Sie sind auf Seite 1von 23

1.

Example 1: In this example, the task is to calculate the inductance per meter per phase as well as the inductance of the double circuit

Figure 1. Double-circuit conductor configuration

Figure 2. Distance between phases in double-circuit

In this task, Matlab will be used to provide the results A.Calculation by hand a)Determine the inductance per meter per phase in henries: D12=D12=9 m; D11=D22=D33=18 m; D12=D12=D13=D13=9*2*sin60= m; D13=D13=9 m; DABeq= ;

In similar way, DBCeq=DABeq=11.8447 m; DACeq= ;

GMD= GMR=r=1.8 cm=0.018 m; GMRA=GMRB=GMRC= Inductance per meter phase in henries: L= b)Determine the inductance of the double circuit: Inductance of one circuit is calculated below: Deq= L= Inductance of double circuit: Ltotal= c)Relative error: Relative error= B.Calculation by Matlab function [L Ltotal Error]=inductance(D12,D15,D14,GMR) % this is M-file to calculate inductance D45=D12; D42=D15; D23=D12; D13=D15; % Define the value for the distance between conductors DABeq=sqrt(D12*D45*D15*D42); DABeq=sqrt(DABeq); DBCeq=DABeq; DACeq=DABeq; GMD=(DABeq*DBCeq*DACeq)^(1/3); GMRA=sqrt(GMR*D14); GMRB=GMRA; GMRC=GMRA; L=2*10^(-7)*log(GMD/GMRA); % calculate inductance in question a Deq=(D12*D23*D13)^(1/3); % Calculate GMD for one circuit L1=2*10^(-7)*log(Deq/GMR); % Calculate inductance for one circuit Ltotal=L1/2; % Calculate the inductance of the double circuit in question b Error=(L-Ltotal)*100/L; % Calculate relative error 2. Example 2: a)Develop a bus admittance matrix for example ; r=0.018 m;

Y11=(3.815629-j*19.078144)+(5.169561-j*25.847809)=8.98519-j*44.925953 Y12=Y21=-3.815629+j*19.078144 Y13=Y31=-5.169561+j*25.847809 Y14=Y41=0 Y22=(3.815629-j*19.078144)+( 5.169561-j*25.847809)=8.98519-j*44.925953 Y23=Y32=0 Y24=Y42=-5.169561+j*25.847809 Y33=(5.169561-j*25.847809)+(3.023705-j*15.118528)=8.193266-j*40.966337 Y34=Y43=-3.023705+j*15.118528 Y44=( 5.169561-j*25.847809)+ (3.023705-j*15.118528) =8.193266-j*40.966337 As a result of that, the bus admittance matrix is: Y= Y11 Y12 Y13 Y14 Y21 Y22 Y23 Y24 Y31 Y32 Y33 Y34 Y41 Y42 Y43 Y44 With Yij (i,j=1 4) are received above values b)Using Matpower to run power flow *Run power flow using Newtons method through list of Matlab commands below >>mpopt=mpoption(PF_ALG,1); % use Newtons method >>result=runpf(case4gs,mpopt); *Run power flow using Gauss Seidel method through list of Matlab commands below: >>mpopt=mpoption(PF_ALG,4); % use Gauss Seidel method >>result=runpf(case4gs,mpopt); Comment: Basing on the results obtained from the calculation, it is easy to see that two method give us the same value for this circuit. The results can be listed in the table below: Method Newton Gauss Seidel Voltage magnitude Bus 1: 1.00 pu (0 deg) and angle Bus 2: 0.982 pu (-0.976 deg) (at load bus) Generator dispatch Bus 3: 0.969 pu (-1.872 deg) Bus 4: 1.020 pu (1.523 deg) Generator 1: P=186.81 MW; Q=114.50 MVAr Generator 2: P=318.00 MW; Q=181.43 MVAr

Table. 1 Voltage (at load bus) and generator dispatch in two methods

Branch

From bus

To bus

From bus injection P(MW)

