only way we can tell whether an idea
is true or not is by looking at the facts and examining the
evidence.

But Buddhas clearly show the way".


-- Dp 165
-ooOoo-

QUESTION: So if Buddhists dont believe in gods, what do


you believe in?
18

Buddhism and the God-idea

ANSWER: We dont believe in a god because we believe in


man. We believe that each human being is precious and
important, that all have the potential to develop into a Buddha a
perfected human being. We believe that human beings can
outgrow ignorance and irrationality and see things as they really
are. We believe that hatred, anger, spite and jealousy can be
replaced by love, patience, generosity and kindness. We believe
that all this is within the grasp of each person if they make the
effort, guided and supported by fellow Buddhists and inspired by
the example of the Buddha. As the Buddha says:

"No one saves us but ourselves,


No one can and no one may.
We ourselves must walk the path,
[04]

The Five Precepts


-ooOoo-

QUESTION: Other religions derive their ideas of right and


wrong from the commandments of their god or gods. You
Buddhists don't believe in a god, so how do you know right
from wrong?
ANSWER: Any thoughts, speech or actions that are rooted in
greed, hatred and delusion and thus lead us away from Nirvana
are bad and any thoughts, speech or actions that are rooted in
giving, love and wisdom and thus help clear the way to Nirvana
are good.
To know what is right and wrong in god-centred religions, all
that is needed is to do as you are told. But in a man-centred
religion like Buddhism, to know what is right and wrong, you
have to develop a deep self-awareness and self understanding.
And ethics based on understanding are always stronger than
those that are a response to a command.
20
The Five Precepts

my actions are mixed - a mixture of good and not-so-good. When


intentions are bad and the action helps neither myself nor others,
such an action is bad. And when my intention is good and my
action benefits both myself and others, then the deed is wholly
good.
QUESTION: So does Buddhism have a code of morality?
ANSWER: Yes it does. The five precepts are the basis of
Buddhist morality. The first precept is to avoid killing or
harming living beings. The second is to avoid stealing, the third
is to avoid sexual misconduct, the fourth is to avoid lying and the
fifth is to avoid alcohol and other intoxicating drugs.
QUESTION: But surely it is good to kill sometimes. To kill
disease-spreading insects, for example, or someone who is
going to kill you?
ANSWER: It might be good for you. But what about that thing
or that person? They wish to live, just as you do. When you
decide to kill a disease-spreading insect, your intention is
perhaps a mixture of self-concern (good) and revulsion (bad).
The act will benefit yourself (good) but obviously it will not
benefit that creature (bad). So at times it may be necessary to kill
but it is never totally good.

The Five Precepts


So to know what is right and wrong, the Buddhist looks at three
things - the intention, the effect the act will have upon oneself
and the effect it will upon others. If the intention is good (rooted
in giving, loving and wisdom), if it helps myself (helps me to be
more giving, more loving and wiser), then my deeds and actions
are wholesome, good and moral. Of course, there are many
variations of this. Sometimes I act with the best of intentions but
they may not benefit either myself or others. Sometimes my
intentions are far from good, but my actions helps others
nonetheless. Sometimes I act out of good intentions and my acts
help me but perhaps cause some distress to others. In such cases,

21

QUESTION: You Buddhists are too concerned about ants


and bugs.
ANSWER: Buddhists strive to develop a compassion that is
undiscriminating and all-embracing. They see the world as a
unified whole where each thing and creature has its place and
function. They believe that before we destroy or upset nature's
delicate balance, we should be very careful. Just look at those
cultures where emphasis is on exploiting nature to the full,
squeezing every last drop out of it without putting anything back,
conquering and subduing it. Nature has revolted. The very air is
becoming poisoned, the rivers are polluted and dead, so many

beautiful animal species are extinct, the slopes of the mountains


are barren and eroded. Even the climate is changing. If people
were a little less anxious to crush, destroy and kill, this terrible
situation may have not arisen. We should all strive to develop a
little more respect for life. And this is what the first precept is
saying.
QUESTION: The Third Precept says we should avoid sexual
misconduct. What is "sexual misconduct"?
ANSWER: If we use trickery, emotioal blackmail or force to
compel someone to have sex with us, then this is sexual
misconduct. Adultery is also a form of sexual misconduct
because when we marry we promise our spouse that we will be
loyal to them. When we commit adultery we break that promise
and betray that trust. Sex should be an expression of love and
intimicy between two people and when it is it contributes to our
mental and emotional well-being.
QUESTION: Is sex before marriage a type of sexual
misconduct?
ANSWER: Not if there is love and mutual agreement between
two people. However, it should never be forgotten that the
biological function of sex is to reproduce and if an unmarried
woman becomes pregnant it can cause a great deal of problems.
22

