You are on page 1of 24


YSP Project Games and English Language

Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

YSP Project Games and English Language

Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

Variety of Games
Tabletop games

Sport Multi-sport events Olympic Games Summer Olympic Games Winter Olympic Games World Games X Games

Board games Card games Dice games Miniature games Pencil-and-paper games Tile-based games Role-playing games Chess game

Video games

Conversation games Daring games

Video games Arcade games Computer games Console games Handheld games Mobile games Online games Flash games OTHERS Alternate reality games Educational games Card Games Children's games Creative games

Guessing games Singing games Paper and pencil games Playground games Pub games Drinking games Puzzles Quizzes Redemption games Role-playing games Skill games Street games Travel games Wargames Word games

Lawn games Letter games Play-by-mail games Play-by-post games

Locative games Mathematical games Parlor games Party games

Definition of Games

Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

Games are popular among all age groups . No one dont play ,no matter how poor you are , how rich are you ,still you will have games to play ,just the type of game varies. Games are defined in different perspectives : 1. Ludwig Wittgenstein was probably the first academic philosopher to address the definition of the word game. In his Philosophical Investigations, Wittgenstein demonstrated that the elements of games, such as play, rules, and competition, all fail to adequately define what games are. Wittgenstein concluded that people apply the term game to a range of disparate human activities that bear to one another only what one might call family resemblances. 2. French sociologist Roger Caillois, in his book Les jeux et les hommes (Games and Men), defined a game as an activity that must have the following characteristics:fun: the activity is chosen for its light-hearted character separate: it is circumscribed in time and place uncertain: the outcome of the activity is unforeseeable non-productive: participation does not accomplish anything useful governed by rules: the activity has rules that are different from everyday life fictitious: it is accompanied by the awareness of a different reality 3. Computer game designer Chris Crawford attempted to define the term game[6] using a series of dichotomies: Creative expression is art if made for its own beauty, and entertainment if made for money. A piece of entertainment is a plaything if it is interactive. Movies and books are cited as examples of non-interactive entertainment. If no goals are associated with a plaything, it is a toy. (Crawford notes that by his definition, (a) a toy can become a game element if the player makes up rules, and (b) The Sims and SimCity are toys, not games.) If it has goals, a plaything is a challenge. If a challenge has no "active agent against whom you compete," it is a puzzle; if there is one, it is a conflict. (Crawford admits that this is a subjective test. Video games with noticeably algorithmicartificial intelligence can be played as puzzles; these include the patterns used to evade ghosts in Pac-Man.)

Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

Finally, if the player can only outperform the opponent, but not attack them to interfere with their performance, the conflict is a competition. (Competitions include racing and figure skating.) However, if attacks are allowed, then the conflict qualifies as a game.

Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

Video games our topic ??? Obviously what we are going to present is a video game as video games have interfaced us for a decade .Nowadays ,children spend hours on computer , surfing net mainly .While surfing net , they will open some games . But what is video games ?? A video game is an electronic game that involves human interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. The word video in video game traditionally referred to a raster display device, but following popularization of the term "video game", it now implies any type of display device. The electronic systems used to play video games are known as platforms; examples of these are personal computers and video game consoles. These platforms range from large mainframe computers to small handheld devices. Specialized video games such as arcade games, while previously common, have gradually declined in use. Video games have gone on to become an art form and industry. The input device used to manipulate video games is called a game controller, and varies across platforms.Many modern computer games allow or require the player to use a keyboard and a mouse simultaneously. A few of the most common game controllers are gamepads, mice, keyboards, and joysticks. Video games typically use additional means of providing interactivity and information to the player. Audio is almost universal, using sound reproduction devices, such as speakers and headphones. Other feedback may come via vibration or force feedback, with vibration sometimes used to simulate force feedback. Games must have a platform to perform its usage . Perform such as Facebook . If possible , we will have our game on mobile platform . A game must have been smoothened before publication or shipping. The genre of our game will be arcade games.. Our arcade games will be a come back of classic game . Stick-man catching the correct tenses by using the direction button on the keyboard . This classic game was once our schools Computer Literacy assignment ,so we will be able to produce fair quality games . It will be simple, a 4years old little girl know how to know .Our target is to let children to play the game .An old saying in Chinese society is that Your personality will always be the same no matter you are at the age of 3 or 80 ,our team much believe that the idea of correct tense for children to acknowledge should be done when they are very young . In the film INCEPTION , they must put the idea into the subconscious which is said deep in the brain .So as tenses , the idea of using correct tense must be encrypted since young. Also from the idea of Linguistic imperialism , the earlier English is taught, the better the results ,this deeps our idea of letting youngsters to learn English as early as possible.

Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

What is English ? English is a West Germanic language spoken originally in England, and is now the most widely used language in the world. It is spoken as a first language by a majority of the inhabitants of several nations, including the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Ireland and New Zealand. It is the third most commonly spoken language in the world in terms of native speakers, after Mandarin Chinese and Spanish. But it is more commonly used as a second language than any other, which is why its total number of speakers native plus non-native exceeds those of any other language. English is an official language of the European Union and many Commonwealth countries, as well as in many world organizations. English arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and what is now southeast Scotland, but was then under the control of the kingdom of Northumbria. Following the extensive influence of Great Britain and the United Kingdom from the 18th century, via the British Empire, and of the United States since the mid-20th century,it has been widely dispersed around the world, becoming the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions. What is Chinese ? The Chinese language (/ Hny; / Huy; Zhngwn) is a language or language family consisting of varieties which aremutually intelligible to varying degrees. Originally the indigenous languages spoken by the Han Chinese in China, it forms one of the branches ofSino-Tibetan family of languages. About one-fifth of the world's population, or over one billion people, speaks some variety of Chinese as their native language. Internal divisions of Chinese are usually perceived by their native speakers as dialects of a single Chinese language, rather than separate languages, although this identification is considered inappropriate by some linguists and Sinologists. Chinese is distinguished by its high level of internal diversity, although all varieties of Chinese are tonal and analytic. There are between 7 and 13 main regional groups of Chinese (depending on classification scheme), of which the most spoken, by far, is Mandarin (about 850 million), followed by Wu(90 million), Cantonese (Yue) (70 million) and Min (50 million). Most of these groups are mutually unintelligible, although some, like Xiang and the Southwest Mandarin dialects, may share common terms and some degree of intelligibility. Standard Chinese (Putonghua / Guoyu / Huayu) is a standardized form of spoken Chinese based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin Chinese, referred to as / Gunhu or / Bifnghu in Chinese. Mandarin Chinese history can be

Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

dated back to the 19th century, particularly by the upper classes and ministers in Beijing. Standard Chinese is the official language of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China(ROC, also known as Taiwan), as well as one of four official languages of Singapore. It is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Of the other varieties of Chinese, Cantonese is influential in Guangdong Province and Cantonese-speaking overseas communities, and remains one of the official languages of Hong Kong (together with English) and of Macau (together with Portuguese). Min Nan, part of the Min language group, is widely spoken in southern Fujian, in neighbouring Taiwan (where it is known as Taiwanese or Hoklo) and in Southeast Asia (known as Hokkien in Philippines,Singapore and Malaysia). There are also sizeable Hakka and Shanghainese diaspora, for example in Taiwan, where most Hakka communities maintain diglossia by being conversant in Taiwanese and Standard Chinese.

Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

Why is English be the international language ? Why not Chinese ? Although there is large amount of Chinese population I.nternational English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and the movement towards an international standard for the language. It is also referred to as Global English, World English, Common English, General English or Standard English. Sometimes these terms refer simply to the array of varieties of English spoken throughout the world; sometimes they refer to a desired standardisation. However, consensus on the terminology and path to standardisation has not been reached. The establishment of the first permanent English-speaking colony in North America in 1607 was a major step towards the globalisation of the language. British English was only partially standardised when the American colonies were established. Isolated from each other by the Atlantic Ocean, the dialects in England and the colonies began evolving independently. The differences between American English and British English were then magnified by choices made by the first influential lexicographers on each side of the Atlantic. While spellings such as "center" and "color" had been common in both North America and England since the time of Shakespeare, Samuel Johnson's dictionary of 1755 greatly favored Norman-influenced spellings. On the other hand, Noah Webster's first guide to American spelling, published in 1783, leaned heavily in the opposite direction. The difference in strategy and philosophy of Johnson and Webster are what gave rise to the main division in English spelling that exists today. How is globalization affect the number of popularity use English Advantages

Goods and people are transported with ease and speed global mass media connects all the people in the world as the cultural barriers reduce, the global village dream becomes more realistic there is a propagation of democratic ideals the interdependence of the nation-states increases as the liquidity of capital increases, developed countries can invest in developing ones the flexibility of corporations to operate across borders increases the communication between the individuals and corporations in the world increases

Effects of Globalization

enhancement in the information flow between geographically remote locations


Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

free circulation of people of different nations leads to social benefits more trans-border data flow using communication satellites, the Internet, wireless telephones, etc. multiculturalism spreads as there is individual access to cultural diversity. This diversity decreases due to hybridization or assimilation international travel and tourism increases enhancement in worldwide fads and pop culture local consumer products are exported to other countries immigration between countries increases cross-cultural contacts grow and cultural diffusion takes place there is an increase in the desire to use foreign ideas and products, adopt new practices and technologies and be a part of world culture

From globalization ,we can see multicultural can be existed together .English may refer to globalization , letting from remote location people to developing city people to learn about English .Globalization let westerner who speak English to migrate .From Internet and television ,people have much contact with English .Business from England started in 1600- the east india company , also in history England had many colonies around the world ,thats why English is an international language

Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

TENSE In our opinion ,English is just a conversation linked with object, subject verb and tenses ,Four of the following can show us all the information for us to rebuild an image about the conversation in our mind So tenses will be the most important part of it as it is telling the setting of a sentence. A tense is a grammatical category that locates a situation in time, to indicate when the situation takes placeTenses like is and are are the necessities we have to use to form a sentence .In conversation ,if we use tense wrongly ,people may get into confusion about what we are talking about. Unlike Cantonese , tenses give us the sense of time . Present Continuous Prefect Simple Prefect Continuous Past Continuous Prefect Simple Passive voice Future Simple Continuous Prefect Usage of prenset tense Simple Present Tense is used to show : 1)Habitual actions 2)General or scientific truths 3)Pre-arranged future activities Present Continuous Tenses is used to show : 1)Actions that are going on now 2)Planned future activities Present Perfect Tense is used to show : 1)Actions that began in the past and have


Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

continued up to now 2)Immediate past actions Present Perfect Continuous Tenses is used to show : 1)Actions that began in the past and still going on at present 2)Actions that were still continuing a moment ago USAGE OF PAST TENSE Simple Past Tense is used to show: 1)Past actions or habits 2)Unreal situations Past continuous Tense is used to show: 1)Actions that were going on in the past 2)Actions that were going on when something else happened/was happening Past Perfect Tense is used to show: 1)Actions that had been completed before another past action Past Perfect Continuous Tense is used to show: 1)Actions that had been going on for some time in the past Usage of Future Tense Simple Future Tense is used to show : 1)Actions that will happen in the future 2)An intention ,a promise or a determination Future Continuous Tense is used to show : 1)Actions going on at some point of time in the future Future Perfect Tense is used to show : 1)Actions completed before some point of time in the future Future Perfect Continuous Tense is used to show : 1)Actions that will be going on for some time in the future


Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

Vowels The system of vowel phonemes and their pronunciation is subject to significant variation between dialects. The table below lists the vowels found in Received Pronunciation (RP) and General American, with examples of words in which they occur. The vowels are represented with symbols from the International Phonetic Alphabet; those given for RP are in relatively standard use in British dictionaries and other publications. For more detailed information see English phonology: Vowels. RP GAm word RP GAm word RP GAm word

monophthongs monophthongs (cont.) diphthongs



e e







a a




a a


() box











(r) lure


Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

Some points to note:

For words which in RP have //, most North American dialects have // (as in the example of box above) or // (as in cloth). However some North American varieties do not have the vowel // at all (except before /r/); see cotcaught merger.

