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DepEd Complex, Meralco Ave., Pasig City 2 INTRODUCTION This Handbook aims to provide the general public parents, students,researchers, and other stakeholders an overview of the Mathematics program at thesecondary le vel. Those in education, however, may use it as a reference forimplementing the 2002 secondary education curriculum, or as a source document toinform policy and guide practice.For quick reference, the Handbook is outlined as follows: The description defines the focus and the emphasis of the learning area aswell a s the language of instruction used. The unit credit indicates the number of units assigned to a learning areacompute d on a 40-minute per unit credit basis and which shall be used toevaluate a stud ents promotion to the next year level. The time allotment specifies the number of minutes allocated to a learningarea o n a daily (or weekly, as the case may be) basis. The expectancies refer to the general competencies that the learners areexpected to demonstrate at the end of each year level. The scope and sequence outlines the content, or the coverage of the learningarea in terms of concepts or themes, as the case may be. The suggested strategies are those that are typically employed to develop thecon tent, build skills, and integrate learning. The materials include those that have been approved for classroom use. Theapplic ation of information and communication technology is encouraged,where available. The grading system specifies how learning outcomes shall be evaluated andthe asp ects of student performance which shall be rated. The learning competencies are the knowledge, skills, attitudes and valuesthat th e students are expected to develop or acquire during the teaching-learning situa tions. Lastly, sample lesson plans are provided to illustrate the mode of integration,w here appropriate, the application of life skills and higher order thinking skill s,the valuing process and the differentiated activities to address the learningn eeds of students.The Handbook is designed as a practical guide and is not intend ed to structurethe operationalization of the curriculum or impose restrictions o n how the curriculumshall be implemented. Decisions on how best to teach and how learning outcomes canbe achieved most successfully rest with the school princip als and teachers. They knowthe direction they need to take and how best to get t here. 3 DESCRIPTION First Year is Elementary Algebra. It deals with life situations and problemsinvo lving measurement, real number system, algebraic expressions, first degreeequati ons and inequalities in one variable, linear equations in two variables, special products and factoring.Second Year is Intermediate Algebra. It deals with system s of linear equationsand inequalities, quadratic equations, rational algebraic e xpressions, variation,integral exponents, radical expressions, and searching for patterns in sequences(arithmetic, geometric, etc) as applied in real-life situa tions.Third Year is Geometry. It deals with the practical application to life of

thegeometry of shape and size, geometric relations, triangle congruence, proper ties ofquadrilaterals, similarity, circles, and plane coordinate geometry.Fourth Year is still the existing integrated ( algebra, geometry, statistics and aunit of trigonometry) spiral mathematics but in school year 2003-2004 the graduating students have the option to take up either Business Mathematics and Statistics o rTrigonometry and Advanced Algebra. UNIT CREDIT/Time Allotment See DepEd Order No. 37, s. 2003, Revised Implementing Guidelines of the 2003Seco ndary Education Curriculum Effective School 2003-2004 4 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE Elementary Algebra (First Year)1. Measurement2. Real Number system3. Algebraic E xpressions4. First Degree Equations and Inequalities in One Variable5. Linear Eq uations in Two Variables6. Special Products and FactorsIntermediate Algebra (Sec ond Year)1. Systems of Linear Equations and Inequalities2. Quadratic Equations3. Rational Algebraic Expressions4. Variation5. Integral Exponents6. Radical Expre ssions7. Searching for Patterns in Sequences: Arithmetic, Geometry,etc.Geometry (Third Year)1. Geometry of Shape and Size2. Geometric Relations3. Triangle Congr uence4. Properties of Quadrilaterals5. Similarity6. Circles7. Plane Coordinate G eometryAdvance Algebra, Trigonometry & Statistics (Fourth Year)1. Functions2. Li near Functions3. Quadratic Functions4. Polynomial Functions5. Exponential and Lo garithmic Functions6. Circular Functions and Trigonometry7. Triangle Trigonometr y8. Statistics 5 SUGGESTED STRATEGIES AND MATERIALS Strategies in mathematics teaching include discussion, practical work,practice a nd consolidation, problem solving, mathematical investigation andcooperative lea rning.Discussion It is more than the short question and answer which arise duringexposition It takes place between teacher and students or between studentsthemselves.Practi cal Work More student-centered activities Teacher acts as facilitator Concretizes abstract concepts

Develops mastery of a particular concept which is needed inproblem solving and i nvestigationProblem Solving Process of applying mathematics in the real world Involves the exploration of the solution to a given situationMathematical Invest

Develops students olidation

confidence to discover solutions to problemsPractice and Cons

igation An open-ended problem solving It involves the exploration of a mathematical situation, makingconjectures and r eason logicallyCooperative Learning Members are encouraged to work as a team in exchanging ideas,successes and failu res.Materials include DepEd approved textbooks and lesson plans.Features of the lesson plans are: Application of higher order thinking skills Integration of values education 6 Provision of teaching-learning activities that address multipleintelligences Use of cooperative learning strategies GRADING SYSTEM See DepEd Order No. 37, s. 2003, Revised Implementing Guidelines of the 2003Seco ndary Education Curriculum Effective School 2003-2004 7 DETAILED LISTING OF LEARNING COMPETENCIES HIGH SCHOOL MATHEMATICSElementary Algebra (1 st year High School)A. Measurement 1. illustrate the development of measurement from the primitive to thepresent in ternational system of units2. use instruments to measure length, weight, volume, temperature, time,angle3. express relationships between two quantities using ra tios4. convert measurements from one unit to another5. round off measurements; r ound off numbers to a given place (e.g.nearest ten, nearest tenth)6. solve probl ems involving measurement B. Real Number System 1. describe the real number system: natural numbers, whole numbers,integers, rat ional numbers, irrational numbers, real numbers1.1 review operations on whole nu mbers1.2 describe opposite quantities in real life; illustrate integers onthe nu mber line; use integers to describe positive or negativequantities1.3 visualize integers and their order on a number line; representmovement along the number li ne using integers1.4 arrange integers in increasing/decreasing order1.5 define t he absolute value of a number on a number line asdistance from the origin.1.6 de termine the absolute value of a number; solve simple absolutevalue equations usi ng the number line1.7 perform fundamental operations on integers: addition,subtr action, multiplication, division; state and illustrate the 8different properties (commutative, associative, distributive,identity, inverse )1.8 define rational numbers; translate rational numbers (bothterminating and re peating/non-terminating) from fraction formto decimal form and vice versa1.9 arr ange rational numbers in increasing/decreasing order1.10 review simplification o f and operations on fractions1.11 review operations on decimalssquare roots of p ositive rational numbers2.1 define the square root of a rational number; approxi