The Five Precepts

QUESTION: Well, what about alcohol? Surely a little drink


doesn't hurt!
ANSWER: People don't drink for the taste. When they drink
alone it is in order to seek release from tension and when they
drink socially, it is usually to conform. Even a small amount of
alcohol distorts consciousness and disrupts self-awareness.
Taken in large quantities, its effects can be devastating.
QUESTION: Drinking a small amount wouldn't be really
breaking the precept, would it? It's only a small thing.
ANSWER: Yes, it is only a small thing and if you can't practise
even a small thing, your commitment and resolution isn't very
strong, is it?
QUESTION: The five precepts are negative. They tell you
what not to do. They don't tell you what to do.
ANSWER: The Five Precepts are the basis of Buddhist
morality. They are not all of it. We start by recognizing our bad
behaviour and striving to stop doing it. That is what the Five
Precepts are for. After we have stopped doing bad, we then
commence to do good. Take for example, speech. The Buddha
says we should start by refraining from telling lies. After that, we
should speak the truth, speak gently and politely and speak at the
right time. He says:
The Five Precepts

23

Many mature and thoughtful people think it is far better to leave


sex until after marriage.
QUESTION: But what about lying? Is it possible to live
without telling lies?
ANSWER: If it is really impossible to get by in society or
business without lying, such a shocking and corrupt state of
affairs should be changed. The Buddhist is someone who
resolves to do something practical about the problem by trying to
be more truthful and honest.

"Giving up false speech he becomes a speaker


of truth, reliable, trustworthy, dependable, he
does not deceive the world. Giving up
malicious speech he does not repeat there what
he has heard here what he has heard there in
order to cause variance between people. He
reconciles those who are divided and brings
closer together those who are already friends.

Harmony is his joy, harmony is his delight,


harmony is his love; it is the motive of his
speech. Giving up harsh speech his speech is
blameless, pleasing to the ear, agreeable,
going to the heart, urbane, liked by most.
Giving up idle chatter he speaks at the right
time, what is correct to the point, about
Dhamma and about discipline. He speaks
words worth being treasured up, seasonable,
reasonable, well defined and to the point".
-ooOoo-

[05]

Rebirth
-ooOoo-

QUESTION: Where do beings come from and where are


they going?
ANSWER: There are three possible answers to this question.
Those who believe in a god or gods usually claim that before an
individual is created, he/she does not exist, then he/she comes
into being through the will of a god. He/she lives their life and
then, according to what they believe or do in their life, they
either go to eternal heaven or hell. There are others, humanists
and scientists, who claim that the individual comes into being at
conception due to natural causes, lives and then at death, ceases
to exist. Buddhism does not accept either of these explanations.
The first gives rise to many ethical problems If a good god really
creates each of us, it is difficult to explain why so many people
are born with the most dreadful deformities, or why so many
children are miscarried just before birth or are still-born. Another
problem with the theistic explanation is that it seems very unjust
that a person should suffer eternal pain in hell for 60 or 70 years
Rebirth
25
of non-belief or immoral living. Likewise, 60 or 70 years of good
living seems a very small outlay for eternal bliss in heaven. for
what he/she did in those years on Earth The second explanation
is better than the first and has more scientific evidence to support
it but still leaves several important questions unanswered. How
can a phenomenon so amazingly complex as consciousness
develop from the simple meeting of two cells, the sperm and the
egg? And now that parapsychology is a recognised branch of

science, phenomena like telepathy are increasingly difficult to fit


into the materialistic model of the mind.
QUESTION: How does the mind go from one body to
another?
ANSWER: Think of it being like radio waves. The radio waves,
which are not made up of words and music but energy at
different frequencies, are transmitted, travel through space, and
attracted to and picked up by the receiver from where they are
broadcast as words and music. It is the same with the mind. At
death, mental energy travels through space, is attracted to and
picked up by the fertilised egg. As the embryo grows, it centres
itself in the brain from where it later broadcasts itself as the new
personality.
QUESTION: Is one always reborn as a human being?
ANSWER: No, there are several realms in which one can be
reborn. Some people are reborn in heaven, some are reborn in
hell, some are reborn as hungry ghosts and so on. Heaven is not a
place but a state of existence where one has a subtle body and
where the mind experiences mainly pleasure. Some religions
strive very hard to be reborn in a heavenly existence mistakenly
believing it to be a permanent state. But it is not. Like all
conditioned states, heaven is impermanent and when ones life
span there is finished, one could well be reborn again as a
human. Hell, likewise, is not a place but a state of existence
where one has a subtle body and where the mind experiences
mainly anxiety and distress. Being a hungry ghost, again, is a
26
Rebirth
state of existence where the body is subtle and where the mind is
continually plagued by longing and dissatisfaction.
So heavenly beings experience mainly pleasure, hell beings and
ghosts experience mainly pain and human beings experience
usually a mixture of both. So the main difference between the
human realm and other realms is the body type and the quality of
experience.

