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Salahudin Al-ayubi Sena septiana Sutrisna Syena Intijahul Falah Yusep Maulana (1211705147) (1211705149) (1211705158) (1211705160) (1211705170)


Assalamu’alaikum wr.wb. Praise and sykur with a sincere heart and mind offered to Allah SWT., Because thanks to the delicious, Ma'unah and his guidance, this paper can be completed in a timely manner. Prayers and greetings to the Prophet Muhammad., Along with family and friends who are faithful to sacrifice body and soul and the other for the establishment of Islamic syi'ar, the effects and benefits are still felt. Like no ivory that is not cracked, so did the paper, the authors would like criticism and suggestions. That way there will be advised if there are errors.

Wasslamu'alaikum wr.wb.

Bandung, 1 June 2012

The Author,


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..........................................History Of Linux ....................................Kind Of Linux ....................................................1 A..............................8 A.........................................2 C...................................................................................................................17 F............Development .Current Development ..............................................................................16 E..............................................................................20 H.........................................................................................5 D........................Desktop .. Mainframes and Supercomputers .................................................................6 CHAPTER II DISTRO OF LINUX.........User Interface ...15 D......Market Share and Uptake .............. ii CHAPTER I LINUX...................................................................................................................................Table Of Contents FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................................................................................................Programming On Linux...Server...............Uses ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................19 G.............................................5 E......................................................................................................Design .…12 B...... i TABLE OF CONTENTS ..............Community .............................................Embedded Device .....13 C.......................1 B......................21 CAHPTER III CLOSING REFERENCES Linux Page ii ....................................................

Linux was originally developed as a free operating system for Intel x86based personal computers. The defining component of Linux is the Linux kernel. network routers. the Android system in wide use on mobile devices is built on the Linux kernel. supporting utilities and libraries and usually a large amount of application software to fulfill the distribution's intended use. and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under licenses such as the GNU General Public License.CHAPTER I LINUX A. Linux distributions include the Linux kernel. Some popular mainstream Linux distributions include Debian (and its derivatives such as Ubuntu). History Of Linux Linux is a Unix-like computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open source software development and distribution. including the 10 fastest. It has since been ported to more computer hardware platforms than any other operating system. televisions and video game consoles. The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source softwarecollaboration. Linux Page 1 . Linux also runs on embedded systems (devices where the operating system is typically built into the firmwareand highly tailored to the system) such as mobile phones. tablet computers. It is a leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems more than 90% such of as mainframe today's 500 fastest computers and supercomputers: supercomputers run some variant of Linux. modified. an operating system kernel first released 5 October 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Typically Linux is packaged in a format known as a Linux distribution for desktop and server use. Fedora and openSUSE. the underlying source code may be used.

Dennis Ritchie. With a legal glitch forcing AT&T to license the operating system's source code to anyone who asked. AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs. and Joe Ossanna. Unix quickly grew and became widely adopted by academic institutions and businesses. Bell Labs began selling Unix as a proprietary product. Free of the legal glitch requiring free licensing. Some such distributions may include a less resource intensive desktop such as LXDE or Xfce for use on older or less powerful computers. UNIX The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969 at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States` by Ken Thompson. B. Unix was re-written in the programming language C by Dennis Ritchie (with exceptions to the kernel and I/O). Since the main supporting user space system tools and libraries originated in the GNU Project. A distribution intended to run as a server may omit all graphical environments from the standard install and instead include other software such as the Apache HTTP Server and an SSH server such as OpenSSH. and theGIMP image editor.Douglas McIlroy. a common practice at the time.A distribution oriented toward desktop use will typically include the X Window System and an accompanyingdesktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. initiated in 1983 by Richard Stallman. anyone may create a distribution for any intended use. Later. It was first released in 1971 and was initially entirely written in assembly language. in a key pioneering approach in 1973. The availability of an operating system written in a high-level language allowed easier portability to different computer platforms. the LibreOffice office application suite. Applications commonly used with desktop Linux systems include the Mozilla Firefox web browser. Linux Page 2 . In 1984. Kind Of Linux 1. Because Linux is freely redistributable. the Free Software Foundation prefers the name GNU/Linux.