mate thesquare root of a positive rational number2.2 identify square roots which are rational and which are notrational (irrational numbers)2.3 if the square ro ot of a number is not rational, determine twointegers or rational numbers betwee n which it liesgive examples of other irrational numbersuse knowledge related to signed numbers and square roots inproblem-solving C. Algebraic Expressions 1. define constants, variables, algebraic expressions2. simplify numerical expre ssions involving exponents and groupingsymbols3. translate verbal phrases to mat hematical expressions and viceversa4. evaluate mathematical expressions for give n values for thevariable(s) involved5. define monomials, binomials, trinomials a nd multinomials andillustrate these6. simplify monomials using the laws on expon ents6.1 identify monomials; identify the base, coefficient andexponent in a mono mial 9 6.2 laws on exponents nmnm aaa + = ( ) mmm baab = ( ) mnnm aa = mmm baba = nmnm aaa = 6.3 simplify and perform operations on monomials6.4 express numbers in scientif ic notation7. define polynomials; classify algebraic expressions as polynomialsa nd non polynomials8. perform operations on polynomials8.1 addition and subtracti on8.2 multiplication : polynomial by a monomial8.3 multiplication : polynomial b y another polynomial8.4 division : polynomial by a monomialdivision : polynomial by a polynomial9. problem solving involving polynomials D. First Degree Equations and Inequalities In One Variable 1. introduce first degree equations and inequalities in one variable1.1 distingu ish between mathematical phrases and sentences1.2 distinguish between expression s and equations1.3 distinguish between equations and inequalities2. translate ve rbal statements involving general or unknownquantities to equations and inequali ties and vice versawhere

m n is a positive number if m > n.m n is a negative number if m < n. 103. define first degree equations and inequalities in one variable3.1 define t he solution set of a first degree equation orinequality3.2 illustrate the soluti on set of equations and inequalities inone variable on the number line3.3 find t he solution set of simple equations and inequalities inone variable from a given replacement set3.4 find the solution set of simple equations and inequalities i none variable by inspection4. review the basic properties of real numbers; state and illustratethe different properties of equality5. determine the solution set of first degree equations in onevariable by applying the properties of equality 6. determine the solution set of first degree inequalities in onevariable by app lying the properties of inequality; visualizesolutions of simple mathematical in equalities on a number line7. solve problems using first degree equations and in equalities inone variable (e.g. relations among numbers, geometry,business, unif orm motion, money problems,etc.) E. Linear Equations in Two Variables 1. describe the Cartesian Coordinate Plane (x axis, y axis,quadrant, origin)2. d escribe points plotted on the Cartesian Coordinate Plane; plotpoints on the Cart esian Coordinate Plane2.1 given a point on the coordinate plane, give its coordi nates2.2 given a pair of coordinates, plot the point2.3 given the coordinates of a point, determine the quadrantwhere it is located3. define a linear equation i n two variables: Ax+By=C.3.1 construct a table of values for x and y given a lin earequation in two variables, Ax+By=C3.2 draw the graph of Ax+By=C based on a ta ble of values forx and y 113.3 define x and y intercepts, slope, domain, range3.4 determine the followin g properties of the graph of a linearequationAx + By = C : intercepts trend (increasing or decreasing) domain range slope4. given a linear equation Ax + By = C, rewrite in the form y = mx+ b, and vice versa4.1 draw the graph of a linear equation in two variablesdescribed by a n equation using the intercepts any two points the slope and a given point4.2 determine whether the graph of Ax+ By = C is incr easing ordecreasing4.3 obtain the equation of a line given the following: the intercepts any two points the slope and a point4.4 use linear equations in two variables to solve problems ENRICHMENT FOR LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES: 5. define an absolute value equation x y = 5.1 review the meaning of the absolute value of a number5.2 construct a table o f ordered pairs and draw the graphs ofthe following:

y = x y = x + b y = x b y = b x + y = b x 12 y = b x + + c F. Special Products and Factoring 1. review multiplication of polynomials1.1 monomial by polynomial using the dist ributive property1.2 binomial by binomial using the distributive property, using theFOIL method2. identify special products polynomials whose terms have a common monomial factor trinomials which are products of two binomials trinomials which are squares of a binomial products of the sum and difference of two quantities ),,( 333322 y x y x y x + 3. factor polynomials polynomials whose terms have a common monomial factor trinomials which are products of two binomials trinomials which are squares of a binomial products of the sum and difference of two quantities ),,( 333322 y x y x y x + 4. given a polynomial, factor completely ENRICHMENT FOR SPECIAL PRODUCTS AND FACTORING 5. use special products and factoring to solve problems

13 Intermediate Algebra (2 nd year High School)A. Systems of Linear Equations and Inequalities 1. review the Cartesian Coordinate System2. review graphs of linear equations in two variables3. define a system of linear equations in two variables4. solve sy stems of linear equations in two variables4.1 given a pair of linear equations i n two variables, identify those whosegraphs are parallel, those that intersect, and those that coincide4.2 given a system of linear equations in two variables f ind the solution of thesystem graphically (i.e. by drawing the graphs and obtain ing thecoordinates of the intersection point)4.3 given a system of linear equati ons in two variables, determine whether ornot their graphs intersect, and if the y do, find the solution of the systemalgebraically by elimination by substitution5. use systems of linear equations to solve problems (e.g. number relations,uniform motion, geometric relations, mixture, investment, work)6. rev iew the definition of inequalities; define a system of linear inequalities6.1 tr anslate certain situations in real life to linear inequalities6.2 draw the graph of a linear inequality in two variables6.3 represent the solution set of a syst em of linear inequalities by graphing B. Quadratic Equations 1. define a quadratic equation 0 2 =++ cbxax ; distinguish a quadratic equationfrom a linear equation2. find the solution set of a quadratic equation2.1 review the definition of solution set of an equation ; define root of anequation 142.2 determine the solution set of a quadratic equation 0 2 =++ cbxax byalgebraic methods: factoring quadratic formula completing the square2.3 derive the quadratic formula3. solve rational equations which can be reduced to quadratic equations4. use quadratic equations to solve problems C. Rational Algebraic Expressions 1. review simplification of fractions including complex fractions; review operat ionson fractions2. define a rational algebraic expression; domain of a rational algebraicexpression; identify rational algebraic expressions; translate verbalex pressions into rational algebraic expressions3. simplify rational algebraic expr essions(reduce to lowest terms)4. add and subtract rational algebraic expression s4.1 find the least common denominator4.2 change two or more rational expression s with unlike denominators tothose with like denominators4.3 simplify results5. multiply and divide rational algebraic expressions6. simplify complex fractions7 . solve rational equations7.1 check for extraneous solutions8. solve problems in volving rational algebraic expressions 15

