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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We have great pleasure in acknowledging our sincere gratitude to all who have been given the helping hands in the successful completion of our project. First of all, always we are thankful to Almighty GOD who had showered his blessings on us and gave us strength for doing our project. Next, we would like to extend out thanks to the Principal; Prof. Mohammad Ebrahim, College of Applied Science, Kottayi for providing us best facilities and atmosphere according to our interest for the successful completion and presentation of our project. Then, we are most like to give our sincere gratitude to Miss Simi S and Mr Sooraj K B, guides of our project for all valuable advice and good instruction provided to us. We would like to extend our sincere gratitude to other lectures in Electronics department who had been the strength and also for good guidance of our project. We would like to thanks Mrs. Sukanya & Mr. Hashim, Laboratory Assistants, for all the help given to us. Last but not least we express our sincere thanks to our parents, our friends and all others who gave valuable suggestions, constructive criticism and constant encouragement for presenting this project as a valuable one.

All with Gods grace.!!!

PROJECT TEAM

Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

ABSTRACT
Through our project we are showing the control of constant temperature according to the desired value (set point) in a closed loop using PID controller system. For this, we are using a microcontroller, a temperature sensor for sensing the temperature of the closed loops. By using the microcontroller we compare the desired value with current value and it is displayed in the LCD. Also to provide the constant temperature, Fan or Heater is turned On or Off according with the variations of current temperature in oC from desired setpoint.

CONTENTS

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

1. INTRODUCTION 2. BLOCK DIAGRAM 3. BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION 4. OVERALL CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 5. COMPONENT LIST 6. OVERALL CIRCUIT DIAGRAM WORKING 7. DESIGNING OR DESCRIPTION OF EACH BLOCK POWER SUPPLY DESCRIPTION BLOCK DIAGRAM CIRCUIT AND EXPLANATION MICROCONTROLLER PIN DIAGRAM THE MAJOR FEATURES OF PIC MICROCONTROLLER CIRCUIT EXPLANATION ADVANTAGES APPLICATION ARCHITECTURE WHY PIC? 8. WHY PID? 9. TEMPERATURE SENSOR FEATURES OF LM 35 10. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY

1 4 5

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

11. PCB PCB DESIGNING PCB LAYOUT 12. FIRMWARE IMPLEMENTATION 13. CONCLUSION 14. FUTURE SCOPE 15. BIBILIOGRAPHY 16. APPENDIX

INTRODUCTION

Dept of Electronics

CASK

Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

The objective of our project TEMPERATURE PID CONTROLLLER is maintaining the constant temperature in a particular area using PID controller. Whatever the process or the parameter (temp, flow, speed, ..) the principles of control are similar. Input and output signals are specified in this project is digital. Control of a process is achieved by means of a closed loop circuit. This project is prepared in order to control the temperature of a furnace in the best and easiest possible way. The control system is that means by which any quantity of interest in a machine, mechanism or other equipment is maintained or altered in accordance with a desired manner. Here we have used the closed loop system; that is the feedback system. The feedback signal is derived from the output of the system. This signal gives the capability to act as self correcting mechanism. The beneficial effects of the feedback in the system with high loop gain. The controlled variable accurately follows the desired value and also feedback in a control system greatly improves the speed of its response. One of the primary purposes of using feedback in control system is to reduce the sensitivity of the system to parameter variations. The project deals with a simple aspect of giving information about the controlling of temperature in a furnace. In this project we are developing a system, which can control temperature of a furnace automatically. The system is be capable of taking decisions accordingly of overheating of blast furnace and cooling of a furnace. This project is done by using microcontroller (PIC 16F873A) which was developed by microchip company with several features than processors with cheap cost. A temperature LM 35 is used in sensing the temperature and relays like heater or fan are used for adjusting the temperature with desired temperature value. The functions occurring are displayed on the liquid crystal display. In this system, it can implement any applications about controlling or monitoring the temperature without any human effort.

