Salahudin Al-ayubi Sena septiana Sutrisna Syena Intijahul Falah Yusep Maulana (1211705147) (1211705149) (1211705158) (1211705160) (1211705170)


Assalamu’alaikum wr.wb. Praise and sykur with a sincere heart and mind offered to Allah SWT., Because thanks to the delicious, Ma'unah and his guidance, this paper can be completed in a timely manner. Prayers and greetings to the Prophet Muhammad., Along with family and friends who are faithful to sacrifice body and soul and the other for the establishment of Islamic syi'ar, the effects and benefits are still felt. Like no ivory that is not cracked, so did the paper, the authors would like criticism and suggestions. That way there will be advised if there are errors.

Wasslamu'alaikum wr.wb.

Bandung, 1 June 2012

The Author,


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.. Mainframes and Supercomputers .......... ii CHAPTER I LINUX..Embedded Device ...Kind Of Linux .......................................................19 G................................................. i TABLE OF CONTENTS ...........................................................Design ............User Interface ............................................................Desktop ......................5 E................................................................................................................................................................17 F..........16 E........................................................................................History Of Linux ........Community .......................Server..........................................................................................................Uses ...................................................Programming On Linux.............................................................................................................................................................................Development ...................................15 D..........5 D.................8 A..............................1 A....................21 CAHPTER III CLOSING REFERENCES Linux Page ii ...................................................20 H........1 B................................................................................................................................................................6 CHAPTER II DISTRO OF LINUX..........................…12 B..............................................................................................................................................13 C............................................................................Current Development .............................................................................Market Share and Uptake ....2 C...............................Table Of Contents FOREWORD .....

CHAPTER I LINUX A. televisions and video game consoles. the underlying source code may be used. Fedora and openSUSE. The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source softwarecollaboration. supporting utilities and libraries and usually a large amount of application software to fulfill the distribution's intended use. network routers. modified. Linux distributions include the Linux kernel. It is a leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems more than 90% such of as mainframe today's 500 fastest computers and supercomputers: supercomputers run some variant of Linux. Typically Linux is packaged in a format known as a Linux distribution for desktop and server use. Some popular mainstream Linux distributions include Debian (and its derivatives such as Ubuntu). the Android system in wide use on mobile devices is built on the Linux kernel. an operating system kernel first released 5 October 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux was originally developed as a free operating system for Intel x86based personal computers. It has since been ported to more computer hardware platforms than any other operating system. Linux Page 1 . Linux also runs on embedded systems (devices where the operating system is typically built into the firmwareand highly tailored to the system) such as mobile phones. History Of Linux Linux is a Unix-like computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open source software development and distribution. and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under licenses such as the GNU General Public License. The defining component of Linux is the Linux kernel. tablet computers. including the 10 fastest.

a common practice at the time. The availability of an operating system written in a high-level language allowed easier portability to different computer platforms. UNIX The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969 at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States` by Ken Thompson. the Free Software Foundation prefers the name GNU/Linux.Douglas McIlroy. Bell Labs began selling Unix as a proprietary product. Unix was re-written in the programming language C by Dennis Ritchie (with exceptions to the kernel and I/O). Since the main supporting user space system tools and libraries originated in the GNU Project. In 1984. Unix quickly grew and became widely adopted by academic institutions and businesses. initiated in 1983 by Richard Stallman. B. Some such distributions may include a less resource intensive desktop such as LXDE or Xfce for use on older or less powerful computers. Dennis Ritchie. Because Linux is freely redistributable. Kind Of Linux 1. Applications commonly used with desktop Linux systems include the Mozilla Firefox web browser. AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs. and Joe Ossanna. in a key pioneering approach in 1973. the LibreOffice office application suite.A distribution oriented toward desktop use will typically include the X Window System and an accompanyingdesktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. and theGIMP image editor. Free of the legal glitch requiring free licensing. It was first released in 1971 and was initially entirely written in assembly language. With a legal glitch forcing AT&T to license the operating system's source code to anyone who asked. Later. anyone may create a distribution for any intended use. A distribution intended to run as a server may omit all graphical environments from the standard install and instead include other software such as the Apache HTTP Server and an SSH server such as OpenSSH. Linux Page 2 .