D. Variation 1. define the following: direct variation direct square variation inverse variation joint variation2. identify relationships between two quantities in real life tha t are directvariations, direct square variations, inverse square variations or j ointvariations3. translate statements that describe relationships between two qu antities usingthe following expressions to a table of values, a mathematical equ ation, or agraph, and vice versa _____ is directly proportional to _____ _____ is inversely proportional to _____ _____ varies directly as _____ _____ varies directly as the square of _____ _____ varies inversely as _____4. solve problems on direct variation, direct squar e variation, inverse variationand joint variation E. Integral Exponents 1. review concepts related to positive integer exponents the meaning of a x when x is a positive integer laws on exponents multiplying and dividing expressions with positive integral exponents2. demonstr ate understanding of expressions with zero and negative exponents2.1 give the me aning of a x when x is 0 or a negative integer2.2 evaluate numerical expressions involving ne gative and zero exponents2.3 rewrite algebraic expressions with zero and negativ e exponents2.4 use laws of exponents to simplify algebraic expressions containin gintegral exponents3. review the use of scientific notation 164. solve problems involving expressions with exponents F. Radical Expressions 1. review roots of numbers1.1 identify expressions which are perfect squares or perfect cubes, and findtheir square root or cube root respectively1.2 given a nu mber in the form n x where x is not a perfect nth root, nametwo rational numbers between which it lie s2. demonstrate understanding of expressions with rational exponents2.1 use laws of exponents to simplify expressions containing rationalexponents2.2 rewrite ex pressions with rational exponents as radical expressions andvice versa3. simplif y radical expressions3.1 identify the radicand and index in a radical expression 3.2 simplify the radical expression n x in such a way that the radicandcontains no perfect nth

root3.3 rationalize a fraction whose denominator contains square roots4. add and subtract radical expressions5. multiply and divide radical expressions6. solve radical equations7. solve problems involving radical equations G. Searching for Patterns in Sequences, Arithmetic, Geometric and Others 1. demonstrate understanding of a sequence1.1 list the next few terms of a seque nce given several consecutive terms1.2 derive, by pattern searching, a mathemati cal expression (rule) forgenerating the sequence2. demonstrate understanding of an arithmetic sequence 172.1 define and give examples of an arithmetic sequence2.2 describe an arithme tic sequence by any of the following ways: giving the first few terms giving the formula for the n th term drawing the graph 2.3 derive the formula for the n th term of an arithmetic sequence2.3.1 given the first few terms of an arithmeti c sequence, find the commondifference and the nth term for a specified n 2.3.2 given two terms of an arithmetic sequence, find: the first term;the commo n difference or a specified nth term2.4 derive the formula for the sum of the n terms of an arithmetic sequence2 .5 define an arithmetic mean; solve problems involving arithmetic means2.6 solve problems involving arithmetic sequences3. demonstrate understanding of a geomet ric sequence3.1 define and give examples of a geometric sequence3.2 describe a g eometric sequence in any of the following ways: giving the first few terms of the sequence giving the formula for the n th term drawing the graph3.3 derive the formula for the n th term of a geometric sequence3.3.1 given the first few terms of a geometric se quence, find the commonratio and the nth term for a specified n 3.3.2 given two specified terms of a geometric sequence, find: the firstterm; t he common ratio or a specified nth term3.4 derive the formula for the sum of the terms of a geometric sequence3.5 d erive the formula for an infinite geometric series3.6 define a geometric mean; s olve problems involving geometric means3.7 solve problems involving geometric se quences 184. define a harmonic sequence, harmonic series, and harmonic mean4.6 illustra te a harmonic sequence and determine the sum of the first n terms4.7 determine t

he harmonic mean of two numbers4.8 solve problems involving harmonic sequences5. introduce the Fibonacci sequence; define and illustrate the Fibonaccisequence6. introduce the Binomial Theorem6.6 state and illustrate the Binomial Theorem6.7 state and apply the formula for determining the coefficients of the terms inthe expansion of ( ) n ba + . 19 Geometry (3 rd Year High School)A. Geometry of Shape and Size 1. Undefined Terms1.1 describe the ideas of point, line, and plane1.2 define, id entify, and name the subsets of a line segment ray2. Angles2.1 illustrate, name, identify and define an angle2.2 name and ident ify the parts of an angle2.3 read or determine the measure of an angle using a p rotractor2.4 illustrate, name, identify and define different kinds of angles acute right obtuse3. Polygons3.1 illustrate, identify, and define different kinds of polygon s according to thenumber of sides illustrate and identify convex and non convex polygons identify the parts of a regular polygon (vertex angle, central angle,exterior an gle) 3.2 illustrate, name and identify a triangle and its basic and secondary parts(e .g., vertices, sides, angles, median, angle bisector, altitude)3.3 illustrate, name and identify different kinds of triangles and their parts(e.g., legs, base, hypotenuse) classify triangles according to their angles and according to theirsides3.4 illu strate, name and define a quadrilateral and its parts3.5 illustrate, name and id entify the different kinds of quadrilaterals3.6 determine the sum of the measure s of the interior and exterior angles ofa polygon sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180

sum of the measures of the exterior angles of a quadrilateral is 360 20 sum of the measures of the interior angles of a quadrilateral is (n 2)1804. Circle4.1 define a circle4.2 illustrate, name, identify, and define t he terms related to the circle (radius,diameter and chord) 5. Measurements5.1 identify the following common solids and their parts: cone, p yramid,sphere, cylinder, rectangular prism) 5.2 state and apply the formulas for the measurements of plane and solidfigures Perimeter of a triangle, square, and rectangle Circumference of a circle Area of a triangle, square, parallelogram, trapezoid, and circle Surface area of a cube, rectangular prism, square pyramid,cylinder, cone, and a sphere Volume of a rectangular prism, triangular prism, pyramid, cylinder,cone, and a s phere 5.3 solve problems involving plane and solid figures B. Geometric Relations 1. Relations involving Segments and Angles1.1 illustrate and define betweeness a nd collinearity of points1.2 illustrate, identify and define congruent segments1 .3 illustrate, identify and define the midpoint of a segment1.4 illustrate, iden tify and define the bisector of an angle1.5 illustrate, identify and define the different kinds of angle pairs supplementary complementary congruent adjacent linear pair

vertical angles1.6 illustrate, identify and define perpendicularity1.7 illustrat e and identify the perpendicular bisector of a segment 212. Angles and Sides of a Triangle2.1 derive/apply relationships among the sid es and angles of a triangle Exterior and corresponding remote interior angles of atriangle Triangle inequality3. Angles formed by Parallel Lines cut by a Transversal3.1 il lustrate and define Parallel Lines3.2 illustrate and define a Transversal3.3 ide ntify the angles formed by parallel lines cut by a transversal3.4 determine the relationship between pairs of angles formed by parallellines cut by a transversa l alternate interior angles alternate exterior angles corresponding angles angles on the same side of the transversal4. Problem Solving involving the Relat ionships between Segments andbetween Angles4.1 Solve problems using the definiti ons and properties involvingrelationships between segments and between angles C. Triangle Congruence 1. Conditions for Triangle Congruence1.1 Define and illustrate congruent triangl es1.2 State and apply the Properties of Congruence Reflexive Property Symmetric Property Transitive Property1.3 Use inductive skills to establish the conditions or corre spondencesufficient to guarantee congruence between triangles1.4 Apply deductive skills to show congruence between triangles SSS Congruence SAS Congruence ASA Congruence SAA Congruence2. Applying the Conditions for Triangle Congruence 222.1 Prove congruence and inequality properties in an isosceles triangle using the congruence conditions in 1.3 Congruent sides in a triangle imply that the angles opposite themare congruent Congruent angles in a triangle imply that the sides opposite themare congruent Non congruent sides in a triangle imply that the angles oppositethem are not con

