Literature Review for the Report on
Prospect of Cloud Computing in Bangladesh
K503: Management Information Systems
Mr. Rezwanul Haque Khan Lecturer Institute of Business Administration University of Dhaka
“Free Riders” Dewan Md. Yunus Bashar (66) Salahuddin Mahmud (84) Badiuzzaman Palash (90) Md. Mazhar Hossain (96) Md. Anwarul Karim (110) MBA 45D, Sec: B Institute of Business Administration University of Dhaka
on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e. like India? Could India be a model for Bangladesh? What is the current state of adoption of cloud computing in Bangladesh? How could Bangladesh effectively implement cloud computing and counter the challenges?
To find out the answers we are going to analyze various research papers from well known journals. applications. Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product. In this literature review.. It is time for the country to recognize the importance of using the newest versions of use of information technology. Cloud computing provides computation. the pertinent information of those papers and appropriate adoption to Bangladesh situation will be discussed. The organizations are searching for efficient and cost effective ways to manage their data resources. software applications. data access. networks.
The objective of our research is to find out the answer of the following questions: What is the current state of cloud computing in the world and how it is being implemented? What is the prospect and what are the challenges of cloud computing? What is the prospect and what are the challenges of cloud computing in developing nations. whereby shared resources. convenient. US National Institute of Standards and Technology has defined which service should be treated as cloud computing: “Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous.Prelude:
As an emerging economy. Bangladesh is the new Information Society Hotspot. storage. It is investing heavily on the industrial sector as well as getting large international investments. servers. company publications and seminar papers. data management and storage resources without requiring the users to know the location and other details of the computing infrastructure. and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network (typically the Internet).g. Some organizations have already started to use Cloud computing but the majority of this market is still untapped. and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with
Current State of Cloud Computing:
In developed world cloud computing is gaining gradual popularity. software. Watching the adoption of the technology.
. country. bandwidth.. and workstations). processing. or datacenter).g. with the possible exception of limited userspecific application configuration settings.. The provider’s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model. with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. in some cases automatically.
Service Models: Software as a Service (SaaS). Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability1 at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e. storage. and network bandwidth. memory. Resource pooling. and four deployment models.g. to scale rapidly outward and inward commensurate with demand. providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service. or even individual application capabilities. state. as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each service provider. Capabilities can be elastically provisioned and released.
. and reported. web-based email). Broad network access. tablets. Resource usage can be monitored.g. and active user accounts). To the consumer. The applications are accessible from various client devices through either a thin client interface. or a program interface. controlled.”1 It has also defined which Essential Characteristics and Service Models should define cloud computing: “Essential Characteristics: On-demand self-service.. This cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics. operating systems. Measured service. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network. Rapid elasticity. the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and can be appropriated in any quantity at any time. laptops. mobile phones. There is a sense of location independence in that the customer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources but may be able to specify location at a higher level of abstraction (e. such as server time and network storage. Examples of resources include storage.minimal management effort or service provider interaction. such as a web browser (e. Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e. storage.g. The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure2. three service models. processing. A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities. servers.
Academic efforts include Virtual Workspaces and OpenNebula. or storage. C++. libraries. which can include operating systems and applications. and tools supported by the provider. operating systems. and possibly limited control of select networking components (e.. libraries. Google App Engine allows a user to run Web applications written using the Python programming language. storage. Sun network. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems. and FORTRAN based applications.”1 The technological implementations that satisfy above criteria are treated as cloud computing.3 The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network. As the computing industry shifts toward providing Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS) for consumers and enterprises to access on demand regardless of time and location. there will be an increase in the number of Cloud platforms available. storage. and deployed applications. servers. several academic and industrial organizations have started investigating and developing technologies and infrastructure for Cloud Computing. We are citing some of the major examples here: “Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) provides a virtual computing environment that enables a user to run Linux-based applications. and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software. The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications created using programming languages. Now we see what is the current condition of the cloud computing market? Rajkumar et al. and another $65-billion in online advertising”. Another research study by Morgan Stanley has also identified Cloud computing as one of the prominent technology trends. has explored the current cloud computing market: “Cloud computing is expected to be a “$160.”2
. C.com (Sun Grid) enables the user to run Solaris OS.Platform as a Service (PaaS). Recently. or select from a library of globally available AMIs. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). data and associated configuration settings.”2 From this information it can be understood how important the cloud computing market is and how more important is going to be.g. The user can either create a new Amazon Machine Image (AMI) containing the applications. Java. including $95-billion in business and productivity applications.billion addressable market opportunity. but has control over the deployed applications and possibly configuration settings for the application-hosting environment. services. networks. host firewalls). The capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing. In this paper some most common cloud service provider are presented as examples.