daemons. Starting with version 3 in 2005. written by Andrew S. author of the MINIXoperating system. Linus Torvalds has said that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time (1991). Linux Page 3 . Tanenbaum (left). Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL) in 1989. text editors. and Linus Torvalds (right). compilers. in 1985. Later. from which NetBSD and FreeBSDdescended. BSD Although not released until 1992 due to legal complications. although low-level elements such as device drivers. Linus Torvalds has said that if 386BSD had been available at the time. a Unix shell. MINIX has become freeand redesigned for "serious" use. Tanenbaum. 3. many of the programs required in an operating system (such as libraries. started in 1983 by Richard Stallman. he probably would not have created Linux. had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed entirely of free software.2. designed for education in computer science. MINIX Andrew S. 4. By the early 1990s. Work began in 1984. predated that of Linux. GNU The GNU Project. he would not have decided to write his own. principal author of the Linux kernel MINIX is an inexpensive minimal Unix-like operating system. development of 386BSD. and a windowing system) were completed. and the kernel were stalled and incomplete.

because it was advantageous to use the freely available code from the GNU project with the fledgling operating system. and applications written for MINIX were also used on Linux. which limited it to educational use only.News of the Russian military creating its own Linux distribution has also surfaced. and have secured a place in server installations often using the popular LAMP application stack.) Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license.In 1991 while attending the University of Helsinki. The federal government of Brazil is well known for its support for Linux. (Code licensed under the GNU GPL can be reused in other projects as long as they also are released under the same or a compatible license. Torvalds became curious about operating systems and frustrated by the licensing of MINIX. Developers worked to integrate GNU components with Linux to make a fully functional and free operating system.China uses Linux exclusively as Linux Page 4 . from embedded systems to supercomputers. GNU applications also replaced all MINIX components..ost Project. He began to work on his own operating system which eventually became the Linux kernel. Commercial and popular uptake Today. and has come to fruition as the G. Later Linux matured and further Linux development took place on Linux systems. Linux systems are used in every domain. They have also gained popularity with various local and national governments.H. The Indian state of Kerala has gone to the extent of mandating that all state high schools run Linux on their computers. which prohibited commercial redistribution. Use of Linux distributions in home and enterprise desktops has been growing. Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX. to the GNU GPL.

France and Germany have also taken steps toward the adoption of Linux. D. It derives much of its basic design from principles established in Unix during the 1970s and 1980s. Design A Linux-based system is a modular Unix-like operating system. C. like gnuLinExin Extremadura and Guadalinex in Andalusia. which in turn supports the GNU components. Finally. with many devices such as the ASUS Eee PC and Acer Aspire One shipping with customized Linux distributions installed.the operating system for its Loongson processor family to achieve technology independence. Linux distributions have also become popular in the netbook market. Current development Torvalds continues to direct the development of the kernel. Device drivers are either integrated directly with the kernel or added as modules loaded while the system is running. The GNU userland is an important part of most Linux-based systems. GNU components. with additional package management software in the form of Linux distributions. These third-party components comprise a vast body of work and may include both kernel modules and user applications and libraries. Portugal is also using its own Linux distribution Caixa Mágica. and peripheral and file system access. used in the Magalhães netbook and the e-escola government program. and non-GNU components. Stallman heads the Free Software Foundation. Separate projects that interface with the kernel provide much of the system's higher-level functionality. networking. which handles process control. Linux vendors and communities combine and distribute the kernel. individuals and corporations develop third-party non-GNU components. In Spain some regions have developed their own Linux distributions. Such a system uses a monolithic kernel. which are widely used in education and official institutions. the Linux kernel. providing the most common implementation of the C Linux Page 5 .