predated that of Linux. written by Andrew S. a Unix shell. compilers. development of 386BSD. Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL) in 1989. Tanenbaum (left). By the early 1990s. and Linus Torvalds (right). Later. although low-level elements such as device drivers. and the kernel were stalled and incomplete. had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed entirely of free software. he probably would not have created Linux. designed for education in computer science. many of the programs required in an operating system (such as libraries. and a windowing system) were completed. principal author of the Linux kernel MINIX is an inexpensive minimal Unix-like operating system. BSD Although not released until 1992 due to legal complications. Starting with version 3 in 2005. Linus Torvalds has said that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time (1991). text editors. 4. Tanenbaum. MINIX Andrew S. MINIX has become freeand redesigned for "serious" use. GNU The GNU Project. he would not have decided to write his own. Linus Torvalds has said that if 386BSD had been available at the time. from which NetBSD and FreeBSDdescended. Linux Page 3 . 3. daemons. author of the MINIXoperating system. Work began in 1984.2. in 1985. started in 1983 by Richard Stallman.

In 1991 while attending the University of Helsinki. Later Linux matured and further Linux development took place on Linux systems. Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX. Commercial and popular uptake Today. and has come to fruition as the G. which prohibited commercial redistribution. They have also gained popularity with various local and national governments. The federal government of Brazil is well known for its support for Linux. Developers worked to integrate GNU components with Linux to make a fully functional and free operating system. GNU applications also replaced all MINIX components.ost Project. He began to work on his own operating system which eventually became the Linux kernel. and have secured a place in server installations often using the popular LAMP application stack. because it was advantageous to use the freely available code from the GNU project with the fledgling operating system.China uses Linux exclusively as Linux Page 4 . which limited it to educational use only. Linux systems are used in every domain. Torvalds became curious about operating systems and frustrated by the licensing of MINIX. and applications written for MINIX were also used on Linux. The Indian state of Kerala has gone to the extent of mandating that all state high schools run Linux on their computers..) Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license. (Code licensed under the GNU GPL can be reused in other projects as long as they also are released under the same or a compatible license. Use of Linux distributions in home and enterprise desktops has been growing.News of the Russian military creating its own Linux distribution has also surfaced.H. from embedded systems to supercomputers. to the GNU GPL.

Linux distributions have also become popular in the netbook market. which handles process control. with additional package management software in the form of Linux distributions. the Linux kernel. France and Germany have also taken steps toward the adoption of Linux. Design A Linux-based system is a modular Unix-like operating system. GNU components. Device drivers are either integrated directly with the kernel or added as modules loaded while the system is running. The GNU userland is an important part of most Linux-based systems. and non-GNU components. Portugal is also using its own Linux distribution Caixa Mágica. Current development Torvalds continues to direct the development of the kernel. Stallman heads the Free Software Foundation. used in the Magalhães netbook and the e-escola government program. C. Linux vendors and communities combine and distribute the kernel. which are widely used in education and official institutions. networking. It derives much of its basic design from principles established in Unix during the 1970s and 1980s. Finally. providing the most common implementation of the C Linux Page 5 . like gnuLinExin Extremadura and Guadalinex in Andalusia. individuals and corporations develop third-party non-GNU components.the operating system for its Loongson processor family to achieve technology independence. which in turn supports the GNU components. Separate projects that interface with the kernel provide much of the system's higher-level functionality. Such a system uses a monolithic kernel. and peripheral and file system access. In Spain some regions have developed their own Linux distributions. with many devices such as the ASUS Eee PC and Acer Aspire One shipping with customized Linux distributions installed. These third-party components comprise a vast body of work and may include both kernel modules and user applications and libraries. D.