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Dept of Electronics

CASK

Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

Temperature sensor (LM35)

Power supply

Microcontroller P I C 1 6 F 8 7 3 A

Micro keys SET UP DOWN

R E L A Y

Heater

Fan

LCD Display

BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION

Dept of Electronics

CASK

Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

The block diagram for temperature PID controller circuit consist of IC LM 35 PIC 16F873A POWER SUPPLY RELAY DISPLAY SECTION

A fixed three terminal voltage regulator has a regulated dc output voltage of 5v and provide it to IC LM 35, PIC 16f873A, micro keys, relays and display section Temperature sensing section consists of an IC LM 35 which acts as a transducer. It senses the temperature and converts it into voltage as a scale of 1oC into 10mv. At the heart of the circuit is microcontroller PIC 16F873A with many advantages and it is available in RISC architecture. The output of the microcontroller is give to the relays and display section. Relays we used here are Heater and Fan; they are used for adjusting the obtained temperature with the desired temperature value. The display section, through the IC LM020L, that displays temperature. It is the main observable part of this whole system.

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

OVERALL CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

LIST OF COMPONENTS

REGULATOR 7805 PIC 16F873A LM35 LCD DISPLAY LM020L RELAYS (2) CRYSTAL 4MHz MICROSWITCHES (4) DIODES 1N4007 (4) CAPACITORS C1 - 1000F C2 100F C3, C4 33pF

RESISTORS R1 10k (4) R2, R3 1k

TRANSFORMER TRANSISTORS BC548 (2)

Dept of Electronics

CASK

Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

OVERALL CIRCUIT DIAGRAM WORKING


The circuit shows microcontroller based temperature PID controller using temperature sensor. Microcontroller PIC 16F873A is the heart of the circuit. It is available in RISC architecture. The PIC 16F873A is a mid-range 8-bit CPU optimized for Control Applications. It has 35 instructions on chip flash program memory. LM35 used as the temperature sensor. It sense the current temperature of a closed loop and converts into corresponding voltage as it is a transducer. It is connected to pin 2 (RA0/AN0) of microcontroller. The microcontroller circuit is connected with reset circuit and crystal oscillator circuit. Crystal oscillator is the one used to generate the pulses to the microcontroller and it is also called as the heart of microcontroller. Here we have used 4 MHz crystal which generates pulses. It offers the highest precision (exactness/accuracy) and stability. Even the microcontroller has an internal RC oscillator with a maximum frequency of 4 MHz, noise affect it easily. Because of increasing of aging of oscillator, resonant frequency varies and cannot get the fixed frequency. So we use crystal oscillator externally for accuracy. To set up the desired temperature value, we use the micro keys such as SET, UP, DOWN. And also the tolerance value is set in the firmware using embedded C language. According to the comparison of desired temperature (here we say as Set point) with the current temperature, the relay - Heater or Fan is worked.

Case I:

Dept of Electronics

CASK

Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

If the current temperature is greater than desired temperature (including tolerance) then turn off the heater and turn on the fan. Case II: If the current temperature is less than the desired temperature (including tolerance), then turn on the heater and turn off the fan. Case III: Else turn off both heater and fan. The relays such as heater connected to pin 25 (RB4) and fan is connected to pin 26 (RB5). The processing of controller will display in the LCD. The current temperature as CT and the set point as SPcan be observed on the first line of LCD. And also, the present conditions of the relays are displayed on the second line of the LCD.

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

DESCRIPTION OF EACH BLOCK

POWER SUPPLY DESCRIPTION

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

BLOCK DIAGRAM
The ac voltage, typically 220V ms, is connected to a transformer, which steps that ac voltage down to the level of the desired dc output. A diode rectifier then provides a fullwave rectified voltage that is initially filtered by a simple capacitor filter to produce a dc voltage, this resulting dc voltage usually has some ripple or ac voltage variation.

A regulator circuit removes the ripples and also remains the same dc value even if the input dc voltage varies, or the load connected to the output dc voltage changes. This voltage regulation is usually obtained using one of the popular voltage regulator IC units.

Transformer (Step down)

Rectifier

Filter

IC Regulator

Load

Block diagram (Power Supply)

CIRCUIT AND EXPLANATION

Dept of Electronics

CASK

Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

WORKING PRINCIPLE TRANSFORMER


The transformer will step down the power supply voltage (0 230 V) to (0-6V) level. Then the secondary of the potential transformer will be connected to the center-tapped full-wave rectifier; where diodes are working in the property of one-side conduction capability.

