Salahudin Al-ayubi Sena septiana Sutrisna Syena Intijahul Falah Yusep Maulana (1211705147) (1211705149) (1211705158) (1211705160) (1211705170)


Assalamu’alaikum wr.wb. Praise and sykur with a sincere heart and mind offered to Allah SWT., Because thanks to the delicious, Ma'unah and his guidance, this paper can be completed in a timely manner. Prayers and greetings to the Prophet Muhammad., Along with family and friends who are faithful to sacrifice body and soul and the other for the establishment of Islamic syi'ar, the effects and benefits are still felt. Like no ivory that is not cracked, so did the paper, the authors would like criticism and suggestions. That way there will be advised if there are errors.

Wasslamu'alaikum wr.wb.

Bandung, 1 June 2012

The Author,


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.........................................Market Share and Uptake ...................................................................................Uses .................Kind Of Linux ............ i TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................13 C..................................................................................15 D........Server................User Interface ......................................Current Development ........................................................................Table Of Contents FOREWORD .........................................Programming On Linux....................................................1 A.................................................19 G...................................................................Embedded Device ....8 A.......6 CHAPTER II DISTRO OF LINUX.......................................................................................Community .............................Desktop .......21 CAHPTER III CLOSING REFERENCES Linux Page ii ........................…12 B..........................................................................................................................................History Of Linux .20 H................................................................................................................................1 B.........................................................17 F...........................................................5 D.....................................................................Development ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................16 E.....................2 C.................................... ii CHAPTER I LINUX.... Mainframes and Supercomputers ..............Design ................................................5 E...............

Fedora and openSUSE. tablet computers. supporting utilities and libraries and usually a large amount of application software to fulfill the distribution's intended use. and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under licenses such as the GNU General Public License. Some popular mainstream Linux distributions include Debian (and its derivatives such as Ubuntu). modified. History Of Linux Linux is a Unix-like computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open source software development and distribution. televisions and video game consoles. Linux also runs on embedded systems (devices where the operating system is typically built into the firmwareand highly tailored to the system) such as mobile phones. The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source softwarecollaboration. Typically Linux is packaged in a format known as a Linux distribution for desktop and server use. It has since been ported to more computer hardware platforms than any other operating system. the underlying source code may be used. It is a leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems more than 90% such of as mainframe today's 500 fastest computers and supercomputers: supercomputers run some variant of Linux. Linux Page 1 . Linux was originally developed as a free operating system for Intel x86based personal computers. including the 10 fastest.CHAPTER I LINUX A. an operating system kernel first released 5 October 1991 by Linus Torvalds. the Android system in wide use on mobile devices is built on the Linux kernel. network routers. The defining component of Linux is the Linux kernel. Linux distributions include the Linux kernel.

Because Linux is freely redistributable. Free of the legal glitch requiring free licensing. the LibreOffice office application suite. the Free Software Foundation prefers the name GNU/Linux. AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs. Some such distributions may include a less resource intensive desktop such as LXDE or Xfce for use on older or less powerful computers. In 1984. B. anyone may create a distribution for any intended use. Applications commonly used with desktop Linux systems include the Mozilla Firefox web browser. UNIX The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969 at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States` by Ken Thompson. Bell Labs began selling Unix as a proprietary product. With a legal glitch forcing AT&T to license the operating system's source code to anyone who asked.Douglas McIlroy. initiated in 1983 by Richard Stallman. Dennis Ritchie. in a key pioneering approach in 1973. Since the main supporting user space system tools and libraries originated in the GNU Project. and theGIMP image editor. A distribution intended to run as a server may omit all graphical environments from the standard install and instead include other software such as the Apache HTTP Server and an SSH server such as OpenSSH. a common practice at the time.A distribution oriented toward desktop use will typically include the X Window System and an accompanyingdesktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. Unix was re-written in the programming language C by Dennis Ritchie (with exceptions to the kernel and I/O). It was first released in 1971 and was initially entirely written in assembly language. Kind Of Linux 1. Unix quickly grew and became widely adopted by academic institutions and businesses. and Joe Ossanna. Later. Linux Page 2 . The availability of an operating system written in a high-level language allowed easier portability to different computer platforms.

