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Correlating Porosity and Tensile Strength

of Chemically Modified Hair


Ali N. Syed and Hasan Ayoub
Avian Industries, Inc, Bedford Park, Illinois USA
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Cosmetics & magazine/57 0361-4387/02/0011-0057$05.00/0- 2002 Allured Publishing Corp.
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hairporosity, hair
tensile strength. hair
damage, permanent
hair avid
permanent waves. hair
relaxers, hair bleaches
Abstract
Ibis study validates the
poroSity method against
the widely accepted
method of tensile
strength for detennining
the hair damage
imparted to hair due to
cosmetic treatments.
Keywords
contact time. As explained by
Feughelman, the absorption of water
takes place initially onto the hydro-
philic sites of the globular protein
matrix and on the surface of the mi-
crofibrils. After the initial absorption,
more sorption of water builds up on
water molecules already attached to
the protein structureY According to
Chamberlain and Speakman, the total
uptake of water is 31.18% at 100%
humidity.!2 The uptake of water or
swelling of hair can be measured by
two methods: the volume method or
the weight method.
Volume method: Shansky, in
1963, was the first person to measure
the change in the diameter of the
individual hair fibers using a micro-
scope.
13
In 1990, Nothen et al. de-
vised a more accurate instrument uti-
liZing an optical unit for sensing the
diameter of a single fiber, and an
online analyzer for displaying the data
in real time.!4 In 1998, Syed et al.
measured real time swelling of indi-
vidual fibers using a laser micrometer
that measured the major and minor
axis of the fiber simultaneously dur-
ing the immersion of the fiber in an
appropriate solution.!5
In eachof these volume methods,
the selection of the fibers takes a long
time and then swelling of each fiber
has to be measured over a 20-30
minute period. Also many individual
fibers have to be used in order to get
statistically significant results. Addi-
tionally, this method may not be ap-
Vol. 117, No. 11 /November 2002
Swelling or Porosity of Hair
O
ver the years, many individual studies have been con
ducted regarding the extent of damage imparted to
hair. These studies deal with the damaging effects of various
chemical processes such as permanent waves, permanent
colors and hair bleaches. !-8
The most commonly employed method to quantify this
damage is the measurement of change in tensile proper-
ties ofthe hair. This method takes two to three days in the
preparation of samples of hair fibers. It also requires a
minimum of 30 to 40 fibers for statistical analysis. There-
fore, there is a need for other simpler methods that are
equally valid and less time-consuming.
One such method could be the determination of hair
porosity or water uptake of hair fibers as described by
Valko et aU and by Menkart et al.! However, to the best of
our knowledge, no study so far has correlated the tensile
strength method with the water uptake (swelling/poros-
ity) method following chemical treatments such as perma-
nent waves, permanent colors, hair bleach, and perma-
nent hair relaxers.
Therefore, we have conducted a study whose purpose
Was to validate the porosity method against the tensile
strength method. Another purpose of this study was to
use these two methods to compare the magnitude of hair
damage between permanent waving, permanent color-
ing, hair bleaching, and permanent straightening pro-
cesses. Finally, this study ranked the various chemical
processes in terms of their hair damage potential. We
believe this is the first comparative damage ranking for
various chemical processes in the hair care field.
Professionals who are involved in the art of styling hair
define the porosity of hair as the capacity of hair to absorb
liquids. Hair that absorbs a larger quantity of liquid is said
to be more porous than hair that absorbs less liquid. Hair
stylists associate higher porosity of hair with higher de-
gree of damage.!O
Water is able to penetrate into hair after a sufficient
I>ropri;ltt' for lllc:lsuring the change
in diameter of t\fricandescellt fibers
where the inherent variation in diam-
eter is significant within a single fiber
along the hair shah.'"
