Salahudin Al-ayubi Sena septiana Sutrisna Syena Intijahul Falah Yusep Maulana (1211705147) (1211705149) (1211705158) (1211705160) (1211705170)


Assalamu’alaikum wr.wb. Praise and sykur with a sincere heart and mind offered to Allah SWT., Because thanks to the delicious, Ma'unah and his guidance, this paper can be completed in a timely manner. Prayers and greetings to the Prophet Muhammad., Along with family and friends who are faithful to sacrifice body and soul and the other for the establishment of Islamic syi'ar, the effects and benefits are still felt. Like no ivory that is not cracked, so did the paper, the authors would like criticism and suggestions. That way there will be advised if there are errors.

Wasslamu'alaikum wr.wb.

Bandung, 1 June 2012

The Author,


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..Current Development ...Market Share and Uptake ...............................................1 B................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 CHAPTER II DISTRO OF LINUX......................2 C...................................................................................................1 A..............History Of Linux ......................................20 H.........................................Uses ....................................................................................17 F.............................................15 D...................................................................................................................................Programming On Linux..................................................16 E....19 G.............................................8 A............................................................................................. i TABLE OF CONTENTS .............13 C......Server.............................................Table Of Contents FOREWORD ................................................ Mainframes and Supercomputers .................…12 B.....Desktop ..........................................................................................................................................................................5 E.........................User Interface ...................Embedded Device .........................Design ..21 CAHPTER III CLOSING REFERENCES Linux Page ii ...................................................Development .........................................................................................Community .........................................Kind Of Linux ... ii CHAPTER I LINUX...........................5 D.........................

Linux was originally developed as a free operating system for Intel x86based personal computers. including the 10 fastest. network routers. Some popular mainstream Linux distributions include Debian (and its derivatives such as Ubuntu). and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under licenses such as the GNU General Public License. Linux Page 1 . History Of Linux Linux is a Unix-like computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open source software development and distribution. It has since been ported to more computer hardware platforms than any other operating system. It is a leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems more than 90% such of as mainframe today's 500 fastest computers and supercomputers: supercomputers run some variant of Linux. the Android system in wide use on mobile devices is built on the Linux kernel. tablet computers. televisions and video game consoles. Linux distributions include the Linux kernel. Typically Linux is packaged in a format known as a Linux distribution for desktop and server use. modified. the underlying source code may be used. supporting utilities and libraries and usually a large amount of application software to fulfill the distribution's intended use. Linux also runs on embedded systems (devices where the operating system is typically built into the firmwareand highly tailored to the system) such as mobile phones.CHAPTER I LINUX A. The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source softwarecollaboration. The defining component of Linux is the Linux kernel. an operating system kernel first released 5 October 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Fedora and openSUSE.

The availability of an operating system written in a high-level language allowed easier portability to different computer platforms. With a legal glitch forcing AT&T to license the operating system's source code to anyone who asked. In 1984. It was first released in 1971 and was initially entirely written in assembly language. Unix was re-written in the programming language C by Dennis Ritchie (with exceptions to the kernel and I/O). Bell Labs began selling Unix as a proprietary product. B. Free of the legal glitch requiring free licensing. A distribution intended to run as a server may omit all graphical environments from the standard install and instead include other software such as the Apache HTTP Server and an SSH server such as OpenSSH.Douglas McIlroy. AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs. and theGIMP image editor. UNIX The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969 at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States` by Ken Thompson. Dennis Ritchie. Later. the Free Software Foundation prefers the name GNU/Linux. Since the main supporting user space system tools and libraries originated in the GNU Project. in a key pioneering approach in 1973. Linux Page 2 . Applications commonly used with desktop Linux systems include the Mozilla Firefox web browser. Kind Of Linux 1. a common practice at the time. Unix quickly grew and became widely adopted by academic institutions and businesses. Some such distributions may include a less resource intensive desktop such as LXDE or Xfce for use on older or less powerful computers. and Joe Ossanna. anyone may create a distribution for any intended use. initiated in 1983 by Richard Stallman. the LibreOffice office application suite.A distribution oriented toward desktop use will typically include the X Window System and an accompanyingdesktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. Because Linux is freely redistributable.