gruent Non congruent angles in a triangle imply that the sides oppositethem are not con gruent2.2 Use the definition of congruent triangles and the conditions for trian glecongruence to prove congruent segments and congruent angles betweentwo triang les2.3 Solve routine and non routine problems Enrichment Apply inductive and deductive skills to derive other conditions for congruencebe tween two right triangles LL Congruence LA Congruence HyL Congruence HyA Congruence D. Properties of Quadrilaterals 1. Different type of Quadrilaterals and their Properties1.1 recall previous know ledge on the different kinds of quadrilaterals andtheir properties (square, rect angle, rhombus, trapezoid, parallelogram)1.2 apply inductive and deductive skill s to derive certain properties of thetrapezoid median of a trapezoid base angles and diagonals of an isosceles trapezoid1.3 apply inductive and deduc tive skills to derive the properties of aparallelogram each diagonal divides a parallelogram into two congruent triangles opposite angles are congruent non opposite angles are supplementary 23 opposite sides are congruent diagonals bisect each other1.4 apply inductive and deductive skills to derive th e properties of thediagonals of special quadrilaterals diagonals of a rectangle diagonals of a square diagonals of a rhombus2 Conditions that Guarantee that a Quadrilateral is a Para llelogram2.1 verify sets of sufficient conditions which guarantee that a quadril ateral isa parallelogram2.2 apply the conditions to prove that a quadrilateral i s a parallelogram2.3 apply the properties of quadrilaterals and the conditions f or aparallelogram to solve problems

Enrichment Apply inductive and deductive skills to discover certain properties of the Kite E. Similarity 1. Ratio and Proportion1.1 state and apply the definition of a ratio1.2 define a proportion and identify its parts1.3 state and apply the fundamental law of pro portion Product of the means is equal to the product of the extremes1.4 define and ident ify proportional segments1.5 apply the definition of proportional segments to fi nd unknown lengths2. Proportionality Theorems2.1 state and verify the Basic Prop ortionality Theorem and its Converse3. Similarity between Triangles3.6 define si milar figures3.7 define similar polygons3.8 define similar triangles3.9 apply th e definition of similar triangles determining if two triangles are similar finding the length of a side or measure of an angle of a triangle 243.5 state and verify the Similarity Theorems3.6 apply the properties of simil ar triangles and the proportionalitytheorems to calculate lengths of certain lin e segments, and to arrive atother properties4. Similarities in a Right Triangle4 .1 apply the AA Similarity Theorem to determine similarities in a righttriangle in a right triangle the altitude to the hypotenuse divides it into tworight tria ngles which are similar to each other and to the given righttriangle4.2 derive t he relationships between the sides of an isosceles triangle andbetween the sides of a 30 60 90 triangle using the Pythagorean Theorem Enrichment State and verify consequences of the Basic Proportionality Theorem parallel lines cut by two or more transversals make proportionalsegments bisector of an angle of a triangle separates the opposite side intosegments whos e lengths are proportional to the lengths of the other 2sidesState, verify and a pply the ratio between the perimeters and areas of similartriangleApply the defi nition of similar triangles to derive the Pythagorean Theorem If a triangle is a right triangle, then the square of the hypotenuse isequal to the sum of the squares of the legs6.Word Problems involving Similarity6.1 apply knowledge and skills related to similar triangles to word problems F. Circles 1. The circle1.1 recall the definition of a circle and the terms related to it radius diameter chord 25

secant tangent interior and exterior2. Arcs and Angles2.1 define and identify a central angle2. 2 define and identify a minor and major arc of a circle2.3 determine the degree measure of an arc of a circle2.4 define and identify an inscribed angle2.5 deter mine the measure of an inscribed angle3. Tangent Lines and Tangent Circles3.1 St ate and apply the properties of a line tangent to a circle If a line is tangent to a circle, then it is perpendicular to the radiusdrawn to the point of tangency If two segments from the same exterior point are tangent to a circle,then the tw o segments are congruent4. Angles formed by Tangent and Secant Lines4.1 Determin e the measure of the angle formed by the following: Two tangent lines A tangent line and a secant line Two secant lines Enrichment Illustrate and identify externally and internally tangent circlesIllustrate and identify a common internal tangent or a common external tangentGeometric Constru ctions Duplicate or copy a segment Duplicate or copy an angle Construct the perpendicular bisector and the midpoint of a segmentDerive the Per pendicular Bisector Theorem Construct the perpendicular to a lineFrom a point on the lineFrom a point not on the line Construct the bisector of an angle Construct parallel lines Perform construction exercises using the constructions in 4.1 to 4.6 26 Use construction to derive some other geometric properties (e.g.,shortest distan ce from an external point to a line, points on the anglebisector are equidistant from the sides of the angle) G. Plane Coordinate Geometry 1. Review of the Cartesian Coordinate System, Linear Equations and Systemsof Lin ear Equations in 2 Variables1.1 name the parts of a Cartesian Plane1.2 represent ordered pairs on the Cartesian Plane and denote points on theCartesian Plane1.3 define the slope of a line and compute for the slope given the graph of aline1. 4 define a Linear Equation1.5 define the y intercept1.6 derive the equation of a line given two points of the line1.7 determine algebraically the point of inter section of two lines1.8 state and apply the definitions of Parallel and Perpendi cular Lines2. Coordinate Geometry2.1 Derive and state the Distance Formula using the Pythagorean Theorem2.2 Derive and state the Midpoint Formula2.3 Apply the D

27 Advanced Algebra, Trigonometry and Statistics (4 th Year High School)A. Functions 1. Recall the Cartesian coordinate plane; describe points in a Cartesiancoordina te plane.2. Define a function and demonstrate understanding of the definition.3. Given some real life relationships, identify those which are functions (e.g. th erule which assigns to each person his birth month) and those which are mererela tions (e.g. the rule which assigns to each month the person having that asbirth month).4. Determine whether a given set of ordered pairs is a function or a mere relation5. Draw a graph of a given set of ordered pairs; determine whether the graphrepresents a function or a mere relation.6. Use the vertical line test to d etermine whether a given graph represents afunction or a mere relation.7. Illust rate the meaning of the functional notation f(x) ; determine the value of f(x) given a value for x.Enrichment:8. Determine whether a given equation in two vari ables represents a function ora mere relation. B. Linear Functions 1. Define the linear function f(x) = mx + b; given a linear function Ax + By = C ,rewrite in the form f(x) = mx + b and vice versa.2. Draw the graph of a linear function given the following: any two points slope and one point slope and the y intercept x and y intercepts 283. Given f(x) = mx + b, determine the following: x and y intercepts slope some points trend: increasing or decreasing4. Determine f(x) = mx + b given: x and y intercepts any two points slope and one point

istance and Midpoint Formulas to find or verify the lengths ofsegments and find unknown vertices or points2.4 Verify properties of triangles and quadrilaterals using coordinate proof3. Circles in the Coordinate Plane3.1 derive/state the sta ndard form of the equation of a circle with radius r andcenter at (0,0) and at ( h,k)3.2 given the equation of a circle, find its center and radius3.3 determine the equation of a circle given: its center and radius its radius and the point of tangency with a given line3.4 solve routine and non routine problems involving circles