Buddhism offers the most satisfactory explanation of where


beings come from and where they are going. When we die, the
mind, with all the tendencies, preferences, abilities and
characteristics that have been developed and conditioned in this
life, re-establishes itself in a fertilised egg. Thus the individual
grows, is re-born and develops a personality conditioned both by
the mental characteristics that have been carried over. And by the
new environment, the personality will change and be modified
by conscious effort ;and conditioning factors like education,
parental influence and society and once again at death, reestablishing itself in a new fertilised egg. This process of dying
and being reborn will continue until the conditions that cause it,
craving and ignorance, cease. When they do, instead of being
reborn, the mind attains a state called Nirvana and this is the
ultimate goal of Buddhism and the purpose of life.
QUESTION: What decides where we will be reborn?
ANSWER: The most important factor, but not the only one,
influencing where we will be reborn and what sort of life we
shall have, is karma. The word karma means action and refers to
our intentional mental actions. In other words, what we are is
determined very much by how we have thought and acted in the
past. Likewise, how we think and act now will influence how we
will be in the future.
The gentle, loving type of person tends to be reborn in a heaven
realm or as a human being who has a predominance of pleasant
experiences. The anxious, worried or extremely cruel type of
person tends to be reborn in a hell realm or as a human being
who has a predominance of painful experiences. The person who
Rebirth
27
develops obsessive craving, fierce longings, and burning
ambitions that can never be satisfied tends to be reborn as a
hungry ghost or as a human being frustrated by longing and
wanting. Whatever mental habits are strongly developed in this
life will continue in the next life. Most people, however, are
reborn as human beings.

QUESTION: So if our lives are determined by our karma,


can we change it?
ANSWER: Of course we can. That is why one of the steps on
the Eightfold Path is Right Effort. It depends on our sincerity,
how much energy we exert and how strong the habit is. But it is
true that some people singly go through life under the influence
of their past habits, without making an effort to change them and
falling victim to these unpleasant results. Such people will
continue to suffer unless they change their negative habits. The
longer the negative habits remain, the more difficult they are to
change. The Buddhist understands this and takes advantage of
each and every opportunity to break mental habits that have
unpleasant results and to develop mental habits that have
pleasant and happy results. Meditation is one of the techniques
used to modify the habit patterns of the mind as does speaking or
refraining to speak in certain ways, and acting or refraining to act
in certain ways. The whole of the Buddhist life is a training to
purify and free the mind. For example, if being patient and kind
was a pronounced part of your character in your last life, such
tendencies will re-emerge in the present life. If they are
strengthened and developed in the present life, they will reemerge even stronger and more pronounced in the future life.
This is based upon the simple and observable fact that long
established habits tend to be difficult to break.
Now, when you are patient and kind, it tends to happen that you
are not so easily ruffled by others, you dont hold grudges,
people like you and thus your experiences tends to be happier.
Now, let us take another example. Let us say that you come into
life with a tendency to be patient and kind due to your mental
28
Rebirth

will take one last example. Let us say that due to your mental
habits in the last life, you came into the present life with the
tendency to be short-tempered and angry, and you realise that
such habits only cause you unpleasantness and so you make an
effort to change them. You replace them with positive emotions.
If you are able to eliminate them completely, which is possible if
you make an effort, you become free from the unpleasantness
caused by being short tempered and angry. If you are only able to
weaken such tendencies, they would re-emerge in the next life
where with a bit more effort, they could be eliminated
completely and you could be free from their unpleasant effects.

habits in the past life. But in the present life, you neglect to
strengthen and develop such tendencies. They would gradually
weaken and die out and perhaps be completely absent in the
future life. Patience and kindness being weak in this case, there is
a possibility that in either this life or in the next life, a short
temper, anger and cruelty could grow and develop, bringing with
them all the unpleasant experiences that such attitudes create. We

been struck by a car and died of her injuries two days later.
When these details were checked, they were found to be
accurate. There was a village in Spain with the name the child
had given. There was a house of the type she had described in the
street she had named. What is more, it was found that a 23 year
old woman living in the house had been killed in a car accident
five years before.

QUESTION: You have talked a lot about rebirth but is


there any proof that we will be reborn when we die?
ANSWER: Not only is there scientific evidence to support
Buddhist belief in rebirth, it is the only after-life theory that has
any evidence to support it. There is not a scrap of evidence to
prove the existence of heaven and of course evidence of
annihilation at death must be lacking. But during the last 30
years parapsychologists have been studying reports that some
people have vivid memories of their former lives. For example,
in England, a 5 year old girl said she could remember her other
mother and father and she talked vividly about what sounded like
the events in the life of another person. Parapsychologists were
called in and asked her hundreds of questions to which she gave
answers. She spoke of living in a particular village, in what
appeared to be Spain. She gave the name of the village, the name
of the street she lived in, her neighbours names and details about
her everyday life there. she also tearfully spoke of how she had
Rebirth
29

Now how is it possible for a five year old living in England who
had never been to Spain to know all these details? And of course,
this is not the only case of this type. Professor Ian Stevenson of
the University of Virginias Department of Psychology has
described dozens of cases of this type in his books. He is an
accredited scientist whose 25 year study of people who
remember former lives is very strong evidence for the Buddhist
teaching of rebirth.

(See "Twenty Cases Suggestive

of Reincarnation and Cases of Reincarnation


Type", University Press of Virginia, Charlotteville,
USA, 1975).
QUESTION: Some people might say that the socalled ability
to remember former lives is the work of devils.
ANSWER: You simply cannot dismiss everything that doesn't
fit into your belief as being the work of devils.
When cold, hard facts are produced to support an idea, you must
use rational and logical arguments if you wish to counter them -not irrational and superstitious talk about devils.
QUESTION: You say that talk about devils is superstitious.
Isn't talk about rebirth a bit superstitious too?
ANSWER: The dictionary defines superstition as a belief which
is not based on reason or fact but on an association of ideas, as in
magic. If you can show me a careful study of the existence of
devils written by a scientist I will concede that belief in devils is
not superstition. But I have never heard of any research into
devils; scientists simply wouldnt bother to study such things, so
I say there is no evidence for the existence of devils. But as we
have just seen, there is evidence which seems to suggest that
30
Rebirth
rebirth does take place. So if belief in rebirth is based on at least
some facts, it cannot be a superstition.