CENTER-TAPPED RECTIFIER
In a rectifier, a center-tapped transformer and two diodes can form a full-wave rectifier that allows both half-cycles of the AC waveform to contribute to the direct current, making it smoother than a half-wave rectifier. A center-tapped rectifier is preferred to the full bridge rectifier when the output DC current is high and the output voltage is low. The advantages of using precision rectifier are it will give peak voltage output as dc; rest of the circuits will give only RMS output.

FILTERS
Pre-filter and post-filter are connected to the regulator IC. Distance between prefilter and post-filter should be 5cm. High frequency post-filters are used.

Dept of Electronics

CASK

Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

IC VOLTAGE REGULATOR
Voltage regulators comprise a class of widely used ICs. Regulator IC units contain the circuitry for reference source, comparator amplifier, control device, and overload protection all in a single IC. IC units provide regulation of either a fixed positive voltage, a fixed negative voltage, or an adjustably set voltage. The regulators can be selected for operation with load currents from hundreds of milliamperes to tens of amperes, corresponding to power ratings from milli watts to tens of watts. A fixed three terminal voltage regulator has an unregulated dc input voltage, Vi, applied to one input terminal, a regulated dc output voltage, Vo, from a second terminal, with the third terminal connected to ground. The series 78 regulators provide fixed positive regulated voltages from 5 to 24 volts. For ICs, microcontroller, LCD ---------- 5volts. For relay circuits ------------ 12volts.

MICRONTROLLER
PIN DIAGRAM

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

THE MAJOR FEATURES OF PIC 16F873A MICROCONTROLLER

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

High-Performance RISC CPU: Only 35 single-word instructions to learn. All single-cycle instructions except for program branches, which are two-cycle. Operating speed: DC 20 MHz clock input. DC 200 ns instruction cycle. Up to 8K x 14 words of Flash Program Memory, Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM), Up to 256 x 8 bytes of EEPROM Data Memory. Pinout compatible to other 28-pin or 40/44-pin PIC16FXXX microcontrollers. Peripheral Features: Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit prescaler. Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler can be incremented during Sleep via external crystal/clock. Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period register, prescaler and postscaler. Two Capture, Compare, PWM modules. - Capture is 16-bit, maximum resolution is 12.5 ns. - Compare is 16-bit, maximum resolution is 200 ns. - PWM maximum resolution is 10-bit. Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (Master mode) and I2C (Master/Slave). Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART/SCI) with 9-bit address detection. Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8 bits wide with external RD, WR and CS controls (40/44-pin only). Brown-out detection circuitry for Brown-out Reset (BOR). Analog Features: 10-bit, up to 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D). Brown-out Reset (BOR). Analog Comparator module with: - Two analog comparators - Programmable on-chip voltage reference (VREF) module.

Dept of Electronics

CASK

Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

- Programmable input multiplexing from device inputs and internal voltage reference. - Comparator outputs are externally accessible. Special Microcontroller Features: 100,000 erase/write cycle Enhanced Flash program memory typical. 1,000,000 erase/write cycle Data EEPROM memory typical. Data EEPROM Retention > 40 years Self-reprogrammable under software control In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP) via two pins. Single-supply 5V In-Circuit Serial Programming Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable operation. Programmable code protection. Power saving Sleep mode. Selectable oscillator options. In-Circuit Debug (ICD) via two pins. CMOS Technology: Low-power, high-speed Flash/EEPROM technology. Fully static design. Wide operating voltage range (2.0V to 5.5V). Commercial and Industrial temperature ranges. Low-power consumption.