slope and y intercept5. Apply knowledge and skills related to linear functions i n solving problems. C. Quadratic Functions 1. Define a quadratic function f(x) = ax 2 + bx + c; identify quadratic functions.2. Rewrite a quadratic function ax 2 + bx + c in the form f(x) = a(x h) 2 + k andvice versa.3. Given a quadratic function, determine: highest or lowest point (vertex) axis of symmetry direction of opening of the graph4. Draw the graph of a quadratic function using the vertex, axis of symmetry, andassignment of points.5. Analyze the effects on the graph of changes in a, h and k in f(x) = a(x h) 2 + k6. Determine the "zeros of a quadratic function" by relating this to "roots o f aquadratic equation review finding the roots of a quadratic equation using thef ollowing algebraic procedures: factoring quadratic formula completing the squarereview the derivation of the quadratic formula7. Derive a q uadratic function given the zeros of the function or given a set ofpoints from t he graph of a given function. 298. Apply knowledge and skills related to quadratic functions and equations in problem solving.Enrichment:9. Use the graph of a quadratic function to solve a q uadratic inequality10. Given the quadratic function f(x) = ax 2 + bx + c, determine the nature of thezeros (i.e. real, non real, non district) D. Polynomial Functions 1. Review the definition of polynomials; identify polynomials from a list ofalge braic expressions.2. Define a polynomial function as p(x) = a 1 x n + a 2 x n 1 + a 3 x n 2 + + a n 1 x + a 0 ;identify a polynomial function from a given set of functions; determine thedegr ee of a given polynomial function, determine the number of terms in agiven polyn omial function.3. Review division of polynomials by divisors of the form x c; il lustrate theprocess of synthetic division; find by synthetic division the quotie nt and theremainder when p(x) is divided by (x c).4. State and illustrate the Re mainder Theorem.5. Use synthetic division and the Remainder Theorem to find the

value of p(x) forx = k6. State and illustrate the Factor Theorem.7. Use the Fact or Theorem, factoring techniques, synthetic division and thedepressed equations to find the zeros of polynomial functions of degreegreater than 2.8. Draw the gr aph of polynomial functions of degree greater than 2.Enrichment9. Prove the Rema inder and Factor Theorems.10. Use the graph of a polynomial functions to solve a polynomial inequality.11. State the Rational Zero Theorem and use it to find th e zeros of a polynomialfunction with rational zeros. 30 E. Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 1. Identify certain relationships in real life which are exponential (e.g. popul ationgrowth over time, growth of bacteria over time, etc.)2. Define the exponent ial function f(x) = a x and differentiate it from otherfunctions studied earlier; given a table of order ed pairs, state whether thetrend is exponential or not.3. Draw the graph of an e xponential function f(x) = a x and describe someproperties of the function or its graph. a > 1 0 < a < 14. State the domain, range, intercepts and trend (increasing and decrea sing) ofa given exponential function based on its graph.5. Review the laws on ex ponents; illustrate how the zero of an exponentialfunction may be determined; us e the laws on exponents to find the zeros ofexponential functions or solve expon ential equations.6. Define inverse functions; determine the inverse of a given f unctions;7. Define the logarithmic function f( x ) = log a x as the inverse of the exponentialfunction f(x) = ax 8. Draw the graph of the log arithmic function f(x) = logax and describe someproperties of the logarithmic fu nction from its graph.9. State the laws for logarithms; and apply the laws for l ogarithms10. Solve simple logarithmic equationsEnrichment11. Draw the graph of o ther exponential functions like f( x ) = ba x and f( x ) = a x +cand compare these to the graph of f( x ) = a x 12. Given an exponential growth or decay phenomenon, determine the rate ofincre ase or decrease.13. Apply knowledge and skills related to exponential and logari thmic functionsand equations in problem solving. 31 F. Circular Functions and Trigonometry 1. Define the unit circle; degree measure of an angle; radian measure of anangle ; convert from degree to radian and vice versa.2. Illustrate angles in standard position (i.e. initial side coincident with thepositive x axis); illustrate cote rminal angles and reference angles.3. Visualize rotations along the unit circle and relate these to angle measures measures of length of an arc

clockwise or counterclockwise directions measures beyond 360 o or 2 radians4. Given a unit circle and an angle in standard position, determine theco ordinates of the point of intersection of the unit circle and the terminal side. 4.1 when one coordinate is given (apply the Pythagorean Theorem and thepropertie s of special right triangles)4.2 when the angle is of the form: 180 0 n + 30 0 180 0 n + 60 0 180 0 n + 45 0 90 0 n5. Define the sine functions; state the sine of an angle (for special values)6. Define the cosine functions; state the cosine of an angle (for special values)7 . Find the values of the sine and cosine of an angle by: using a scientific calculator, if available using a trigonometric table8. Define the tangent function; state the tangent of an angle (for special values)9. State the fundamental trigonometric identities a nd use this to prove otheridentities9.1 state and illustrate the sum and differe nce formulas of sine and cosine9.2 determine the sine and cosine of an angle usi ng the sum and differenceformulas10. Solve simple trigonometric equationsEnrichm ent

2 2 or - 360 0 2 360

3211. Graph the sine and cosine functions

0 12. Describe the properties of the graphs of the sine and cosine functions.13. Graph the sine and cosine functions of the form y = a sin x and y = b cos x14. G raph the tangent functions where - 2 2 2 or - 360 0 2 360 0 15. Define the six trigonometric functions of an angle in standard position.16. Find the values of six trigonometric functions of an angle , given someconditions G. Triangle Trigonometry 1. Solve problems involving right triangles.2. Solve problems involving right tr iangles using Law of Sines.3. Solve problems involving right triangles using Law of Cosines.4. Apply knowledge and skills related to Trigonometry in problem sol ving. H. Statistics 1. Define statistics and statistical terms such as sample and population; give t hehistory and importance of the study of statistics.2. Collect statistical data and organize in a table.2.1 state and explain the different sampling techni ues3 . Analyze, interpret accurately and draw conclusions from graphic and tabularpre sentations of statistical data.4. Read and understand tables and graphs containi ng statistical data4.1 construct fre uency distribution tables5. Find the mean, median and mode of given data: grouped and ungroupeddata5.1 use the rules of sum mation to find sums5.2 find the arithmetic and mean: ungrouped and grouped data5 .3 Find the median: ungrouped and grouped data5.4 Find the mode: ungrouped and g rouped data 33 6. Calculate the different measures of variability relative to a given set o f data,grouped and ungrouped(a) range(b) standard deviation6.1 give the characte ristics of a set of data using the measures of variability 34 Math I : Linear E uations in Two Variables Competency E1. describe the Cartesian Coordinate lane (x-axis, y-axis, uadrant ,origin) Time Frame: 2 Sessions Objectives:At the end of the sessions, the students must be able to:1. describe the Cartesian coordinate plane2. given a point, describe its distance from the x or y axis3. given a point on the coordinate plane, give its coordinates4. given a pair of coordinates, plot the points5. given the coordinates of a point, dete rmine the uadrant where it is locatedDevelopment of the Lesson:A. Introduce the Cartesian coordinate plane using the number line. State that therectangular coo rdinate plane are also called Cartesian plane can be constructedby drawing a pai r of perpendicular number lines to intersect at zero on each line. 321-3 -2