To bus injection

Loss Q(MVAr) 1.13 5.16 8.58 9.18

Q(MVAr) P(MW) 22.3 61.21 -74.11 -60.37 -38.46 -97.09 133.25 104.75

Q(MVAr) P(MW) -31.24 -63.57 74.92 56.93 0.227 1.031 1.715 1.835

1 2 3 4

1 1 2 3

2 3 4 4

38.69 98.12 -131.4 -102.91

Table. 2 Power flow in the line and power loss in two methods

Furthermore, the number of iteration are required for obtaining converged solution using +Gauss Seidel method: 28 (converged in 0.05 seconds) +Newtons method: 3 (converged in 0.01 seconds) Comparing with Gauss Seidel method, Newtons method is faster converged. c)Investigate the effect of changing reactive power at bus 3 and 4 independently To do that, we need to change the value of reactive power which is used for each bus by using this command: *If the reactive power at bus 3 was changed: >>define_constants; >>mpc=loadcase(case4gs); >>mpc.bus(3,QD)=X % X is the value we want to use for reactive power at bus 3 >>runpf(mpc); The results obtained from three cases (Q3=123.94 MVAr, 200 MVAr and 0 MVAr respectively) are followed: Q3=123.94 MVAr Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 Bus 4 Generator1 Generator 2 1.00 pu (0 deg) 0.982 pu (-0.976 deg) 0.969 pu (-1.872 deg) 1.020 pu (1.523 deg) P= 186.21 MW Q= 114.5 MVAr P= 318 MW Q= 181.43 MVAr Q3=200 MVAr 1.00 pu (0 deg) 0.982 pu (-0.976 deg) 0.949 pu (-1.707 deg) 1.020 pu (1.524 deg) P= 188.13 MW Q= 166.53 MVAr P= 318 MW Q= 212.47 MVAr Q3=0 MVAr 1.00 pu (0 deg) 0.982 pu (-0.984 deg) 0.999 pu (-2.137deg) 1.020 pu (1.509 deg) P= 186.04 MW Q= 34 MVAr P= 318 MW Q= 133.52 MVAr Voltage at load bus

Generation dispatch

Table. 3 Voltage at load bus and generation dispatch when reactive power at bus 3 was changed
Q3 Branch From To From bus injection To bus injection Loss

bus 123.94 MVAr 1 2 3 4 200 MVAr 1 2 3 4 0 MVAr 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3

bus 2 3 4 4 1 3 4 4 2 3 4 4

P(MW) 38.69 98.12 -131.4 -102.91 38.68 99.45 -131.55 -102.30 38.96 97.08 -131.27 -103.64

Q(MVAr) 22.3 61.21 -74.11 -60.37 22.3 113.24 -74.11 -88.18 22.25 -19.24 -74.17 -15.09

P(MW) -38.46 -97.09 133.25 104.75 -38.45 -97.7 133.26 104.74 -38.73 -96.36 132.98 105.02

Q(MVAr) -31.24 -63.57 74.92 56.93 -31.24 -111.82 74.92 87.98 -31.18 15.09 74.96 8.98

P(MW) 0.227 1.031 1.715 1.835 0.227 1.756 1.716 2.436 0.229 0.719 1.711 1.378

Q(MVAr) 1.13 5.16 8.58 9.18 1.13 8.78 8.58 12.18 1.14 3.59 8.55 6.89

Table. 4 Power flow in the line and power loss when reactive power at bus 3 was changed

Comment: +The voltage magnitude at bus 1, 2 and 4 was showed the same value when Q3 was changed (increased or decreased) while the voltage magnitude at bus 3 was increased (it means that is was improved) if the reactive power requirement from this bus decreased and vice versa. +For two generators: the same value for real power was provided by them in three cases whereas the reactive power generators supplied decreased if Q3 reduced and increased if Q3 increased. +Power loss in the branch 1 from bus 1 to bus 2 remained constant. However the power loss in other branches reduced when Q3 reduced and rise when Q3 increased. In detail, power loss in branches (from 1 to 3 and from 3 to 4) were affected directly by the change in the value of reactive power at bus 3. *If the reactive power at bus 4 was changed: >>define_constants; >>mpc=loadcase(case4gs); >>mpc.bus(4,QD)=Y; % Y is the value we want to change for reactive power at bus 4 >>runpf(mpc); The results obtained from the calculation in three cases (Q4=49.58 MVAr, Q4=100 MVAr and Q4=0 MVAr respectively) are: Q4=49.58 MVAr Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 Bus 4 1.00 pu (0 deg) 0.982 pu (-0.976 deg) 0.969 pu (-1.872 deg) 1.020 pu (1.523 deg) Q4=100 MVAr 1.00 pu (0 deg) 0.982 pu (-0.976 deg) 0.969 pu (-1.872 deg) 1.020 pu (1.523 deg) Q4=0 MVAr 1.00 pu (0 deg) 0.982 pu (-0.976 deg) 0.969 pu (-1.872 deg) 1.020 pu (1.523 deg)