QUESTION: Well, have there ever been any scientists who


believe in rebirth?
ANSWER: Yes. Thomas Huxley, who was responsible for
having science introduced into the 19th century British school
system and who was the first scientist to defend Darwins
theories, believed that reincarnation was a very plausible idea. In
his famous book "Evolution and Ethics and other Essays", he
says:
"In the doctrine of transmigration, whatever its origin,
Brahmanical and Buddhist speculation found, ready to
hand, the means of constructing a plausible vindication
of the ways of the Cosmos to man....yet this plea of
justification is not less plausible than others; and none
but very hasty thinkers will reject it on the ground of
inherent absurdity. Like the doctrine of evolution itself,
that of transmigration has its roots in the world of
reality; and it may claim such support as the great
argument from analogy is capable of supplying".
Then, Professor Gust Stromberg, the famous Swedish
astronomer, physicist and friend of Einstein also found the idea
of rebirth appealing:
"Opinions differ whether human souls can be
reincarnated on the earth or not. In 1936 a very
interesting case was thoroughly investigated and
reported by the government authorities in India. A girl
(Shanti Devi from Deli) could accurately describe her
previous life (at Muttra, five hundred miles from Deli)
which ended about a year before her 'second birth'. She
gave the name of her husband and child and described
her home and life history. The investigating commission
brought her to her former relatives, who verified all her
statements. Among the people of India reincarnations
Rebirth
31
are regarded as commonplace; the astonishing thing for
them in this case was the great number of facts the girl

remembered. This and similar cases can be regarded as


additional evidence for the theory of the indestructibility
of memory".
Professor Julian Huxley, the distinguished British scientist who
was Director General of UNESCO believed that rebirth was quite
in harmony with scientific thinking:
"There is nothing against a permanently surviving
spirit-individuality being in some way given off at death,
as a definite wireless message is given off by a sending
apparatus working in a particular ways. But it must be
remembered that the wireless message only becomes a
message again when it comes in contact with a new,
material structure - the receiver. So with our possible
spirit-emanation. It would never think or feel unless
again "embodied" in some way. our personalities are so
based on body that it is really impossible to think of
survival which would be in any true sense personal
without a body of sorts. I can think of something being
given off which could bear the same relation to men and
women as a wireless message to the transmitting
apparatus for mind".
Even very practical and down-to-earth people like the American
industrialist Henry Ford found the idea of rebirth acceptable.
Ford was attracted to the idea of rebirth because, unlike the
theistic idea or the materialistic idea, rebirth gives you a second
chance to develop yourself. Henry Ford says:
"I adopted the theory of Reincarnation when I was
twenty six. Religion offered nothing to the point. Even
work could not give me complete satisfaction. Work is
futile if we cannot utilise the experience we collect in
one life in the next. When I discovered Reincarnation it
was as if I had found a universal plan I realised that
32
Rebirth
there was a chance to work out my ideas. Time was no
longer limited. I was no longer a slave to the hands of

the clock. Genius is experience. Some seem to think that


it is a gift or talent, but it is the fruit of long experience
in many lives. Some are older souls than others, and so
they know more. The discovery of Reincarnation put my
mind at ease. If you preserve a record of this
conversation, write it so that it puts mens minds at
ease. I would like to communicate to others the
calmness that the long view of life gives to us".
So the Buddhist teachings of rebirth does have some scientific
evidence to support it. It is logically consistent and it goes a long
way in answering questions what the theistic and the materialistic
theories fail to . It is also very comforting. What can be worse
than a theory of life that gives you no second chance, no
opportunity to amend the mistakes you have made in this life and
no time to further develop the skills and abilities you have
nurtured in this life. But according to the Buddha, if you fail to
attain Nirvana in this life, you will have the opportunity to try
again next time. If you have made mistakes in this life, you will
be able to correct yourself in the next life. You will truly be able
to learn from your mistakes. Things you were unable to do or
achieve in this life may well become possible in the next life.
What a wonderful teaching!
-ooOoo-

[06]

Meditation
-ooOoo-

QUESTION: What is meditation?


ANSWER: Meditation is a conscious effort to change how the
mind works. The Pali word for meditation is 'bhavana' which
means 'to make grow' or 'to develop'.
QUESTION: Is meditation important?
ANSWER: Yes, it is. No matter how much we may wish to be
good, if we cannot change the desires that make us act the way
we do, change will be difficult. For example, a person may
realise that he is impatient with his wife and he may promise
himself, "From now on I am not going to be so impatient" But an
hour later he may be shouting at his wife simply because, not
being aware of himself, impatience has arisen without him
knowing it. Meditation helps to develop the awareness and the
energy needed to transform ingrained mental habit patterns.