The model it exposes to developers is straightforward: objects.
Prospect and Challenges of Cloud Bangladesh Stands in Contrast to World
In a EU expert group report the cause of utilizing cloud computing has been depicted: “Economic considerations are one of the key reasons to introduce cloud systems in a business environment in the first instance. The particular interest typically lies in the reduction of cost and effort through outsourcing and / or automation of essential resource management. the gain through cost reduction has to be carefully balanced with the increased effort to build and run such a system. Data Management. With respect to hosting private clouds. Photo-sharing sites such as Google’s Picasa and Microsoft’s Windows Live Photo Gallery do this. Current cloud systems still suffer a lot of drawbacks and do not overall offer the infrastructure expected to be required in the near future . and delete objects and buckets………………………. almost any Web site can expose its functionality as a cloud service for developers to use.”3 By reviewing these papers we get a clear idea of the current degree of implementation of cloud computing around the globe.e. This has been depicted in a paper by Chappell et al. In Microsoft’s SQL Server Data Services (SSDS). One big motivation for exposing services is to make it easier to create mash-ups that exploit the functions of diverse Web applications.A. for example.In case of cloud storage.
. i.. Virtualisation and Resource Control . also depicts the examples of cloud application services: “Many other application services are available today. different service providers are providing different kind of service using different technologies. In fact.”4 How cloud will propagate in future is also described in the report: “Overall. a container includes one or more entities.this relates in particular to the typical topics in the IT area. read. which are just bunches of bytes. are stored in buckets.com .: “Amazon’s Simple Storage Service (S3) provides basic unstructured remote storage. relevant aspects thereby to consider relate to the cut-off between loss of control and reduction of effort. Applications can create. each of which holds some number of properties”3 Chappell et al. Privacy & Security. as do online contacts applications such as Google Contacts and Microsoft’s Windows Live Contacts. for example. As has been noted in the first section. public clouds of the types introduced in section II. Another approach to cloud storage is to support more structured data.1 are commercially available a more exhaustive comparison of existing providers and their features at the time of writing is available through Webhosting Unleashed  and Infoworld.
At the same time. in particular when scaling up.”4 The report refers to technical and non technical chllanges in implementing cloud computing: “Manageability: …………Whilst most cloud system allow for main features related to elasticity and availability (see Table 1 and Table 4 above). additional issues arise with the advent of cloud systems that have not been fully elaborated before – in particular related to the elasticity of the system (horizontal and vertical up. In particular sensitive data or protected applications are critical for outsourcing issues.and down-scaling). non-technical aspects. Changes in the configuration of the service / data need to be reflected by the setup of the underlying resources (according to their capabilities and capacities).One of the most pressing issues with respect to cloud computing is the current difference between the individual vendor approaches. Privacy and Security: ………Strongly related to the issues concerning legislation and data distribution is the concern of data protection and other potential security holes arising from the fact that the resources are shared between multiple tenants and the location of the resources being potentially unknown. the management features are nowhere near optimal resource usage – issues not only relevant for cost reduction.com to Amazon). But this also poses problems on modelling the policies and dynamic aspects of resource management . making long-term interoperability and standardisation efforts difficult – whereby standardization typically follows interoperability efforts in the commercial domain. and the implicit lack of interoperability. the information that a certain industry is using the infrastructure at all is enough information for industrial espionage.Not only data size poses a problem for cloud systems. In some use cases. from Force. interoperability and manageability & control of the resources.Though virtualisation techniques have improved considerably over recent years. Whilst a distributed data environment (IaaS) cannot be easily moved to any platform provider (PaaS) and may even cause problems to be used by a specific service (SaaS). Federation & Interoperability: …………. but also for meeting the green agenda and for ensuring availability when resources are limited.
