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Integumentary System NervousSystem Skeletal

Muscular System System Circulatory System

Digestive System

Respiratory System

Excretory System

Reproductive System Endocrine System Lymphatic System

Leonardo da Vinci

An introduction to the study and importance of structure function relationships

Contributions to Anatomy
Eye: light focuses on retina Muscles: reciprocal action Nerves: sensory and motor Brain: control center Heart: four chambers Skeleton Developing fetus in utero

How da Vinci Conducted His Work Lesson in the Nature of Science


Commissioned as an artist and explored scientific endeavors on the side Dissected 30 cadavers without preservatives Used cross sections, layering, and wax use of models Studying structure leads to understanding function Investigated HOW, and then WHY Questioned accepted ideas

Structure and Function


Using the drawings done by Davinci, explain the structure and function of the body part and how the structure fits the function

Issues da Vinci Encountered


Absence of technology Easily distracted Abandoned many projects Working conditions Not publishing work- enter Vesalius (History of Science)

Impediments to the Acceptance of his Ideas


Questioned the accepted teachings of Galen, a 2nd century physician Viewed as a heretic and blasphemer Punished by Pope Leo X for anatomical indiscretions No formal contributions to science Had reservations, but knew it would benefit mankind Left behind many manuscripts and drawings Not recognized for decades or centuries later

The Skeletal System


1. The Human Skeleton 2. Bone Structure 3. Joints

The Human Skeleton


The adult human skeleton has 206 bones and is divided into two parts: Axial Skeleton Supports the central axis of the body.

Skull

Appendicular Skeleton - The bones of


Clavicle the appendages (arms, Scapula shoulder area, legs, and Humerus pelvis). Radius Pelvis Ulna Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges Femur Patella Fibula Tibia Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges

Sternum Ribs Vertebral column

THE STRUCTURE OF A BONE


Bone - a solid network of living cells and fibers that are supported by deposits of calcium salts

Spongy bone Compact bone Periosteum Haversian canal Compact bone

Bone marrow Spongy bone Osteocyte Artery Vein Periosteum

Thought Question: Examine the bone being passed around the class. How do think this bone differs from a bone in a bird's wing?

Bone Marrow
red marrow is in spongy bone
production of blood cells

yellow marrow is found in the central cavity of long bones


stores fat and acts as an energy reserve

Cartilage
cushions the ends of bones
elbows, hips, and knees

provides structure
nose and ears much of a newborn's skeleton is made of cartilage

Bone Development
Cartilage pre-cursor cartilage is slowly replaced by bone through a process called ossification Osteoblasts bone forming cells Osteoclasts bone destroying cells Osteocytes regulate cellular activities of bone

Joints
Ball and Socket Joint (shoulder) - bones can rotate while moving back and forth and side to side Hinge Joint (knee) - allows movement back and forth in one plane Pivot Joint (top of neck and base of skull) - one bone rotates around another

Thought Question: Based on the diagram, what is the difference between a tendon and a ligament?

Muscle

Tendon
Femur

Patella Bursa

Ligament
Synovial fluid

Tendon - connects muscle and bone Ligament - connects two bones

Cartilage Fat Fibula Tibia

The Muscular System


1. Types of Muscle 2. Types of Movement 3. Muscular Contraction

Types of Muscle
Skeletal - striated,
voluntary, multinucleated Cardiac - only in heart, striated, involuntary Smooth surrounds tubes and vessels, not striated, involuntary

Can you identify the type of muscle shown below?

Structure of Skeletal Muscle


Muscle cells are bundled together and are surrounded by a connective sheath.
Actin Skeletal muscle Bundle of muscle fibers Myosin

An individual muscle cell is a long fiber with many nuclei. Each muscle cell contains a central cable made of a rodlike structures called myofibrils

Sarcomere
Z disc

Myofibril
Muscle fiber (cell)

Myofibrils are composed of two types of protein, actin and myosin. They make up the light and dark bands in functional units called sarcomeres.

Types of Movement
Adduction - movement towards the midline of the body (i.e. the lowering of the leg or arm). Abduction - movement away from the midline of the body (i.e. raise arm, open hand).
Movement A
Biceps (relaxed)

Extension - An increase in the angle between two bones. Flexion - A folding movement in which there is a decrease in the angle between two bones.
Movement B
Biceps (contracted)

Triceps (relaxed)

Triceps (relaxed)

Thought Questions: Would you classify movement A as Extension or Flexion? Movement B?