The CLI is particularly suited for automation of repetitive or delayed tasks. The graphical user interface (or GUI) used by most Linux systems is built on top of an implementation of the X Window System. a graphical user interface (GUI). such as FVWM. It provides network transparency and permits a graphical application running on one system to be displayed on another where a user may interact with the application. Other GUIs may be classified as simple X window managers. use the CLI exclusively. The desktop environments include window managers as part of their standard installations Linux Page 6 . E. and provides very simple inter-process communication. A graphicalterminal emulator program is often used to access the CLI from a Linux desktop. and interacts with the X Window System. including the GNU userland. For desktop systems. Most popular user interfaces are based on the X Window System. by which the CLI is available through terminal emulator windows or on a separate virtual console. GNOME. a popular shell. which provide a minimalist functionality with respect to the desktop environments. On desktop systems. and Window Maker. the most popular user interfaces are the extensive desktop environments KDE Plasma Desktop. User Interface Users operate a Linux-based system through a command line interface (CLI). though a variety of additional user interfaces exist. or through controls attached to the associated hardware. which is common for embedded systems. often simply called "X". A window manager provides a means to control the placement and appearance of individual application windows.library. and many of the common Unix tools which carry out many basic operating system tasks. A Linux system typically implements a CLI by a shell. A Linux distribution specialized for servers may use the CLI as its only interface. and Xfce. the default mode is usually a graphical user interface. which is also the traditional way of interacting with a Unix system. Enlightenment. Most low-level Linux components.

(Mutter for GNOME. Xfwm for Xfce as of January 2012) although users may choose to use a different window manager if preferred.KWin for KDE. Linux Page 7 .

Stephen Tweedie makes Red Hat is growing fast and is used in the company. training.CHAPTER 2 DISTRO LINUX Linux distributions (Short for Linux distributions) is a term for computer operating systems and applications. Debian is a 'kernel independent'.Debian license GNU / Linux is a noncommercial distribution produced by volunteers from around the world working together through the Internet. The Ubuntu project is sponsored by Canonical Ltd (a company owned by Mark Shuttleworth).Keuntungan of Debian is the upgradability. Linux Page 8 . Debian mailing lists and forums are always full of good messages about bugs. Ubuntu name derived from a concept of ideology in South Africa. inter-package dependencies are well defined. Dynamics of this distribution makes each release its packets are updated every time and can be accessed via apt-get utility. is a family of Unix that uses the Linux kernel. which means "taste perikemanusian against fellow human beings". sharing. etc. With the existence of this communication system bugs and security issues in each packet can be reported by Debian users and developers quickly. certification. Linux distributions can include free software and can also be commercial software Debian is a Linux kernel based operating system. application development. Michael Johnson. that is pure Debian operating system developed without relying on the operating system that has ada. Support. Ubuntu is a Linux distribution based on Debian and has a desktop interface. Apt-get is a command-line utility that can be used dynamically to upgrade the system Debian GNU / Linux through the apt-repository extensive network of Debian archive. and joining the kernel hacker and free-software such as Alan Cox. Red Hat is a distro that is quite popular among Linux developers and companies.. "Ubuntu" comes from the ancient languages of Africa. and its development in the open. Debian is one of the free Linux operating system for use with GNU. These distributions want the spirit of open-source that must exist in Debian. technical support. Greatest points of these distributions are Red Hat Package Manager (RPM). RPM is a software to manage the packages on our Linux systems and is considered a de-facto standard in the packaging in Linux distributions and their derivatives which are widely supported distro. issues.