.. such as restrictions due to Legislation & Policies. Implicitly. but also changes in the infrastructure need to be exploited by the virtual environment without impacting on the hosted capabilities. Elasticity and Adaptability: ……………. Virtual isation. but more importantly consistency maintenance (see section III on “Data Management”).g. existing infrastructures will be difficult to change to new technologies and / or conceptual approaches. but also Economical Concerns related to whether the move to a cloud infrastructure is economically feasible are of major concern for commercial providers. Data management: ……. it is also almost impossible to move a service / image / environment between providers on the same level (e.
HCL technologies. software as a service in India will register a compounded annual growth rate of 76% in the time period of 2007-2011. IBM India collaborated with IIT Kanpur to come up with some new developments in computing that will help in academic advancement. VPMarketing (APAC).Not only data is subject to specific legislation issues that may depend on the location they are currently hosted in.”5 Through analyzing Indian trends and style of adopting cloud computing.e. According to Springboard Research report (Jan 2009) SAAS India i. According to Jeremy Cooper. Bharti Airtel has launched the cloud computing services with their NetPc model and other giant companies like Reliance Communications. i. have also launched cloud computing services in India.Legislation. and / or new means to handle legislative constraints during data distribution.Seeing SAAS success on September 2008 IBM launched cloud computing center in India at Bangalore. To take India as an example we went through papers written in Indian context. in particular regarding their licensing models.
. we would try to plan an appropriate cloud computing model for Bangladesh with special emphasis on business use. This makes India as the fastest growing SAAS market in Asia Pacific region. reliable and scalable application that helps them to grow and expand their business. Wipro. Verizon. Government & Policies: …………. In our report we are going to find how to coupe up with these challenges in our country. This center will cater to the increasing demand of web based infrastructure sharing services. Sharma et al. but also which data may be hosted where. Legislation issues arise due to the fact that different countries put forward different laws regarding which kind of data is allowed. The paper of M. Netmagic. Cloud computing services has huge opportunity in Indian market due to the large number of Small and Medium businesses (SMBs) which is at around 35 million and they want easy to use . TCS. new legislative models have to be initiated.com 'software as a service' provider started its services in India in September 2005 and since then the adoption rate of cloud computing is increasing . As a model we are going to analyze the example of India. but also applications and services. potentially anywhere in the world.e. depicted a clear overview of implementation of cloud computing in India: “India is growing at faster pace in information technology sector thereby showing a great potential for the cloud computing services.”4 All these challenges stated above are true in case of Bangladesh. With the cloud principally hosting data / code anywhere within the distributed infrastructure. Novatium etc. Salesforce.
the challenges noted by the EU research paper should also be countered. such as that found with dial-up services. in Bangladesh.: “a)[cloud computing] Requires a constant Internet connection.Implementing Cloud Computing in Bangladesh: Opportunities and Challenges
The scenario of Bangladesh is not much different from the world. There are some causes which have been discussed by R. b) Doesn't work well with low-speed connections c) low-speed internet connection. Not much research papers have been published by Bangladeshi scholars considering cloud computing. We have adopted IT framework developed by first world countries very quickly. Besides these. but we are slow while adopting cloud computing. Mazumder et al. So. we basically have to rely on the papers from abroad and should try to compare the condition of those country with the condition here in Bangladesh.
. makes cloud computing painful at best and often impossible”6 These are the basic problems.
Anand Kumar Dr. VOLUME 2. CCGRID '09. Rashedul Hasan Rakib. ISSUE 5.References
1 “The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing” Special Publication 800-145 2 Rajkumar Buyya. MAY 2010 6 Rashed Mazumder. Chee Shin Yeo. Hype. Md. Ms.Madhvendra Misra. 2009. Haresh Jola.Vijayshri Tiwari “Scope of cloud computing for SMEs in India” JOURNAL OF COMPUTING.0 5 Monika Sharma. and Srikumar Venugopal “Market-Oriented Cloud Computing: Vision. and Muhammad Shahin Uddin “ Implementation of Cloud Computing in IT Sector: Perspective of Bangladesh” International Journal of Research and Reviews in Computer Science (IJRRCS)
. and Reality for Delivering IT Services as Computing Utilities” Cluster Computing and the Grid. Ashwani Mehra. 9th IEEE/ACM International Symposium 3 David Chappell “A Short Introduction to Cloud Platforms an Enterprise-Oriented View” Microsoft Corporation August 2008 4 EU Expert Group Report “THE FUTURE OF CLOUD COMPUTING” Public Version 1.