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

MICROCONTROLLER CIRCUIT

o MICROCONTROLLER o RESET CIRCUIT o OSCILLATOR

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

EXPLANATION:
The microcontroller circuit is connected with reset circuit, crystal oscillator, LCD circuit; the reset circuit is the one which is an external interrupt which is designed to reset the program. And the crystal oscillator circuit is the one used to generate the pulses to the microcontroller and it also called as the heart of the microcontroller. The Liquid Crystal Display which is used to display the what we need the LCD has fourteen pins in which three pins for the command and eight pins for the data. If the data is given to LCD it is write command which is configured by the programmer otherwise it is read command in which data read to microcontroller the data pins are given to the port 0 and command pins are given to the port 2. Other than these pins a one pin configured for the contrast of the LCD. Thus the microcontroller circuit works. o MICROCONTROLLER A microcontroller is a complete microprocessor built on a single IC. Microcontrollers were developed to meet a need for microprocessors to be put into low cost products. To solve the problem in microprocessor system is implemented with a single chip microcontroller. This could be called microcomputer, as all the major part are in the IC. Most frequently they are called microcontroller because they are used to perform control functions. The microcontroller contains full implementation of a standard MICROPROCESSOR, ROM, RAM, I/O, CLOCK, TIMERS, and also SERIAL PORTS. Microcontroller also called system on a chip or single chip microprocessor system or computer on a chip. Another term to describe a microcontroller is embedded controller, because the microcontroller and its supports circuits are often built into or embedded in the devices they control.

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

ADVANTAGES: o If a system is developed with a microprocessor, the designer has to go for external memory such as RAM, ROM or EPROM and peripherals and hence the size of the PCB will be large enough to hold all the required peripherals. But, the microcontroller has got all these on a single chip so development of a similar system with a microcontroller reduces PCB size and cost of the design. o One of the major differences between a microcontroller and microprocessor is that a controller often deals with bits, not bytes as in the real world application. o It has only 35 instructions, so it is easy to learn. o Design complexity is small. o It has eight level stacks. And also addresses are in vectored form (pre-defined).

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

APPLICATIONS: A microcontroller is a kind of miniature computer that you can find in all kinds of Gizmos. Some examples of common, every-day products that have microcontrollers are built in. if it has buttons and a digital display, chances are it also has a programmable microcontroller brain. Microcontrollers are designed for use in sophisticated real time applications such as 1. Industrial Control 2. Instrumentation and 3. Intelligent computer peripherals They are used in industrial applications to control Motor Robotics Discrete and continuous process control In missile guidance and control In medical instrumentation Oscilloscopes Telecommunication Automobiles For scanning a keyboard Driving an LCD For frequency measurements Period measurements Machinery Aerospace designs And other high tech devices

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

ARCHITECTURE OF PIC 16F873A

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

o RESET CIRCUIT
The reset circuitry consist capacitor in series with 10K resistor. When switch on the supply the capacitor is changed and discharged gives high low pulse. When power is turned on the circuit holds the RST pin high for an amount of time that depends on the capacitor value and the rate at which it charges. To ensure a valid reset, the RST pin must be held high long enough to allow the oscillator to start up plus two machine cycles. On power up, Vcc should rise within approximately 10ms. The oscillator start-up time depends on the oscillator frequency. For a 10 MHz crystal, the startup time is typically 1ms. Within the given circuit, reducing Vcc quickly to zero causes the RST pin voltage to momentarily fall below zero volt. However, this voltage is internally limited and will not harm the device.

o OSCILLATOR
Crystal oscillator is the one used to generate the pulses to the microcontroller and it is also called as the heart of microcontroller. Here we have used 4 MHz crystal which generates pulses. It offers the highest precision (exactness/accuracy) and stability. Even the microcontroller has an internal RC oscillator with a maximum frequency of 4 MHz, noise affect it easily. Because of increasing of aging of oscillator, resonant frequency varies and cannot get the fixed frequency. So we use crystal oscillator externally for accuracy.

Dept of Electronics

CASK

Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

WHY PIC?
Microchip provides solutions for the entire performance range of 8-bit, 16-bit, and 32-bit microcontrollers, with a powerful architecture, flexible memory technologies, comprehensive easy-to-use development tools, complete technical documentation and post design-in support through a global sales and distribution network. Benefits realized by selecting Microchips microcontroller solutions are: Easy migration across product families Low-risk product development & faster time to market Lower total system cost 24/7 support and Regional Training Centers worldwide Production programming services Certified quality Convenient ordering using microchip DIRECT .

