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Ethical issues concerning cloud based conference and network administrator As cloud computing gets more popular, it raises the ethical issues where administrator necessarily holds access to all data. Generally, cloud computing means entrusting data to information systems via the internet (Google, Amazon, Cisco, etc.). Corporations and cloud service providers sign on policies and contracts to manage data. Therefore, data which includes webmail and online documents is managed by external parties on remote servers (the cloud). This paper will not discuss whether system administrator (SA) accidentally or deliberately discloses or uses the information. Rather this paper discusses the undesirable consequences and suggests solutions towards the ethical issues concerning SA. A small and specific scope will be much easier to investigate and point out the solutions. A clear example is the online conference management based on cloud computing. Basically, conference management system allows program committee browse, review and discuss academic researches and papers via the web. In a nut shell, the conference chair downloads and hosts the appropriate server software such as HOTCRP or iChair. The functions of the two are relatively similar: Automatic distribution to members, according to their preferences Automatic collection and distribution of reviews and discussion Automated emails and notifications of acceptance or rejection Auto-generated reports and statistic
Since all processes are managed in the cloud, corporations no longer have to worry about managing the servers (backups, security, update, upgrade, etc.). The need to create accounts for members each and every conference will also be eliminated. However storing data in the cloud raises serious concern over privacy issues as system administrators are custodians of a huge quantity of data and accounts’ information. The SAGE Code of Ethics requires SA to “keep confidential and protect the confidentiality” of all such data. There will certainly be compromise of reviewers’ anonymity as well as discussion’s confidentiality in conference environment. Canon Two of the Code mentions that SA “shall not act with discrimination between authorized users. If SA does not fully and carefully acknowledge this Code, a number of statistics and aggregated reviewing profile (fair/ unfair, thorough/scant, harsh/ undiscerning, etc.) could also be disclosed. One might agree that networked conference SA has access to a great deal of data, he or she could also agree that it is the case for every SA out there.
SA is usually the person who is responsible for the legal issues of software. the typical corporate software licensing model does not always translate well into the cloud computing world. On-site conference software can be easily managed by the local administrators. Professional groups such as IEEE. determining which legislation it should follow geographically presents a challenge for SA. to catch up with technology advancement. Is SA even the right person to determine this issue? Second. Licensed software could be wrongly used. there is a need to encrypt data in the cloud. Many countries also require data on citizens to be kept inside that country. SA will eventually face conflict of interest. UK Data Protection Act and EU Data Protection Directive protect data on different levels and purposes. the fourth issue SA faces is licensing. coercion and hacking attempts. in terms of IT infrastructure (bandwidth and computation). Another complication is . they are then equipped with the most powerful tool to identify what types of authors participated in. However. From there. First is the possibility of data mining. Certain cloud computing applications might be primarily storage applications that do not perform processing or transaction on the server side. Raw data could be processed to understand and improve the way conferences are administered.The mere existence of data makes SA vulnerable to bribery. There are multiple problem storing data in the cloud. how many new authors are entering the community. However there is another alternative route to data privacy in cloud based conferencing. In that case. Cloud computing magnifies the complication of software and data concern. since the data is stored in the cloud. By doing so. Another suggestion would be to find alternative custodians for the data who are not actively participating in conferences. Adherence to this policy would also involve data deletion after the conference. Third. the threat of data being leaked is even greater. The simple policy must be that data gathered in one conference may only be used in that particular conference. there is no clear impact brought upon users if SA really mines the stored data. Data collected for conferences over decades presents a remarkable chance for abuse if it gets into the wrong hands. ACM are considered suitable for the purpose. In this case. Similarly. One application might be running on untold numbers of servers around the world and it is not easy for SA to obtain all needed licensing. Therefore. If SA is also a researcher. The current encryption technology allows users to upload encrypted data so easily but the offered techniques are expensive for each to adopt. encrypting data before sending it to the servers could be realistic and practical. That brings out a problem in the cloud computing model where data could reside anywhere and even system administrator might not have any idea where data is geographically located. policies should be decided transparently and updated over time. It is extremely difficult for SA to decide which people are allowed to mine that data and for what purposes. SA cannot obtain the information that might affect the users according to the Code of Ethics. In order to solve this problem. as long as budgets allow corporations to do so. and most importantly how conferences change over time. event organizers could construct quality metrics for their conferences. Policies are the very first step but it does not prevent cloud service providers from abusing entrusted data.
who then decides which license SA will need? This problem has remained unsolved for many years and the computing world is still hoping for a new development. Yet the ethical issues presented in this paper cannot be solved simply by trusting one another. The computing world should try to minimize the extent to which we rely on people’s sense of good behavior. . in general and cloud based conference in particular. many of the current solutions at the moment will not be considered adequate for many years to come. Forming professional data guardian groups to appropriately protect the data. we have relied on professional honor of data custodians to guard against the threats for many years. Standardizing Code of Ethics to an international level. Replacing country based licensing with international licensing system. Identifying data mining regulations. Here are the solutions towards cloud based conferencing: Processing encrypted data in the cloud or using hardware based security initiatives to process submitted data according to an agreed policy. In conclusion. we are just at the beginning of the digital era. Having said that. Some argues that adherence by professionals to ethical behavior is essential to ensure all kinds of confidentiality. It is now the time to set guidelines and policies for cloud computing.that if SA has to temporarily transfer the US licensed software onto another server in Europe.