Linux Page 3 . By the early 1990s. he would not have decided to write his own. 3. compilers. text editors. in 1985.2. many of the programs required in an operating system (such as libraries. Work began in 1984. BSD Although not released until 1992 due to legal complications. daemons. author of the MINIXoperating system. designed for education in computer science. although low-level elements such as device drivers. had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed entirely of free software. Linus Torvalds has said that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time (1991). development of 386BSD. and the kernel were stalled and incomplete. Starting with version 3 in 2005. MINIX Andrew S. GNU The GNU Project. Linus Torvalds has said that if 386BSD had been available at the time. he probably would not have created Linux. predated that of Linux. Tanenbaum (left). 4. from which NetBSD and FreeBSDdescended. Later. MINIX has become freeand redesigned for "serious" use. a Unix shell. principal author of the Linux kernel MINIX is an inexpensive minimal Unix-like operating system. started in 1983 by Richard Stallman. and a windowing system) were completed. and Linus Torvalds (right). Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL) in 1989. Tanenbaum. written by Andrew S.

He began to work on his own operating system which eventually became the Linux kernel. Commercial and popular uptake Today. Later Linux matured and further Linux development took place on Linux systems.. Torvalds became curious about operating systems and frustrated by the licensing of MINIX. and has come to fruition as the G. Linux systems are used in every domain. They have also gained popularity with various local and national governments. Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX. which prohibited commercial redistribution. because it was advantageous to use the freely available code from the GNU project with the fledgling operating system. which limited it to educational use only.ost Project.China uses Linux exclusively as Linux Page 4 . and have secured a place in server installations often using the popular LAMP application stack.In 1991 while attending the University of Helsinki. from embedded systems to supercomputers.News of the Russian military creating its own Linux distribution has also surfaced. The Indian state of Kerala has gone to the extent of mandating that all state high schools run Linux on their computers.H. GNU applications also replaced all MINIX components. Developers worked to integrate GNU components with Linux to make a fully functional and free operating system. to the GNU GPL.) Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license. Use of Linux distributions in home and enterprise desktops has been growing. (Code licensed under the GNU GPL can be reused in other projects as long as they also are released under the same or a compatible license. and applications written for MINIX were also used on Linux. The federal government of Brazil is well known for its support for Linux.

C. France and Germany have also taken steps toward the adoption of Linux. Finally. GNU components.the operating system for its Loongson processor family to achieve technology independence. Stallman heads the Free Software Foundation. and non-GNU components. networking. D. The GNU userland is an important part of most Linux-based systems. Such a system uses a monolithic kernel. with additional package management software in the form of Linux distributions. which handles process control. Device drivers are either integrated directly with the kernel or added as modules loaded while the system is running. the Linux kernel. It derives much of its basic design from principles established in Unix during the 1970s and 1980s. providing the most common implementation of the C Linux Page 5 . In Spain some regions have developed their own Linux distributions. Separate projects that interface with the kernel provide much of the system's higher-level functionality. like gnuLinExin Extremadura and Guadalinex in Andalusia. and peripheral and file system access. which are widely used in education and official institutions. individuals and corporations develop third-party non-GNU components. Current development Torvalds continues to direct the development of the kernel. with many devices such as the ASUS Eee PC and Acer Aspire One shipping with customized Linux distributions installed. Design A Linux-based system is a modular Unix-like operating system. Linux vendors and communities combine and distribute the kernel. These third-party components comprise a vast body of work and may include both kernel modules and user applications and libraries. Linux distributions have also become popular in the netbook market. which in turn supports the GNU components. used in the Magalhães netbook and the e-escola government program. Portugal is also using its own Linux distribution Caixa Mágica.