a popular shell. and Window Maker. which is common for embedded systems. Enlightenment. though a variety of additional user interfaces exist. The graphical user interface (or GUI) used by most Linux systems is built on top of an implementation of the X Window System. a graphical user interface (GUI). Most popular user interfaces are based on the X Window System. For desktop systems. On desktop systems. including the GNU userland. A Linux system typically implements a CLI by a shell. and interacts with the X Window System. the default mode is usually a graphical user interface. Other GUIs may be classified as simple X window managers. such as FVWM. use the CLI exclusively. The CLI is particularly suited for automation of repetitive or delayed tasks. A window manager provides a means to control the placement and appearance of individual application windows. often simply called "X". and many of the common Unix tools which carry out many basic operating system tasks. and provides very simple inter-process communication. by which the CLI is available through terminal emulator windows or on a separate virtual console. which is also the traditional way of interacting with a Unix system. Most low-level Linux components. The desktop environments include window managers as part of their standard installations Linux Page 6 . E. User Interface Users operate a Linux-based system through a command line interface (CLI). which provide a minimalist functionality with respect to the desktop environments.library. and Xfce. GNOME. A Linux distribution specialized for servers may use the CLI as its only interface. It provides network transparency and permits a graphical application running on one system to be displayed on another where a user may interact with the application. the most popular user interfaces are the extensive desktop environments KDE Plasma Desktop. A graphicalterminal emulator program is often used to access the CLI from a Linux desktop. or through controls attached to the associated hardware.

(Mutter for GNOME. Linux Page 7 . Xfwm for Xfce as of January 2012) although users may choose to use a different window manager if preferred.KWin for KDE.

is a family of Unix that uses the Linux kernel. Stephen Tweedie makes Red Hat is growing fast and is used in the company. With the existence of this communication system bugs and security issues in each packet can be reported by Debian users and developers quickly. Debian is one of the free Linux operating system for use with GNU. Debian is a 'kernel independent'. These distributions want the spirit of open-source that must exist in Debian. which means "taste perikemanusian against fellow human beings". Linux distributions can include free software and can also be commercial software Debian is a Linux kernel based operating system. "Ubuntu" comes from the ancient languages of Africa. Linux Page 8 . and its development in the open. etc. technical support. The Ubuntu project is sponsored by Canonical Ltd (a company owned by Mark Shuttleworth). Ubuntu name derived from a concept of ideology in South Africa. that is pure Debian operating system developed without relying on the operating system that has ada. Ubuntu is a Linux distribution based on Debian and has a desktop interface. inter-package dependencies are well defined..Keuntungan of Debian is the upgradability. certification. Apt-get is a command-line utility that can be used dynamically to upgrade the system Debian GNU / Linux through the apt-repository extensive network of Debian archive. Greatest points of these distributions are Red Hat Package Manager (RPM).CHAPTER 2 DISTRO LINUX Linux distributions (Short for Linux distributions) is a term for computer operating systems and applications. sharing. Dynamics of this distribution makes each release its packets are updated every time and can be accessed via apt-get utility. Debian mailing lists and forums are always full of good messages about bugs. RPM is a software to manage the packages on our Linux systems and is considered a de-facto standard in the packaging in Linux distributions and their derivatives which are widely supported distro. issues. Support. Red Hat is a distro that is quite popular among Linux developers and companies. application development. and joining the kernel hacker and free-software such as Alan Cox. Michael Johnson. training.Debian license GNU / Linux is a noncommercial distribution produced by volunteers from around the world working together through the Internet.