34

ANSWER: To live, we need salt. But if you were to eat a


kilogram of salt ;it would kill you. To live in the modern world
you need a car but if you dont follow the traffic rules or if you
drive while you are drunk, a car becomes a dangerous machine.
Meditation is like this, it is essential for our mental health and
well-being but if you practise in stupid ways it could cause
problems. Some people have problems like depression, irrational
fears or schizophrenia, they think meditation is an instant cure
for their problem. They start meditating and sometimes their
problem gets worse. If you have such a problem, you should seek
professional help and after you are better then take up
meditation. Other people over reach themselves, they take up
meditation. and instead of going gradually, step by step, they
meditate with too much energy for too long and soon they are
exhausted. But perhaps most problems in meditation are caused
by 'kangaroo meditation'. Some people go to one teacher and do
his meditation technique for a while, then they read something in
a book and decide to try that technique, then a week later a
famous meditation teacher visits town and so they decide to
incorporate some of his ideas into their practise and before long
they are hopelessly confused. Jumping like a kangaroo from one
meditation technique to another is a mistake. But if you dont
have any severe mental problems and you take up meditation and
practise sensibly it is one of the best things you can do for
yourself.
QUESTION: How many types of meditation are there?
ANSWER: The Buddha taught many different types of
meditation, each designed to overcome a particular problem or to
develop a particular psychological state. But the two most
common and useful types of meditation are Mindfulness of
Breathing (anapana sati) and Loving-kindness Meditation (metta
bhavana).

Meditation

QUESTION: I have heard that meditation can be dangerous.


Is this true?

Meditation
QUESTION:
Breathing?

How

do

you

practise

Mindfulness

35
of

ANSWER: You would follow this easy steps: the four Ps:
place, posture, practice and problems. First, find a suitable place,
perhaps a room that is not too noisy and where you are not likely
to be disturbed. Second, sit in a comfortable posture. A good
posture is to sit with your legs folded, a pillow under your
buttocks, your back straight, the hands nestled in the lap and the
eyes closed. Alternatively, you can sit in a chair as long as you
keep your back straight.
Next comes the actual practice itself. As you sit quietly with your
eyes closed you focus your attention on the in and out movement
of the breath. This can be done by counting the breaths or
watching the rise and fall of the abdomen. When this is done,
certain problems and difficulties will arise. You might
experience irritating itches on the body or discomfort in the
knees. If this happens, try to keep the body relaxed without
moving and keep focusing on the breath. You will probably have
many intruding thoughts coming into your mind and distracting
your attention from the breath. The only way you can deal with
this problem is to patiently keep returning your attention to the
breath. If you keep doing this, eventually thoughts will weaken,
your concentration will become stronger and you will have
moments of deep mental calm and inner peace.

QUESTION: How long should I meditate for?


ANSWER: It is good to do meditation for 15 minutes every day
for a week and then extend the time by 5 minutes each week until
you are meditating for 45 minutes. After a few weeks of regular
daily meditation you will start to notice that your concentration
gets better, there are less thoughts, and you have moments of real
peace and stillness.

36

Meditation

QUESTION: What about Loving Kindness Meditation?


How is that practised?

ANSWER: Once you are familiar with Mindfulness of


Breathing and are practising it regularly you can start practising
Loving Kindness Meditation. It should be done two or three
times each week after you have done Mindfulness of Breathing.
First, you turn your attention to yourself and say to yourself
words like "May I be well and happy. May I be peaceful and
calm. May I be protected from dangers. May my mind be free
from hatred. May my heart be filled with love. May I be well and
happy." Then one by one you think of a loved person, a neutral
person, that is , someone you neither like nor dislike, and finally
a disliked person, wishing each of them well as you do so.
QUESTION: What is the benefit of doing this type of
meditation?
ANSWER: If you do Loving Kindness Meditation regularly and
with the right attitude, you will find very positive changes taking
place within yourself. You will find that you are able to be more
accepting and forgiving towards yourself. You will find that the
feelings you have towards your loved ones will increase. You
will find yourself making friends with people you used to be
indifferent and uncaring towards, and you will find the ill-will or
resentment you have towards some people will lessen and
eventually be dissolved. Sometimes if you know of someone
who is sick, unhappy or encountering difficulties you can include
them in your meditation and very often you will find their
situation improving.
QUESTION: How is that possible?
ANSWER: The mind, when properly developed, is a very
powerful instrument. If we can learn to focus our mental energy
and project it towards others, it can have an effect upon them.
You may have had an experience like this. Perhaps you are in a
crowded room and you get this feeling that someone is watching
you. You turn around and, sure enough, someone is staring at
Meditation
37
you. What has happened is that you have picked up that other
persons mental energy. Loving Kindness Meditation is like that.