Most popular user interfaces are based on the X Window System. Most low-level Linux components. which is common for embedded systems. It provides network transparency and permits a graphical application running on one system to be displayed on another where a user may interact with the application. such as FVWM. a graphical user interface (GUI). A Linux distribution specialized for servers may use the CLI as its only interface. and provides very simple inter-process communication. though a variety of additional user interfaces exist. The CLI is particularly suited for automation of repetitive or delayed tasks.library. and interacts with the X Window System. The desktop environments include window managers as part of their standard installations Linux Page 6 . including the GNU userland. and Xfce. For desktop systems. which provide a minimalist functionality with respect to the desktop environments. GNOME. which is also the traditional way of interacting with a Unix system. and many of the common Unix tools which carry out many basic operating system tasks. and Window Maker. a popular shell. On desktop systems. A graphicalterminal emulator program is often used to access the CLI from a Linux desktop. use the CLI exclusively. Other GUIs may be classified as simple X window managers. E. User Interface Users operate a Linux-based system through a command line interface (CLI). or through controls attached to the associated hardware. the most popular user interfaces are the extensive desktop environments KDE Plasma Desktop. by which the CLI is available through terminal emulator windows or on a separate virtual console. The graphical user interface (or GUI) used by most Linux systems is built on top of an implementation of the X Window System. A Linux system typically implements a CLI by a shell. A window manager provides a means to control the placement and appearance of individual application windows. Enlightenment. often simply called "X". the default mode is usually a graphical user interface.

(Mutter for GNOME. Xfwm for Xfce as of January 2012) although users may choose to use a different window manager if preferred. Linux Page 7 .KWin for KDE.

certification. The Ubuntu project is sponsored by Canonical Ltd (a company owned by Mark Shuttleworth). etc. technical support.Keuntungan of Debian is the upgradability. issues. that is pure Debian operating system developed without relying on the operating system that has ada. Debian is a 'kernel independent'. These distributions want the spirit of open-source that must exist in Debian. Debian is one of the free Linux operating system for use with GNU. training. Linux Page 8 . RPM is a software to manage the packages on our Linux systems and is considered a de-facto standard in the packaging in Linux distributions and their derivatives which are widely supported distro. Stephen Tweedie makes Red Hat is growing fast and is used in the company. which means "taste perikemanusian against fellow human beings". Greatest points of these distributions are Red Hat Package Manager (RPM). Linux distributions can include free software and can also be commercial software Debian is a Linux kernel based operating system. Red Hat is a distro that is quite popular among Linux developers and companies. sharing. "Ubuntu" comes from the ancient languages of Africa. With the existence of this communication system bugs and security issues in each packet can be reported by Debian users and developers quickly. and its development in the open.Debian license GNU / Linux is a noncommercial distribution produced by volunteers from around the world working together through the Internet. Dynamics of this distribution makes each release its packets are updated every time and can be accessed via apt-get utility. is a family of Unix that uses the Linux kernel. inter-package dependencies are well defined. Ubuntu name derived from a concept of ideology in South Africa.. Apt-get is a command-line utility that can be used dynamically to upgrade the system Debian GNU / Linux through the apt-repository extensive network of Debian archive. and joining the kernel hacker and free-software such as Alan Cox. Michael Johnson. application development. Support. Debian mailing lists and forums are always full of good messages about bugs. Ubuntu is a Linux distribution based on Debian and has a desktop interface.CHAPTER 2 DISTRO LINUX Linux distributions (Short for Linux distributions) is a term for computer operating systems and applications.

