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Home & Building Fires

Fire is the fourth largest accidental killer in United States. In a fire disaster, a patron is more likely to die out of suffocation instead of getting burnt to death. Fire victims seldom see the flames. Fire depletes the oxygen in the air, thereby increasing the concentration of deadly carbon monoxide in the atmosphere. Inhaling carbon monoxide causes a loss of consciousness or death within minutes. Accidental fire and explosion can strike anywhere. Fire fatalities tend to be distributed according to population density, that is, those states with the largest populations tend also to have the greatest number of fire fatalities. Over 80 percent of all fire deaths occur where people sleep, such as in homes or hotels. Most fires occur when people are less likely to be alert, such as between midnight and morning. Eightyfour percent of house and building fires are accidental, such as those caused by poor electrical wiring or careless behavior. However, 16% are set intentionally through arson or acts of terrorism.

Cause of Home Fire Death Cause

Smoking Incendiary or suspicious Heating Child playing Electrical distribution Cooking All other causes

Percentage of Deaths
26% 16% 14% 10% 10% 8% 16%

1986-1990 Annual Average Source: National Fire Protection Association

15. Transport Accidents

Disaster type term used to describe technological transport accidents involving mechanised modes of transport. It comprises of four disaster subsets: accidents involving air, boat, rail transport and accidents involving motor vehicles on roads and tracks. Aviation, Rail, Road & Shipping
150 125 100 75 50 25 0 Cyprus CzechR epublic Netherlands Greece Hungary Denmark France EU -27 Italy Lithuania Germany Bulgaria Latvia Slovakia Finland Sweden Poland Romania Slovenia Estonia Austria Luxembourg Spain Ireland U nitedKingdom Portugal Belgium Malta

Figure 1: Pe ople killed in road accide nts, 2008 (persons k illed per m illion inhabitants)

Total Total Collisions (excluding le vel-cross ing accidents) De railm ents Accidents involving le vel-cross ings Accidents to pe rs ons caus ed by rolling s tock in m otion Fire in rolling s tock Othe rs Source:Eurostat(onlinedatacode:rail_ac_catvict) 1,428 10 32 433 942 0 11

Pas se ngers 37 0 0 2 34 0 1

Railw ay e m ployee s 36 4 2 5 23 0 2

Others 1,353 6 30 426 883 0 8

Table 1 Rail accidents - num ber of fatalitie s, by type of victim and accide nt, EU : (num be r of pers ons )

Figure 2: Air transport accide nts - num be r of fatalitie s, annual average 2007-2009 (1)


60 25 20 55 15 10 50 5 0 N etherlands CzechR epublic Denmark Cyprus France Greece Italy Hungary Turkey Germany Slovakia Bulgaria Slovenia Finland Norway Spain Estonia Latvia Malta Austria Poland Luxembourg U nitedKingdom Switzerland Ireland Lithuania R omania Sweden Croatia Portugal Belgium Iceland

16. Energy Scarcity

Non-renewable energy sources, do, as their name suggests, run out. Apart from their impact on global warming, they are finite. Based on the data we have today, we can predict the moment they are actually exhausted. Putting a date on these energy sources underscores the world's need for true sustainable energy sources. Natural Gas (in cubic meters) Total world reserves Jan. 1st 2010 World usage per second: Estimated date of exhaustion: Oil (in barrels) Total world reserves Jan. 1st 2010 World usage per second Estimated date of exhaustion Coal (in metric tonnes) Total world reserves Jan. 1st 2010 World usage per second Estimated date of exhaustion Uranium (in metric tonnes U-235) Total world reserves Jan. 1st 2010 World usage per second Estimated date of exhaustion 17963 0.0000042222017 23:12 Nov 28, 2144 834684384000 203 20:05 May 19, 2140 1175686472626 986 20:58 Oct 22, 2047 171514266542404 92653 09:25 Sep 12, 2068

17. Terrorism
People who go through or witness violent events such as school shootings, combat, rape, torture etc can be termed as terrorist victims. It is also a disaster as along with deaths & casualties, they imbue the victims a traumatic stress. Some, however, are repeatedly exposed to life or death situations in their work, such as rescue workers, police officers, fire fighters and military personnel. Understanding the effects of Terrorism and the normal responses that may follow these abnormal events can help you cope with your thoughts and feelings on the path to recovery.

But there are things we can do to prepare for terrorism disasters just like there are ways we can prepare for other disasters such as earthquakes and floods. Ensuring necessary precautions can reassure masses that there is something that you can do and that you do have some control even in the face of horrible events. Below is a list of some things to expect in the event of a disaster: There can be a lot of casualties and/or damage to buildings and utilities There may be heavy law enforcement involvement Hospitals and mental health resources may be overwhelmed There may be extensive media coverage-people will be fearful and stressed Workplaces and schools may be closed and there may be restrictions on travel People may be asked to evacuate or shelter-in-place

19. Bridge & Structural Collapses

Structural collapse operations cover a wide range of incident scenarios. These incidents can be as relatively minor as a deck or porch collapse resulting in easily accessible victims, or as heavily taxing as a multistory concrete building collapse that entombs hundreds of victims. Regardless of the collapse scenario encountered, first responders must be familiar with a variety of safety hazards and associated issues. Effective rescue operations at a structural collapse will only be possible if rescuers are fully aware of the hazards involved and the methods necessary to mitigate those hazards. In order for rescuers to perform at an optimum level of safety, they must be familiar with:

Categories of hazards; building construction types and characteristics Types of collapse voids and likely areas of survivability Safety equipment Safety procedures Safety considerations Understanding and properly applying these factors is essential if rescuers are to perform rescue operations safely in a structural collapse.

20. Hazardous Materials Accidents

Hazardous materials are chemical substances, which if released or misused can pose a threat to the environment or health. These chemicals are used in industry, agriculture, medicine, research, and consumer goods. Hazardous materials come in the form of explosives, flammable and combustible substances, poisons, and radioactive materials. These substances are most often released as a result of transportation accidents or because of chemical accidents in plants. A hazardous materials accident can occur anywhere. Communities located near chemical manufacturing plants are particularly at risk. However, hazardous materials are transported on our roadways, railways, and waterways daily, so any area is considered vulnerable to an accident. Between 1982 and 1991, there were an annual average of 6,774 hazardous materials transportation incidents. In 1991, there were 9,069 transportation incidents that resulted in 10 deaths and 436 injuries. As many as 500,000 products pose physical or health hazards and can be defined as hazardous chemicals. Each year, over 1,000 new synthetic chemicals are introduced. Most victims of chemical accidents are injured at home. These incidents usually result from ignorance or carelessness in using flammable or combustible materials. In an average city of 100,000 residents, 23.5 tons of toilet bowl cleaner, 13.5 tons of liquid household cleaners, and 3.5 tons of motor oil are discharged into city drains each month.