Ubuntu includes more than 16. we will make Ubuntu all the best jobs available to everyone on the same Free terms. not just the equipment you need available free of charge. Each release will be supported by Ubuntu with improvements in security and other fixes are free for at least 18 months. spread sheet applications (spreadsheet) to the application to access the Internet. programming languages and tools for a variety of games. Fedora is sometimes referred to as Linux) is a Linux distribution based on RPM and yum developed by the Fedora Project is Linux Page 9 . Ubuntu is suitable for both desktop and server.Here is a public commitment to the Ubuntu team to its users:?? Ubuntu will always be free of charge. latest Ubuntu release available every six months. (Taken from www. software for web servers. and therefore there will be no additional costs for the "enterprise edition".?? Ubuntu also provides commercial support from hundreds of companies around the world. Ubuntu itself is developed by the Ubuntu community volunteers and we invite you to contribute and participate to develop Ubuntu!The Ubuntu community is formed by ideas contained in the philosophy of Ubuntu:?? that software should be available free of charge?? that application software must be used in each local language and for people who have physical limitations.Ubuntu also means "I am me because of the presence of us all". it is useful to make Ubuntu can be used by many people. G4 and G5). The purpose of the Ubuntu Linux distribution brings the spirit embodied in Ubuntu to the software world.?? Ubuntu will include the best translations and accessibility infrastructure that is owned by the Free Software community. and?? that users should have the freedom to modify the software in accordance with what they need. and for desktop installation can be performed using only one CD.Ubuntu is a complete Linux-based operating system. Ubuntu includes all standard for desktop application from word processing. freely available and have good support from community and professional Fedora (formerly Fedora Core. for this we encourage people to use free software and open source. We are also working with the entire community [Free Software] in terms of bug fixes and code sharing. of course. PowerPC (Apple iBook and Powerbook. and then fix it and then pass it back. 64-bit PC (AMD64).These freedoms make Ubuntu fundamentally different from proprietary software (proprietary). Ubuntu is released regularly and can you predict.ubuntu-id. Ubuntu currently supports a variety of computer architectures such as PC (Intel x86).?? Ubuntu is fully committed to the principles of free software development.000 pieces of software. but you also have the right to modify your software until the software works the way you want. Sun UltraSPARC and T1 (Sun Fire T1000 and T2000).

SlackwareThese distributions are distributions made by Patrick Volkerding of Slackware Linux. However.. and designed for the computer 386/486 or higher. Debian-based distro GNU / Linux. Knoppix is a weakness of the large memory needed to use the graphics mode is 96 MB. Slackware is the oldest surviving tough survive at all times. SUSE Previously named SUSE SUSE Linux and SuSE Linux Professional. Xandros has better integration with Windows networks. Xandros Linux is a Linux distribution based on KDE system. capable of running OfficeXP applications. It looks very similar to Microsoft Windows. but by using this distro some users may find a lot of how the system works and to release them. easy dikustom. and is the oldest still managed Slackware main goal is stability and ease of design. famous first after SLS. Xandros is also free but is not a commercial product. stable. as well as a Linux distribution that most Unix-like. Slackware is one of the initial distributions.supported by a community of programmers and sponsored by Red Hat.Briefly Xandros offers the following advantages:~ Five easy steps graphical installation~ Management is integrated partition~ Display the familiar~ The application of the qualified engineer Xandros* Compatibility with Microsoft file formats Knoppix is a Linux live-cd distro that can run through the CD-ROM without installing them on your hard-disk. SUSE Linux was originally a German translation of Slackware.. Debian-based Linux distro and was created by Klaus Knopper. SUSE Linux is one of the major Linux distributions are made in Germany. etc. Recently released its new generation of the waves Slackware version 11 release of the other major distros like Mandriva 2007 and Fedora 6 soon. Application is complete and suitable for the demo or to learn Linux for those who do not have space on your hard-disk. simple. can also for rescue CDs. 1 to 6 on the release of this distro called Fedora Core which then turned into the release of the Fedora7. These distributions include distributions are very cryptic and manual for Linux newbies. so if the operation is very easy and convenient. His company now Linux Page 10 . Fedora's name comes from the character fedora used in Red Hat logo. Inc. able to resize NTFS partitions during installation. although it could also be run in memory of 64 MB with a swap to the hard-disk as the author's experience but you need a little patience.

Some of its products: TurboLinux Workstation for dekstopnya. Deb package. Management package is designed for modular (easy plus-plus). e-commerce and B2B (Business-to-Business). Rpm]. Optimizations for Pentium-class processors up to make Linux-Mandrake can run well on that platform.Linux-Mandrake is one of the distributions derived from Red Hat Linux provides a lot of development and applications 'pre-configured' and supported by many languages around the world. but there is no official information saying that SuSE is connected with the German computer scientist Konrad Zuse. Turbo Linux is a Linux distro that demand by companies and individuals in Japan and Asia. SuSE is an acronym of the phrase in German "Softwareund System-Entwicklung" ("Software and system development"). This is a free operating system for personal computers aimed at ease of use. Linux Page 11 . Inc. and optimized for each user's computer. especially for business use in companies. especially for the use of clustering and orientation to the company.. [Compare to: Debian using. flexible.FreespireFreespire is a free version of the distro Linspire (aka Lindows). PCLinuxOS. changed to Linspire. RedHat / Mandrake using the package. This distribution is known is easy for beginners and suitable for desktop class but did not rule on the server to be used as a platform. easy to set up. Gentoo Linux is a Linux distribution that uses the Portage package management system. CentOS is a free operating system based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). often abbreviated as PCLOS. Mandriva Linux / Linux-MandrakeMandriva Linux (formerly known as Mandrakelinux or Mandrake Linux) is an operating system created by Mandriva (formerly known as MandrakeSoft). TurboLinux Server to backend servers with high performance. then the problem may be due name of. portable (can be ported to other distributions).owned by Novel. is a desktop operating system. Linux-based products with high performance is utilized for workstation and server markets. Mandriva Linux using the RPM Package Manager .CentOS stands for Community Enterprise Operating System (Operating System Company artificial Community / Community).

