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Transformer
and Inductor
Design Handbook
Second Edition, Revised and Expanded
Colonel Wm.T. Mclyman1.1.6 Permeability
In magnetics, permeability is the ability of a material to conduct flux. The magnitude of the per-
meability at a given induction is a measure of the ease with which a core material can be
magnetized to that induction. Itis defined as the ratio of the flux density B to the magnetizing force
H. Manufacturers specify permeability in units of gauss per oersted (G/Oe).
Permeability
a [etc] on
Absolute permeability Us in cgs units is unity (1 gauss/oersted) in a vacuum.
. uss] _ tesla y9e
wom (Ss * oersted esi (1.2)
aks: 0.4m x 10-* [22] (3)
meter
When B is plotted against Has in Figure 1.16, the resulting curve is called the magnetization curve.
‘These curves are idealized. The magnetic material is totally demagnetized and is then subjected to
B (tesla) B (testa)
FLUX DENSITY
FLUX DENSITY
(ATURNS:
em
MAGNETIZING FORCE MAGNETIZING FORCE
Figure 1.16. Magnetization curve.2 Chapter 1
a gradually increasing magnetizing force while the flux density is plotted. The slope of this curve at
any given point gives the permeability at that point. Permeability can be plotted against a typical B-
‘H curve as shown in Figure 1.17a. Permeability is not constant; therefore its value can be stated
only at a given value of B or H.
‘There are many different kinds of permeability, and each is designated by a different sub-
script on the symbol u.
Absolute permeability, defined as the permeability in a vacuum.
H, Initial permeability, Figure 1.17b, the slope of the initial magnetization curve at the origin. It is
measured at very small inductions.
Ha Incremental permeability, Figure 1.17c, the slope of the magnetization curve for finite values
of peak-to-peak flux density with superimposed de magnetization.
u._ Effective permeability. Ifa magnetic circuit is not homogeneous (i.e. contains an air gap), the
effective permeability is the permeability of a hypothetical homogeneous (ungapped) structure of
the same shape, dimensions, and reluctance that would give the inductance equivalent to the
gapped structure,
4, Relative permeability, the permeability of a material relative to that of free space.
h, Normal permeability, Figure 1.174, the ratio of B/H at any point of the curve.
Hnax Maximum permeability, Figure 1.17e, the slope of a straight line drawn from the origin
tangent to the curve at its knee.
4, Pulse permeability, the ratio of peak B to peak H for unipolar excitation.
Ha Material permeability, the slope of the magnetization curve measured at less than 50 G.
PERMEABILITY
B-H CURVE
PERMEABILITY
FLUX DENSITY (8)
MAGNETIZING FORCE (H)
Variation of 4 along the magnetization curve.

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