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International Conference on Information, Networking and Automation (ICINA)

Uplink Multi-user MIMO Interference Cancellation Algorithm for LTE-A Systems


Xiangyou Lv, Tiankui Zhang, Zhimin Zeng School of Information and Communication Engineering Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications Beijing 100876, China 02jordan@bupt.cn Abstract - An uplink multi-user multi-input mUlti-output (MIMO) multiple access interference cancellation algorithm is
proposed for Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) system. The base station (BS) obtains the null space of pairing user's channel matrix by channel state information, and then this null space is constructed as the transformation matrix which maintains the multiplexing degree of spatial channel. The received signal at the BS is processed by the transformation matrix, and the multiple access interference of pairing user can be eliminated. Furthermore, during the resource scheduling, the user equipments (UEs) which use the same codebook are confined to occupy the same time-frequency resource. So the probability of UEs with strong channel correlation paired each other is reduced, and the impact of transformation matrix on useful signal strength can be minimized. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can depress the multiple access interference of pairing user greatly and increase the signal to interference-plus-noise ratio of the user, and eventually improve the system throughput.

Li Wang China Academy of Telecommunication Research the Ministry of Industry and Information technology Beijing 100037, China

Key words: LTE-A; multi-user cancellation; matrix transformation I.

MIMO;

interference

INTRODUCTION

Multiple antennas technique research is very important for next-generation wireless systems. Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems have been investigated a lot in LTE-A[I]. The capacity of a MIMO system with Nt transmitters and Nr receivers grows linearly with min (Nt, Nr) [21. Considering the effect of size and cost, the UE usually has two antennas in LTE-A systems, so the system capacity is limited. One of the solutions is multi-user MIMO (MU MIMO), which means that the BS sends multi-stream data via multiple antennas on the same time-frequency resource to the different UE. MU-MIMO system experience co-channel interference, also referred to as multiple access interference (MAl) in uplink, as well as multi-user interference (MUI) in downlink. That is bottleneck which constrains MU-MIMO performance [31 [41. Multi-user interference cancellation in downlink MU MIMO system was investigated in two aspects: dirty paper coding (DPC) and linear zero forcing preprocess. DPC can obtain the maximum capacity gain [3116], however, are too complicated for cost-effective implementations. Linear zero forcing preprocess, for example block diagonalization (BD) [6][7][8][9f based on linear pre-coding and zero-forcing beam-

forming (ZFBF), have a low complication. They were concerned with 3rd Generation Partnership (3GPP) and other international organizations. As the CSI (Channel State Information) of all users can be obtained through pilot in downlink MU-MIMO system, BS can schedule user pair according to the channel quality of each user. Also the pre-coding matrix of each user can be designed to be null space of the pairing user's (user which occupancy the same time-spectrum resource with desired user) channel matrix, so that MU-MIMO channel can be decomposed to parallel SU-MIMO channel. And multi-user interference can be cancelled [7]. As UEs can't predict other user's CSI in uplink MU-MIMO, also 3GPP decided to use codebook based pre-coding in uplink [10], MAl cancellation can't be executed by preprocessing as downlink. In [9], BS obtain the null space of pairing user's channel matrix, and post-process the received signal as channel transformation to cancel the pairing user's MAL But the null space of pairing user's channel matrix can depress the multiplexing gain of spatial channel and deteriorate the useful signal intensity. [9] considers MAl cancellation only, doesn't evaluate the infection of null space to the useful signal intensity. In this paper, considering the impact on the useful signal intensity as applying null space to cancel pairing user's MAl, null space is constructed to be the transformation matrix which can't depress the mUltiplexing gain of spatial channel and deteriorate the useful signal intensity. Based on the matrix transformation, scheduling of pairing user was restricted according to the codebook selected, to minimize the affection to the desired user's signal intensity further. II. MU-MIMO SYSTEM MODEL

Figure 1.

Schematic of an uplink MU-MIMO system

The schematic of the uplink (UL) MU-MIMO system considered in this paper is shown in Fig. I, the antennas configure ofLTE-A is consulted. The BS employs 4 receive antennas, UEk (k =1,2,...,K) employs 2 transmit antennas.

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2010 IEEE

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2010

International Conference on Information, Networking and Automation (ICINA)

VkXk
where

represents the transmitter signal matrix of UEb

Vk

represents pre-coding matrix,

Xk

represents

user date matrix. When BS detects the signal of UE1 which can be considered to be desired user, the received UL observation vector y at the BS can be expressed as:

(H(O)V(0)X(H(O)V(O)H ' where the 2 2 2 2 O)(O) is 4xl . So the dimension of H/ (H(O)V(O)x(H(O)V(O)H ' 2 2 2 2 H T. = U2n
U2n
is composed by the can null be

dimension of

U2s is 4xl ,
space of

yeO) = H(0)v.(0)X(0) + H(O)V(0)X(0) + 2 2 2

Where N(O ) denotes white noise, Superscript (0) denotes service sector parameters, Superscript G) denotes interference sector parameters, pairing user's MAl,

IH(J)V(J)x(J) + N(O) }=I


N/

I I I

dimension is 4x3. Post-

process (1)

Substituting post-process transformation matrix into (2), the vector y of the UL received signal can be expressed as:

transformation matrix

'

and

satisfy

0 T. X H (O)V( ) = 0
2 2

expressed as:
[11]

y'(O) = T. X yeO) = T X H (0)v:(0) X (0) +


1 1 1 1

channel interference of users from other sector.