of course. The purpose of the Ubuntu Linux distribution brings the spirit embodied in Ubuntu to the software world. spread sheet applications (spreadsheet) to the application to access the Internet. Ubuntu currently supports a variety of computer architectures such as PC (Intel x86). Sun UltraSPARC and T1 (Sun Fire T1000 and T2000). Ubuntu includes all standard for desktop application from word processing. Fedora is sometimes referred to as Linux) is a Linux distribution based on RPM and yum developed by the Fedora Project is Linux Page 9 . Ubuntu itself is developed by the Ubuntu community volunteers and we invite you to contribute and participate to develop Ubuntu!The Ubuntu community is formed by ideas contained in the philosophy of Ubuntu:?? that software should be available free of charge?? that application software must be used in each local language and for people who have physical limitations. and then fix it and then pass it back. we will make Ubuntu all the best jobs available to everyone on the same Free terms. it is useful to make Ubuntu can be used by many people.?? Ubuntu will include the best translations and accessibility infrastructure that is owned by the Free Software community. and?? that users should have the freedom to modify the software in accordance with what they need.Ubuntu also means "I am me because of the presence of us all". PowerPC (Apple iBook and Fedora (formerly Fedora Core. (Taken from www. not just the equipment you need available free of charge. for this we encourage people to use free software and open source. G4 and G5). freely available and have good support from community and professional experts.Here is a public commitment to the Ubuntu team to its users:?? Ubuntu will always be free of charge.These freedoms make Ubuntu fundamentally different from proprietary software (proprietary). 64-bit PC (AMD64). software for web servers. Each release will be supported by Ubuntu with improvements in security and other fixes are free for at least 18 months. latest Ubuntu release available every six months. Ubuntu is released regularly and can you predict. and for desktop installation can be performed using only one CD.?? Ubuntu also provides commercial support from hundreds of companies around the world.000 pieces of software. but you also have the right to modify your software until the software works the way you want. Ubuntu is suitable for both desktop and server. programming languages and tools for a variety of games. Ubuntu includes more than 16. and therefore there will be no additional costs for the "enterprise edition".Ubuntu is a complete Linux-based operating system.ubuntu-id. We are also working with the entire community [Free Software] in terms of bug fixes and code sharing.?? Ubuntu is fully committed to the principles of free software development.

Recently released its new generation of the waves Slackware version 11 release of the other major distros like Mandriva 2007 and Fedora 6 soon. SUSE Previously named SUSE SUSE Linux and SuSE Linux Professional. can also for rescue CDs. Xandros Linux is a Linux distribution based on KDE system. simple. Inc. Xandros has better integration with Windows networks. His company now Linux Page 10 . Debian-based distro GNU / Linux. 1 to 6 on the release of this distro called Fedora Core which then turned into the release of the Fedora7. so if the operation is very easy and convenient. SUSE Linux was originally a German translation of Slackware.. and designed for the computer 386/486 or higher. although it could also be run in memory of 64 MB with a swap to the hard-disk as the author's experience but you need a little patience. able to resize NTFS partitions during installation.. It looks very similar to Microsoft Windows. Slackware is one of the initial distributions. Xandros is also free but is not a commercial product. Slackware is the oldest surviving tough survive at all times. capable of running OfficeXP applications. easy dikustom. Knoppix is a weakness of the large memory needed to use the graphics mode is 96 MB. but by using this distro some users may find a lot of how the system works and to release them.supported by a community of programmers and sponsored by Red Hat. stable. and is the oldest still managed Slackware main goal is stability and ease of design.Briefly Xandros offers the following advantages:~ Five easy steps graphical installation~ Management is integrated partition~ Display the familiar~ The application of the qualified engineer Xandros* Compatibility with Microsoft file formats Knoppix is a Linux live-cd distro that can run through the CD-ROM without installing them on your hard-disk.SlackwareThese distributions are distributions made by Patrick Volkerding of Slackware Linux. These distributions include distributions are very cryptic and manual for Linux newbies. Debian-based Linux distro and was created by Klaus Knopper. Fedora's name comes from the character fedora used in Red Hat logo. famous first after SLS. as well as a Linux distribution that most Unix-like. However. SUSE Linux is one of the major Linux distributions are made in Germany. etc. Application is complete and suitable for the demo or to learn Linux for those who do not have space on your hard-disk.

