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SCHAUM'S OUTLINE OF THEORY AND PROBLEMS OF LOGIC Second Edition JOHN NOLT, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Philosophy University of Tennessee DENNIS ROHATYN, Ph.D. Professor of Philosophy University of San Diego ACHILLE VARZL, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Philosophy Columbia University SCHAUM’S OUTLINE SERIES McGRAW-HILL New York San Francisco Washington, D.C. Aucklund Bogota Caracas Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi San Juan Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto JOHN NOLT is Associate Professor of Philosophy at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, where he has taught since receiving his doctorate from Ohio State University in 1978. He is the author of Informal Logic: Possible Worlds and Imagination and numerous articles on logic, metaphysics, and the philosophy of mathematics. DENNIS ROHATYN is Professor of Philosophy at the University of San Diego, where he has taught since 1977. He is the author of Two Dogmas of Philosophy, The Reluctant Naturalist, and many other works, He is a regular symposiast on critical thinking at national and regional conferences In 1987 he founded the Society for Orwellian Studies, ACHILLE VARZI is Assistant Professor of Philosophy at Columbia University, New York. His works include Holes and Other Superficialities and Fifty Years of Events: An Annotated Bibliography (both with Roberto Casati) and numerous articles on logic, formal semantics, and analytic metaphysics. ‘Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of LoGic Copyright © 1998, 1988 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any forms or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 23456789 1 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 PRS PRSYH21O9R ISBN 0-07-046649-1 Sponsoring Editor: Barbara Gilson Production Supervisor: Pamela Pelton Editing Supervisor: Maureen B. Walker Project Supervision: Keyword Publishing Services Ltd. Library of Congress Catuloging-in-Publication Data Nolt, John Bxic Schaum's outline of theory and problems of logic / John Nolt Dennis Robatyn, — 2nd ed. . cm. — (Schaum’s outline series) Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 0-07-046649-1 1. Logic-Outhines,sylabi.ete, 1. Rohatyn, Dennis A. NT, BCIOBN6S 1998 160 ".2°02—de2 93.2882 cr McGraw-Hill A Division of The McGrase Hill Companies Preface ‘The roots of logic may be traced to Aristotle, who systematized and codified the subject in a way that was not significantly surpassed for over two millennia. Modern logic, however, stems largely from the work of the German philosopher Gottlob Frege in the late nineteenth century, and has developed tremendously during the twentieth century. Today logic has applications in many areas besides philosophy, including mathematics, linguistics, engineering, and computer science. The aim of this book is to serve as an introduction and reference text to students in all these related fields. We begin by examining reasoning as it occurs informally in writing and conversation. In so doing, we have occasion to introduce some of the central concepts of logic (such as argument, validity, truth, evidence) while avoiding technicalities. Chapter 1 concerns structural (syntactic) matters, and Chapter 2 presents some fundamental semantic concepts along with basic criteria for argu- ment evaluation. Chapters 3 and 4 introduce the most elementary system of formal loj propositional logic, from the semantic point of view (truth tables and refutation trees) and from the syntactic or deductive point of view (the propositional calculus), respectively. Chapter 5 covers the logic of categorical statements, the modern ‘descendant of Aristotle's logical theory. Predicate logic, which is Frege's brainchild, forms the subject of Chapters 6 and 7. This is an overarching system which unifies and extends the systems of the three previous chapters, and is the core of all modern logic. Again we consider it first from a semantic and then from a deductive point of view (the predicate calculus). In Chapters 8 and 9 we return to an informal standpoint to consider common fallacies in reasoning and some important forms of inductive (probabilistic) argument. Chapter 10 treats probability more rigorously, laying out the axioms and major