Linus Torvalds has said that if 386BSD had been available at the time. although low-level elements such as device drivers. text editors. from which NetBSD and FreeBSDdescended. By the early 1990s. many of the programs required in an operating system (such as libraries. daemons. a Unix shell. predated that of Linux. MINIX Andrew S. GNU The GNU Project. designed for education in computer science. he would not have decided to write his own. compilers. Linux Page 3 . Linus Torvalds has said that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time (1991). author of the MINIXoperating system. Tanenbaum. MINIX has become freeand redesigned for "serious" use. Work began in 1984. BSD Although not released until 1992 due to legal complications. 4. and a windowing system) were completed. written by Andrew S. Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL) in 1989. in 1985. 3. Tanenbaum (left). had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed entirely of free software. started in 1983 by Richard Stallman. Later. and Linus Torvalds (right). Starting with version 3 in 2005. and the kernel were stalled and incomplete.2. principal author of the Linux kernel MINIX is an inexpensive minimal Unix-like operating system. he probably would not have created Linux. development of 386BSD.

News of the Russian military creating its own Linux distribution has also surfaced. The federal government of Brazil is well known for its support for Linux.China uses Linux exclusively as Linux Page 4 . They have also gained popularity with various local and national governments. because it was advantageous to use the freely available code from the GNU project with the fledgling operating system. from embedded systems to supercomputers. to the GNU GPL. Linux systems are used in every domain.) Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license. and have secured a place in server installations often using the popular LAMP application stack. Developers worked to integrate GNU components with Linux to make a fully functional and free operating system.. GNU applications also replaced all MINIX components. The Indian state of Kerala has gone to the extent of mandating that all state high schools run Linux on their computers.H. Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX. and has come to fruition as the G.In 1991 while attending the University of Helsinki. which limited it to educational use only. (Code licensed under the GNU GPL can be reused in other projects as long as they also are released under the same or a compatible license. Use of Linux distributions in home and enterprise desktops has been growing. He began to work on his own operating system which eventually became the Linux kernel. which prohibited commercial redistribution. Later Linux matured and further Linux development took place on Linux systems. Torvalds became curious about operating systems and frustrated by the licensing of MINIX.ost Project. and applications written for MINIX were also used on Linux. Commercial and popular uptake Today.

networking. Current development Torvalds continues to direct the development of the kernel.the operating system for its Loongson processor family to achieve technology independence. Stallman heads the Free Software Foundation. In Spain some regions have developed their own Linux distributions. Finally. providing the most common implementation of the C Linux Page 5 . C. Design A Linux-based system is a modular Unix-like operating system. Linux vendors and communities combine and distribute the kernel. and peripheral and file system access. which handles process control. which are widely used in education and official institutions. D. and non-GNU components. Separate projects that interface with the kernel provide much of the system's higher-level functionality. Portugal is also using its own Linux distribution Caixa Mágica. France and Germany have also taken steps toward the adoption of Linux. It derives much of its basic design from principles established in Unix during the 1970s and 1980s. which in turn supports the GNU components. Such a system uses a monolithic kernel. like gnuLinExin Extremadura and Guadalinex in Andalusia. These third-party components comprise a vast body of work and may include both kernel modules and user applications and libraries. the Linux kernel. used in the Magalhães netbook and the e-escola government program. GNU components. with additional package management software in the form of Linux distributions. Device drivers are either integrated directly with the kernel or added as modules loaded while the system is running. The GNU userland is an important part of most Linux-based systems. Linux distributions have also become popular in the netbook market. with many devices such as the ASUS Eee PC and Acer Aspire One shipping with customized Linux distributions installed. individuals and corporations develop third-party non-GNU components.