LindowsLycoris Lindows is still less than the beauty in terms of appearance but Lindows has been more mature and has reached version 4. Damn Small Linux (DSL) is one distro / mini linux variant. Linux is not the only such operating system. Even OpenOffice is bundled with Lycoris has beautiful icons and typical Lycoris. Mini-called because the DSL package size of only 50MB.Lindows also a commercial product.Puppy Linux is a Linux Live CD distro is very small in size and emphasize ease of use. in terms of color. which allows removable media after booting the operating system works. Lycoris has different packages. Facilities which draw from Lindows is the Click-n-Run is the facility to get thousands of Linux software that is configured to Lindows with a click and the installation process can also add a shortcut on the desktop and the list of programs otomatis.The entire operating system and applications running in RAM. This distribution is based on Debian GNU / Linux and Knoppix. DSL also enables to be installed on USB 128MB.S.LycorisLycoris is a linux distro that has made a beautiful version of linux and WinXP resembles. Kuliax is a LiveCD Linux distribution developed by Project Kuliax for university education. Development The primary difference between Linux and many other popular contemporary operating systems is that the Linux kernel and other components are free and open source software. Some free and open source software licenses are based on the principle of copyleft. Linare is seldom heard and is a newcomer. a kind of reciprocity: any work Linux Page 12 . IRIS has Lycros fasiltias the Internet Rapid Installer for Linux Software to update you with new software. and package called Linux root distribution Desktop / LX.0. Linare has a special Linux distribution and desktop CPU package is already installed Linare. It's just this distro is not free and you have to pay a "U. Linare is also a commercial product. Displays a screenshot of the site you can observe that it is Lycoris Linux distro beautify themselves so clever using Lycoris you will find it works with Windows XP. A. dollar". and has been optimized to the use of the Linux desktop. although it is by far the most widely used. or any convenience. icon.

Some vendors develop and fund their distributions on a volunteer basis. or Portage to install. A Linux distribution. is a project that manages a remote collection of system software and application software packages available for download and installation through a network connection. general system security. the GNU GPL. Debian being a well-known example. although to date only one Linux distribution has been POSIX. Community A distribution is largely driven by its developer and user communities.1 certified. as Red Hat does with Fedora and Novell does with openSUSE. volunteer organizations. Linux Page 13 . SUS. Synaptic. is a form of copyleft. Linux systems adhere to POSIX. B. and is used for the Linux kernel and many of the components from the GNU project. The most common free software license. commonly called a "distro". and commercial entities. Distributions are maintained by individuals. Free software projects. however. remove and update all of a system's software from one central location. Others maintain a community version of their commercial distributions. This allows users to adapt the operating system to their specific needs. The fact that the software licenses explicitly permit redistribution. YAST. and more generally integration of the different software packages into a coherent whole.ISO. and ANSI standards where possible. provides a basis for larger scale projects that collect the software produced by stand-alone projects and make it available all at once in the form of a Linux distribution. although developed in a collaborative fashion. are often produced independently of each other. Linux-FT. Linux based distributions are intended by developers for interoperability with other operating systems and established computing standards. loose-knit teams.derived from a copyleft piece of software must also be copyleft itself. A distribution is responsible for the default configuration of the installed Linux kernel. Distributions typically use a package manager such asdpkg.