theorems of the probability calculus. Finally, Chapter 11 sketches some ways in which predicate logic itself can be strengthened or generalized. We consider, among other things, its expressive limitations, its extensions to stronger systems (higher-order and modal logics), and its application to arithmetic and to the theory of definitions, The book presupposes no previous acquaintance with the subject and may be used as a text for an introductory course, as a problem supplement to other texts, or as a guide for self-study. As a textbook, there is more material here than can be covered in a single course, and some omission will generally be necessary. All later chapters presuppose the concepts introduced in Chapters 1 and 2, so that these two chapters are indispensable, Thereafter, however, a good bit of flexibility is possible. ‘The following table indicates dependencies that should be taken into account in planning a course: Chapter Presupposes Chapter(s) 3 1 1 1 1 aN VNV ii PREFACE, 3,4, 5 5,6 1,2, 1,2, 1,2 1,2 1,2, 1,2, 22.3.4 3,4,5, 6,7 This second edition is based on the first edition by John Nolt and Dennis Rohatyn, which appeared in 1988. Every chapter has been revised and updated, and many problems and examples have been added. The most substantial changes occur in Chapters 3 and 4, which have been entirely reorganized and partly rewritten, and in Chapters 6 and 7, which are the result of rearranging and expanding the original Chapter 6. Overall, however, the pedagogical features and style of presentation of the first edition have been preserved. Joun Nour Dennis RoWATYN Acute VARZi Contents Chapter J ARGUMENT STRUCTURE 1 1.1 What Is an Argument? 1 1.2 Identifying Arguments 3 1.3. Complex Arguments 6 1.4 Argument Diagrams 7 1.5 Convergent Arguments 10 1.6 Implicit Statements 12 1.7 Use and Mention... = : : 16 1.8. Formal vs. Informal Logic 7 Chapter 2 ARGUMENT EVALUATION : 2 2.1 Evaluative Criteria Eee 21 2.2. Truth of Premises .. pee ee pe 2.3 Validity and Inductive Probability erm 23 2.4 Relevance = 7 3 2.5. The Requirement of Total Evidence 34 Chapter 3 PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC 44 3.1 Argument Form onsen = Sere eee 44 3.2. Logical Operators 47 33 Formalization.. —s 50 3.4 Semantics of the Logical Operators ... 35 3.5. Truth Tables for Wis... — so a) 3.6 Truth Tables for Argument Forms... — 64 3.7 Refutation Trees .ninnnsnninsnnininnninsnininaniningnmitneninnnnnrni 68 Chapter 4 THE PROPOSITIONAL CALCULUS 81 4.1 The Notion of Inference . . woe 81 4.2 Nonhypothetical Inference Rules 81 4.3, Hypothetical Rules ... . — sy 44 Derived Rules own . sn ” 4.5. Theorems ... 101 4.6 Equivalences 102 Chapter 5 THE LOGIC OF CATEGORICAL STATEMENTS ... 11 5.1 Categorical Statements ee = amy ii) 52. Venn Diagrams oe : : iio) 53° Immediate Inferences .... ston . . soo 19 54 Categorical Syllogisms - - a sue 123 vi CONTENTS Chapter 6 PREDICATE LOGIC 130 6.1 Quantifiers and Variables 130 6.2 Predicates and Names 134 63 Formation Rules ... 139 64 Models ov 142 65 Refutation Trees wun 150 66 Identity 158 Chapter. 7 THE PREDICATE CALCULUS 170 7.1 Reasoning in Predicate Logic 170 7.2. Inference Rules for the Universal Quantifier 170 73 Inference Rules for the Existential Quantitier 176 7.4 Theorems and Quantifier Equivalence Rules 134 75. Inference Rules for the Identity Predicate 190 Chapter 8 = FALLACIES 195 8.1 Classification of Fallacies 195 8.2 Fallacies of Relevance 196 83. Circular Reasoning 205 84 Semantic Fallacies ... 206 5 Inductive Fallacies 209 8.6. Formal Fallacies 212 8.7 Fallacies of False Premises 215 Chapter. 9 INDUCTION 23 9.1. Statement Strength 23 9.2. Statistical Syllogism 26 9.3. Statistical Generalization 230 94 Inductive Generalization and Simple Induction 9.5 Induction by Analogy .. 237 9.6 Mill's Methods 240 9.7 Scientific Theories neon 247 Chapter 10 THE PROBABILITY CALCULUS 254 10.1 The Probability Operator 254 10.2 Axioms and Theorems of the Probabiy Calculus 256 10.3 Conditional Probability . 260 104 Application of the Probability Calculus. 269 Chapter J] FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS IN FORMAL LOGIC 277 11.1 Expressive Limitations of Predicate Logic mn 11.2 Higher-Order Logics 29 11.3 Predicate Logic with Funetion Symbols 284 11.4 Formal Arithmetic 287 11.5 Formal Definitions 293 116 Definite Descriptions 294 11.7 Modal Logic 296