Weigbl melbo/I: The wdght
method is much less tedious and has
the ability to study the swelling or
water uptake of hair fibers using a
centrifuge. With thb method. a single
operalOr can conduce mure Ihan 50
measurements a day_,- The weight
method is also known as the liquid
retention or porosity test. Valko and
Uarnell ha\'c defined I>orosity as the
capacity of hair fibers to absorb wa-
ter.'" Chemically d:tma}o:ed fibers arc
considered hrdrophilic or porulls:lnd
therefore would more readil)' pick up
moisture :lIld retain W:llcr than the
U1ureated or unmodified hair. Valko
and Uarnclt believed that lhe gre:lter
the porosity of hair, the greater was
the damage 10 the hair fiber, They
found the uptake of water for un
modified or normal hairto be 31.10%.
Therefore, the poro.!>ity technique may
become:l primary method for dcter
mining hair damage due to cosmetic
treatmenls if il correlates wilh most Widely accepled
methods for measuring hair d:lmage. One of those melh
ods is the measurement of tensile strength,
Tensile Strength of Hair
The tensile propenies of hair fiber.!> play an imponant
role in eJcterrnining the efficacy of hair treatments such as
permanent wavcs. pcrmancllt hair colors. bleaches and
permanent hair straighteners. The influencc of \'3.rious
hair tre:ltments on the tensile propenics of h2ir can be
measured using tensile meters such as Insuon' and Oia-
Stron",I.
One commonly used method 10 deu'rmine ifhair fibers
have been altered by treatment with cosmetic productS is
10 extend the fibers 10 20"" ofthcir lengt h before and after
treatment and detemlin(' the so-called F20 Index. Asingle
fiber is stretched 10 20% Strain orclongation:1I a specified
COnSl:lnl rate (dong:llion per minute). The area under lhe
curve (Energy) reqUired 10 slrelch the fiber to 20% str:.lin
is used to assess the condition of Ihe fiber, The index
values (After/Before Treatment) :Ire e:tlculated and used
10 assess Ihe extent of hair damage. An Index of less than
1,0 indicales damage to th(' hair fiber produced by thc
chemical hair product. This mClhod was first den:loped
b)' Speakman in 1947 in order to study Ihe effects of
physical and chcmical processes on kcratin propcnics.
llI$lm" Iml,.,., e."por.,,_. Om"'" ,1/'os.lIKbuJl'1b
'Nt-51ron. f)k.-SltWl Uti ~ Q , f\...lSlf..""...
581Cosmellcs & To<lelll6t" magazine WNW TheCosmelic$'lecom Vol 117, No 11/Novembet 2002
Table 1. H11lr trNtmenb by commetel8l cosmetic products prior to determination of porosity and tensU,
strength of IrNhKI hlilr flberw
T_ T_
Hol,
-
_....
-
T_.......
-
_.....
...-
--
-
.... -
28 g Logic" Permaoent Color Blond-12G AN TRP AN'

38 g logIC Color 0eIIel0pef (30 YO! H,OJ
--
77 g SyntoOCs' Mulbplex Acid Wave lotIOn AN 2.51'lW'1 2.511'lln
18.5 g Syntcncs Wllving lIClJVator
-.-... Alfirme No-Base ReWcer 12, .. ,- 2 ITWI 2x NCNS ,-
Relexer GH" 139 g Affirm No-lye No-BMe ReIa.ller" 12,
..-

2 min 2x NCNS

37 g Affirm liquid ActIVIIIOf
HIIII bleach' 1.5 g logk: Powdef 8lee<:h AN' 45 mlnTRPH 3 min 1 min NeS 1 min
9.0 g Logic COlor GeneratOf (30 vol)
" Rmsed wilh Wllfm funning lep waler
Rinsed willi fUfllling laP walef
Rinsed until all excessive Color was gone
Applied by bf\Istl to COYEIf enlUelJes5
"logIC product, life manule<:tured by Malnx. a pat! of L'Oreal, Fraoce.
'Syntoruet. I, a tradernartl of Syntonics Inlematlonal. Sl.rMlII, Illinois USA.