use the CLI exclusively. or through controls attached to the associated hardware. which is also the traditional way of interacting with a Unix system. A window manager provides a means to control the placement and appearance of individual application windows. which provide a minimalist functionality with respect to the desktop environments. It provides network transparency and permits a graphical application running on one system to be displayed on another where a user may interact with the application. On desktop systems. A graphicalterminal emulator program is often used to access the CLI from a Linux desktop. and provides very simple inter-process communication. The CLI is particularly suited for automation of repetitive or delayed tasks. GNOME. E.library. Other GUIs may be classified as simple X window managers. and Window Maker. For desktop systems. the default mode is usually a graphical user interface. and interacts with the X Window System. a popular shell. and Xfce. Enlightenment. User Interface Users operate a Linux-based system through a command line interface (CLI). a graphical user interface (GUI). and many of the common Unix tools which carry out many basic operating system tasks. which is common for embedded systems. by which the CLI is available through terminal emulator windows or on a separate virtual console. such as FVWM. the most popular user interfaces are the extensive desktop environments KDE Plasma Desktop. Most low-level Linux components. A Linux distribution specialized for servers may use the CLI as its only interface. including the GNU userland. The graphical user interface (or GUI) used by most Linux systems is built on top of an implementation of the X Window System. though a variety of additional user interfaces exist. A Linux system typically implements a CLI by a shell. Most popular user interfaces are based on the X Window System. The desktop environments include window managers as part of their standard installations Linux Page 6 . often simply called "X".

KWin for KDE. Xfwm for Xfce as of January 2012) although users may choose to use a different window manager if preferred.(Mutter for GNOME. Linux Page 7 .

Keuntungan of Debian is the upgradability. sharing. issues. and joining the kernel hacker and free-software such as Alan Cox. Apt-get is a command-line utility that can be used dynamically to upgrade the system Debian GNU / Linux through the apt-repository extensive network of Debian archive.Debian license GNU / Linux is a noncommercial distribution produced by volunteers from around the world working together through the Internet. Debian is one of the free Linux operating system for use with GNU. certification. application development. technical support. "Ubuntu" comes from the ancient languages of Africa. Debian mailing lists and forums are always full of good messages about bugs. Linux Page 8 . Support. Greatest points of these distributions are Red Hat Package Manager (RPM). Ubuntu is a Linux distribution based on Debian and has a desktop interface. Ubuntu name derived from a concept of ideology in South Africa.. The Ubuntu project is sponsored by Canonical Ltd (a company owned by Mark Shuttleworth).CHAPTER 2 DISTRO LINUX Linux distributions (Short for Linux distributions) is a term for computer operating systems and applications. Linux distributions can include free software and can also be commercial software Debian is a Linux kernel based operating system. Debian is a 'kernel independent'. Dynamics of this distribution makes each release its packets are updated every time and can be accessed via apt-get utility. Michael Johnson. Stephen Tweedie makes Red Hat is growing fast and is used in the company. With the existence of this communication system bugs and security issues in each packet can be reported by Debian users and developers quickly. is a family of Unix that uses the Linux kernel. that is pure Debian operating system developed without relying on the operating system that has ada. RPM is a software to manage the packages on our Linux systems and is considered a de-facto standard in the packaging in Linux distributions and their derivatives which are widely supported distro. training. which means "taste perikemanusian against fellow human beings". etc. and its development in the open. inter-package dependencies are well defined. Red Hat is a distro that is quite popular among Linux developers and companies. These distributions want the spirit of open-source that must exist in Debian.