We project positive mental energy towards and it gradually


transforms them.
QUESTION: Do I need a teacher to teach me meditation?
ANSWER: A teacher is not absolutely necessary but personal
guidance from someone who is familiar with mediation is
certainly helpful. Unfortunately, some monks and laymen set
themselves up as meditation teachers when they simply dont
know what they are doing. Try to pick a teacher who has a good
reputation, a balanced personality and one who adheres closely
to the Buddhas teachings.
QUESTION: I have heard that meditation is widely used
today by psychiatrists and psychologists. Is this true?
ANSWER: Yes, it is. Meditation is now accepted as having a
highly therapeutic effect upon the mind and is used by many
professional mental health workers to help induce relaxation,
overcome phobias and bring about self-awareness. The Buddhas
insights into the human mind are helping people as much today
as they did in ancient times.
-ooOoo-

[07]

Wisdom and Compassion


-ooOoo-

QUESTION: What do the terms wisdom and compassion


mean in Buddhism?
ANSWER: Some religions believe that compassion or love (the
two are very similar) is the most important spiritual quality but
they fail to develop any wisdom. The result is that you end up
being a good-hearted fool, a very kind person but with little or no
understanding. Other systems of thought, like science, believe
that wisdom can best be developed when all emotions, including
compassion, are kept out of the way. The outcome of this is that
science has tended to become preoccupied with results and has
forgotten that science is to serve man, not to control and
dominate him. How, otherwise could scientists have lent their
skills to develop the nuclear bomb, germ warfare, and the like.
Religion has always seen reason and wisdom as the enemy of
emotions like love and faith. Science has always seen emotions
Wisdom and Compassion
39
like love and faith as being enemies of reason and objectivity.
And of course, as science progresses, religion declines.
Buddhism, on the other hand, teaches that to be a truly balanced

and complete individual, you must develop both wisdom and


compassion. And because it is not dogmatic but based on
experience, Buddhism has nothing to fear from science.

Buddha taught us out of compassion and we teach others out of


compassion.

QUESTION: So what, according to Buddhism, is wisdom?


ANSWER: The highest wisdom is seeing that in reality all
phenomena are incomplete, impermanent, and not self. This
understanding is totally freeing and leads to the great security
and happiness which is called Nirvana. However, the Buddha
doesnt speak too much about this level of wisdom. It is not
wisdom if we simply believe what we are told. True wisdom is to
directly see and understand for ourselves. At this level then,
wisdom is to keep an open mind rather than being closedminded, listening to other points of view rather than being
bigoted; to carefully examine facts that contradict our beliefs,
rather than burying our heads in the sand; to be objective rather
than prejudiced and partisan; to take time about forming our
opinions and beliefs rather than just accepting the first or most
emotional thing that is offered to us; and to always be ready to
change our beliefs when facts that contradict them are presented
to us. A person who does this is certainly wise and is certain to
eventually arrive at true understanding. The path of just believing
what you are told is easy. The Buddhist path requires courage,
patience, flexibility and intelligence.

QUESTION: What, according to Buddhism, is compassion?


ANSWER: Just as wisdom covers the intellectual or
comprehending side of our nature. Like wisdom, compassion is
uniquely human quality. Compassion is made up of two words.
'co' meaning together and 'passion' meaning a strong feeling. And
this is what compassion is. When we see someone is in distress
and we feel their pain as if it were our own, and strive to
eliminate or lessen their pain, then this is compassion. So all the
best in human beings, all the Buddha-like qualities like sharing,
readiness to give comfort, sympathy, concern and caring - all are
manifestations of compassion. You will notice also that in the
compassionate person, care and love towards others has its
origins in care and love for oneself. We can really understand
others when we really understand ourselves. We will know
whats best for others when we know whats best for ourselves.
We can feel for others when we feel for ourselves. So in
Buddhism, ones own spiritual development blossoms quite
naturally into concern for the welfare of others. The Buddhas
life illustrates this very well. He spent six years struggling for his
own welfare, after which, he was able to be of benefit to the
whole of mankind.

QUESTION: What is the point of Buddhism if only a few


can practice it?
ANSWER: It is true that not everyone is ready for Buddhism
yet. But to say therefore that we should teach a religion that is
false but easily understandable so everyone can practise it is
ridiculous. Buddhism aims at the truth and if not everyone has
the capacity to understand it yet, they perhaps will be ready for it
in their next life. However, there are many who, with just the
40
Wisdom and Compassion

QUESTION: Isnt it selfish to say that we are best able to


help others after we have helped ourselves.
ANSWER: We usually see altruism, concern for others before
oneself, as being the opposite of selfishness, concern for oneself
before others,. Buddhism does no see it as either one or the other
but rather as a blending of the two. Genuine self-concern will
gradually mature into concern for others as one sees that others
are really the same as oneself. This is genuine compassion.
Wisdom and Compassion
41

right words or encouragement, are able to increases their


understanding. And it is for this reason that Buddhists gently and
quietly strive to share the insights of Buddhism with others. The

Compassion is the most beautiful jewel in the crown of the


Buddhas teaching.
-ooOoo-

[08]

Vegetarianism
-ooOoo-

QUESTION: Buddhists should be vegetarians, shouldnt


they?
ANSWER: Not necessarily. The Buddha was not a vegetarian.
He did not teach his disciples to be vegetarians and even today,
there are many good Buddhists who are not vegetarians.
QUESTION: If you eat meat you are indirectly responsible
the death of a creature. Isnt that breaking the first precept?
ANSWER: It is true that when you eat meat, you are indirectly
and partially responsible for killing a creature but the same is
true when you eat vegetables. The farmer has to spray his crop
with insecticides and poisons so that the vegetables arrive on
your dinner plates without holes in them. And once again,
animals have been used to provide the leather for your belt or
handbag, oil for the soap you use and a thousand other products
Vegetarianism
43
as well. It is impossible to live without, in some way, being
indirectly responsible for the death of some other beings. This is
just another example of the First Noble Truth, ordinary existence
is suffering and unsatisfactory. When you take the First Precept,
you try to avoid being directly responsible for killing beings.