programming languages and tools for a variety of games. Ubuntu is released regularly and can you predict.Ubuntu is a complete Linux-based operating system. of course. and then fix it and then pass it back. and?? that users should have the freedom to modify the software in accordance with what they need. Ubuntu itself is developed by the Ubuntu community volunteers and we invite you to contribute and participate to develop Ubuntu!The Ubuntu community is formed by ideas contained in the philosophy of Ubuntu:?? that software should be available free of charge?? that application software must be used in each local language and for people who have physical limitations. Ubuntu currently supports a variety of computer architectures such as PC (Intel x86). PowerPC (Apple iBook and Powerbook.?? Ubuntu is fully committed to the principles of free software development. (Taken from www. we will make Ubuntu all the best jobs available to everyone on the same Free terms. software for web servers.Here is a public commitment to the Ubuntu team to its users:?? Ubuntu will always be free of charge. and therefore there will be no additional costs for the "enterprise edition".Ubuntu also means "I am me because of the presence of us all". freely available and have good support from community and professional experts. latest Ubuntu release available every six months.?? Ubuntu will include the best translations and accessibility infrastructure that is owned by the Free Software community.000 pieces of software. it is useful to make Ubuntu can be used by many people. G4 and G5).?? Ubuntu also provides commercial support from hundreds of companies around the world. spread sheet applications (spreadsheet) to the application to access the Fedora (formerly Fedora Core. We are also working with the entire community [Free Software] in terms of bug fixes and code sharing. Each release will be supported by Ubuntu with improvements in security and other fixes are free for at least 18 months. and for desktop installation can be performed using only one CD. Ubuntu includes all standard for desktop application from word processing. but you also have the right to modify your software until the software works the way you want. Sun UltraSPARC and T1 (Sun Fire T1000 and T2000). The purpose of the Ubuntu Linux distribution brings the spirit embodied in Ubuntu to the software world. 64-bit PC (AMD64).These freedoms make Ubuntu fundamentally different from proprietary software (proprietary). Fedora is sometimes referred to as Linux) is a Linux distribution based on RPM and yum developed by the Fedora Project is Linux Page 9 . not just the equipment you need available free of charge. Ubuntu includes more than 16. Ubuntu is suitable for both desktop and server. for this we encourage people to use free software and open source.

so if the operation is very easy and convenient.supported by a community of programmers and sponsored by Red Hat. etc. Knoppix is a weakness of the large memory needed to use the graphics mode is 96 MB. SUSE Linux is one of the major Linux distributions are made in Germany. Debian-based distro GNU / Linux. Slackware is one of the initial distributions. SUSE Linux was originally a German translation of Slackware. 1 to 6 on the release of this distro called Fedora Core which then turned into the release of the Fedora7. stable. but by using this distro some users may find a lot of how the system works and to release them. Slackware is the oldest surviving tough survive at all times. can also for rescue CDs. SUSE Previously named SUSE SUSE Linux and SuSE Linux Professional. Recently released its new generation of the waves Slackware version 11 release of the other major distros like Mandriva 2007 and Fedora 6 soon. These distributions include distributions are very cryptic and manual for Linux newbies. Xandros has better integration with Windows networks. able to resize NTFS partitions during installation. and designed for the computer 386/486 or higher. Application is complete and suitable for the demo or to learn Linux for those who do not have space on your hard-disk.. easy dikustom. and is the oldest still managed Slackware main goal is stability and ease of design. Debian-based Linux distro and was created by Klaus Knopper. It looks very similar to Microsoft Windows. simple. Xandros is also free but is not a commercial product..Briefly Xandros offers the following advantages:~ Five easy steps graphical installation~ Management is integrated partition~ Display the familiar~ The application of the qualified engineer Xandros* Compatibility with Microsoft file formats Knoppix is a Linux live-cd distro that can run through the CD-ROM without installing them on your hard-disk. Xandros Linux is a Linux distribution based on KDE system. capable of running OfficeXP applications. Inc. His company now Linux Page 10 . famous first after SLS. Fedora's name comes from the character fedora used in Red Hat logo. although it could also be run in memory of 64 MB with a swap to the hard-disk as the author's experience but you need a little patience. However.SlackwareThese distributions are distributions made by Patrick Volkerding of Slackware Linux. as well as a Linux distribution that most Unix-like.