Dept of Electronics

CASK

Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

WHY PID ?
1) PID Explained: Only very control of temperature can be achieved by causing heater power to be simply switched on and off according to an under or over temperature condition respectively. Ultimately, the heater power will be regulated to achieve a desired system temperature but refinement can be employed to enhance the control accuracy. Such refinement is available in the form of proportional (P), integral (I), and derivative (D) functions applied to the control loop. These functions, referred to as control terms can be used in combination according to system requirements. The desired temperature is usually referred to as the set-point (SP). To achieve optimum temperature control whether using on-off, P, PD or PID techniques, ensure that: a) Adequate heater power is available (ideally control will be achieved with 50% power applied!) b) The temperature sensor, be it thermocouple or PRT, is located within reasonable thermal distance of the heaters such that it will respond to changes in heater temperature but will be representative of the load temperature (the thing being heated). c) Adequate thermal mass in the system to minimize its sensitivity to varying load or ambient conditions. d) Good thermal transfer between heaters and load. e) The controller temperature range and sensor type are suitable try to choose a range that results in a mid-scale set-point. Control functions simply described:

a) On Off Usually simplest and cheapest but control may be oscillatory. Best confined to alarm functions only or when thermostatic type control is all that is required, but this may be the most suitable means of control in some applications.

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

b) Proportional (P) A form of anticipatory action which slows the temperature rise when approaching set-point. Variations are more smoothly corrected but an offset will occur (between set and achieved temperatures) as conditions very. Average heater power over a period of time is regulated and applied power is proportional to the error between sensor temperature and set-point (usually by time proportioning relay switching). The region over which power is thus varied is called the Proportional Band (PB) it is usually defined as a percentage of full scale. Offset is the deviation of the sensor temperature from the desired value (set-point). This can be adjusted out manually by means of a potentiometer adjustment (Manual reset) or automatically (Integral Action). c) Proportional + Derivative (PD) The Derivative term when combined with proportional action improves control by sensing changes and correcting for them quickly. The proportional is effectively intensified (its gain is increased) to achieve a quicker response. PD action is commonly employed in general applications. Its use can help to minimize or even eliminate overshoot on system start up, especially when an approach (overshoot inhibition) feature is incorporated. d) Proportional + Integral + Derivative (PID) Adding an integral term to PD control can provide automatic and continuous elimination of any offset. Integral action operates in the steady state condition by shifting the Proportional Band upscale or downscale until the system temperature and set-point coincide. e) Choosing P, PD or PID Although superior control can be achieved in many cases with PID control action, values of the PID terms inappropriate to the application can cause problems. If an adequately powered system with good thermal response exists and the best possible control accuracy is required, full PID control is recommended. If somewhat less critical precision is demanded, the simpler PD action will suffice and will suit a board range of applications. If simple control is all that is required, for instance to improve upon thermostatic switching, Proportional (P) or on-off action will suffice.

Dept of Electronics

CASK

Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

Adjustable PID Values? If the controller specified offers adjustable PID values, the opportunity exists to optimize or tune the control loop to achieve the best possible accuracy in each case. Various tuning methods exist but the following technique provides a simple approach. 2) Optimizing Control Terms (Tuning): Fast Tune PID Control

Firstly adjust P to minimum, D to off and I to off (or some very large value if not to off). Full power is applied to the heaters and is switched off when the measured temperature rises to set-point. The resultant overshoots T0 and the time taken to attain the maximum overshoot t0 (mins), allow suitable P, I and D values to be calculated.

These or similar values should then be set on the controller and good result will be achieved. For critical processes there are alternative more precise methods for obtaining optimum PID values. Such methods are more time consuming and Auto Tune Techniques described below provide an attractive solution in most applications, simple or complex. Auto Tune PID Control

Auto tune controllers utilize PID terms and an approach feature which are all optimized automatically. During the first process warm-up the controller familiarizes itself with the system dynamics and performs self-optimization. No user adjustments are required for PID values. Some instruments include an approach feature to minimize or eliminate start-up overshoot, also automatically.

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

3) Control Outputs: Accurate and reliable energy regulations are essential for good control loop performance if it is assumed that suitable PID values have been determined and applied. Depending on the method of applying energy to the process, for example electrical energy to a resistive heating element, a suitable type of controller output arrangement must be specified. In some cases, more than one output may be required (e.g. for multizone heaters, heating-cooling applications).