easy to set up.Linux-Mandrake is one of the distributions derived from Red Hat Linux provides a lot of development and applications 'pre-configured' and supported by many languages around the world. RedHat / Mandrake using the package. Rpm]. often abbreviated as PCLOS. CentOS is a free operating system based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). Linux-based products with high performance is utilized for workstation and server markets. This is a free operating system for personal computers aimed at ease of use. portable (can be ported to other distributions). especially for the use of clustering and orientation to the company. Gentoo Linux is a Linux distribution that uses the Portage package management system.. Mandriva Linux using the RPM Package Manager .FreespireFreespire is a free version of the distro Linspire (aka Lindows). Optimizations for Pentium-class processors up to make Linux-Mandrake can run well on that platform. but there is no official information saying that SuSE is connected with the German computer scientist Konrad Zuse. Turbo Linux is a Linux distro that demand by companies and individuals in Japan and Asia. is a desktop operating system. especially for business use in companies. Mandriva Linux / Linux-MandrakeMandriva Linux (formerly known as Mandrakelinux or Mandrake Linux) is an operating system created by Mandriva (formerly known as MandrakeSoft). Management package is designed for modular (easy plus-plus). then the problem may be due name of. Linux Page 11 . and optimized for each user's computer. Some of its products: TurboLinux Workstation for dekstopnya. [Compare to: Debian using. Deb package. changed to Linspire.owned by Novel. PCLinuxOS. flexible. Inc. TurboLinux Server to backend servers with high performance. e-commerce and B2B (Business-to-Business).CentOS stands for Community Enterprise Operating System (Operating System Company artificial Community / Community). SuSE is an acronym of the phrase in German "Softwareund System-Entwicklung" ("Software and system development"). This distribution is known is easy for beginners and suitable for desktop class but did not rule on the server to be used as a platform.

Linare is seldom heard and is a newcomer. Some free and open source software licenses are based on the principle of copyleft.LycorisLycoris is a linux distro that has made a beautiful version of linux and WinXP resembles. IRIS has Lycros fasiltias the Internet Rapid Installer for Linux Software to update you with new software. A.The entire operating system and applications running in RAM. icon.S. Facilities which draw from Lindows is the Click-n-Run is the facility to get thousands of Linux software that is configured to Lindows with a click and the installation process can also add a shortcut on the desktop and the list of programs otomatis. Even OpenOffice is bundled with Lycoris has beautiful icons and typical Lycoris. It's just this distro is not free and you have to pay a "U. This distribution is based on Debian GNU / Linux and Knoppix. DSL also enables to be installed on USB 128MB.LindowsLycoris Lindows is still less than the beauty in terms of appearance but Lindows has been more mature and has reached version 4. Mini-called because the DSL package size of only 50MB. Damn Small Linux (DSL) is one distro / mini linux variant. Linux is not the only such operating system. in terms of color. although it is by far the most widely used.Puppy Linux is a Linux Live CD distro is very small in size and emphasize ease of use. Displays a screenshot of the site you can observe that it is Lycoris Linux distro beautify themselves so clever using Lycoris you will find it works with Windows XP. which allows removable media after booting the operating system works. a kind of reciprocity: any work Linux Page 12 . Development The primary difference between Linux and many other popular contemporary operating systems is that the Linux kernel and other components are free and open source software.0. Kuliax is a LiveCD Linux distribution developed by Project Kuliax for university education. and package called Linux root distribution Desktop / LX. Lycoris has different packages.Lindows also a commercial product. Linare has a special Linux distribution and desktop CPU package is already installed Linare. and has been optimized to the use of the Linux desktop. or any convenience. Linare is also a commercial product. dollar".

is a form of copyleft. or Portage to install. loose-knit teams. as Red Hat does with Fedora and Novell does with openSUSE. Distributions are maintained by individuals. SUS. and more generally integration of the different software packages into a coherent whole. Linux based distributions are intended by developers for interoperability with other operating systems and established computing standards. The most common free software license. and ANSI standards where possible. This allows users to adapt the operating system to their specific needs. and is used for the Linux kernel and many of the components from the GNU project. commonly called a "distro". general system security. volunteer organizations. the GNU GPL. Community A distribution is largely driven by its developer and user communities. Linux-FT. although to date only one Linux distribution has been POSIX. YAST. is a project that manages a remote collection of system software and application software packages available for download and installation through a network connection.ISO. and commercial entities. although developed in a collaborative fashion. Debian being a well-known example. A Linux distribution.1 certified. The fact that the software licenses explicitly permit redistribution. remove and update all of a system's software from one central location. A distribution is responsible for the default configuration of the installed Linux kernel. however. Linux Page 13 . are often produced independently of each other. Synaptic. Others maintain a community version of their commercial distributions. Some vendors develop and fund their distributions on a volunteer basis. provides a basis for larger scale projects that collect the software produced by stand-alone projects and make it available all at once in the form of a Linux distribution. Distributions typically use a package manager such asdpkg.derived from a copyleft piece of software must also be copyleft itself. B. Free software projects. Linux systems adhere to POSIX.