III.

I;I

H(0)V(0)X(0) represents 2 2 2 HU)V U)XU) represents co

T x" H(J)VU) XU) + T L.

I }=I
N[

N(O)

(4)

MU-MIMO INTERFERENCE CANCELLATION

A.

As shown in Fig. 1, for detecting the transmit signal of user 1 in the BS, the receive observation vector y multiply transformation matrix T], which can be expressed as:

Educe Matrix Null Space

Explicitly, through processing receiving signal which is equivalent to the channel transformation by post-process transformation matrix, MAl can be removed entirely. But the post-process transformation matrix of 3 X4 can depress the multiplexing gain of spatial channel. That can deteriorate the useful signal intensity.
B.

y'(O) =T.XYCO) =T.xH(0)00)x(0)


2 2 2 N/

Because pairing user and desired user locate in the same sector in MU-MIMO system, MAl accounts for a large proportion of total interference. The goal of MAl cancellation is selecting an appropriate transforming matrix

I I I I I 0)v:(0)X(0) + T.xN) +T.xH ( I I +1; XId})0})XC}) }=I


the demodulation,

Each UE have to transmit data in single stream as in UL MU-MIMO, adopt 2xl pre-coding matrix. So the post process transformation matrix TI which obtained by the (2) pairing user's channel matrix

Construct Transformation Matrix

H/0)V2(0)

is orthogonal

matrix of 3 X4 . The operation of processing receiving signal by post-process transformation matrix TI can be considered as channel transformation, which can depress the multiplexing gain of spatial channel. That is BS have 3 receive antennas equivalently, which can deteriorate the demodulation of the receiving useful signal and depress the desired user's signal intensity. Matrix T; of 4x4 can be composed by constructing one-dimensional vector based on TI ' match T; X H2( that = [ tl' t2, t3 constructing transformation

T]

in

which

can

0 T] should ensure T. X H(O)V( ) = 0 2 2 0 0 Take out channel matrix H( )V( ) of user 2, which is the 2 2

ensure 1; xH2(O)(0)X(0) = 0 . As X denotes data vector, 2

0)V(0) = 0
2

. On the assumption is 4xl,

pairing user of user 1. As users take single stream to transmit, the dimension of channel matrix is 4xl. Then the

t4

r ' where the dimension of t


(tl + t2 + t3)/ 3

composing

SVD of

H(0)V(0) 2 2

can be expressed as: (3)

matrix

Multiplexing gain of spatial channel can be maintained by constructing one-dimension channel information.
C.

T; = [ tl, t2, t3, t4 r

Where the dimension of U2 is 4X 4, column vector of

U2 is the eigenvector of (H/O)V/O)x(H/O)V/O)H , U2 s


is composed by the subspace of

3GPP have identified that codebook based pre-coding was selected in uplink MIMO. In case UE supports two transmitting antennas in LTE-A stage, codebook is formulated as table 1.

Restrict User Pairing

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International Conference on Information, Networking and Automation (ICINA)

Pre-coding codebook selecting can be based on two ways: Performance and Quantification. The later is selected in this paper. UE generally takes one stream to transfer signal when pairing user is existent. Codebook selecting and pairing user selecting are both based on user's CSI, but they are unattached. Codebook selecting need apply SVD to channel matrix, and then select the right matrix with the minimum mean square error to the codebook as pre-coding matrix. However, pairing user selecting is processed during resource scheduling in BS. The channel correlation of two users is associated with their relative position, so pairing user select is based on position. But that is not universal.
TABLE!. PRE-CODING CODEBOOK IN UPLINK MIMO WITH TWO

TRANSMIT ANTENNAS

that pairing user's interference can be depressed greatly by applying algorithm. Fig.4 and Fig.5 portray the CDF of scheduling user's SINR and sector average spectral efficiency (SASE) respectively. Where the dashed line represents the result of uplink MU-MIMO without interference cancellation, the dash-dotted line represents pairing user's MAl cancellation proposed in [9], the solid line represents pairing user's MAl cancellation based on constructing transformation matrix and restricting user pairing proposed in this paper. Though algorithm in [9] can promote scheduling user SINR in Fig.4, pairing user's MAl cancellation algorithm proposed in this paper can promote scheduling user SINR further. So user can have more chance to take high level modulation pattern, and SASE can be promoted at last, as in Fig.5.
TABLE II.