Voltage at load bus

Generation dispatch Generator1 Generator 2 P= 186.81 MW Q= 114.5 MVAr P= 318 MW Q= 181.43 MVAr P= 186.81 MW Q= 114.5 MVAr P= 318 MW Q= 231.85 MVAr P= 186.81 MW Q= 114.5 MVAr P= 318 MW Q= 131.85 MVAr

Table. 5 Voltage at load bus and generation dispatch when reactive power at bus 4 was changed
Q4 49.58 MVAr Branch 1 2 3 4 100 MVAr 1 2 3 4 0 MVAr 1 2 3 4 From bus 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 To bus 2 3 4 4 2 3 3 4 2 3 4 4 From bus injection P(MW) 38.69 98.12 -131.4 -102.91 38.69 98.12 -131.54 -102.91 38.69 98.12 -131.54 -102.91 Q(MVAr) 22.3 61.21 -74.11 -60.37 22.3 61.21 -74.11 -60.37 22.3 61.21 -74.11 -60.37 To bus injection P(MW) -38.46 -97.09 133.25 104.75 -38.46 -97.07 133.25 104.75 -38.46 -97.07 133.25 104.75 Q(MVAr) -31.24 -63.57 74.92 56.93 -31.24 -63.57 74.92 56.93 -31.24 -63.57 74.92 56.93 P(MW) 0.227 1.031 1.715 1.835 0.227 1.031 1.715 1.835 0.227 1.031 1.715 1.835 Loss Q(MVAr) 1.13 5.16 8.58 9.18 1.13 5.16 8.58 9.18 1.13 5.16 8.58 9.18

Table. 6 Power flow in the line and power loss when reactive power at bus 4 was changed

Comment: + The voltage magnitude at bus 1, 2 and 3 was presented the same value when Q4 was changed (increased or decreased) while the voltage magnitude at bus 4 also remained constant because bus 4 is voltage controlled bus. +For two generators: the same value for real and reactive power was provided by generator 1 in three cases. However, the reactive power generators 2 supplied decreased if Q4 reduced and increased if Q4 increased whereas the real power remained constant. +Power loss in the all branches keep constant. Contrary to the case where Q3 was adjusted, the value of Q4 does not affect to power loss in every branch. 3. Example 3: In this example, the number of 60 Hz three-phase, uncompensated transmission line required to transmit this power with one out of service in three different cases will be determined in case it is desired to transmit 2200 MW from a power plant to a load center located 300 km from the plant. Assuming: Vs=1 pu, Vr=0.95 pu, and max=35 a. For 345 kV lines and Zc=300

SIL = Neglecting losses with l=300 km and =35 P= =1.48*SIL

The practical line loadability curve in figure 5.12 (Glover, Sarma and Overbye, third edition, pp. 231) can be used to obtain P=1.48*SIL for typical 300-km overhead 60 Hz uncompensated lines. In order to transmit 2200 MW with one line out of service: Number of 345-kV line= b. For 500-kV lines and Zc=275 SIL = P= Number of 345-kV line= c. For 765-kV lines and Zc=260 SIL = P= Number of 345-kV line= 4. Example 4 4a. Wind turbine generation *There are four major wind turbine generators: Type 1: induction generator Type 2: induction generator with variable rotor resistance Type 3: doubly-fed asynchronous generator Type 4: asynchronous or synchronous generator with full converter interface The principle of wind turbine operation is based on two well-known processes. The first one involves the conversion of kinetic energy of moving air into mechanical energy. This is accomplished by using aerodynamic rotor blades and a variety of methodologies for mechanical power control. The second process is the electro-mechanical energy conversion through a generator that is transmitted to the electrical grid. The difference between Type 1, Type 2, Type 3 and Type 4 wind turbine generator is that mechanical power regulation: fixed speed (type 1), limited variable speed (type 2), variable speed with either partial (type 3) or full (type 4) power electronic conversion. The different =1.48*SIL =1.48*SIL