The free software licenses. have built a significant business around Linux distributions. An analysis of the Linux kernel showed 75 percent of the code from December 2008 to January 2010 was developed by programmers working for corporations.[61] Some of the major corporations that contribute include Dell. explicitly accommodate and encourage commercialization. Many Internet communities also provide support to Linux users and developers.In many cities and regions. IBM. several large corporations sell. with notable examples being LinuxQuestions. HP. and operating system installation to new users. support. They hold meetings and provide free demonstrations. especially for business users. and Nokia. Online forums are another means for support. Linux distributions host mailing lists. leaving about 18 percent to volunteers and 7% unclassified. Most distributions and free software / open source projects have IRC chatrooms ornewsgroups. the relationship between a Linux distribution as a whole and individual vendors may be seen as symbiotic. local associations known as Linux User Groups (LUGs) seek to promote their preferred distribution and by extension free software. Print magazines on Linux often include cover disks including software or even complete Linux distributions. Sun Microsystems (now part of Oracle). A number of corporations. Although Linux distributions are generally available without charge. on which the various software packages of a distribution built on the Linux kernel are based. and contribute to the development of the components of the system and of free software. technical support. training. A number of companies also offer a specialized business version of their Linux Page 14 . Oracle. Fedora. Novell. such as ones for Ubuntu. commonly there will be a specific topic such as usage or development for a given and the various distribution specific support and community forums. One common business model of commercial suppliers is charging for support. There are several technology websites with a Linux focus. and Gentoo. notably Red Hat and Novell.

which can also be used independently of the larger framework. Perl. Machines and development kits run on Linux. While not as A common. and IBM XL C/C++ Compiler. Proprietary compilers for Linux include the Intel C++ Compiler. C++. Most distributions also include support for PHP. FreeBASIC. the Low Level Virtual Machine project provides an alternative opensource compiler for many languages. and IBM's J2SE RE. and Scheme. As computer hardware standardized throughout the 1980s. and Fortran. as the OS would run on any manufacturer's computer that shared the same architecture. Programming On Linux Most Linux distributions support dozens of programming languages. as well as many open-source projects like Kaffe and JikesRVM. and XBasic. Ruby. C. it became more difficult for hardware manufacturers to profit from this tactic. C. respectively.distribution. Linux Page 15 . Sun Studio. including the original Sun Microsystems JVM (HotSpot). Both support a wide variety of languages. which adds proprietary support packages and tools to administer higher numbers of installations or to simplify administrative tasks. with operating systems such as CP/M. Amongst others. These projects are based on the GTK+ and Qtwidget toolkits. Vala. number Linux of Java also Virtual supports C# (viaMono). Another business model is to give away the software in order to sell hardware. The original development tools used for building both Linux applications and operating system programs are found within the GNU toolchain. First released in 2003. Python and other dynamic languages. Apple DOS and versions of Mac OS prior to 7. This used to be the norm in the computer industry. GCC provides compilers for Ada. which includes the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) and the GNU build system. BASIC in the form ofVisual Basic is supported in such forms as Gambas. GNOME and KDE are popular desktop environments and provide a framework for developing applications.5 freely copyable (but not modifiable). Java.

with about a dozen distributions being most popular for general-purpose use. Currently. NetBeans. video game consoles. ActiveState Komodo. Code::Blocks. Furthermore. CodeLite. System z10. support for real-time applications. while the long-established editors Vim and Emacs remain popular. embedded systems. Linux is a widely ported operating system kernel. while the linux kernel fork may run on systems without a memory management unit. stability. USES As well as those designed for general purpose use on desktops and servers. localization to a specific region or language. portable music players. Linux Page 16 . There are several industry associations and hardware conferences devoted to maintaining and improving support for diverse hardware under Linux. PDAs. targeting of specific user groups. Specialized distributions exist run for less mainstream 8086 or Intel architectures. in devices ranging from mobile phones to supercomputers. such asFreedomHEC. Eclipse. Lazarus.There are a number ofIntegrated development environments available including Anjuta. Geany. The kernel also runs on architectures that were only ever intended to use a manufacturer-created operating system. The Linux kernel runs on a highly diverse range of computer architectures: in the hand-held ARM-basediPAQ and the mainframe IBM System z9. over three hundred distributions are actively developed. such as Macintosh computers (with both PowerPC and Intel processors). 80286 16- The ELKS kernel fork can on Intel bit microprocessors.MonoDevelop. security. and mobile phones. KDevelop. some distributions deliberately include only free software. D. or commitment to a given desktop environment. distributions may be specialized for different purposes including: computer architecture support. Qt Creator and Omnis Studio.