QUESTION: Mahayana Buddhists dont eat meat ...


ANSWER: That is not correct. Mahayana Buddhism in China
laid great stress on being vegetarian but both the monks, laymen
and women of the Mahayana tradition in Japan and Tibet usually
eat meat.
QUESTION: But I still think that a Buddhist should be
vegetarian.
ANSWER: If there was a man who was a very strict vegetarian
but who was selfish, dishonest and mean, and another man who
was not a vegetarian but who was thoughtful of others, honest,
generous and kind, which of these two people would be the
better Buddhist?
QUESTION: The person who was honest and kind.
ANSWER: Why?
QUESTION: Because such a person obviously has a good
heart.
ANSWER: Exactly. One who eats meat can have a pure heart
just as one who does not eat meat can have an impure heart. In
the Buddhas teachings, the important thing is the quality of your
heart, not the contents of your diet. Many Buddhists take great
care never to eat meat buy they are not concerned about being
selfish, dishonest, cruel or jealous. They change their diet which
is easy to do, while neglecting to change their hearts, which is a
difficult thing to do. So whether you are a vegetarian or not,
remember that the purification of the mind is the most important
thing in Buddhism.
-ooOoo-

[09]

Good Luck and Fate


-ooOoo-

QUESTION: What did the Buddha teach about magic and


fortune telling?
ANSWER: The Buddha considered such practices as fortune
telling, wearing magic charms for protection, finding lucky sites
for buildings, prophesising and fixing lucky days to be useless
superstitions and he expressly forbade his disciples to practise
such things. He called all these things 'low arts'.
"Whereas some religious men, while living off food provided by
the faithful make their living by such low arts, such wrong means
of livelihood as palmistry, divining by signs, interpreting dreams,
bringing about good or bad luck, picking the lucky site for a
building, the monk Gotama refrains from such low arts, such
wrong means of livelihood".

Good Luck and Fate

45

QUESTION: Then why do people sometimes practise such


things and believe in them?
ANSWER: Because of greed, fear and ignorance. As soon as
people understand the Buddhas teachings, they realise that a
pure heart can protect them much better than bits of paper, bits of

metal and a few chanted words and they no longer rely on such
things. In the teachings of the Buddha, it is honesty, kindness,
understanding, patience, forgiveness, generosity, loyalty and
other good qualities that truly protect you and give you true
prosperity.

Being deeply learned and skilled; being welltrained and using well-spoken words - this is
the best good luck. To support mother and
father, to cherish wife and child and to have a
simple livelihood - this is the best good luck.

QUESTION: But some lucky charms do work, dont they?


ANSWER: I know a person who makes a living selling lucky
charms. He claims that his charms can give good luck, prosperity
and he guarantees that you will be able to pick three numbers.
But if what he says is true then why isnt he himself a multimillionaire? If his lucky charms really work, then why doesnt he
win the lottery week after week? The only luck he has is that
there are people silly enough to buy his magic charms.

-ooOoo-

QUESTION: Then is there such a thing as luck?


ANSWER: The dictionary defines luck as 'believing that
whatever happens, either good or bad, to a person in the course
of events is due to chance, fate or fortune'. The Buddha denied
this belief completely. Everything that happens has a specific
cause or causes and there must be some relationships between
the cause and the effect. Becoming sick, for example, has
specific causes. One must come into contact with germs and
ones body must be weak enough for the germs to establish
themselves. There is a definite relationship between the cause
(germs and a weakened body) and the effect (sickness) because
we know that germs attack the organisms and give rise to
sickness. But no relationship can be found between wearing a
piece of paper with words written on it and being rich or passing
examinations. Buddhism teaches that whatever happens does so
because of a cause or causes and not due to luck, chance or fate.
46
Good Luck and Fate
People who are interested in luck are always trying to get
something,usually more money and wealth. The Buddha teaches
us that it is far more important to develop our hearts and minds.
He says:

But the Lord says to me: Make a proper


investigation first. Proper investigation is good
for a well-known person like yourself."
[10]

Becoming a Buddhist
-ooOoo-

QUESTION: What you say so far is very interesting to me.