?? Ubuntu is fully committed to the principles of free software development. Ubuntu includes more than 16.?? Ubuntu also provides commercial support from hundreds of companies around the world. freely available and have good support from community and professional experts.Ubuntu is a complete Linux-based operating system. 64-bit PC (AMD64).000 pieces of software. Ubuntu includes all standard for desktop application from word processing. it is useful to make Ubuntu can be used by many people. not just the equipment you need available free of charge.?? Ubuntu will include the best translations and accessibility infrastructure that is owned by the Free Software community.Ubuntu also means "I am me because of the presence of us all". G4 and G5). spread sheet applications (spreadsheet) to the application to access the Internet. The purpose of the Ubuntu Linux distribution brings the spirit embodied in Ubuntu to the software world. software for web servers. PowerPC (Apple iBook and Powerbook. Sun UltraSPARC and T1 (Sun Fire T1000 and T2000). Each release will be supported by Ubuntu with improvements in security and other fixes are free for at least 18 months. Ubuntu currently supports a variety of computer architectures such as PC (Intel x86). Ubuntu is released regularly and can you Fedora (formerly Fedora Core. (Taken from www. Ubuntu is suitable for both desktop and server. We are also working with the entire community [Free Software] in terms of bug fixes and code sharing. and then fix it and then pass it back.These freedoms make Ubuntu fundamentally different from proprietary software (proprietary). but you also have the right to modify your software until the software works the way you want. and?? that users should have the freedom to modify the software in accordance with what they need. for this we encourage people to use free software and open source. and for desktop installation can be performed using only one CD. of course. Fedora is sometimes referred to as Linux) is a Linux distribution based on RPM and yum developed by the Fedora Project is Linux Page 9 . and therefore there will be no additional costs for the "enterprise edition".Here is a public commitment to the Ubuntu team to its users:?? Ubuntu will always be free of charge. programming languages and tools for a variety of games. we will make Ubuntu all the best jobs available to everyone on the same Free terms. latest Ubuntu release available every six months. Ubuntu itself is developed by the Ubuntu community volunteers and we invite you to contribute and participate to develop Ubuntu!The Ubuntu community is formed by ideas contained in the philosophy of Ubuntu:?? that software should be available free of charge?? that application software must be used in each local language and for people who have physical limitations.

as well as a Linux distribution that most Unix-like. easy dikustom. These distributions include distributions are very cryptic and manual for Linux newbies. Debian-based Linux distro and was created by Klaus Knopper. famous first after SLS. However. Knoppix is a weakness of the large memory needed to use the graphics mode is 96 MB. 1 to 6 on the release of this distro called Fedora Core which then turned into the release of the Fedora7. so if the operation is very easy and convenient.supported by a community of programmers and sponsored by Red Hat. simple. Recently released its new generation of the waves Slackware version 11 release of the other major distros like Mandriva 2007 and Fedora 6 soon. Debian-based distro GNU / Linux. SUSE Previously named SUSE SUSE Linux and SuSE Linux Professional. Fedora's name comes from the character fedora used in Red Hat logo. able to resize NTFS partitions during installation. but by using this distro some users may find a lot of how the system works and to release them. and designed for the computer 386/486 or higher. etc. Application is complete and suitable for the demo or to learn Linux for those who do not have space on your hard-disk. Xandros Linux is a Linux distribution based on KDE system.SlackwareThese distributions are distributions made by Patrick Volkerding of Slackware Linux. It looks very similar to Microsoft Windows.. SUSE Linux is one of the major Linux distributions are made in Germany.Briefly Xandros offers the following advantages:~ Five easy steps graphical installation~ Management is integrated partition~ Display the familiar~ The application of the qualified engineer Xandros* Compatibility with Microsoft file formats Knoppix is a Linux live-cd distro that can run through the CD-ROM without installing them on your hard-disk. Xandros is also free but is not a commercial product. His company now Linux Page 10 . Xandros has better integration with Windows networks. although it could also be run in memory of 64 MB with a swap to the hard-disk as the author's experience but you need a little patience. capable of running OfficeXP applications. and is the oldest still managed Slackware main goal is stability and ease of design. can also for rescue CDs.. SUSE Linux was originally a German translation of Slackware. Inc. Slackware is one of the initial distributions. stable. Slackware is the oldest surviving tough survive at all times.