How a Muscle Contracts


Relaxed Muscle
Z disc Myosin Actin Z disc

Movement of Actin Filament


Actin

Sarcomere

Binding sites Myosin

Crossbridge

Contracted Muscle

myosin - thick filaments, have many bumplike projections called "heads"


Cross-bridges Z disc

actin - thin filaments, like a string of twisted beads, the ends of the actin strands are attached to Z lines

1. myosin heads attach to the actin filaments forming cross bridges 2. the heads of the myosin filaments walk along the actin filaments, pulling them toward the center of the sarcomere

Click on the link below to view a video showing a muscle contract:


http://www.3dotstudio.com/zz.html

The Integumentary System


1. The Skin 2. Hair and Nails 3. Thermoregulation

Skin

functions as a

is made up of the

Barrier to infection

Regulator of body temperature

Remover of waste products

Protector against UV radiation

Epidermis

Dermis

which is the

which is the

Outer layer

Inner layer

The Structure of Skin


Nerves Hair Sweat pore Hair follicle Sebaceous gland

Epidermis

Dermis

Muscle Sweat gland

Hypodermis

Fat

epidermis - outermost layer, mostly dead cells that flake off as new cells replace them dermis - middle, contains hair follicles, oil and sweat glands, muscles, nerves and blood vessels hypodermis - innermost layer, fat storing cells and blood vessels

Where would you find melanin in the image shown below?

Thought Question: How can the presence/abundance of melanin be used as evidence for evolution?

Hair and Nails


Hair
composed of keratin (a protein) formed in follicles in the dermis

Nails
also made of keratin
Thought Question: Dyed hair typically loses its color at the root and at the ends. Explain why based on what you know about how hair grows.

A Negative Feedback Loop: Controlling Room Temperature


Thought Questions: What is homeostasis? How does your integument function to maintain homeostasis?

Controlling Body Temperature

The Nervous System


1. 2. 3. 4. The Neuron Resting Potential Action Potential Synapses

Invertebrate Nervous Systems


ganglia ganglia Arthropoda nerve cells

Cnidaria

Chordata

Thought Question: Why does a female praying mantis chew off the male's head while they are mating?

The Human Nervous System


Coordinates and controls body functions
is divided into

Central nervous system


Directs & coordinates all major activities of the body

Peripheral nervous system Motor Division


Carries info from C.N.S to a muscle or gland that make up Carries messages to and from the central nervous system which consists of

Sensory Division
Receives stimuli from the environment: Tells C.N.S. what is happening

Somatic nervous system


Generally controls voluntary movement (I.e. movement of arm)

Autonomic nervous system


Generally Involuntary (Controls key functions such as heartbeat, breathing) which is divided into

Sympathetic nervous system


Prepares body for emergency - energy used for fight or flight response.

Parasympathetic nervous system


Maintains normal body function: I.e. energy used for digestion

Nerve Systems

Thought Question: What is the significance of the nerves that go to your heart, lungs, and digestive system being autonomic?

The Structure of a Neuron


Neuron - the functional unit of the nervous system
Nucleus
Axon terminals

Cell body

Myelin sheath

Nodes

Axon

Dendrites

Dendrites - carry signals toward the cell body Axons - carry signals away from the cell body Myelin sheath - insulates the axon; nerve impulses hop from node to
node, thereby speeding the transmission of electrical signals

What happens when you reach out with your hand and touch something warm?

Sensory Input, Integration, and Motor Output


Sensory Receptors -collect information about the physical world outside the body as well processes inside the organism Sensory Input signals are conveyed to integration centers in the CNS Motor Output -the conduction of signals from the integration center (CNS) to effector cells. Effector Cells -the muscle cells or gland cells that actually carry out the bodys responses to stimuli

Reflex Arc
Reflex - an involuntary response to a stimulus
Thought Question: Does a reflex involve the central or peripheral nervous system? Explain. What is the evolutionary adavantage of this?

The knee jerk reflex (seen in the figure to the right) is called a monosynaptic reflex. This means that there is only 1 synapse in the neural circuit needed to complete the reflex. It only takes about 50 milliseconds of time between the tap and the start of the leg kick...that is fast. The tap below the knee causes the thigh muscle to stretch. Information is sent to the spinal cord. After one synapse in the ventral horn of the spinal cord, the information is sent back out to the muscle...and there you have the reflex.