and contribute to the development of the components of the system and of free software. on which the various software packages of a distribution built on the Linux kernel are based.In many cities and regions. The free software licenses. and Gentoo. several large corporations sell. support. They hold meetings and provide free demonstrations. One common business model of commercial suppliers is charging for support. Sun Microsystems (now part of Oracle). A number of corporations. IBM. notably Red Hat and Novell. Fedora. and Nokia. Oracle. training. Most distributions and free software / open source projects have IRC chatrooms ornewsgroups. Print magazines on Linux often include cover disks including software or even complete Linux distributions. commonly there will be a specific topic such as usage or development for a given list. Novell. A number of companies also offer a specialized business version of their Linux Page 14 . Linux distributions host mailing lists. Many Internet communities also provide support to Linux users and developers. An analysis of the Linux kernel showed 75 percent of the code from December 2008 to January 2010 was developed by programmers working for corporations. such as ones for Ubuntu. Although Linux distributions are generally available without charge. There are several technology websites with a Linux focus. with notable examples being LinuxQuestions. and operating system installation to new users. local associations known as Linux User Groups (LUGs) seek to promote their preferred distribution and by extension free software.[61] Some of the major corporations that contribute include Dell. Online forums are another means for support. have built a significant business around Linux distributions. HP. especially for business users. leaving about 18 percent to volunteers and 7% unclassified. technical support. the relationship between a Linux distribution as a whole and individual vendors may be seen as and the various distribution specific support and community forums. explicitly accommodate and encourage commercialization.

C. which includes the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) and the GNU build system.distribution. Amongst others. Vala. While not as A common. the Low Level Virtual Machine project provides an alternative opensource compiler for many languages. and Scheme. which can also be used independently of the larger framework. This used to be the norm in the computer industry. Python and other dynamic languages. As computer hardware standardized throughout the 1980s. including the original Sun Microsystems JVM (HotSpot). FreeBASIC. and IBM's J2SE RE. GNOME and KDE are popular desktop environments and provide a framework for developing applications. Sun Studio. Ruby. as well as many open-source projects like Kaffe and JikesRVM. with operating systems such as CP/M. Both support a wide variety of languages.5 freely copyable (but not modifiable). Java. Most distributions also include support for PHP. Linux Page 15 . GCC provides compilers for Ada. Proprietary compilers for Linux include the Intel C++ Compiler. which adds proprietary support packages and tools to administer higher numbers of installations or to simplify administrative tasks. and Fortran. Machines and development kits run on Linux. C. as the OS would run on any manufacturer's computer that shared the same architecture. The original development tools used for building both Linux applications and operating system programs are found within the GNU toolchain. and XBasic. and IBM XL C/C++ Compiler. These projects are based on the GTK+ and Qtwidget toolkits. respectively. number Linux of Java also Virtual supports C# (viaMono). Another business model is to give away the software in order to sell hardware. C++. Apple DOS and versions of Mac OS prior to 7. First released in 2003. it became more difficult for hardware manufacturers to profit from this tactic. BASIC in the form ofVisual Basic is supported in such forms as Gambas. Programming On Linux Most Linux distributions support dozens of programming languages. Perl.

The Linux kernel runs on a highly diverse range of computer architectures: in the hand-held ARM-basediPAQ and the mainframe IBM System z9. Lazarus. stability. with about a dozen distributions being most popular for general-purpose use. KDevelop. embedded systems. in devices ranging from mobile phones to supercomputers. while the linux kernel fork may run on systems without a memory management unit. 80286 16- The ELKS kernel fork can on Intel bit microprocessors. Geany. Linux Page 16 . Currently. localization to a specific region or language. such asFreedomHEC. video game consoles. Linux is a widely ported operating system kernel. Specialized distributions exist run for less mainstream 8086 or Intel architectures.MonoDevelop. Qt Creator and Omnis Studio. over three hundred distributions are actively developed. ActiveState Komodo. some distributions deliberately include only free software. There are several industry associations and hardware conferences devoted to maintaining and improving support for diverse hardware under Linux. CodeLite. NetBeans. Eclipse. and mobile phones. targeting of specific user groups. Furthermore. distributions may be specialized for different purposes including: computer architecture support. PDAs. or commitment to a given desktop environment. Code::Blocks. D. while the long-established editors Vim and Emacs remain popular. The kernel also runs on architectures that were only ever intended to use a manufacturer-created operating system. USES As well as those designed for general purpose use on desktops and servers. such as Macintosh computers (with both PowerPC and Intel processors). portable music players.There are a number ofIntegrated development environments available including Anjuta. support for real-time applications. security. System z10.