Affirm ia alfaclemarll of AVIan IfldustrI8S Inc. 6ec:lIofd PanI, Illinots USA.
Affirm SensitlY'I Scalp No-Lye No-8ase Re/axef NgrmaJ Strength
I Pem'Ianenl half reiaxel' contIirWIg sodiun hydroxide
P8m'IaoenI half relaxer contasfW1g guanidine /1ydroxIdIll
_... -

NCS non-<:OI'ldi\.oOfWlO shampoo
eNS condiUoning neutralizWlg shampoo
NCNS. non-condibonlng neutralimg shampoo
TAP. tress Wl'apped in plastic
TRPH treas wrapped in plaslic and placed i,n;Ier oYerhead dryer al 55-<:
Speakman used a percentage to express the changes in
thc stress for a fixed strain of fibers.
IH
Sooknc and Harris coined the tenn 30% indcx as the
ratio of extension values.
19
This test is similar to the F20
test except that the singlc fiber is stretched to 30% strain
or elongation.
Over the laSi 50 }'(:;1rs, it has become a standard practice
to ;1SCen;1in the F20 Index of the fibers bt'fore ;1nd :mer thc
given trr.ttment in ortler to detcnnine the positive or nega
ti\'e effect of the treatment on the fibt'rs, In 1966, Menkan el
al. compared the F20 Index of hair and wool and found hair
to h;1\'e slightly higher no Index than wool. I
In addition, man}' published studies ha\'<" examined the
changes in the tensile strength ofcosmeticall)' modified hair
in the area of pcmlanent hair colors. permanent hair wavcs,
and hair The field of pennancnt hair relaxers is
not well rcsearched, although Syed et :11. have compared the
tensilt:: strength of Caucasian hair against AfricanAmerican
Vol 117, No 11!Novembef 2002
hair using the methods of Spcakman
lH
and Menkan et ai.'
Therefore, in order to verify thc reli
ability of the porosity/Weight method,
we dcsignt."d a study to com:I:lle the
porosit}' of rum flbel"S at I{)(J% humklit}'
with the tcnsile stn:llgth of h.:Ur fibc:rs at
100% humidity, We hypothesizc."d that a
nc:gath't" COITd:ttion wouldexist bc.:twt:t:ll
porosit}' and tensile sucngth. Addition-
a.lI}', we assc:.:ncd thai if the cocfficinu of
detcmtination (r-) is al 0.95 or highc.:r.
then the porosity/wcight method would
be considered COrn:latL"d and thereb}'
established as a reliable method for fu-
tun.: USC in thc labor:uory.
111is method will cnablt: the hair
rcsearcher to obtain rcsults that are
www.TheCosmel.eSile.com Cosme/ics" ToilfJ/fleS<- magazloo/59
% Porosity ={[W. - (W - 0.162Wl]IW.1 x 100
where
W. = Weighl 01 hair Immediately after centrifuging
W = weight of hair at 65% R.H.
w- O.162W is described by Mankart at aI.'
(The average % moisture absorbed from 0% to 65% R.H. for
normal hair is approICimately 16.2%.)
ngun I. CAlrutQl/on o/port/$U,r
bOlh fasler and reliable. This method
will also allow the haif dH:Olisl to
compare I he degree ofd:lmagc impanel!
during various cosmetic treatments.
Trttlmtrrt frIl"
Untrealed
Hair colof with 30 vol develope'
Acid wave
Hai, relaxer (NaOH)
Hair relaxer (gl.lanidine)
Hai, bleach with 30 vol developer
N Number Of
'See Table I for specific pl"oducts lested.
An,...
(%)
3t.15 i:0.63 N.6
32.01 0.12 N.S
35.32 i:0.29 N:S
36.15i:1.26N_S
38.00 i: 1.1 7 N.7
54.57 i:2.48 N.5
Experimental
Table 3. Tensile strength of treated hair
'I)/il-Sm.., Milll"/,,,,. T<'II5111' 7''SI,-r. f)il/-S/'W, fJd. IJrocmll,lI. 1\'''''5)1/v'''/I'
"'<
utilizing the centrifuge method of Valko and Each
of tlte six tresses was dh'ided imo eight So1mplcs weighing
05 gram each. All samples were equilibrated at 65% rdative
humidity and 21C for 2 weeks prior to using.