especially for business use in companies. and optimized for each user's computer.FreespireFreespire is a free version of the distro Linspire (aka Lindows). then the problem may be due name of. Optimizations for Pentium-class processors up to make Linux-Mandrake can run well on that platform.owned by Novel. PCLinuxOS. flexible.Linux-Mandrake is one of the distributions derived from Red Hat Linux provides a lot of development and applications 'pre-configured' and supported by many languages around the world. Mandriva Linux using the RPM Package Manager . Mandriva Linux / Linux-MandrakeMandriva Linux (formerly known as Mandrakelinux or Mandrake Linux) is an operating system created by Mandriva (formerly known as MandrakeSoft).CentOS stands for Community Enterprise Operating System (Operating System Company artificial Community / Community). [Compare to: Debian using. portable (can be ported to other distributions). but there is no official information saying that SuSE is connected with the German computer scientist Konrad Zuse. Gentoo Linux is a Linux distribution that uses the Portage package management system. CentOS is a free operating system based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). easy to set up. especially for the use of clustering and orientation to the company.. Deb package. Rpm]. This distribution is known is easy for beginners and suitable for desktop class but did not rule on the server to be used as a platform. changed to Linspire. e-commerce and B2B (Business-to-Business). often abbreviated as PCLOS. Some of its products: TurboLinux Workstation for dekstopnya. TurboLinux Server to backend servers with high performance. Linux-based products with high performance is utilized for workstation and server markets. RedHat / Mandrake using the package. Linux Page 11 . SuSE is an acronym of the phrase in German "Softwareund System-Entwicklung" ("Software and system development"). Management package is designed for modular (easy plus-plus). Inc. This is a free operating system for personal computers aimed at ease of use. Turbo Linux is a Linux distro that demand by companies and individuals in Japan and Asia. is a desktop operating system.

a kind of reciprocity: any work Linux Page 12 . DSL also enables to be installed on USB 128MB. This distribution is based on Debian GNU / Linux and Knoppix. Even OpenOffice is bundled with Lycoris has beautiful icons and typical Lycoris. Development The primary difference between Linux and many other popular contemporary operating systems is that the Linux kernel and other components are free and open source software. although it is by far the most widely used. Some free and open source software licenses are based on the principle of copyleft. Facilities which draw from Lindows is the Click-n-Run is the facility to get thousands of Linux software that is configured to Lindows with a click and the installation process can also add a shortcut on the desktop and the list of programs otomatis. or any convenience.Lindows also a commercial product. A. Damn Small Linux (DSL) is one distro / mini linux variant. Lycoris has different packages.0. in terms of color.S. Linux is not the only such operating system. Linare has a special Linux distribution and desktop CPU package is already installed Linare. Displays a screenshot of the site you can observe that it is Lycoris Linux distro beautify themselves so clever using Lycoris you will find it works with Windows XP. dollar". Mini-called because the DSL package size of only 50MB. icon. IRIS has Lycros fasiltias the Internet Rapid Installer for Linux Software to update you with new software. It's just this distro is not free and you have to pay a "U. and package called Linux root distribution Desktop / LX.LycorisLycoris is a linux distro that has made a beautiful version of linux and WinXP resembles.The entire operating system and applications running in RAM. Linare is also a commercial product. which allows removable media after booting the operating system works. and has been optimized to the use of the Linux desktop.Puppy Linux is a Linux Live CD distro is very small in size and emphasize ease of use. Linare is seldom heard and is a newcomer.LindowsLycoris Lindows is still less than the beauty in terms of appearance but Lindows has been more mature and has reached version 4. Kuliax is a LiveCD Linux distribution developed by Project Kuliax for university education.

YAST. A Linux distribution. SUS. although to date only one Linux distribution has been POSIX. Linux systems adhere to POSIX. volunteer organizations.1 certified. provides a basis for larger scale projects that collect the software produced by stand-alone projects and make it available all at once in the form of a Linux distribution. loose-knit teams. Linux based distributions are intended by developers for interoperability with other operating systems and established computing standards.ISO. are often produced independently of each other. B. is a project that manages a remote collection of system software and application software packages available for download and installation through a network connection. The most common free software license. Distributions typically use a package manager such asdpkg. commonly called a "distro". Some vendors develop and fund their distributions on a volunteer basis. Distributions are maintained by individuals. Linux-FT.derived from a copyleft piece of software must also be copyleft itself. although developed in a collaborative fashion. Linux Page 13 . is a form of copyleft. the GNU GPL. and is used for the Linux kernel and many of the components from the GNU project. Synaptic. Others maintain a community version of their commercial distributions. remove and update all of a system's software from one central location. and more generally integration of the different software packages into a coherent whole. Community A distribution is largely driven by its developer and user communities. This allows users to adapt the operating system to their specific needs. as Red Hat does with Fedora and Novell does with openSUSE. A distribution is responsible for the default configuration of the installed Linux kernel. general system security. and ANSI standards where possible. or Portage to install. and commercial entities. The fact that the software licenses explicitly permit redistribution. however. Free software projects. Debian being a well-known example.