for example in 2007 Con Kolivas accused the Linux community of favoring performance on servers. a growing number of proprietary desktop applications are also supported on Linux. Windows and/or Mac OS X. see List of proprietary software for Linux. or that application will have a version that works on Linux. OpenOffice. is available for Linux. either a free software application will exist which does the functions of an application found on another operating system. and then gave a "tell all" interview on the topic. most high end software. Many types of applications available for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X are also available for Linux. such as with Skypeand some video games. some applications were initially developed for Linux. Furthermore. such as Autodesk and Blender have downloadable versions for all major operating systems. such as Pidgin. with the two most popular environments being GNOME (which can utilize additional shells such as the default GNOME Shell and UbuntuUnity). Commonly. and GIMP.E.[65] Currently most distributions include a graphical user environment. In the field of animation and visual effects. and the KDE Plasma Desktop. Furthermore. In addition. For example Mozilla Firefox.[66] Since then a significant amount of development has been undertaken in an effort to improve the desktop experience. the Wine project provides a Windows compatibility layer to run unmodified Windows applications on Linux Page 17 . He quit Linux kernel development because he was frustrated with this lack of focus on the desktop. Softimage XSI and Apple Shake. Projects such as Upstart and systemd aim for a faster boot time. Many popular applications are available for a wide variety of operating systems. Dekstop The popularity of Linux on standard desktop computers and laptops has been increasing over the years. and were ported to other operating systems including Windows and Mac OS X due to their popularity. There are also several companies that have ported their own or other companies' games to Linux. The performance of Linux on the desktop has been a controversial topic.

users can install packages from unofficial repositories. where there is no Linux port of some software in areas such as desktop publishing and professional audio. While most major Linux distributions have extensive repositories. not all the software that can run on Linux is available from the official repositories.PackageKit. Alternatively. there is equivalent software available on Linux. CrossOver is a proprietary solution based on the open source Wine project that supports running Windows versions of Microsoft Office.Linux. The collaborative nature of free software development allows distributed teams to perform language localization of some Linux distributions for use in locales where localizing proprietary systems would not be cost-effective. For example the Sinhalese language version of the Knoppix distribution was available significantly before Microsoft Windows XP was translated to Sinhalese. often containing tens of thousands of packages. Linux Page 18 . or compile the source code by themselves. In this case the Lanka Linux User Group played a major part in developing the localized system by combining the knowledge of university professors. linguists. and Yum Extender. and local developers. updating and removing software in Linux is typically done through the use of package managers such as the Synaptic Package Manager. download pre-compiled packages directly from websites. and many popular games such as World of Warcraft and Team Fortress 2. All these methods come with different degrees of difficulty. Adobe Photoshop versions through CS2. Intuitapplications such as Quicken and QuickBooks. Installing. but it's hardly needed in modern distributions and is not a method specific to Linux. compiling the source code is in general considered a challenging process for new Linux users. In other cases.

out of the top 500 systems. since February 2010.8%) run a Linux distribution.F. Since June 2008. In December 2009. Linux was also selected as the operating system for the world's most powerful supercomputer. mainframes and supercomputers Linux distributions have long been used as server operating systems. 459 (91. Linux Page 19 . andMicrosoft one of ten. Perl/PHP/Python) which has achieved popularity among developers. MySQL. Servers. computer giant IBM reported that it would predominantly market and sell mainframe-based Enterprise Linux Server. and have risen to prominence in that area. Linux distributions are also commonly used as operating systems for supercomputers: since November 2010. FreeBSD three of ten. and which is one of the more common platforms for website hosting. Linux distributions are the cornerstone of the LAMP server-software combination (Linux. Netcraft reported in September 2006 that eight of the ten most reliable internet hosting companies ran Linux distributions on their web servers. Apache. FreeBSD two of ten. IBM's Sequoia which was scheduled to become operational in 2011. and Microsoft two of ten. Linux distributions represented six of the top ten. Linux distributions represented five of the top ten. Linux distributions have become increasingly popular on mainframes in the last decade partly due to pricing and the open-source model.