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

TEMPERATURE SENSOR
The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. The LM35 thus has an advantage over linear temperature sensors calibrated in Kelvin, as the user is not required to subtract a large constant voltage from its output to obtain convenient Centigrade scaling. The LM35 does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of 14C at room temperature and 34C over a full 55 to +150C temperature range. Low cost is assured by trimming and calibration at the wafer level. The LM35s low output impedance, linear output, and precise inherent calibration make interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy. It can be used with single power supplies, or with plus and minus supplies. As it draws only 60 A from its supply, it has very low self-heating, less than 0.1C in still air. The LM35 is rated to operate over a 55 to +150C temperature range, while the LM35C is rated for a 40 to +110C range (10 with improved accuracy). The LM35 series is available packaged in hermetic TO-46 transistor packages, while the LM35C, LM35CA, and LM35D are also available in the plastic TO-92 transistor package. The LM35D is also available in an 8-lead surface mount small outline package and a plastic TO-220 package.

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

FEATURES OF LM35
Calibrated directly in Celsius (Centigrade) Linear + 10.0 mV/C scale factor 0.5C accuracy guaranteeable (at +25C) Rated for full 55 to +150C range Suitable for remote applications Low cost due to wafer-level trimming Operates from 4 to 30 volts Less than 60 A current drain Low self-heating, 0.08C in still air Nonlinearity only 14C typical Low impedance output, 0.1 W for 1 mA load The output voltage is converted to temperature by a simple conversion factor.

Dept of Electronics

CASK

Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY

LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCDs) has materials, which combines the properties of both liquids and crystals. Rather than having a melting point, they have a temperature range within which the molecules are almost as mobile as they would be in a liquid, but are grouped together in an ordered form similar to a crystal. An LCD consists of two glass panels, with the liquid crystal material sandwiched in between them. The LCDs are lightweight with only a few millimeters thickness. Since the LCDs consume less power, they are compatible with low power electronic circuits and can be powered for long durations. The LCD does not generate light and so light is needed to read the display. By using backlighting, reading is possible in the dark. The LCDs have long life and a wide operating temperature range.

Dept of Electronics

CASK

Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

The LCDs have long life and a wide operating temperature range. Changing the display size or the layout size is relatively simple which makes the LCDs more customers friendly. The LCDs used exclusively in watches, calculators and measuring instruments are the simple seven segment displays, having a limited amount of numeric data. The recent advances in technology have resulted in better legibility, more information displaying capability and a wider temperature range. These have resulted in the LCDs being extensively used in telecommunications and entertainment electronics. The LCDs have been started replacing the cathode ray tube (CRTs) used for the display of text and graphics and also in small TV applications.

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

PCB DESIGNING
Printed circuit boards sometimes abbreviated PCB. A flat board made of non-conducting material, such as plastics or fiber glass on which chips and other electronic components are mounded usually in pre-drilled holes designed to hold them. The components on a PCB or more specifically the holes that hold them are connected electrically by pre-defined conductive metal pathways that are printed on the surface of the board. The metal leads protruding from the electronic components are soldered to the conductive metal pathways to form a connection. A PCB should be held by the edges and protected from dirt and static electricity to avoid damage. PCB forms the core of electronic equipment domestic and industrial. Some of the areas where PCBs are intensively used are computers, process control, telecommunication and instrumentation. The manufacturing process consists of two methods; print and etch, and plate and etch. The software used in our project to obtain; The schematic layout is PROTEUS 7 PROFESSIONAL. The software for stimulating is ISIS 7 PROFESSIONAL. The software for wiring on PCB board is ARES 7 PROFESSIONAL.