-1 1 2 3 -1 -2 -3 B. Ask the students to describe the two lines and their point of intersection, todevelop the following ideas:The two number lines, which are perpendicular line s, are called coordinate axes. 35The horizontal line is called the x-axis.The vertical line is called the y-ax is.The point where the two lines intersect is called the origin and is labeled 0 onboth axes.The two axes divide the plane into four regions called uadrants: t he first,second, third and fourth uadrants in a counterclockwise direction.2 nd Quadrant 1 st Quadrant 21 -2 -1 0 1 2 -1-2 3 rd Quadrant 4 th QuadrantC. State that each point in the coordinate plane has corresponding dista nce from they-axis and from the x-axis, that a pair of numbers is needed to tell how manyunits to the right or left of the y-axis and how many units above or be low of the x-axis the point is located. The pairs of numbers will be the name of the point. Thispair of numbers is called ordered pair.D. resent the following examples and ask students to describe the distance of eachpoint from the y or xaxis1. If x = -2 answer: the point is 2 units to the left of the y-axis2. If x = 0 answer: the point is in the y-axis3. If x = 2 answer: the point is 2 units to the right of y-axis4. If y = -3 answer: the point is 3 units below the x-axis5. If y = 3 answer: the point is 3 units above the x-axisHence, the ordered pair ( -2, 3) is located 2 units to the left of the y-axis and 3units above the x-axis. 36E. Let the student observe what the signs are of the coordinates of the point s in thedifferent uadrants. (Both positive in uadrant 1, negative-positive in II, negative-negative in III, and positive-negative in IV.)F. State that in the ordered pair (x, y), x and y are called coordinates of the point. xis called the x-coordinate or abscissa and y is called the y-coordinate or ordinate.Ask stude nts to give the coordinates of each point pictured in the graph.e.g. A (3,2)1. B ans. (5,6)2. C (-7,4)3. D (-4,5)4. E (1,0)5. F (0,-2)6. G (8,-4)7. H (9,3)8. I (-9,-3)9. J ( -2 ) 213,21 10. K

3,2110 37 Y .B.D.C.J.H.A.E X .F.I .K.G G. Ask the students to what quadrant each point is located.To see whether the st udents understand the concept, go over the exercises on __________.H. Then proce ed to the plotting of points by asking the students to locate the pointsin the p lane whose coordinates are (3,5). State that the process of marking apoint in a plane is called plotting the points.I. Present the following example 38 Locate the points P( 1,2), Q(2,3), R( 3, 4), S(3, 5) in the plane.J. State t hat when an entire set of ordered pairs is plotted, the corresponding set ofpoin ts in the plane represents the graph of the set. Sometimes the points in thegrap h form a recognizable pattern, just like the example that follows:Plot the point s on the graph provided. Connect each point with the next one by aline segment i n the order given.1. (2,0) 11. (2, 7)2. (2,6) 12. (3, 7)3. (0,10) 13. (3, 3)4 . ( 2,6) 14. (2, 2)5. ( 2, 2) 15. (2,0)6. ( 3, 3)7. ( 3. 7)8. ( 2, 7)9. ( 1 , 6)10. (1, 6) 11 1 1223345 2 2 3 3 RSPQ 39 YXTo see whether the students understand the concept of plotting points, goo ver exercises on __________.Suggested Teaching Strategies:1. Provision for Life Skills or Higher Order Thinking Skills

In plotting points, help the students to realize through several examplesthat ev ery point on a vertical line has the same x coordinate and everypoint on the hor izontal line has the same y coordinate. Cite instances where the use of the Cartesian plane is found. Assignstudent to o bserve and find other applications of the plane. 402. Provision for Multiple Intelligences

To tap the visual/spatial intelligence of students ask them to drawpictures on a graph paper using only lines. The students will then givethe coordinates of the points where the lines intersect.

To tap the interpersonal intelligence of the students, prepare a game oftreasure hunting. Indicate in the treasure map the reference point andthe locations or p osition of buildings, places. The whole group will workfor a common goal to find the treasure.3. Provision for Cooperative Learning Prepare a group game on plotting of points. Done outside theclassroom, ask the s tudents to serve as markers in plotting the set ofpoints given to them. The firs t group to plot the points correctly in thecoordinate plane wins. Math I : Special Products and Factoring Competency F2. identify special products Time Frame: 3 Sessions Objective:At the end of the sessions, the students should be able to:1. Identify the following special products:a. square of a binomial,b. difference of two squ ares,c. sum or difference of two cubes.Development of the Lesson:A. Give the stu dents a review of products of polynomials by going over the followingexercises i n class and asking the students to recite.1. product of a polynomial and a monom ialFind the following products:a. 2x(3x+4)=6x x

8 2 + 41b. x x x x x x 151215)545(3 232 ++=++ c. aaaaaa 246)123(2 232 +=++ d. 322 161224)436(4 y y y y y y ++=++ e. 2325)325( 21 43232 x x x x x x x ++=++ 2. product of two binomialsUse the FOIL method to find the following products:a . ( )( ) 94 ++ x x b. ( )( ) 352 + x x c. ( )( ) 9213 + x x d. ( )( ) 7252 x x e. ( ) ( ) 10365 2 x x B. Start the study of special products with a discussion of squares of binomial s.1. Let the students do the following exercise by pairs:Find the following prod ucts:a. 168)4)(4( 2 ++=++ x x x x

b. 168)4)(4( 2 += aaaa c. 8118)9)(9( 2 ++=++ x x x x d. 49284)72)(72( 2 += x x x x e. 2530)53)(53( 2 ++=++ xaaa Answer the following questions:a. How many terms are there in each product?b. W hat do you observe about the first and last terms of each product?c. Observe the middle terms of the products. What do you noticeabout the numerical coefficient of the middle term and the constantin each factor?C. Process the activity by go ing over the answers to the questions. State that theseanswers suggests the char acteristics of a special product called a PerfectSquare Trinomial (PST). Based o n the exercise they just did, the studentsshould be able to see that a PST resul ts from multiplying a binomial with itself.In other words, a PST is a square of a binomial. Repeat the characteristics of aPST. 42D. Test if the students would be able to identify perfect square trinomials b y askingthem to answer the exercises on page _____. (Note: The teacher may givee xercises of the suggested form below:Practice Exercise:Identify whether the give n trinomial is a PST or NOT. Write PST or NOTPST. _____1. 93 2 ++ x x _____4. 9124 2 + x x _____2. 2510 2 ++ x x _____5. 11025 2 + x x _____3. 4914 2 x x E. Introduce the next special product by asking the students to find the follow ingproducts using the FOIL method.1.