PCLinuxOS. Some of its products: TurboLinux Workstation for dekstopnya. Deb package. SuSE is an acronym of the phrase in German "Softwareund System-Entwicklung" ("Software and system development"). portable (can be ported to other distributions). Management package is designed for modular (easy plus-plus).. This is a free operating system for personal computers aimed at ease of use. especially for business use in companies. Linux Page 11 . and optimized for each user's computer. RedHat / Mandrake using the package. especially for the use of clustering and orientation to the company. Optimizations for Pentium-class processors up to make Linux-Mandrake can run well on that platform.FreespireFreespire is a free version of the distro Linspire (aka Lindows). often abbreviated as PCLOS. changed to Linspire. easy to set up. flexible.Linux-Mandrake is one of the distributions derived from Red Hat Linux provides a lot of development and applications 'pre-configured' and supported by many languages around the world. [Compare to: Debian using. Inc. Mandriva Linux using the RPM Package Manager . Gentoo Linux is a Linux distribution that uses the Portage package management system. This distribution is known is easy for beginners and suitable for desktop class but did not rule on the server to be used as a platform. but there is no official information saying that SuSE is connected with the German computer scientist Konrad Zuse.owned by Novel.CentOS stands for Community Enterprise Operating System (Operating System Company artificial Community / Community). e-commerce and B2B (Business-to-Business). is a desktop operating system. Turbo Linux is a Linux distro that demand by companies and individuals in Japan and Asia. CentOS is a free operating system based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). TurboLinux Server to backend servers with high performance. then the problem may be due name of. Linux-based products with high performance is utilized for workstation and server markets. Mandriva Linux / Linux-MandrakeMandriva Linux (formerly known as Mandrakelinux or Mandrake Linux) is an operating system created by Mandriva (formerly known as MandrakeSoft). Rpm].

Development The primary difference between Linux and many other popular contemporary operating systems is that the Linux kernel and other components are free and open source software. Linux is not the only such operating system.LycorisLycoris is a linux distro that has made a beautiful version of linux and WinXP resembles. Even OpenOffice is bundled with Lycoris has beautiful icons and typical Lycoris. which allows removable media after booting the operating system works.S.LindowsLycoris Lindows is still less than the beauty in terms of appearance but Lindows has been more mature and has reached version 4. and has been optimized to the use of the Linux desktop. It's just this distro is not free and you have to pay a "U. Damn Small Linux (DSL) is one distro / mini linux variant. and package called Linux root distribution Desktop / LX. icon. Displays a screenshot of the site you can observe that it is Lycoris Linux distro beautify themselves so clever using Lycoris you will find it works with Windows XP. Linare is seldom heard and is a newcomer. or any convenience. Facilities which draw from Lindows is the Click-n-Run is the facility to get thousands of Linux software that is configured to Lindows with a click and the installation process can also add a shortcut on the desktop and the list of programs otomatis. This distribution is based on Debian GNU / Linux and Knoppix.Lindows also a commercial product. Linare is also a commercial product.The entire operating system and applications running in RAM. although it is by far the most widely used.0. Linare has a special Linux distribution and desktop CPU package is already installed Linare.Puppy Linux is a Linux Live CD distro is very small in size and emphasize ease of use. A. DSL also enables to be installed on USB 128MB. Lycoris has different packages. Mini-called because the DSL package size of only 50MB. Some free and open source software licenses are based on the principle of copyleft. in terms of color. dollar". IRIS has Lycros fasiltias the Internet Rapid Installer for Linux Software to update you with new software. Kuliax is a LiveCD Linux distribution developed by Project Kuliax for university education. a kind of reciprocity: any work Linux Page 12 .

A distribution is responsible for the default configuration of the installed Linux kernel. are often produced independently of each other. YAST. This allows users to adapt the operating system to their specific needs. although to date only one Linux distribution has been POSIX. Free software projects. and is used for the Linux kernel and many of the components from the GNU project. as Red Hat does with Fedora and Novell does with openSUSE. SUS.ISO. is a project that manages a remote collection of system software and application software packages available for download and installation through a network connection. loose-knit teams. provides a basis for larger scale projects that collect the software produced by stand-alone projects and make it available all at once in the form of a Linux distribution. Linux Page 13 . Synaptic. Others maintain a community version of their commercial distributions. Linux-FT. Debian being a well-known example. and commercial entities. Community A distribution is largely driven by its developer and user communities. Distributions typically use a package manager such asdpkg. A Linux distribution. general system security. volunteer organizations. Linux based distributions are intended by developers for interoperability with other operating systems and established computing standards. or Portage to install. however. the GNU GPL. and ANSI standards where possible. Some vendors develop and fund their distributions on a volunteer basis.derived from a copyleft piece of software must also be copyleft itself. B. remove and update all of a system's software from one central location. The fact that the software licenses explicitly permit redistribution. Linux systems adhere to POSIX. although developed in a collaborative fashion. is a form of copyleft. Distributions are maintained by individuals.1 certified. commonly called a "distro". The most common free software license. and more generally integration of the different software packages into a coherent whole.