Reflex Arc animation: http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/co ntent/reflexarcs.html

Neurons At Rest
Resting Potential - resting neurons store electrical energy in the form of Na+ and K+ ions on opposing sides of the cell membrane Ion Channels - channel proteins allow these ions to cross the cell membrane by diffusion (Na+ in, K+ out); the inside of the neuron is more negatively charged than the outside because there are many more K+ channels than Na+ channels Ion Pumps - maintain the differences in ion concentration by pumping both ions back across the membrane
Outside of cell

Cell membrane

Inside of cell

ATP

Thought Question: What part of this process requires ATP?

A Nerve Impulse: signal is transmitted along a neuron

Action Potential

At rest.

As the action potential passes, potassium gates open, allowing K+ ions to flow out.

Action Potential

Action Potential

When a neuron is stimulated, the membrane becomes more permeable to Na+ ions creating an action potential and the inside of the cell becomes temporarily positively charged

The action potential continues to move along the axon in the direction of the nerve impulse.

Thought Question: How does the myelin sheath help speed the transmission of this signal?

Synapses: passing signals from one neuron to the next

Axon Vesicle

Action Potential Dendrite of adjacent neuron Receptor

Synapse - tiny gap where neurons connect to other neurons or to muscles Neurotransmitter - chemical that carries the nerve signal across the synapse 1. the action potential (electrical signal) causes vesicles to release chemical signals called neurotransmitters 2. neurotransmitters cross through a tiny space called the synaptic cleft 3. receptor molecules on the receiving neuron accept the neurotransmitter and may create a new action potential

Axon terminal Synaptic cleft Neurotransmitter

The Senses
1. The Brain 2. Types of Sensory Receptors 3. Sight - The Eye 4. Hearing and Balance - The Ear 5. Smell and Taste

The Central Nervous System: consists of the brain and spinal cord.

Cerebrum most complex, right and left halves

Thalamus sorts information

Hypothalamus controls body temperature, thirst, hunger, water balance, and emotions Cerebellum body movement Pons Brain Stem Regulates body processes that are not conciously controlled, like the heartbeat Medulla oblongata

Types of Sensory Receptors


Pain Receptors - present in all parts of the body except the brain Thermoreceptors - present in skin and some organs, detect heat and cold Mechanoreceptors - present in skin, stimulated by mechanical energy (touch, pressure, stretch, motion) Chemoreceptors - taste buds and receptors in your nose Photoreceptors - detect various wavelengths of light in your eyes Thought Question: What parts of your body are most likely to have numerous pain receptors?

The Eye
Vitreous humor Muscle Lens
Fovea

Aqueous humor Cornea

Optic nerve

Pupil Iris

Blood vessels

Retina
Choroid Sclera

Ligaments

How the Eye Focuses


Thought Question: Why do dogs only see in black and white?

Cones - three
types respond to the three colors of light (blue, red, and green)

Rods - are more


sensitive to light but do not distinguish color

Common Vision Problems


Nearsightedness
eye is wider than it is tall, so the image is focused on a point in front of the retina

Farsightedness
eye is taller than it is wide, so the image is focused on a point behind the retina

Astigmatism
irregularities on the cornea or lens interfere with focusing

The Ear
Anvil Stirrup Hammer Oval window Semicircular canals Cochlear nerve

Cochlea

Bone Auditory canal Tympanum Round window Eustachian tube

Thought Question: How are the semicircular canals organized to aid in balance?

Taste and Smell


Taste - sensory
neurons in the tongue (taste buds) enable a person to distinguish between sweet, sour, bitter, and salty tastes.
Taste sensory area Cerebral cortex Thalamus Olfactory (smell) bulb Olfactory nerve

Smell - sensory
neurons in the nose (olfactory receptors) respond to chemical stimulation. Very sensitive methyl mercaptan (the odor put in natural gas) can be detected in concentrations as low as 1/25,000,000,000 mg per ml of air.

Smell receptor Nasal cavity Smell sensory area Taste bud Taste pore Taste receptor

Sensory nerve fibers

Thought Question: How are the signals from taste buds and olfactory receptors carried to the brain?