( )( ) 22 + x x 2. ( )( ) 55 + x x 3. ( )( ) 4343 + x x 4. ( )( ) 2525 + x x 5. ( )( ) x x + 77 F. Let the students observe the product in each case. (The products are allbino mials; the operation in each one is subtraction; the terms are both perfectsquar es.) Ask them to describe what are the products of the outer terms andinner term s when they apply FOIL. (They are additive inverses of each other.)Present the s pecial product called Difference of Two squares (DOTS).Summarize the characteris tics of a difference of two squares and describe whatfactors result to DOTS.G. F or the development of the idea of a sum of two cubes or difference of twocubes, use the same strategy used to develop the idea of a difference of twosquares. Le t the students find the products of pairs of factors which result to asum of two cubes and factors which result to a difference of two cubes. Ask thestudents to observe the products and what are common to these products.Explain that these a re special products because they can be easily obtained byinspecting the factors without having to do the multiplication process.H. Assign the exercises on page ____. 43 Suggested Teaching Strategies: 1. Provision for Integration of Content Areas in Language Teaching

Go over the meaning of the following terms: polynomial, factor,product, and comm on factor.2. Provision for Life Skills or Higher Order Thinking Skills In introducing the special product PST, you may use a problemlike, What is the ar ea of a square whose side has a length of (x+6)meters?3. Provision for Cooperativ e Learning Prepare a group puzzle on finding the products of binomials,including squares of binomials and factors of DOTS. Let thestudents do the puzzle in groups of 5 or 6. Math I : Special Products and FactoringCompetency F4. given a polynomial, factor completelyTime Frame: 3 Sessions Objective:At the end of the sessions, the students must be able to:1. factor com pletely a given polynomial.Development of the Lesson:A. Review factoring by givi ng 3 examples for each of the following cases:polynomials whose terms have a com mon monomial factor, trinomials which areproducts of two binomials, perfect squa re trinomials, difference of two squares ,and sum and difference of two cubes. A

sk for volunteers to give the factorsorally. After each case, state the techniqu e used to determine the factors.B. Present the following case:Factor x x x 65 23 ++ .Ask the students to examine the polynomial and find out what case it is. Statet hat it is a trinomial but of 3 rd degree so it is not the same as the trinomials westudied which are products of t wo binomials. Lead the students to see thecommon monomial factor. 44 ( ) 6565 223 ++=++ x x x x x x Call the students attention to the trinomial factor. Ask them to examine it. The yshould realize that it is still factorable. ( ) ( ) ( )( ) 23 .65trinomialFactor the 6565 2223 ++=++++=++ x x x x x x x x x x x Present now the idea of a completely factored polynomial. Consider otherexample s.1. )144(331212 22 +=+ x x x x )12)(12(3 = x x 2. )253(36159 223223 babaababbaba +=+ ))(23(3 babaab = Let the students do the exercises on page _____.C. Present a polynomial of the form ax+ay+bx+byChallenge the students to factor completely. Let them investigat e and discusswith a seatmate.Discuss the technique of grouping the terms before factoring, using the givenpolynomial. ))(( terms.twoebetween thfactorcommonGet the )()( group.eachforfactormonomialc ommontheFind )()( ba y x y xb y xa bybxayaxbybxayax ++=+++= +++=+++ Ask the students to work on the following exercises.1. 4xy+4x+3y+3 = (4xy+4x)+( 3y+3)= 4x(y+1)+3(y+1)= (y+1)(4x+3)2. ax+2a bx 2b+cx+2c = (ax bx+cx)+(2a 2b+2c)= x(a b+c)+2(a b+c)= (a b+c)+(x+2)Stress that in each case, the terms are grouped in such a way that a common factorappears in each group.D. Consider other exampl es which involve factoring polynomials with more than twofactors. Guide the stud ents in factoring by asking them to examine each of thefactors in every step of the solution.

45 1. )2223 9(2182 y x x xy x = Is )9( 22 y x still factorable? )3)(3(2 y x y x x += Do you see any common factor?2. )( 44226226 y x y x y x y x = ))(( 222222 y x y x y x += ))()(( 2222 y x y x y x y x ++= Note: Ask the students to justify the following when the need comes up in thedi scussion.b. Is 22 y x equal to (x+y) 2 ?c. Is 33 y x equal to (x+y) 3 ?E. Give a practice set covering all cases of factoring polynomials.Suggested Te aching Strategies:1. Provision for Cooperative Learning

Prepare a group puzzle on factoring polynomials of different types. Askthe stude nts to work on the puzzle in groups of 5 or 6, or in dyads.2. Provision for Valu es Education and the Valuing Process Try to bring out individual trials in life, then enumerate possiblesolutions on how to overcome these trials in a gradual manner, then inan abrupt manner. Which ever way, these are possible solutions for thesaid trials. Math II : Quadratic Equations Competency B1 : define a quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 ; distinguish aquadratic equation from a linear equation Time Frame : 1 session Objectives : 46At the end of the session, the students must be able to :1. define, identify and give an example of a quadratic equation2. distinguish a quadratic equation f

rom a linear equationDevelopment of the Lesson:A. Define a quadratic equation as an equation of the form ax 2 + bx + c = 0 wherea,b and c are constants and a 0.Ask the students why the value of a should not be 0. Clearly, when a = 0, thee quation is linear and not quadratic.Cite some examples of quadratic equations li ke the following:3x 2 + 5x 3 = 0 9x 2 = 10(3x 7)(5+2x) = 0B. Lead the students to distinguish between a linear equatio n and a quadraticequation by asking them to identify the linear equations and th e quadraticequations from a given set of equations.C. To check whether the stude nts understood the lesson well, ask them to giveexamples of quadratic equations. After the first few examples, challenge them by asking for examples of quadratic equations wherea. b = 0b. c = 0c. b and c are both 0Suggested Teaching Strategie s:1. Provision for Cooperative Learning Prepare a group puzzle on distinguishin g linear equations fromquadratic equations. Then ask the students to work in gro ups of 4 or 5. 47 Math II : Quadratic Equations Competency B2.1 review the definition of solution set of an equation; define root ofan equation Time Frame : 1 session Objectives :At the end of the session, the students must be able to :1. recall t he definition of the solution set of an equation2. define root of an equationDevel opment of the Lesson:A. Ask the student to recall what the solution set of an equ ation means.Define the solution set of an equation as the set of all values for t he variablewhich will make the equation true.Below are examples :Example 1 : The solution set of x+2= 0 is { 2} because 2 + 2 = 0.Example 2 : The solution set of 3x = 1 is { 31 } because 3( 31 ) = 0.Example 3 : The solution set of x 2 49 = 0 is {7, 7} because(7) 2 49 = 0 and ( 7) 2 49 = 0.B. Then state that each element in the solution set of an equation is a root of theequation.Hence, 2 is the root of the equation in Example 1. 31 is the root of the equation in Example 2.7 and 7 are the roots of the equation in Example 3. 48Ask the student to give the roots of some equations. Make sure that someequat ions and some are quadratic. Make sure that the quadratic equations youwill give at this point can be solved by inspection.C. Through the other examples in part B, proceed to lead the students to draw aconclusion about the number of roots a linear equation has and the number ofroots a quadratic equation has. Suggested Teaching Strategies :1. Provision for Cooperative Learning Give the student a puzzle which will all ow them to practice how to findthe solution set of simple linear and quadratic e quations. Math II : Quadratic Equations Competency B2.3 derive the quadratic formula Time Frame : 3 sessions