with notable examples being LinuxQuestions. on which the various software packages of a distribution built on the Linux kernel are based. such as ones for Ubuntu. Novell. A number of corporations. They hold meetings and provide free demonstrations. Sun Microsystems (now part of Oracle). There are several technology websites with a Linux focus. and the various distribution specific support and community forums. Print magazines on Linux often include cover disks including software or even complete Linux distributions. Oracle. technical support. and contribute to the development of the components of the system and of free software. and operating system installation to new users. One common business model of commercial suppliers is charging for support. Most distributions and free software / open source projects have IRC chatrooms ornewsgroups. and Nokia. Linux distributions host mailing lists. local associations known as Linux User Groups (LUGs) seek to promote their preferred distribution and by extension free software.In many cities and regions. have built a significant business around Linux distributions. commonly there will be a specific topic such as usage or development for a given list. several large corporations sell. explicitly accommodate and encourage commercialization. Online forums are another means for support. Many Internet communities also provide support to Linux users and developers. A number of companies also offer a specialized business version of their Linux Page 14 . leaving about 18 percent to volunteers and 7% unclassified. IBM. HP. and Gentoo. notably Red Hat and Novell. Although Linux distributions are generally available without charge. training.[61] Some of the major corporations that contribute include Dell. the relationship between a Linux distribution as a whole and individual vendors may be seen as symbiotic. The free software licenses. especially for business users. An analysis of the Linux kernel showed 75 percent of the code from December 2008 to January 2010 was developed by programmers working for corporations. support.

Another business model is to give away the software in order to sell hardware. and IBM XL C/C++ Compiler. FreeBASIC. Most distributions also include support for PHP.5 freely copyable (but not modifiable). Both support a wide variety of languages. GNOME and KDE are popular desktop environments and provide a framework for developing applications. Linux Page 15 . C. Sun Studio. These projects are based on the GTK+ and Qtwidget toolkits. First released in 2003. it became more difficult for hardware manufacturers to profit from this tactic. and IBM's J2SE RE. number Linux of Java also Virtual supports C# (viaMono). Machines and development kits run on Linux. as the OS would run on any manufacturer's computer that shared the same architecture. Perl. As computer hardware standardized throughout the 1980s. which adds proprietary support packages and tools to administer higher numbers of installations or to simplify administrative tasks. The original development tools used for building both Linux applications and operating system programs are found within the GNU toolchain. respectively. Apple DOS and versions of Mac OS prior to 7. as well as many open-source projects like Kaffe and JikesRVM. C++. Programming On Linux Most Linux distributions support dozens of programming languages. including the original Sun Microsystems JVM (HotSpot). Vala. and Fortran. Amongst others. While not as A common. and XBasic. with operating systems such as CP/M. which includes the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) and the GNU build system. BASIC in the form ofVisual Basic is supported in such forms as Gambas. Java. and Scheme. Proprietary compilers for Linux include the Intel C++ Compiler. Python and other dynamic languages. which can also be used independently of the larger framework. C. the Low Level Virtual Machine project provides an alternative opensource compiler for many languages. This used to be the norm in the computer industry. GCC provides compilers for Ada. Ruby.distribution.

Furthermore. KDevelop. such as Macintosh computers (with both PowerPC and Intel processors). embedded systems. NetBeans.MonoDevelop. localization to a specific region or language. or commitment to a given desktop environment.There are a number ofIntegrated development environments available including Anjuta. 80286 16- The ELKS kernel fork can on Intel bit microprocessors. over three hundred distributions are actively developed. PDAs. The kernel also runs on architectures that were only ever intended to use a manufacturer-created operating system. Linux is a widely ported operating system kernel. targeting of specific user groups. USES As well as those designed for general purpose use on desktops and servers. CodeLite. The Linux kernel runs on a highly diverse range of computer architectures: in the hand-held ARM-basediPAQ and the mainframe IBM System z9. Geany. Lazarus. some distributions deliberately include only free software. and mobile phones. ActiveState Komodo. There are several industry associations and hardware conferences devoted to maintaining and improving support for diverse hardware under Linux. Currently. with about a dozen distributions being most popular for general-purpose use. stability. Qt Creator and Omnis Studio. Eclipse. Specialized distributions exist run for less mainstream 8086 or Intel architectures. such asFreedomHEC. Linux Page 16 . System z10. video game consoles. while the long-established editors Vim and Emacs remain popular. while the linux kernel fork may run on systems without a memory management unit. distributions may be specialized for different purposes including: computer architecture support. portable music players. security. D. Code::Blocks. support for real-time applications. in devices ranging from mobile phones to supercomputers.

