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ELECTIVE COURSES The following 5-credit courses are offered.

Medford Public Schools

Medford, Massachusetts DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE ESSENTIAL LEARNINGS GRADES 9-12 This guide provides an overview of what secondary school students should know and be able to do at the end of each core science course. The Medford Public Schools is committed to providing all students with the academic and problem-solving skills essential for personal development, responsible citizenship, and life-long learning. The curriculum goals of the Department of Science are as follows: Provide all students with a high-quality science program aligned with state and national standards. Develop high standards and expectations for all students, and support them in achieving science literacy through inquiry, cooperative tasks, labs, projects. Integrate technology into the teaching, learning, and assessment of science. Measure student learning through multiple forms of assessment, including MCAS.

Physics: Standard & Honors This course is designed for students who started their science course sequence with Biology and Chemistry. It will give students a coherent modern view of Physics with a strong foundation in Newtonian mechanics and wave kinematics. Emphasis is placed on understanding the basic laws and concepts of Physics. The major topics of the course are mechanics, electricity/ magnetism, waves and optics. Anatomy & Physiology: Standard & Honors This course studies the structure and function of the human body and the mechanisms for maintaining homeostasis within it. It includes the study of cells, tissues and the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive system. Environmental Science: Standard & Honors This course enables students to develop an understanding of the natural environment and the environmental problems the world faces. Students will investigate topics such as fundamental ecological principles, human population dynamics, natural resources, energy sources and their use, human interaction with the environment, and personal and civic responsibility. AP level courses are offered in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics. The following 2-credit course are offered: See the course flowchart in the Educational Opportunity Handbook for course sequence options.

Most common sequences are as follows: Introductory Physics Biology Chemistry Optional Elective Or Biology Chemistry Physics Optional Elective or AP Courses

For additional information on the curriculum, instructional or assessment programs of the Science Department, contact Carolyn Joy, Director at 781 3932214/2215

Chemistry Challenge Science Fair Projects Introduction to Engineering MCAS Biology Forensics

Roy E. Belson, Superintendent of Schools 781 3932442 Beverly G. Nelson, Deputy Superintendent 781 3932364 Dr. Paul Krueger, Headmaster MHS 781 393 2301 Medford School Committee
Mayor Michael McGlynn Ann Marie Cugno Erin DiBenedetto John Falco Robert E. Skerry George Scarpelli Paulette Van der Kloot

Medford Public Schools Department of Secondary and Elementary Education

Biology (Standard & Honors) Introductory Physics Motion & Forces: Solve problems involving velocity, speed, acceleration, displacement, distance, and graphs of motion; describe relationships. Understand Newtons three Laws of Motion. Distinguish between static and kinetic friction. Describe center of gravity and center of mass. Understand Law of Universal Gravitation. Conservation of Energy and Momentum: Define work, power, mechanical energy, potential energy, and kinetic energy; understand the law of conservation of energy. Describe the relationship among energy, work, and power. Define and calculate momentum; understand, the law of conservation of momentum. Heat and Heat Transfer: Distinguish between conduction and convention. Describe solid, liquid, gaseous, and plasma stages of matter; describe phase change. Understand evaporation and condensation. Understand heat transfer. Waves: Describe the properties and characteristics of waves; describe wave motion. Compare mechanical/electromagnetic waves and transverse/ longitudinal waves. Describe principles of reflection/refraction. Describe the Doppler effect for sound. Electromagnetism: Understand current, voltage, resistance. Use Kirchoffs, Ohms and Coulombs Law Compare electric forces and electric fields. Electromagnetic Radiation: Describe the electromagnetic spectrum for wavelength and energy; be able to identify specific regions such as visible light. Explain wavelength applications in radio/TV/microwaves/cell phones. Calculate the frequency and energy of an electromagnetic wave from the wavelength. The Chemistry of Life:

Chemistry (Standard & Honors) Properties of Matter:

Recognize common elements in organic molecules Describe the composition and functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Explain role of enzymes in biochemical reactions. Relate cell parts/organelles to their functions. Explain the role of cell membranes. Differentiate between prokaryotic cells/ eukaryotic cells; distinguish between plant/animal cells. Describe various kingdoms. Understand photosynthesis/cellular respiration. Describe and compare the processes of mitosis and meiosis, and their role in the cell cycle. Compare and contrast a virus and a cell in terms of genetic material and reproduction. Describe the structure/function of DNA; describe the processes of replication, transcription, and translation; explain mutations in DNA sequence. Differentiate between dominant, recessive, co-dominate, polygenic, and sex linked traits. State Mendels laws of segregation and independent assortment. Use a Punnett Square to determine the genotype and phenotype of monohybrid crosses. Be familiar with parts of the digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous, muscular, sexual reproductive systems: generalize their functions. Explain how fossil record, comparative anatomy, and other evidence support the theory of evolution Describe how the taxonomic system classifies living things into domains and kingdoms. Illustrate how genetic variation is preserved or eliminated from a population through Darwinian natural selection resulting in biodiversity. Understand concepts of an ecosystem. Use a food web to identify and distinguish producers, consumers, and decomposers.

Identify properties of matter, distinguish between chemical and physical changes. Understand atomic theory. Describe the electromagnetic spectrum. Identify/describe components of the nuclear atom. Write balanced equations. Describe the process of radioactive decay. Compare unclear fission and unclear fusion. Explain the relationship of an elements position on the periodic; use the periodic table to identify elements; identify trends; relate position to its electron configuration.

Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry:

Cell Biology:


Chemical bonding:


Explain how atoms combine to form compounds through both ionic and covalent bonding. Draw Lewis dot structures for simple molecules. Predict/name/write chemical formulas.

Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry: Balance chemical equations; determine formulas Calculate mass-mass, mass-volume, volume volume, and limiting reactant problems.

State of Matter, Kinetic Molecular Theory, and Thermochemistry:

Anatomy & Physiology:

Understand kinetic molecular theory. Perform calculations using the ideal gas law. Contrast endothermic and exothermic processese. Use calorimetry.

Solutions, Rates of Reaction, and Equilibrium: Describe the process by which solutes dissolve in solvents; calculate concentration/saturation/ freezing point/boiling point. Identify factors affecting rates of a reaction. Write the equilibrium expression and calculate the equilibrium constant for a reaction.

Evolution and Biodiversity:

Acids and Bases and Oxidation-Reduction Reactions


Understand theories of acids-bases. Describe processes of oxidation/reduction.

Electrochemistry: Identify the components/describe processes in an electrochemical cell. Compare and contrast voltaic/electrolytic cells.