Objective :At the end of the sessions, the students must be able to derive the q uadratic formula.Development of the Lesson :A. To derive the quadratic formula a sk the students to solve the general quadraticequation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 by competing the square. It may help to guide themusing the steps on the left si de below so that they can come up with thederivationas outlined on the right sid e.1. Write the general form of aquadratic equation 1. ) ax 2 + bx + c = 0 2. Multiply both sides of theequation by 4a 2. ) 4a 2 x 2 + 4abx + 4ac = 0 3. Subtract 4ac from both sides ofthe equation 3. ) 4a 2 x 2 4ac + 4abx = 4. Add to both sides of the equationa term which makes the left side 49a perfect square trinomial 4. ) 4a 2 x 2 + 4abx + b 2 = b 2 4ac 5. Express the left side as a squareof a binomial 5.) (2ax + b) 2 = b 2 4ac 6. Extract the left side as a square ofa binomial 6.) 2ax + b = acb 4 2 7. Add b to both sides of theequation 7.) 2ax = b = acb 4 2

8. Divide both sides by 2a 8.) x = acbb 4 2 2a B. Ask the student to multiply both sides of the equation by a or 9a instead of 4a in the second step and carry out the derivation process. Find out if they arege tting the same results. Draw a conclusion about the term which may be usedto mul tiply the equation with, in the second step to carry out the derivation of thequ adratic formula.C. Ask the students to rewrite the quadratic formula asand to me morize this. Tell the students that b 2 4ac is called the discriminant.Show how they may use the discriminant to determine whe ther a given quadraticequation has:a. equal or unequal rootsb. real or imaginary rootsc. rational or irrational roots Suggested Teaching Strategies :1. Provision for Multiple Intelligence To tap the interpersonal intelligence o f the students, ask them toexplain at the end of the lesson, to a partner, the p rocess ofderiving the quadratic formula. aacbb x 24 2 = 50 Math III : PolygonsCompetency 3.1 illustrate, identify, and define different kin ds of polygonsaccording to the number of sides illustrate and identify convex and non convex polygons identify the parts of a regular polygon (vertex angle, centralangl, exterior ang le)Time Frame: 1 sessionObjectives:At the end of the session, the students must be able to:1. define and identify different kinds of polygons.2. illustrate and identify convex and non convex polygon.3. identify the parts of a regular polygo n.Development of the Lesson:A. Show illustrations of different kinds of polygons . Let the students study thefigures then ask them how these were formed. Lead th em to the concept thatpolygons are made of segments intersecting at its endpoint s. Also, no two of itssegments with common endpoint are collinear.B. Ask the stu dents to count the number of vertices, sides and angles. Supply aname for each e xample. Clarify that polygons are named according to thenumber of sides. Number of Sides Polygons3 triangle4 quadrilateral5 pentagon6 hexagon7 heptagon8 octagon9 nonagon10 decagon12 dodecagonn sides n gon 51 C. Show illustrations of two kinds of polygons like the ones below.B BA C A CEF DF DEAsk students to extend the sides. Focus on lines FE and ED. Below will bethe resultB BA C A CEF DF DEAsk students like What happens to the polygon whe n the line was formed? Are all the other vertices of the polygon located on one side of the half plane?Answers will lead to the definition of convex and non co nvex polygons. Besure that the students will be able to distinguish that a polyg on is a convex ifno two points of a polygon lie on the opposite sides of a line containing anyside of the polygon.

52D. Show to the students the following figures in order to come up with the de finitionof a regular polygon.Help the students define what a regular polygon is. E. After defining a regular polygon, discuss and identify the parts of the regul arpolygonCentral angleInterior angleExterior angleAttempt to define these parts with students.F. Tell the students that such kind of polygon is regular, let the m formalize thedefinition.G. Let the students identify the parts of regular poly gon. Sides can be extended toname the exterior angles.H. Provide practice exerci ses. 53 Suggested Teaching Strategies :1. Provision for Multiple Intelligence

to tap the verbal/linguistic intelligence of the students, encouragethem to cite their observations in the discussion in Part D. to tap the interpersonal intelligence, allow them to discuss theirobservations w ith the discussion in Part D with a seat mate. Math III: PolygonsCompetency 3.3 illustrate, name, and identify different kinds of triangles andtheir parts (e.g., legs, base, hypotenuse) Time Frame: 2 sessions Objectives:At the end of the sessions, the students must be able to:1. name and identify different kinds of triangle.2. classify triangles according to sides an d according to angles.3. name and identify parts of a right triangle.Development of the Lesson:A. Distribute 3 pieces of cut out triangles to the students. Let them measure thesides of the triangle.Ask students the following questions: What have you noticed about the sides of triangle A? How will you distinguish triangle A from triangle B and C? What is the difference between triangle B and C? A B C 54 What are the properties of triangle A? triangle B? triangle C?State the followin gAn equilateral triangle is a triangle with all sides congruent.An isosceles tri angle is a triangle with exactly two sides congruent.A scalene triangle is a tri angle with no sides congruentFurther ask the student the following questions.Wha t kind of triangle is triangle A? triangle B? triangle C?What is the basis of cl assification for these triangles?To see whether the student understand the class ification of trianglesaccording to sides, let them answer the exercises on _____ _____________.B. Review the kinds of angles; acute, right and obtuse. Let them i dentify thekinds of angles from the chart.Distribute cut out triangles to the st udents. (Prepare 3 triangles : acute, rightand obtuse triangles)Let them measure the angles of the triangles.Ask the student the following questions: What have you noticed about the measure of the angles of thetriangle? If you will group the triangles; how will you do it? Explain youranswer. What is your basis of classification of the triangles?State the followingTriangl es can be classified according to the measure of their angles?1. An acute triang le is a triangle with all three angles acute.2. A right triangle is a triangle w ith one right angle.3. An obtuse triangle is a triangle with an obtuse angle.To see whether the student understand the classification of trianglesaccording to s ides, let them answer the exercises on __________________.C. Let the student obs

erve the figures on the chart.Let the student identify the kinds of triangles in the chart and describe thecharacteristics of the two triangles. 55 Explain to the students that in an isosceles triangle:The two congruent side s are called LEGS, the third side is called the BASE,the angles on the base are called BASE ANGLES.Explain further that in a Right Triangle the sides that are p erpendicular are thelegs and the side opposite the right angle is the hypotenuse .Show the illustration to help the students visualize these parts.leg legleg hyp otenusebase baseangle anglebase legGive some more figures then ask the students to identify the legs,hypotenuse, base and the base angles. Suggested Teaching Strategies :1. Provision for Higher Order Thinking Skills

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In classifying triangles, conduct an activity where the students cancompare and identify the different kinds of triangles.2. Provision for Cooperative Learning Prepare cut out triangles which students can classify as well asdiscuss their b asis for classification. This can be done in groups. of 55 Leave a Comment Comment must not be empty. You must be logged in to leave a comment. Submit Characters: 400 Comment must not be empty. You must be logged in to leave a comment. Submit Characters: ... Mathematics Learning Competencies Download or Print 1,855 Reads Info and Rating Category: Uncategorized. Rating: Upload Date: 05/22/2011 Copyright: Attribution Non commercial Tags: This document has no tags. Flag document for inapproriate content This is a private document. Uploaded by Lorenz Gallo Villaseran Follow Download

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