and then gave a "tell all" interview on the topic. OpenOffice. for example in 2007 Con Kolivas accused the Linux community of favoring performance on servers. and Blender have downloadable versions for all major operating systems. Furthermore. Many popular applications are available for a wide variety of operating systems.[65] Currently most distributions include a graphical user environment. There are also several companies that have ported their own or other companies' games to Linux. In the field of animation and visual effects. see List of proprietary software for Linux. such as Pidgin. Commonly. He quit Linux kernel development because he was frustrated with this lack of focus on the desktop. most high end software. with the two most popular environments being GNOME (which can utilize additional shells such as the default GNOME Shell and UbuntuUnity). Softimage XSI and Apple Shake. Windows and/or Mac OS X. or that application will have a version that works on Linux. The performance of Linux on the desktop has been a controversial topic. Many types of applications available for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X are also available for Linux. For example Mozilla Firefox. is available for Linux.[66] Since then a significant amount of development has been undertaken in an effort to improve the desktop experience. such as Autodesk Maya. and the KDE Plasma Desktop. Projects such as Upstart and systemd aim for a faster boot time. some applications were initially developed for Linux. and were ported to other operating systems including Windows and Mac OS X due to their popularity. and GIMP. either a free software application will exist which does the functions of an application found on another operating system. a growing number of proprietary desktop applications are also supported on Linux.E. the Wine project provides a Windows compatibility layer to run unmodified Windows applications on Linux Page 17 . such as with Skypeand some video games. In addition. Dekstop The popularity of Linux on standard desktop computers and laptops has been increasing over the years.

updating and removing software in Linux is typically done through the use of package managers such as the Synaptic Package Manager. and Yum Extender. linguists. or compile the source code by themselves. Alternatively. Intuitapplications such as Quicken and QuickBooks. but it's hardly needed in modern distributions and is not a method specific to Linux. often containing tens of thousands of packages. In this case the Lanka Linux User Group played a major part in developing the localized system by combining the knowledge of university professors. For example the Sinhalese language version of the Knoppix distribution was available significantly before Microsoft Windows XP was translated to Sinhalese. In other cases. and many popular games such as World of Warcraft and Team Fortress 2. CrossOver is a proprietary solution based on the open source Wine project that supports running Windows versions of Microsoft Office. While most major Linux distributions have extensive repositories. and local developers. where there is no Linux port of some software in areas such as desktop publishing and professional audio. not all the software that can run on Linux is available from the official repositories.Linux. All these methods come with different degrees of difficulty.PackageKit. Adobe Photoshop versions through CS2. Linux Page 18 . The collaborative nature of free software development allows distributed teams to perform language localization of some Linux distributions for use in locales where localizing proprietary systems would not be cost-effective. download pre-compiled packages directly from websites. users can install packages from unofficial repositories. compiling the source code is in general considered a challenging process for new Linux users. there is equivalent software available on Linux. Installing.

459 (91. Linux was also selected as the operating system for the world's most powerful supercomputer. IBM's Sequoia which was scheduled to become operational in 2011. Linux distributions represented six of the top ten. In December 2009. and which is one of the more common platforms for website hosting. MySQL. mainframes and supercomputers Linux distributions have long been used as server operating systems. out of the top 500 systems. since February 2010. Linux distributions represented five of the top ten. andMicrosoft one of ten. and have risen to prominence in that area. Servers. FreeBSD three of ten.F. Linux distributions are also commonly used as operating systems for supercomputers: since November 2010. Linux distributions are the cornerstone of the LAMP server-software combination (Linux. Since June 2008. Apache. Linux distributions have become increasingly popular on mainframes in the last decade partly due to pricing and the open-source model. Netcraft reported in September 2006 that eight of the ten most reliable internet hosting companies ran Linux distributions on their web servers.8%) run a Linux distribution. FreeBSD two of ten. and Microsoft two of ten. computer giant IBM reported that it would predominantly market and sell mainframe-based Enterprise Linux Server. Linux Page 19 . Perl/PHP/Python) which has achieved popularity among developers.