Linux distributions host mailing lists. technical support. Although Linux distributions are generally available without charge. Online forums are another means for support. One common business model of commercial suppliers is charging for support. on which the various software packages of a distribution built on the Linux kernel are based. support. such as ones for Ubuntu. have built a significant business around Linux distributions. explicitly accommodate and encourage commercialization. and Nokia.[61] Some of the major corporations that contribute include Dell. commonly there will be a specific topic such as usage or development for a given list. notably Red Hat and Novell. Fedora. Print magazines on Linux often include cover disks including software or even complete Linux distributions. and contribute to the development of the components of the system and of free software. IBM. and the various distribution specific support and community forums. The free software licenses. A number of corporations. training. several large corporations sell. HP. Most distributions and free software / open source projects have IRC chatrooms ornewsgroups. There are several technology websites with a Linux focus. with notable examples being LinuxQuestions. especially for business users. leaving about 18 percent to volunteers and 7% unclassified. and Gentoo. and operating system installation to new users. An analysis of the Linux kernel showed 75 percent of the code from December 2008 to January 2010 was developed by programmers working for corporations. local associations known as Linux User Groups (LUGs) seek to promote their preferred distribution and by extension free software. the relationship between a Linux distribution as a whole and individual vendors may be seen as symbiotic. Many Internet communities also provide support to Linux users and developers. They hold meetings and provide free demonstrations.In many cities and regions. A number of companies also offer a specialized business version of their Linux Page 14 . Sun Microsystems (now part of Oracle). Novell.

respectively. C++. it became more difficult for hardware manufacturers to profit from this tactic. GNOME and KDE are popular desktop environments and provide a framework for developing applications. Python and other dynamic languages. including the original Sun Microsystems JVM (HotSpot).5 freely copyable (but not modifiable). Proprietary compilers for Linux include the Intel C++ Compiler. BASIC in the form ofVisual Basic is supported in such forms as Gambas. Another business model is to give away the software in order to sell hardware. Both support a wide variety of languages. Ruby. These projects are based on the GTK+ and Qtwidget toolkits. as the OS would run on any manufacturer's computer that shared the same architecture. Amongst others. and Scheme. and XBasic. Perl. and Fortran. GCC provides compilers for Ada. Most distributions also include support for PHP. As computer hardware standardized throughout the 1980s. number Linux of Java also Virtual supports C# (viaMono). the Low Level Virtual Machine project provides an alternative opensource compiler for many languages. C. with operating systems such as CP/M.distribution. Linux Page 15 . Java. Apple DOS and versions of Mac OS prior to 7. and IBM XL C/C++ Compiler. and IBM's J2SE RE. This used to be the norm in the computer industry. as well as many open-source projects like Kaffe and JikesRVM. Programming On Linux Most Linux distributions support dozens of programming languages. Machines and development kits run on Linux. which can also be used independently of the larger framework. The original development tools used for building both Linux applications and operating system programs are found within the GNU toolchain. FreeBASIC. which adds proprietary support packages and tools to administer higher numbers of installations or to simplify administrative tasks. While not as A common. First released in 2003. Sun Studio. Vala. which includes the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) and the GNU build system. C.

KDevelop. embedded systems. Linux Page 16 . 80286 16- The ELKS kernel fork can on Intel bit microprocessors. USES As well as those designed for general purpose use on desktops and servers. Currently. in devices ranging from mobile phones to supercomputers. ActiveState Komodo. with about a dozen distributions being most popular for general-purpose use. NetBeans. while the linux kernel fork may run on systems without a memory management unit. PDAs.There are a number ofIntegrated development environments available including Anjuta. The kernel also runs on architectures that were only ever intended to use a manufacturer-created operating system. D. Furthermore. video game consoles. Geany.MonoDevelop. support for real-time applications. such as Macintosh computers (with both PowerPC and Intel processors). Linux is a widely ported operating system kernel. targeting of specific user groups. and mobile phones. CodeLite. distributions may be specialized for different purposes including: computer architecture support. Lazarus. Specialized distributions exist run for less mainstream 8086 or Intel architectures. portable music players. while the long-established editors Vim and Emacs remain popular. The Linux kernel runs on a highly diverse range of computer architectures: in the hand-held ARM-basediPAQ and the mainframe IBM System z9. There are several industry associations and hardware conferences devoted to maintaining and improving support for diverse hardware under Linux. System z10. or commitment to a given desktop environment. over three hundred distributions are actively developed. security. Qt Creator and Omnis Studio. Code::Blocks. such asFreedomHEC. localization to a specific region or language. Eclipse. some distributions deliberately include only free software. stability.