To begin the porosity measurements, each s:tmple was
wdghell at 65% R.H. using a microbalance
d
The samples
were immersed in 100 011 of deionized water for 30
minutes, removed with stainless steel forceps. and placed
into polystyrene centrifuge tubes (28 011) containing a
mesh at the bottom of the tubes to keep the hair separate
from the drained water. Thc tubes were capped and
at 7,000 rpm for 10 minutes. After centrifug-
ing, the samples were rcmoved and wcighed again on the
microbalance. This method prOlluccd repeat:lble results
for cach of the Ire:t1ments. The porosity of hair was
ca1cut:lted as shown in Figure I.
Delermlt,l"gflber lertsile stre"8th: The Ulltre:lted
fibers and fibersof chemically treated tresses were crimped
at 30 mm length from the root tip and then immersed in
deionized water at 21C for 30 minutes. Then the amount
of work required to extend the wet fibers by 20% ofthdr
originallcnglh was determined on the :Htlomated tcnsile
lester (!'hase I = 20%; Maximum Force = 200 gmf: Num-
berofcycles= I: Gauge = 1).
,
.

"
Trf!(llillg tI}e b"ir: For the poros-
ity testing, all h:llr used was Callcl-
sian h,llr 8 inches long, assembled
into six tresses of equal weigh!. Till'
tresses wcrc accur:ltcly weighed on
an analytical balance :114.0 gfO.1 mg.
For lesting tht: tensile strength of
the hair. dark brown European-de-
scent fibers (Level 2) of 80-90 mi
crons were obtainell'- anll separ-lled
inlO six lIifferelll groups.
Of thl' six weighed tresses, one
was lefl untreated as a control, and
each of the other tresses was sub
jected 10 one of thc following cos
metic treatmenls: permanent hair
color, acid wave. permanent hair re
laxer (sodium hydroxide), permanent
hair relaxer (gu:lllidine hydroxide)
and hair bleach. Details of these treat
ments arc presented in Table I. The
method oftreatment employed in c:lch
case was the same:ls pr.u.:ticed in the
market place.
The six sized groups were I'ro-
cessed in the same way asthe Weighed
tresses, again according 10 the details
presented in Table I.
Dctermltl/"g 1Jalr' porosity: The
porosity of the hair was de[ennined
I A'.If"" IJ",/I,.,,,,. s,", 1'",*. ,\j./t. 1'",* llSA
J
"'I'I/I"r MI"fliJ",/(mf'. ,ul'l/I,-, TuI..fo bt,lm,c,
mU</,1-1'(.'HOU, ,U,-lIf," ''',J,v/o Illc. Coi"mbu$.
001(, {')ojl
J ,11<"1/1<" MI,mlx/I",,,,'. ,1/"/1/(" 1<.I<v/" IN/IIII"'"
"'0</<1 ",'O/.fOO. M,1'/,'r n,J,vfo I"c. O,J"",bus,
OOI,,'r.'itt
""/"flliI//oowl Cc'.urlfi'.. "'0<1,1 (."(''111"(1 t. "!lO'
",,,tI,'/ HM. 11:"C 1"/"rull//(}Iwlll'/u'p",,'m
...""pm,). ,\'",v:lb"", 1k.;p,bl,.IllI.<!i<.cb'....1IJ 1JX.j
T,,,lmenl "",
Untreated
Hair color with 30
ACId wave
Hair 'elaxer (NaOH)
Hair lelaxer {guanidine)
Half bleach with 30 vol developer
N= Numbel or samples
see Table 1 fOl specific products tesled.