speed control types are implemented via different rotating AC machines and the power electronics. *The characteristic of each type of wind turbine generator (WTG) +Type 1: The type 1 WTG is implemented with a squirrel-cage induction generator (SCIG) and is connected to the step-up transformer directly. See Figure 3. The turbine speed is fixed (or nearly fixed) to the electrical grids frequency, and generates real power (P) when the turbine shaft rotates faster than electrical grid frequency creating a negative slip (positive slip and power is motoring convention). Figure 4 shows the power flow at the SCIG terminals. While there is a bit of variability in output with the slip of the machine, Type 1 turbine typically operate at or very close to a rated speed. A major drawback of the induction machine is the reactive power that it consumes for its excitation field and the large currents the machine can draw when started across-the-line. To ameliorate these effects the turbine typically employs a soft starter and discrete steps of capacitor banks within the turbine [2].

Figure 3. Typical configuration of a Type 1 WTG [2]

Figure 4. Variation of real and reactive power for SCIG [2]

+Type 2: In this type, wound rotor induction generators are connected directly to the WTG step-up transformer in a fashion similar to Type 1 with regards to the machines stator circuit, but also include a variable resistor in the rotor circuit. See Figure 5. This can be accomplished with a set of resistors and power electronics external to the rotor with current flowing between the

resistors and rotor via slip rings. Alternatively, the resistors and electronics can be mounted on the rotor, eliminating the slip rings this is the Weier design. The variable resistors are connected into the rotor currents quite rapidly so as to keep constant power even during gusting conditions, and can influence the machines dynamic response during grid disturbances [2].

Figure 5. Typical configuration of a Type 2 WTG [2]

By adding resistance to the rotor circuit, the real power curve, which was shown in Figure 4, can be stretched to the higher slip and higher speed ranges. See Figure 6. That is to say that the turbine would have to spin faster to create the same output power, for an added rotor resistance. This allows some ability to control the speed, with the blades pitching mechanisms and move the turbines operation to a tip speed ratio (ration of tip speed to the ambient wind speed) to achieve the best energy capture. It is typical that speed variations of up to 10% are possible, allowing for some degree of freedom in energy capture and self protection torque control [2].

Figure 6. Variation of real and reactive power with external rotor resistor in a Type 2 WTG [2]

*Type 3: The Type 3 turbine takes the Type 2 design to the next level, by adding variable frequency AC excitation (instead of simply resistance) to the rotor circuit. The additional rotor excitation is supplied via slip rings by a current regulated, voltage-source converter, which can adjust the rotor currents magnitude and phase nearly instantaneously. This rotor-side

converter is connected back-to-back with a grid side converter, which exchanges power directly with the grid [2].

Figure 7. Typical configuration of a Type 3 WTG [2]

A small amount of power injected into the rotor circuit can affect a large control of power in the stator circuit. This is a major advantage of the DFIG a great deal of control of the output is available with the presence of a set of converters that typically are only 30% of the rating of the machine. In addition to the real power that is delivered to the grid fro, the generators stator circuit, power is delivered to the grid through the grid-connected inverter when the generator is moving faster than synchronous speed. When the generator is moving slower than synchronous speed, real power flows from the grid, through both converters, and from rotor to stator. These two models, made possible by the four-quadrant nature of the converters, allows a much wider speed range, both above and below synchronous speed by up to 50%, although narrower ranges are more common [2]. *Type 4: The Type 4 (Figure 8) offers a great deal of flexibility in design and operation as the output of the rotating machine is sent to the grid through a full-scale back-to-back frequency converter. The turbine is allowed to rotate at its optimal aerodynamic speed, resulting in a wild AC output from the machine. In addition, the gear-box may be eliminated, such that the machine spins at the slow turbine speed and generates an electrical frequency well below that of the grid. This is no problem for this type, as the inverter, and offer the possibility of reactive power supply to the grid, much like a STATCOM. The rotating machines of this type have been constructed as wound rotor synchronous machines, similar to conventional generators found in hydroelectric plants with control of the field current and high pole numbers, as permanent magnet synchronous machines, or as squirrel cage induction machines. However, based upon the ability of the machine side inverter to control real and reactive power flow, any type of machine could be used. Advances in power electronic devices and controls in the last decade have made the converters both responsive and efficient [2].

