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# EE3092 -Laboratory Practice V

STEPPER MOTOR

## Instructor: - Miss. W.G. Pavithra

Name: - V.I.P. Dasanayake Index Number: - 090075M Group: - 3 Submission date: -27/02/2012

Micro processor excitation sequence for different modes of stepper motor operation One phase on operation

Speed of rotor =148.3 rpm Pulse width = 8ms Two phase on operation

## Speed of rotor =74.5 rpm Pulse width = 25ms

Calculations
1. Calculate basic Step Angle for 6 / 4 pole 3 phase & 8 / 6 pole 4 phase stepper motor using manual switching sequence?

## Basic step angle

Figure 1

Figure 1 shows a basic arrangement of a 6/4 pole 3 phase motor. Since this has 6 number of stator poles and 4 number of rotor poles, with 4 numbers of phases, which is connected to stator poles. Basic

## Basic step angle

Figure 2

Figure 1 shows a basic arrangement of a 6/4 pole 3 phase motor. Since this has 6 number of stator poles and 4 number of rotor poles, with 4 numbers of phases, which is connected to stator poles. Basic

2. Calculate the number of pulses required for the 6/4 pole 3 phase stepper to revolve one revolution and verify the answer with the observed value? Number of pulses required to revolve 1 revolution= Number of rotor poles Number of phases =4x3 = 12 Since the observed valued for one revolution is also 12, the answer is verified.

3. Calculate the basic steps angle for the 8/6 pole 4 phase stepper by having speed and pulse rate (Hz) of the motor?

## Take, rpm of the motor= r frequency of pulses=f

--------------- (1)

Time for rotate one cycle (in seconds) = 60/r------------------ (2) From (1) to (2)

degrees

## 4. Calculate the basic steps angle for each operation?

Basic step angle for single phase on operations= 6 148 8 103 Basic step angle for two phase operation = 6 149 16 10 3 Basic step angle for half step operation= 6 74.5 25 10 3

## = 7.1040 = 14.3040 = 11.1750

Discussion
1. Discuss the detent torque and holding torque involve with different types of stepper motor? Mainly there are 3 types of stepper motors, such as 1. Permanent Magnet Stepper 2. Hybrid Synchronous Stepper 3. Variable Reluctance Stepper Detent torque This is also called residual torque. Normally this can be seen in Permanent magnet stepper motors. Detent torque use to rotate the motor shaft. When there is no power applied to the windings, a small magnetic force will be induced between the permanent magnet and the stator. And it causes for occurring the detent torque. This torque can be notice by turning a stepper motor by hand. Usually it is about one-tenth of the holding torque. When this torque is occurred, the rotor returns to the normal rest position even the excitation ends. Those positions are called detent positions. Holding torque The torque which is used to move the rotor one full step with the stator energized. This is called static torque as well. Holding torque is the maximum torque produce by the standstill motor. When it comes to permanent magnet stepper motor, it is able to maintain this holding torque indefinitely, even the rotor is stopped. As the motor is energize, it has high holding torque rating, so torque available to running motor is become less. It can be clearly seen in the following figure.

## Figure 1-stepper speed characteristics

Static Characteristics of a stepper motor with the holding torque and detent torque:

## Figure 3-Torque current characteristics curve Torque current characteristics curve

Torque-displacement characteristics: This curve shows the relationship electromagnetic torque and displacement angle (0 from steady state position) Torque-current characteristics: This curve shows the relationship between holding toque and the current. Holding torque increases with the exiting current. Relationship between holding torque and the detent torque: Holding torque is not a constant value. It varies as the shaft moves a full step. The reason for this would be the detent torque, which adds and subtracts from the electrically induced torque as the motor shaft moves. Here the detent torque can be considered as sinusoidal changing torque, which repeats with every full step of the motor 2. Discuss the main points of various modes of operation of the stepper motor?

There are 4 types of stepping modes for a stepper motor but only 3 of the excitation modes are very common in stepper motors. A. Full step B. Half step C. Micro step Full step: - consider a two phase stepper motor. Here motor energized both phases constantly to have the full rated torque at all positions of the motor. Since it has 4 rotor teeth, or 4 full step for every revolution, dividing the 4 steps by 3600, we can have 900 full step angle. Full step mode can be achieved by energizing both windings, while reversing the current in alternatively. For full step operation a unipolar motor driver, energizes a single phase. For bipolar stepper motor it energized both coils to make a full step (an example of full step is shown in the following images)

## Figure 4- single coil full step operation

Sequence of the energizing coils would be 1&4, 4&3, 3&2, 2&1, 1&4, 4&3, 3&2

## Figure 5-Dual core full step mode

Above explanation is for two phase motor. Since there are more types of stepper motors (considering number of phases), such as three phase stepper motor, four phase stepper motoretc, same theory can be applied to those motor types as well. The only difference would be there will be more coils.

Half step: - if we consider a two phase motor, there will be 8 steps for a one revolution. It is done by, energizing one winding, while other 2 windings are energized alternatively. So it can rotate half a distance or 450. Half step mode gives a smoother motion than a full step mode of operation. This provides approximately 30% less torque than full step mode. It can be demonstrate with following images. (And similar theory can be consider for other stepper motors as well such as, three phase stepper motors, four phase stepper motors...etc)

Micro step: - This is a new technology, which control the motor winding current to a degree such that, it causes for subdivides the number of positions between poles. As an example Omegamation micro stepping drives have a full step (1.8) into 256 micro steps, resulting in 51,200 steps for every revolution (.007/step). This is normally used in application where accurate, smooth poisonings are required highly. This also provides approximately 30% less torque than full step mode like half step mode.

References
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stepper_motor http://zone.ni.com/devzone/cda/ph/p/id/287 http://mediatoget.blogspot.com/2011/06/important-definitions-in-single-phase.html http://www.sapiensman.com/ESDictionary/docs/d6.htm http://turboblogsite.com/stepper-motors-guide.html http://www.omega.com/prodinfo/stepper_motors.html

Electrical Machines By Ghosh Electric Machines: Theory, Operating Applications, and Controls, 2/e By Hubert