Anrl" telllll,
IIrtng1ll (mJ)
t.210i:0.1SN=60
1.138 i:0.20 N.. 41
0.991 i:0.12 N_SS
0.776i:0.11 N=53
0.698:1:0,11 N..57
0.480 i:0.08 N.. 51
GO/Cosme/,cs & Toiletries'" magazine www.TheCosmeticSile.com VOl. 11 7. No 11/November 2002
O'
0.2
LO
0.8
0.6
-

0.0
31.15
Untreated
32.01
Hair Color
35.32
Acicl Wave
36,15
Sodium
Hydroxide
Relaxer
38.00
Guanidine
Hydroxide
Relaxer
54.57
Hair Bleach
FJ,Il,., 2. betwlllln ptJrosU, t",d tllMUII stnnglb olbnlr ',.,alf'd by .ff!/tf'dcosmetic products
(see TAble I!tlr detflUS on the ProdllctS tested)
Results and Discussion
11 is apparent from Table 2 that
untreated hair has the lowest amount
of water uptake (31.15O.63%, N=6)
tll;lt is very close to tile value of31.18%
found by Chamberlain and
Speakman." Our value of 31.15% is
also very close to the valut" of
31.IO1.00% found b)' Valko and
Therefore, our method of
determining water uptake is in agree-
ment with both of those studies.
The cosmetic treatments such as
permanent hair colOr, acid wave. per
manent hair rc:la..xers and hair bleach
impan increasingly higher water in
that or<.ler, as shown in Table 2. It is
clear that permanent hair rclaxing
and hair bleaching arc more damag-
ing than processes such as perma-
nent hair colors and acid permanent
waves.
As shown in Table 3. untreated
hair had the highest avemge tensile
strength(I.210O.180 m), N=60). On
the other hand, cosmetic treatments
such as permanent hair color. acid
wave, pcrmanent hair relaxcrs and
hair bleach produced incre;lsingl)'
greater rcductions in tensile strength
(to a low of0.480tO.080 m). N=51).
The order of damage in terms of ten-
sile strength for each of the cosmetic
treatments is shown in Table 3 and it
51'SS. JI'SS hlC, ChICtlJ,"'. 11I1",,/5 UI:1
62/Cosmerics & Toile/ries" maguine www.TheCosmelicS.le.com
is similar 10 the order of water uptake for of the
cosmetic treatments in Table 2.
Using a statistical we corrd:lIcd the porosity
data from Table 2 and tensile strength data from Table 3.
Thc coefficient of determination was found to be
O.9607(Figure 2.). which isStatistically sigoificlnt. There
forc, the water uptake method orporosit)' metho<.l and the
tcnsile strength method arc highly correlated.
As shown in Tables 2 and 3. the orderofdamagc caused
by the cosmetic treatmelllS is:ls follows: Untreated hair <
Permanelll Hair Color (Golden B1ondelevel 12) < Pemla-
nem Wave (Acid Wave) < Ilair Iklaxer COntaining sodium
hydroXide < Ibir Relaxer containing guanidine hydroxidc <
Hair Ble;lch.
Conclusion
II is clear from this study that V:llko an<.l Barncft's
weight method (water uptake) or porosity of hair is
significantly correlated (r'= 0.9607) to tensile strength of
hair when hair fibers arc chemically treated with various
cosmetic trC:l(mcms.
This study also compares lhe damage imparted to hair
fibers from various chemical cosmetic treatments such as
permanent hair colors, acid permanelll waves. hair relax-
ers and hair bleaches. The order of magnitude of hair
damage is also determined and it is found that permancnt
hair colors are least damaging followed by acid permanent
waves and hair relaxers. whereas the bleaching of hair is
the most damaging cosmetic treatment.
The weight method or porosity of hair is a Jess tedious
and less time-consuming method for cosmetic chemists. It
can be used instead of the tensile strength method to
determine the degree or damage.