Softimage XSI and Apple Shake. most high end software. with the two most popular environments being GNOME (which can utilize additional shells such as the default GNOME Shell and UbuntuUnity).E. some applications were initially developed for Linux. for example in 2007 Con Kolivas accused the Linux community of favoring performance on servers. such as Autodesk Maya. and GIMP. or that application will have a version that works on Linux. and Blender have downloadable versions for all major operating systems. Commonly. see List of proprietary software for Linux. is available for Linux. Windows and/or Mac OS X. The performance of Linux on the desktop has been a controversial topic. He quit Linux kernel development because he was frustrated with this lack of focus on the desktop.[65] Currently most distributions include a graphical user environment. and were ported to other operating systems including Windows and Mac OS X due to their popularity. OpenOffice. Furthermore. Dekstop The popularity of Linux on standard desktop computers and laptops has been increasing over the years. and the KDE Plasma Desktop. and then gave a "tell all" interview on the topic. Many popular applications are available for a wide variety of operating systems. Many types of applications available for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X are also available for Linux. the Wine project provides a Windows compatibility layer to run unmodified Windows applications on Linux Page 17 . such as Pidgin. In the field of animation and visual effects. a growing number of proprietary desktop applications are also supported on Linux. Projects such as Upstart and systemd aim for a faster boot time. either a free software application will exist which does the functions of an application found on another operating system. such as with Skypeand some video games. In addition. For example Mozilla Firefox.[66] Since then a significant amount of development has been undertaken in an effort to improve the desktop experience. There are also several companies that have ported their own or other companies' games to Linux.

and Yum Extender. In this case the Lanka Linux User Group played a major part in developing the localized system by combining the knowledge of university professors. For example the Sinhalese language version of the Knoppix distribution was available significantly before Microsoft Windows XP was translated to Sinhalese. Alternatively. users can install packages from unofficial repositories. The collaborative nature of free software development allows distributed teams to perform language localization of some Linux distributions for use in locales where localizing proprietary systems would not be cost-effective. and local developers.PackageKit. or compile the source code by themselves. where there is no Linux port of some software in areas such as desktop publishing and professional audio. While most major Linux distributions have extensive repositories. CrossOver is a proprietary solution based on the open source Wine project that supports running Windows versions of Microsoft Office. Linux Page 18 . updating and removing software in Linux is typically done through the use of package managers such as the Synaptic Package Manager. download pre-compiled packages directly from websites. there is equivalent software available on Linux. In other cases. but it's hardly needed in modern distributions and is not a method specific to Linux. compiling the source code is in general considered a challenging process for new Linux users. and many popular games such as World of Warcraft and Team Fortress 2. linguists. Adobe Photoshop versions through CS2. Intuitapplications such as Quicken and QuickBooks.Linux. not all the software that can run on Linux is available from the official repositories. All these methods come with different degrees of difficulty. often containing tens of thousands of packages. Installing.

Linux distributions are the cornerstone of the LAMP server-software combination (Linux. Servers. Linux Page 19 .8%) run a Linux distribution. and have risen to prominence in that area. Netcraft reported in September 2006 that eight of the ten most reliable internet hosting companies ran Linux distributions on their web servers. out of the top 500 systems. Since June 2008. mainframes and supercomputers Linux distributions have long been used as server operating systems. Linux distributions represented five of the top ten. Linux distributions have become increasingly popular on mainframes in the last decade partly due to pricing and the open-source model. MySQL. and which is one of the more common platforms for website hosting. Perl/PHP/Python) which has achieved popularity among developers. Linux distributions represented six of the top ten. andMicrosoft one of ten. Apache. and Microsoft two of ten. since February 2010. FreeBSD three of ten. FreeBSD two of ten. IBM's Sequoia which was scheduled to become operational in 2011. 459 (91. Linux distributions are also commonly used as operating systems for supercomputers: since November 2010. In December 2009. Linux was also selected as the operating system for the world's most powerful supercomputer.F. computer giant IBM reported that it would predominantly market and sell mainframe-based Enterprise Linux Server.