and then gave a "tell all" interview on the topic. some applications were initially developed for Linux. Many popular applications are available for a wide variety of operating systems. see List of proprietary software for Linux. and were ported to other operating systems including Windows and Mac OS X due to their popularity. and GIMP. Furthermore. for example in 2007 Con Kolivas accused the Linux community of favoring performance on servers. the Wine project provides a Windows compatibility layer to run unmodified Windows applications on Linux Page 17 . such as Autodesk Maya. OpenOffice. He quit Linux kernel development because he was frustrated with this lack of focus on the desktop. Windows and/or Mac OS X. Projects such as Upstart and systemd aim for a faster boot time.[66] Since then a significant amount of development has been undertaken in an effort to improve the desktop experience. Commonly. with the two most popular environments being GNOME (which can utilize additional shells such as the default GNOME Shell and UbuntuUnity).[65] Currently most distributions include a graphical user environment. Softimage XSI and Apple Shake. Dekstop The popularity of Linux on standard desktop computers and laptops has been increasing over the years. and the KDE Plasma Desktop. a growing number of proprietary desktop applications are also supported on Linux. Furthermore. There are also several companies that have ported their own or other companies' games to Linux.E. In the field of animation and visual effects. or that application will have a version that works on Linux. most high end software. such as Pidgin. Many types of applications available for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X are also available for Linux. For example Mozilla Firefox. either a free software application will exist which does the functions of an application found on another operating system. is available for and Blender have downloadable versions for all major operating systems. The performance of Linux on the desktop has been a controversial topic. such as with Skypeand some video games. In addition.

and local developers. but it's hardly needed in modern distributions and is not a method specific to Linux. While most major Linux distributions have extensive repositories. Adobe Photoshop versions through CS2. not all the software that can run on Linux is available from the official repositories. often containing tens of thousands of packages. CrossOver is a proprietary solution based on the open source Wine project that supports running Windows versions of Microsoft Office. and many popular games such as World of Warcraft and Team Fortress 2. All these methods come with different degrees of difficulty.PackageKit. updating and removing software in Linux is typically done through the use of package managers such as the Synaptic Package Manager.Linux. Linux Page 18 . users can install packages from unofficial repositories. download pre-compiled packages directly from websites. and Yum Extender. compiling the source code is in general considered a challenging process for new Linux users. For example the Sinhalese language version of the Knoppix distribution was available significantly before Microsoft Windows XP was translated to Sinhalese. Intuitapplications such as Quicken and QuickBooks. In this case the Lanka Linux User Group played a major part in developing the localized system by combining the knowledge of university professors. where there is no Linux port of some software in areas such as desktop publishing and professional audio. linguists. In other cases. Installing. The collaborative nature of free software development allows distributed teams to perform language localization of some Linux distributions for use in locales where localizing proprietary systems would not be cost-effective. or compile the source code by themselves. there is equivalent software available on Linux. Alternatively.

Servers. Netcraft reported in September 2006 that eight of the ten most reliable internet hosting companies ran Linux distributions on their web servers. Linux was also selected as the operating system for the world's most powerful supercomputer. Linux distributions are also commonly used as operating systems for supercomputers: since November 2010. Linux distributions represented five of the top ten. Linux distributions represented six of the top ten. Apache. mainframes and supercomputers Linux distributions have long been used as server operating systems. Perl/PHP/Python) which has achieved popularity among developers. Linux distributions have become increasingly popular on mainframes in the last decade partly due to pricing and the open-source model. FreeBSD three of ten. and which is one of the more common platforms for website hosting.8%) run a Linux distribution. Linux Page 19 . In December 2009. out of the top 500 systems. Linux distributions are the cornerstone of the LAMP server-software combination (Linux. IBM's Sequoia which was scheduled to become operational in 2011. since February 2010. Since June 2008. FreeBSD two of ten. and have risen to prominence in that area. computer giant IBM reported that it would predominantly market and sell mainframe-based Enterprise Linux Server. 459 (91. MySQL.F. andMicrosoft one of ten. and Microsoft two of ten.