Code book index

Number of layers 1

SIMULAnON PARAMETER Value

0 1 2 3 4 5

[:] [l] [] [_lj]


[l,O t [O,l t

J20 -

1 [1

Parameter

Number of Cells Number of Sectors per Cell Inter-site distance(m) UE number per sector Antenna Configuration Centre Frequency Traffic model Shadowing Between Correlation cells Between sectors PathLoss Thermal Noise Density BS Antenna pattern(horizontal) (For 3-sector cell sites)
1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 F(x) 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 MAI value(dB)

19 3 1732 10

Ix2
800 MHz Full Buffer 0.5 1 128.1+37.610g1O(R), R in km -174 dBm/Hz

If two users whose channels have a strong correlation take the same codebook and occupancy the same time spectrum resource, transformation matrix can depress useful signal intensity remarkably. Since pre-coding matrix user selected can characterize CSI of user, pairing user selecting can be restricted. BS share information between codebook selecting and pairing user selecting. User who selects the same codebook can't be paired. That means user who selects the same codebook can't occupancy the same time-spectrum resource, so that the situation that transformation matrix can depress useful signal intensity can be cancelled. IV.
SIMULAnON RESULTS

A(8)=-min [12(8j83dS,.4", ]
(}3dB
=

70 ,

Am

20 dB

Performance of the algorithm is simulated based on the parameter and condition defined in ITU-R M.2135[121, simulation parameter as in Table 2. Cumulative distribution function (CDF) of pairing user's interference, also referred to as MAl in uplink MU MIMO system, is given in Fig.2. CDF of pairing user's interference which is processed by pairing user interference cancellation algorithm is portrayed in Fig.3. It can be seen

-30

-20

-10

Figure 2.

Pairing user' MAl value without MAl cancellation

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International Conference on Information, Networking and Automation (ICINA)

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 F(x) 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -400 -380 -360 -340 MAI value(dB) -320 -300 -280

spatial channel and minimize the impact of transformation matrix on useful signal intensity. Simulation and analysis show that algorithm in this paper can apply in LTE-A system and promote sector average spectral efficiency contrasted with [9].
TABLE III. COMPARE WITH SPECTRAL EFFICIENCY

Figure 3. Pairing user MAI value applying MAI cancellation algorithm


1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 F(x) 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -30 -20 -10 0 SINR(dB) 10 20 30 40

proposed MAI cancellation MAI cancellation in [9] without MAI cancellation

without MAl cancellation MAl cancellation in [9] Proposed MAl cancellation

SASE (bit/slHz) 2.0172 2.2375 2.4285

ESE (bit/slHz) 0.0774 0.101 0.099

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (60772110), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities
REFERENCES [I] [2] Shen Jia, Suo Shiqiang, Quan Haiyang. 3GPP Long Term Evolution: Principle and System Design. Post &telecom press. 2008.11. Telatar E. Capacity of multi-antenna Gaussian channels [J].European Transactions on Telecommunications,1999,1O(6):585598. Quentin H Spencer, hristian B eel, Lee Swindlehurst, artin Haardt. An introduction to the multi-user MIMO downlink. IEEE Communications,2004,42(10),60-67. Aditya Kurve. multi-user MIMO systems : the future in the making. IEEE Potentials. 2009,28(6),37-42. Uri Erez, Stephan ten Brink. A c1ose-to-capacity dirty paper coding scheme. IEEE Transactions on Information theory, 2005,51(10):3417-3432. Zukang Shen, Runhua Chen, Andrews J G. Heath R W, Evans B L. Sum Capacity of Multiuser MIMO Broadcast Channels with Block Diagonalization. Information Theory, 2006 IEEE International Symposium on.2006,6(6):886-890. Nishimoto, H kato, S ogawa, Y ohgane, T nishimura. Imperfect block diagonalization for multiuser MIMO downlink. IEEE 19th International Symposium on PIMRS 2008, Cannes France 15-18 Sept. 2008 1-5. Lai-U Choi, Ross D, Murch A. Transmit Preprocessing Technique for Multiuser MIMO Systems Using a Decomposition Approach. IEEE Trans on Wireless. Communications.2004,3(1),20-24. W Liu, L L Yang, L Hanzo. SVD-Assisted Multiuser Transmitter and Multiuser Detector Design for MIMO Systems. IEEE Trans on Vehicular technology, 2009,58 (2),1016-1021. TR 36.814 V1.4.1. Further Advancements for E-UTRA Physical Layer Aspects (R9). 3rd Generation Partnership Project Std. 2009, 09. Cheng Yunpeng, zhang Kaiyuan. Matrix Theory. North Polytechnical university press. 2006. ITU-R M.2135. Guidelines for evaluation of radio interface technologies for IMT-Advanced.2008.

Figure 4. SINR of scheduling user


1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 F(x) 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.2

[3]

[4] [5]

[6]

[7]

proposed MAI cancellation MAI cancellation in [9] without MAI cancellation


0.3 0.4 0.5 spectral efficiency(bit/s/Hz) 0.6 0.7

[8]

[9] Figure 5. SASE of scheduling user [10]

SASE and Edge spectral efficiency (ESE) are summarized in Table 3. MAl cancellation algorithm by constructing transformation matrix and restricting user pairing proposed in this paper can promote SASE with 10% contrasted with [9].

[II] [12]

V.

Conclusion

This paper proposes a MAl cancellation algorithm applied in LTE-A uplink MU-MIMO system. This algorithm can cancel MAl of pairing user totally through constructing transformation matrix and restricting user pairing, as well as maintain the multiplexing degree of

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