Figure 8. Typical configuration of a Type 4 WTG [2]

4b. (Glover, Sarma and Overbye, problem 6.1) Install power world simulator and run the problem 6_61_PQ and 6_61_PV in case the line between buses 2 and 4 is opened.

Figure 9. Simulation results in case Problem 6_61_PQ when the line between buses 2 and 4 is closed

Figure 10. Simulation results in case Problem 6_61_PQ when the line between buses 2 and 4 is opened

Comment: as can be seen from the figures 9 and 10, when the line between buses 2 and 4 is opened, the voltage at bus 4 decreased while the power flow in the line (from buses 1 to 3 and from buses 2 to 5) increased. In addition, the reactive power which was supplied by shunt capacitor was reduced whereas the change in the real and reactive power generated by generators 1, 2, 6, and 7 was experienced.

Figure 11. Simulation results in case Problem 6_61_PV when the line between buses 2 and 4 is closed

Figure 12. Simulation results in case Problem 6_61_PV when the line between buses 2 and 4 is opened

Comment: In this case, the voltage at bus 4 remained constant (1 pu) while only line between buses 2 and 4 showed the increase in power flow. The real and reactive power provided by generators 1, 6 and 7 remained nearly old value. In summary: +In term of voltage at bus 4, the case where the generation at bus 4 is modelled as a Type 3 or Type 4 showed the better result than the case generation at bus 4 is modelled as a Type 1 or Type 2 because in the first case (6_61_PQ) the voltage at bus 4 decreased when the line between 2 and 4 is opened whereas it keep constant (1 pu) in the second case (6_61_PV). +The advantage of a Type 3 or Type 4 wind turbine is the ability to keep the voltage at the bus where it is located at the desired value (in this problem, that value is equal to 1 pu). In addition, the reactive power which Type 3 or Type 4 wind turbine supplies can be adjusted to regulate the voltage bus while for Type 1 or Type 2 it is impossible (keep the same value of 48 MVAr in both cases when the line between 2 and 4 is closed and opened). Therefore, the appearance of a shunt capacitor is not necessary if we have a Type 3 or Type 4 wind turbine. +As can be seen from the figures 9 and 10, the shunt capacitor affect directly to the voltage control. If the reactive requirement of the load does not change, the voltage at bus relates closely to the reactive power a shunt capacitor can supplies. For example, if the reactive power which a shunt capacitor supplies increases, the reactive power flow in the line will decrease then the voltage drop decreases and the voltage at the bus where the shunt capacitor connected to rises because the voltage at the source remains constant. As we can see from the figures 9 and 10, the reactive provided by shunt capacitor varies from 62.44 to 65.94 MVAr.

REFERENCE 1. Description and Technical Specification for Generic WTG Models A Status Report, a Working Group Joint Report between the WECC Working Group on Dynamic Performance of Wind Power Generation of the IEEE PES Power Stability Controls Subcommittee of the IEEE PES Power System Dynamic Performance Committee, in the conference proceedings of the 2011 IEEE PES Power System Conference and Exhibition, Phoenix, Arizona. 2. Characteristics of wind turbine generators for wind power plants, an IEEE Pes Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group, in Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2009, pp.1-5 3. Power System Analysis and Design by J. D. Glover, M. S. Sarma and T. J. Overbye, fourth Edition, Thomson publisher 2008. 4. Matpower 4.1 User Manual, Ray D.Zimmerman and Carlos E. Murillo-Snchez, Dec. 14, 2011.

APPENDIX A. The simulation results when using Newtons method and Gauss Seidel method *Run power flow using Newtons method >>mpopt=mpoption(PF_ALG,1); % use Newtons method >>result=runpf(case4gs,mpopt);

*Run power flow using Gauss Seidel method: >>mpopt=mpoption(PF_ALG,4); % use Gauss Seidel method >>result=runpf(case4gs,mpopt);

B. Simulation results when changing the reactive power at bus 3 and bus 4 independently *Changes at bus 3: +Q3=123.94 >>define_constants; >>mpc=loadcase(case4gs); >>mpc.bus(3,QD)=123.94; >>runpf(mpc);

+Q3=200 MVAr

+Q3=0 MVAr

*Changes at bus 4: +Q4=49.58 MVAr >>define_constants; >>mpc=loadcase(case4gs); >>mpc.bus(4,QD)=49.58; >>runpf(mpc);

+Q4=100 MVAr

+Q4= 0 MVAr;