and the Motorola ROKR E8. Yamaha MOX6/MOX8 synthesizers. the Korg KRONOS. 25. Cell phones and PDAs running Linux on open-source platforms became more common from 2007.0 "Ice Cream Sandwich" Due to its low cost and ease of customization. The Korg OASYS. and Roland RD-700GX digital piano also run Linux.5% of smartphones sold worldwide used Android (with all Linux variants forming 27. the Yamaha Yamaha Motif XS/Motif XFmusic workstations. Yamaha S90XS/S70XS. such as the WholeHogIII console.G. Linux is often used in embedded systems. The popular TiVo digital video recorder also uses a customized Linux. webOS. Palm(later acquired by HP) produced a new Linux-derived operating system. found in many smartphones. Embedded devices Home screen displayed onAndroid 4. Yamaha Motif-Rack XS tone generator module. Linux is also used in stage lighting control systems. Continuing the trend. which is built into its new line of Palm Presmartphones. Linux Page 20 . Android—based on a modified version of the Linux kernel—has become a major competitor of Nokia's older Symbian OS. as do several network firewalls androuters from such makers as Cisco/Linksys. Openmoko's Neo1973. examples include the Nokia N810.6% of the total during that time). During the third quarter of 2010.

it will be primarily deployed with Fedora Linux while using Sugar as the desktop environment. About half of Wine's code has been contributed by volunteers and half sponsored by commercial interests including CodeWeavers.7 billion by 2008. Google has also provided funding to the Wine project. The XO laptop project of One Laptop Per Child is creating a new and potentially much larger Linux community which is planned to reach millions of schoolchildren and their families in the developing world. which produces a commercial version of the software. Major supporters of the project include Google. Primarily based on web server statistics. and the revenue of servers. various companies estimated that the desktop market share of Linux range from less than 1% to 4. The Linux market is growing rapidly. low cost.Analysts and proponents attribute the relative success of Linux to its security. and freedom from vendor lock-in. Although the XO will have a Windows option. Since 2009. and eBay.H. reliability. Linux Page 21 . Market share and uptake Many quantitative studies of free / open source software focus on topics including market share and reliability. with numerous studies specifically examining Linux. and packaged software running Linux was expected to exceed $35. and did not include server hardware purchased separately which had Linux installed on it later. In September 2008 Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer admitted that 60% of web-servers run Linux versus 40% that run Windows Server. Red Hat.7% of the overall server market at that time.8%. Microsoft operating systems hold more than 85%. In comparison. The Wine compatibility layer allows users to run many programs designed for Windows under Linux. desktops. This estimate was based on the number of Linux servers sold by various companies. IDC's Q1 2007 report indicated that Linux held 12.

Linux Page 22 .For years Linux has been the platform of choice in the film industry. and Industrial Light & Magic have migrated to Linux. more than 95% of the servers and desktops at large animation and visual effects companies use Linux. The first major film produced on Linux servers was 1997's Titanic. According to the Linux Movies Group. Since then major studios including Dreamworks Animation. Weta Digital. Pixar.

easy to use when we are familiar with this operating system. and contribute to the development of the components of the system and of free software Linux Page 23 . several large corporations sell. hacking. Although Linux distributions are generally available without charge. exploits. but it is also linux free operating system in other words do not need a serial number. webserver. support. routers and other. and operating systems are widely used in such a network server.CHAPTER III CLOSING LINUX is a UNIX-based operating system.

48 PM. accessed on 29 May 2012 PM.wikipedia. Linux Page 24 .wordpress. accessed on 29 May 2012 2. Http://imron02. accessed on 30 may 2012 10.REFERENCES Htttp://en. accessed on 29 may 2012 1. AM.40 Htttp://