as do several network firewalls androuters from such makers as Cisco/Linksys. Yamaha Motif-Rack XS tone generator module. and Roland RD-700GX digital piano also run Linux. webOS.6% of the total during that time). During the third quarter of 2010. Linux is often used in embedded systems. Linux is also used in stage lighting control systems. the Yamaha Yamaha Motif XS/Motif XFmusic workstations. Palm(later acquired by HP) produced a new Linux-derived operating system. Linux Page 20 .5% of smartphones sold worldwide used Android (with all Linux variants forming 27. examples include the Nokia N810. 25. which is built into its new line of Palm Presmartphones. Continuing the trend.0 "Ice Cream Sandwich" Due to its low cost and ease of customization.G. The popular TiVo digital video recorder also uses a customized Linux. Embedded devices Home screen displayed onAndroid 4. Openmoko's Neo1973. such as the WholeHogIII console. the Korg KRONOS. Android—based on a modified version of the Linux kernel—has become a major competitor of Nokia's older Symbian OS. Yamaha S90XS/S70XS. and the Motorola ROKR E8. Yamaha MOX6/MOX8 synthesizers. Cell phones and PDAs running Linux on open-source platforms became more common from 2007. found in many smartphones. The Korg OASYS.

IDC's Q1 2007 report indicated that Linux held 12. Since 2009. The Wine compatibility layer allows users to run many programs designed for Windows under Linux.Analysts and proponents attribute the relative success of Linux to its security.8%. In comparison. Although the XO will have a Windows option. it will be primarily deployed with Fedora Linux while using Sugar as the desktop environment.7% of the overall server market at that time. low cost. This estimate was based on the number of Linux servers sold by various companies. desktops. and eBay. Linux Page 21 . Microsoft operating systems hold more than 85%. The Linux market is growing rapidly. The XO laptop project of One Laptop Per Child is creating a new and potentially much larger Linux community which is planned to reach millions of schoolchildren and their families in the developing world. reliability. and the revenue of servers. Market share and uptake Many quantitative studies of free / open source software focus on topics including market share and reliability. which produces a commercial version of the software.H. and did not include server hardware purchased separately which had Linux installed on it later. and freedom from vendor lock-in.7 billion by 2008. About half of Wine's code has been contributed by volunteers and half sponsored by commercial interests including CodeWeavers. and packaged software running Linux was expected to exceed $35. Red Hat. Major supporters of the project include Google. Google has also provided funding to the Wine project. Primarily based on web server statistics. various companies estimated that the desktop market share of Linux range from less than 1% to 4. In September 2008 Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer admitted that 60% of web-servers run Linux versus 40% that run Windows Server. with numerous studies specifically examining Linux.

Linux Page 22 . The first major film produced on Linux servers was 1997's Titanic. Since then major studios including Dreamworks Animation. Weta Digital.For years Linux has been the platform of choice in the film industry. more than 95% of the servers and desktops at large animation and visual effects companies use Linux. According to the Linux Movies Group. Pixar. and Industrial Light & Magic have migrated to Linux.

routers and other. and contribute to the development of the components of the system and of free software Linux Page 23 . Although Linux distributions are generally available without charge. exploits. webserver. and operating systems are widely used in such a network server. easy to use when we are familiar with this operating system. several large corporations sell. hacking. but it is also linux free operating system in other words do not need a serial number.CHAPTER III CLOSING LINUX is a UNIX-based operating system. support.

wordpress. Http:// Htttp://id.html.48 PM.wikipedia.48 PM.32 AM. accessed on 29 May 2012 PM.blogspot. accessed on 30 may 2012 10.REFERENCES Htttp://en. http://yazidfuadi. Linux Page 24 . accessed on 29 May 2012 accessed on 29 may 2012