The porosit)' method woul" seem to be especi:llly
convenient to usc on excessively curl)' hair in which the
Young's modulus varies signific:lIltl)' within a single hair
fiber due to its cver-changing diameter along the hair
Vol, 117. No. Il/NOvember 2002
J Menkart, LJ Wolfram and I Mao, Caucasian hair, Negro hair, and wool:
Similarities and differences, J Soc Cosmet Chem 17 769-787 (1966)
CE Reese and H Eyring, Mechnical properties and the structure of hair,
Textile Res J 20743-750 (1950)
3. YK Kamath, SB Hornby and HD Weigman,
Mechanical and fractographic behavior of
Negroid hair, J Soc Cosmet Chem 35 21-43
(1984)
4. R Wickett, Kinetic studies of hair reduction
uSing a single fiber technique, J Soc Cosmet
Chem 34301-316 (1983)
5. EG Bendit, There is no Hookean region in the
stress-strain curve of keratin, J Macromol Sci-
Phys B17(1) 129-140 (1980)
6. W Edman and M Marti, Properties of peroxide-
bleached hair, J Soc Cosmet Chem 12 133
(1961)
7. L Wolfram, The reactivity of human hair: A
review, in Hair Research, New York: Springer-
Verlag (1981) p 497
8 TA Evans, TN Ventura and AB Wayne, The
kinetics of hair reduction, J Soc Cosmet Chem
45 279-298 (1994)
9. EI Valko and G Barnett, A study of the swelling
of hair in mixed aqueous solvents, J Soc Cosmet
Chem 3108-117 (1952)
10 Milady's Standard Text Book of Cosmetology,
Albany, New York: Thomson Learning (2000) p
233
11 M Feughelman, Physical properties of hair, in
Hair and Hair Care, DH Johnson, ed, New York:
Marcel Dekker (1997) P 17
12. NH Chamberlain and JB Speakman, Z
Electrochemie 37 374 (1931)
13 A Shansky, The osmotic behavior of hair during
the permanent waving process as explained by
swelling measurements, J Soc Cosmet Chem
14427-432 (1963)
14. J Nothen, V Bollert, G Blankenburg and H
Hocker, The influence of the cosmetic swelling
behavior on the quality of the permanent wave,
Proceedings of the 16
th
IFSCC Conference,
New York, October 8-11, 1990, vol 1 (1990) pp
315-324
15 A Syed, H Ayoub and A Kuhajda, Recent
advances in treating excessively curly hair,
Cosmet Toil 113(9) 47-55 (1998)
16 A Syed, A Kuhajda, H Ayoub and K Ahmad,
African-American Hair: Its physical properties
and differences relative to Caucasian hair,
Cosmet Toil 110(10) 39-47 (1995)
17. DH Powers and G Barnett, A study of swelling
of hair in thioglycolate solutions and its
reswelling, J Soc Cosmet Chem 92-100 (1953)
18. JB Speakman, Mechano-chemlcal methods for
use with animal fibers, J Text Inst 38(2) T 102-
126(1947)
19. A Sookne and M Harris, J Res Natl Bur Stand 19
535(1937) C=&T
It
2.
manent hair colors; this study was limited to only one hair
color and only a 30 volume developer. Similarly, this study
needs to be expanded to various types of permanent
waves, such as alkaline permanent waves.
Reproduction of all or any part of this article in English or any other
language is strictly prohibited.
References
Address correspondence to Ali N. Syed. c/o Editor. Cosmetics & Toiletries
magazine. 362 South Schmale Road. Carol Stream, IL 60188-2787 USA.
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shaft. The Young's modulus is equal
to the stress / strain, where strain is
the deformation expressed in length,
while stress is equal to the force di-
vided by the cross-sectional area of
the fiber. The modulus is usually ob-
tained in the Hookean region (less
than 2% strain) where the fiber can be
stretched repeatedly without under-
going permanent deformation or dam-
age from extesion.
This study needs to be expanded
to many different hair shades in per-
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64/Cosmetics & ToiletrieSii' magazine www.TheCosmeticSite.com Vol. 117, No. 11/November 2002