STEPS IN DESIGNING:
i. PENALIZATION ii. iii. iv. vi. DRILLING PLATING ETCHING HOT AIR LEVELING

v.SOLDER MASK

PCB LAYOUT

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

FIRMWARE IMPLEMENTATION
/* * Author * File * Year * Overview : : : PROJECT TEAM PID.c 2010

: Temperature PID Controller means to control the temperature in a fixed range, which is achieved with the help of a fan/cooler as well as a heater. User can Set the required level by using three switches namely UP, DOWN and SET. */

#include #include #include #include

<pic.h> "lcd.h" "delay.h" <stdio.h>

_CONFIG(WDTDIS & HS); #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define SW_SET SW_UP SW_DN RLY_HEATER RLY_FAN ON OFF TRUE FALSE0 1 0 1 RB0 RB1 RB2 RB6 RB7

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

#define TOLERENCE int bit

TOLERENCE 5

// Allowable Temp. Range SET_POINT +/

SET_POINT = 40; SET;

// Default Set Point 40 Degree Celcius // Flag to indicate the Status of settings

char msg[16] = "0\0"; unsigned int read_adc(void) { ADGO = 1; while(ADGO); return((ADRES); } // temp = (5/256)*adcval/10mv // // ~ (5*adcval*1000)/(256*10) ~ adcval*2

unsigned int get_temp(void) { return(2*read_adc()); }

void main(void) { char i; unsigned int temp = 0; TRISA = 0XFF; TRISB = 0X07;

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

TRISC = 0X00; ADCON0 = 0XC1; ADCON1 = 0X00; RLY_HEATER = OFF; RLY_FAN = OFF; lcd_init(); lcd_puts("TEMP PID CONTRLR"); lcd_Secline(0); lcd_puts(" CAS KOTTAYI "); //10 sec delay for(i = 0; i < 4; i++) DelayMs(250); while(1) { lcd_goto(0); temp = get_temp(); sprintf(msg,"C.T: %2u S.P: %2u ",temp,SET_POINT); lcd_puts(msg); lcd_Secline(0); if(temp <= (SET_POINT - TOLERENCE)) { RLY_HEATER = ON; RLY_FAN = OFF; lcd_puts("HEATER ON,FAN OF"); } else if(temp >= (SET_POINT + TOLERENCE))

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

{ RLY_HEATER = OFF; RLY_FAN = ON; lcd_puts("HEATER OF,FAN ON"); } else { RLY_HEATER = OFF; RLY_FAN = OFF; lcd_puts("HEATER OF,FAN OF"); } for(i = 0; i < 10; i++) { if(!SW_SET) { while(!SW_SET); SET = FALSE; while(SET == FALSE) { lcd_clear(); sprintf(msg,"S.P:%2u",SET_POINT); lcd_puts(msg); while(SW_SET && SW_UP && SW_DN);// wait for a key depression if(!SW_SET) { while(!SW_SET); SET = TRUE; DelayMs(250); } else if(!SW_UP) { // Up Key Pressed // Wait for Key Release // Settings Over // Wait a while // Set Key Pressed // Set Key Pressed // Wait for Key Release // Ready to Enter into Settings

Dept of Electronics

CASK

Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

while(!SW_UP); SET_POINT = SET_POINT + 2; } else if(!SW_DN) { while(!SW_DN); SET_POINT = SET_POINT - 2; } } } else DelayMs(10); } }

// Wait for Key Release // Increment Set Point by 2 // Down Key Pressed // Wait for Key Release // Decrement Set Point by 2

CONCLUSION

Dept of Electronics

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Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

We are pleasure to conclude our project on the topic Temperature PID Controller. The detail of this project has been made by members of our team sincerely with the inspiration of out tutors. Through this project we have done, sensing and maintaining the temperature using IC LM35, which is very sensitive. This IC is ideal for interfacing with microcontroller PIC16F873A. According to the program installed in the PIC, it regulates or works the relays based on the comparison of current temperature with set point. And the working of the system can be observed in the LCD.

FUTURE SCOPE

Dept of Electronics

CASK

Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

Now-a-days also these types of circuits can be used in large farms and in certain places where we want to measure the current temperature and also to maintain the temperature constant according to the users decision. We can use in a wide variety of applications like: Poultry farm Industries Thermal furnace Boiler Medical applications And in all temperature controlling areas

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Electronics For You (EFI) www.efy.com

Dept of Electronics

CASK

Temperature PID Controller

2010 - 2011

www.microchip.com www.mikroe.com www.datasheetcatalog.com

Dept of Electronics

CASK