Yamaha Motif-Rack XS tone generator module.0 "Ice Cream Sandwich" Due to its low cost and ease of customization. as do several network firewalls androuters from such makers as Cisco/Linksys. Palm(later acquired by HP) produced a new Linux-derived operating system. The popular TiVo digital video recorder also uses a customized Linux. found in many smartphones.G. which is built into its new line of Palm Presmartphones. The Korg OASYS. Linux is often used in embedded systems. 25. Continuing the trend. examples include the Nokia N810. Cell phones and PDAs running Linux on open-source platforms became more common from 2007. and the Motorola ROKR E8. Android—based on a modified version of the Linux kernel—has become a major competitor of Nokia's older Symbian OS. Embedded devices Home screen displayed onAndroid 4. such as the WholeHogIII console. Linux Page 20 . and Roland RD-700GX digital piano also run Linux.6% of the total during that time). webOS. During the third quarter of 2010. Yamaha S90XS/S70XS. Linux is also used in stage lighting control systems. Openmoko's Neo1973. the Korg KRONOS. the Yamaha Yamaha Motif XS/Motif XFmusic workstations. Yamaha MOX6/MOX8 synthesizers.5% of smartphones sold worldwide used Android (with all Linux variants forming 27.

and did not include server hardware purchased separately which had Linux installed on it later. desktops. Linux Page 21 . Google has also provided funding to the Wine project. Since 2009. low cost.7 billion by 2008. Market share and uptake Many quantitative studies of free / open source software focus on topics including market share and reliability. it will be primarily deployed with Fedora Linux while using Sugar as the desktop environment. with numerous studies specifically examining Linux. Major supporters of the project include Google. In comparison. Red Hat. which produces a commercial version of the software. and packaged software running Linux was expected to exceed $35. The Wine compatibility layer allows users to run many programs designed for Windows under Linux. In September 2008 Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer admitted that 60% of web-servers run Linux versus 40% that run Windows Server. and freedom from vendor lock-in. and the revenue of servers. IDC's Q1 2007 report indicated that Linux held 12. Although the XO will have a Windows option. The Linux market is growing rapidly. The XO laptop project of One Laptop Per Child is creating a new and potentially much larger Linux community which is planned to reach millions of schoolchildren and their families in the developing world. and eBay.Analysts and proponents attribute the relative success of Linux to its security. This estimate was based on the number of Linux servers sold by various companies. Primarily based on web server statistics. Microsoft operating systems hold more than 85%.7% of the overall server market at that time. reliability. About half of Wine's code has been contributed by volunteers and half sponsored by commercial interests including CodeWeavers.H. various companies estimated that the desktop market share of Linux range from less than 1% to 4.8%.

According to the Linux Movies Group. and Industrial Light & Magic have migrated to Linux.For years Linux has been the platform of choice in the film industry. more than 95% of the servers and desktops at large animation and visual effects companies use Linux. The first major film produced on Linux servers was 1997's Titanic. Linux Page 22 . Weta Digital. Pixar. Since then major studios including Dreamworks Animation.

Although Linux distributions are generally available without charge. routers and other. but it is also linux free operating system in other words do not need a serial number. hacking.CHAPTER III CLOSING LINUX is a UNIX-based operating system. support. and contribute to the development of the components of the system and of free software Linux Page 23 . and operating systems are widely used in such a network server. webserver. several large corporations sell. easy to use when we are familiar with this operating system. exploits.

org/wiki/ PM.wordpress. accessed on 29 may 2012 1. accessed on 30 may 2012 10. http://yazidfuadi. Linux Page 24 .40 PM. accessed on 29 May 2012 2.blogspot.48 PM.32 AM. Http://imron02.html.REFERENCES Htttp://en. accessed on 29 May 2012 Htttp://id.