How do I become a Buddhist?
ANSWER: Once there was a man called Upali. He was the
follower of another religion and he went to the Buddha in order
to argue with him and try to convert him. But after talking to the
Buddha, he was so impressed that he decided to become a
follower of the Buddha. But the Buddha said:
"Make a proper investigation first. Proper
investigation is good for a well-known person
like yourself."
"Now I am even more pleased and satisfied
when the Lord says to me: 'Make a proper
investigation first.' For if members of another
48

In Buddhism, understanding is the most important thing and


understanding takes time. So do not impulsively rush into
Buddhism. Take your time, ask questions, consider carefully, and
then make your decision. The Buddha was not interested in
having a large number of disciples. He was concerned that
people should follow his teachings as a result of a careful
investigation and consideration of the facts.
QUESTION: If I have done this and find the Buddha's
teaching acceptable, what would I do then if I wanted to
become a Buddhist?
ANSWER: If would be best to join a good temple or Buddhist
group, support them, be supported by them and continue to learn
more about the Buddha's teachings. Then, when you are ready,
you would formally become a Buddhist by taking the Three
Refuges.
QUESTION: What are the Three Refuges?
ANSWER: A refuge is a place where people go when they are
distressed or when they need safety and security. There are many
types of refuges. When people are unhappy, they take refuge
with their friends, when they are worried and frightened, they
may take refuge in false hopes and beliefs. As they approach
death, they might take refuge in the belief in an eternal heaven.
But, as the Buddha says, none of these are true refuges because
they do not give comfort and security based on reality.

Becoming a Buddhist
Becoming a Buddhist

religion had secured me as a discipline they


would have paraded a banner all around the
town saying: 'Upali has joined our religion.'

Truly these are not safe refuges,


not the refuge supreme.

49

Not the refuge whereby one is


freed from all sorrow.

But to take refuge in the


Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha
and to see with real understanding
the Four Noble Truths,

Suffering, the cause of suffering,


the transcending of suffering and
the Noble Eightfold Path that leads
to the transcending of suffering,

This indeed is a safe refuge,


it is the refuge supreme.
It is the refuge whereby one is
freed from all suffering.
Dp 189-192
Taking Refuge in the Buddha is a confident acceptance of the
fact that one can become fully enlightened of the fact that one
can become fully enlightened and perfected just as the Buddha
was. Taking Refuge in the Dhamma means understanding the
Four Noble Truths and basing one's life on the Noble Eightfold
Path. Taking Refuge in the Sangha means looking for support,
inspiration and guidance from all who walk the Noble Eightfold
Path. Doing this one becomes a Buddhist and thus takes the first
step on the path towards Nirvana.
50
Becoming a Buddhist
QUESTION: What changes have taken place in your life
since you first took the three refuges?

ANSWER: Like countless millions of others over the last 2500


years, I have found that the Buddha's teachings have made sense
out of a difficult world, they have given meaning to what was a
senseless life, they have given me a humane and compassionate
ethics with which to lead my life and they have shown me how I
can attain a state of purity and perfection in the next life. A poet
in ancient India once wrote of the Buddha:
To go to him for refuge, to sing his praise, to
do him honour and to abide in his Dhamma is
to act with understanding.
I agree with these words completely.
QUESTION: I have a friend who is always trying to convert
me to his religion. I am not really interested in his religion
and I have told him so but he won't leave me alone. What can
I do?
ANSWER: The first thing you must understand is that this
person is not really your friend. A true friend accepts you as you
are and respects your wishes. I suspect that this person is merely
pretending to be your friend so he can convert you. When people
are trying to impose their will on you they are certainly not
friends.
QUESTION: But he says he wants to share his religion with
me.
ANSWER: Sharing your religion with others is a good thing.
But I suggest that your friend doesn't know the difference
between sharing and imposing. If I have an apple, I offer you
half and you accept my offer, then I have shared with you. But if
you say to me "Thank you, but I have already eaten" and I keep
Becoming a Buddhist

51

insisting that you take half the apple until you finally give in to
my pressure, this can hardly be called sharing. People like your

'friend' try to disguise their bad behaviour by calling it 'sharing',


'love', or 'generosity', but by whatever name they call it, their
behaviour is still just rude, bad manners and selfish.
QUESTION: So how can I stop him?
ANSWER: It is simple. Firstly, be clear in your mind what you
want. Secondly, clearly and briefly tell him so. Thirdly, when he
asks you questions like "What is your belief on this matter?" or
"Why don't you wish to come to the meeting with me?", clearly,
politely and persistently repeat your first statement. "Thank you
for your invitation but I would rather not come".
"Why not?"
"That is really my business. I would rather not come."
"But there will be many interesting people there."
"I am sure there will be but I would rather not come."
"I am inviting you because I care about you."
"I am glad you care about me but I would rather not come."
If you clearly, patiently and persistently repeat yourself and
refuse to allow him to get you involved in a discussion he will
eventually give up. It is a shame that you have to do this, but it is
very important for people to learn that they cannot impose their
beliefs or wishes upon others.
QUESTION: Should Buddhists try to share the Dhamma
with others?
ANSWER: Yes, they should. And I think most Buddhists
understand the difference between sharing and imposing. If
people ask you about Buddhism, tell them. You can even tell
them about the Buddha's teachings without their asking. But if,
by either their words or actions, they let you know that they are
not interested, accept that and respect their wishes. It is also
important to remember that you let people know about the
Dhamma far more effectively through your actions than through
preaching to them. Show people the Dhamma by always being
52
Becoming a Buddhist
considerate, kind, tolerant, upright and honest. Let the Dhamma
shine forth through your speech and actions. If each of us, you

and I, know the Dhamma thoroughly, practise it fully and share it


generously with others, we can be of great benefit to ourselves
and others also.
-ooOoo-