5% of smartphones sold worldwide used Android (with all Linux variants forming 27. the Korg KRONOS. Linux is often used in embedded systems.G. such as the WholeHogIII console. Embedded devices Home screen displayed onAndroid 4. examples include the Nokia N810. Linux Page 20 . found in many smartphones. the Yamaha Yamaha Motif XS/Motif XFmusic workstations. and the Motorola ROKR E8. Palm(later acquired by HP) produced a new Linux-derived operating system. During the third quarter of 2010. as do several network firewalls androuters from such makers as Cisco/Linksys. Yamaha MOX6/MOX8 synthesizers. Yamaha S90XS/S70XS.6% of the total during that time). Cell phones and PDAs running Linux on open-source platforms became more common from 2007. Yamaha Motif-Rack XS tone generator module. webOS. The popular TiVo digital video recorder also uses a customized Linux. The Korg OASYS.0 "Ice Cream Sandwich" Due to its low cost and ease of customization. and Roland RD-700GX digital piano also run Linux. Android—based on a modified version of the Linux kernel—has become a major competitor of Nokia's older Symbian OS. which is built into its new line of Palm Presmartphones. Continuing the trend. 25. Linux is also used in stage lighting control systems. Openmoko's Neo1973.

The Wine compatibility layer allows users to run many programs designed for Windows under Linux. Google has also provided funding to the Wine project. In comparison. This estimate was based on the number of Linux servers sold by various companies.Analysts and proponents attribute the relative success of Linux to its security. desktops. Major supporters of the project include Google.H. Microsoft operating systems hold more than 85%. The Linux market is growing rapidly. it will be primarily deployed with Fedora Linux while using Sugar as the desktop environment. and did not include server hardware purchased separately which had Linux installed on it later. IDC's Q1 2007 report indicated that Linux held 12. and the revenue of servers. Primarily based on web server statistics. Market share and uptake Many quantitative studies of free / open source software focus on topics including market share and reliability. Since 2009. reliability. Although the XO will have a Windows option. and packaged software running Linux was expected to exceed $35. various companies estimated that the desktop market share of Linux range from less than 1% to 4. with numerous studies specifically examining Linux. which produces a commercial version of the software. About half of Wine's code has been contributed by volunteers and half sponsored by commercial interests including CodeWeavers. low cost.7% of the overall server market at that time. Red Hat. The XO laptop project of One Laptop Per Child is creating a new and potentially much larger Linux community which is planned to reach millions of schoolchildren and their families in the developing world. Linux Page 21 .7 billion by 2008.8%. and freedom from vendor lock-in. In September 2008 Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer admitted that 60% of web-servers run Linux versus 40% that run Windows Server. and eBay.

For years Linux has been the platform of choice in the film industry. Weta Digital. According to the Linux Movies Group. Since then major studios including Dreamworks Animation. The first major film produced on Linux servers was 1997's Titanic. and Industrial Light & Magic have migrated to Linux. Linux Page 22 . more than 95% of the servers and desktops at large animation and visual effects companies use Linux. Pixar.

routers and other. easy to use when we are familiar with this operating system. Although Linux distributions are generally available without charge.CHAPTER III CLOSING LINUX is a UNIX-based operating system. but it is also linux free operating system in other words do not need a serial number. hacking. webserver. support. and contribute to the development of the components of the system and of free software Linux Page 23 . exploits. and operating systems are widely used in such a network server. several large corporations sell.

accessed on 30 may 2012 10.REFERENCES Htttp://en. accessed on 29 May 2012 2.48 PM.html.32 PM. accessed on 29 May 2012 2. accessed on 29 may 2012 1. Http://imron02.48 Linux Page 24 . Htttp://id.