In General American and some other rhotic accents, the combination of vowel+/r/ is often realized as an r-colored vowel. For example, butter /btr/ is pronounced with an r-colored schwa, []. Similarlynurse contains the r-colored vowel []. The vowel conventionally written // is actually pronounced more centrally, as [], in RP. In the northern half of England this vowel is replaced by // (so cut rhymes with put). In unstressed syllables there may or may not be a distinction between // (schwa) and // (//). So for some speakers there is no difference between roses and Rosa's. For more information see Reduced vowels in English. The diphthongs /e/ and // (/o/) tend towards the monophthongal pronunciations [e] and [o] in some dialects, including Canadian, Scottish, Irish and Northern English. In parts of North America /a/ is pronounced [] before voiceless consonants. This is particularly true in Canada, where also /a/ is pronounced [] in this position. See Canadian raising. The sound // is coming to be replaced by // in many words; for example, sure is often pronounced like shore. See English-language vowel changes before historic r.

Verbs A regular English verb has only one principal part, from which all the forms of the verb can be derived. This is the bare form, and is shown in dictionaries. All other forms of a regular verb can be derived straightforwardly from this, for a total of four forms. For example, the bare form "exist" produces the forms exist, exists (third person singular present), existed (past tense (preterite) and past participle), existing(present participle). Each of these can be used in a variety of grammatical contexts. Another class of verbs, strong verbs, have three principal parts. For example: Part Example

1 infinitive


2 preterite



Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

3 past participle written This gives a total of five forms (write, writes, wrote, written, writing). Some irregular weak verbs have two principal parts (e.g., send (infinitive), sent (preterite and past participle)). Additionally, the verbs do, say, and have have irregular forms in the present tense third-person singular (although the first two are only irregular in speech): do /du:/ becomes does /dz/; say /se/ becomes says /sz/ (in most accents); have /hv/ becomes has /hz/). The highly irregular copular verb to be has eight forms: be (infinitive), am (first person singular present), is (third person singular present), are (in second person singular and all persons plural, present), being(present participle), was (first and third persons singular preterite), were (preterite in second person singular and all persons plural), and been (past participle) (in addition to the archaic forms art, wast, wert, and beest), of which only one (being) is derivable as a regular inflection of the bare form. Base form The following are uses of the base form:

The base form serves as the present tense for all persons and numbers other than the third person singular. The base form combines with to to form the to-infinitive, which is one of two verbal nouns: To write is to learn, which can also be expressed as writing is learning. The base form, either marked with to or unmarked, is used as the complement of many auxiliary verbs: I shall/will write a novel about talking beavers; I really ought to write it. The base form is used for the English imperative mood: Write these words.

The base form is used for the English subjunctive mood: I suggested that he write a novel about talking beavers; I demand that he be there. Third person singular Formation The third person singular regular verbs in the present tense in English are distinguished by the suffix -s. In English spelling, this -s is added to the stem of the infinitive form: run runs.


Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

If the base ends in one of the sibilant sounds (/s/, /z/, //, //, /t/, /d/), and its spelling does not end in a silent E, the suffix is written -es: buzz buzzes; catch catches. If the base ends in a consonant plus y, the y changes to an i and -es is affixed to the end: cry cries. Verbs ending in o typically add -es: veto vetoes. Regardless of spelling, the pronunciation of the third person singular ending in most dialects follows regular rules:

/z/ after sibilants /s/ after voiceless consonants other than sibilants. /z/ otherwise

The third person singular present indicative in English is notable cross-linguistically for being a morphologically marked form for a semantically unmarked one. That is to say, the third person singular is usually taken to be the most basic form in a given verbal category and as such, according to markedness theory, should have the simplest of forms in its paradigm. This is clearly not the case with English where the other persons exhibit the bare root and nothing more. In Early Modern English, some dialects distinguished the third person singular with the suffix -th; after consonants this was written -eth, and some consonants were doubled when this was added: run runneth. Usage

The third person singular is used exclusively in the third person form of the English simple "present tense", which often has other uses besides the simple present: He writes airport novels about anthropomorphic rodents.

Exception English preserves a number of preterite-present verbs, such as can and may. These verbs lack a separate form for the third person singular: she can, she may. All surviving preterite-present verbs in modern English are auxiliary verbs. The verb will, although historically not a preterite-present verb, is uninflected like one when used as an auxiliary; by a process of levelling it has become regular when it is a full verb:Whatever she wills to happen will make life annoying for everyone else.

Preterite form The preterite form is used in all persons and numbers as the finite verb in a clause, typically to talk about the past.

Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

We lit the fire. You ate the bread. He liked to dance.

It can also be used in a dependent clause to indicate that a present-time situation is hypothetical: If I knew that, I wouldn't have to ask. Formation of regular preterite

In spelling, the regular preterite is formed by adding ed to the bare form (play played). The normal rules for adding suffixes beginning with a vowel apply. Hence if the bare form ends in the letter e then only dis added (like liked). If the bare form ends in a consonant followed by y, then it is changed to an i before adding the ed (try tried, though note sky skied or skyed). Various rules apply for doubling final consonants. If the bare form ends in a single vowel followed by a single consonant (except h, silent t, w, x and y), then unless the final syllable is completely unstressed, the consonant is doubled before adding the ed (ship shipped, but fathom fathomed). For most bare forms ending in c then ck is used to effect the doubling (panic panicked, bivouac bivouacked, and this occurs regardless of stress. Note that both zincked and zinced are typically considered acceptable, however arcked is less common. Also note spec specced, but sometimes spec'ed. Also sync synched is recognized by some dictionaries). In British English the l is typically doubled even when the final syllable is unstressed: travel travelling, and when two separately-pronounced vowels precede the l: dial dialled, fuel fuelled). If the final syllable has some partial stress, especially for compound words, the consonsant is usually doubled: backflip backflipped, hobnob hobnobbed, kidnap kidnapped etc. In some cases both alternatives are acceptable, e.g. dialog dialoged or dialogged, gambol gambolled, hiccup hiccupped or hiccu ped, program programed or programmed. Note however catalog cataloged andpyramid pyramided. Other variations not entirely consistent with these rules include bus bused or bussed, bias biased or biassed and focus focused or focusse d. In speech, three situations are distinguished:


Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

If the bare form ends in /t/ or /d/, a new syllable /d/ is added: drift /drft/ /'drftd/; exceed /k'si:d/ exceeded /k'si:dd/. If the bare form ends in an unvoiced consonant sound other than /t/, the phoneme /t/ is added: cap /kp/ capped /kpt/; pass /ps/ passed /pst/. If the bare form ends in a vowel sound or a voiced consonant sound other than /d/, the phoneme /d/ is added: buzz /bz/ buzzed /bzd/; tango /'tgo/ tangoed /'tgod/.

Past participle Formation In regular weak verbs, the past participle is always the same as the preterite. Irregular verbs may have separate preterites and past participles; see List of English irregular verbs. Uses

The past participle is used with the auxiliary have for the English perfect constructions: They have written about the slap of tails on water, about the scent of the lodge... (With verbs of motion, an archaic form with be may be found in older texts: he is come.) With be or get, it forms the passive voice (and hence is more accurately known as the "passive participle"): It is written so well, you can feel what it is like to gnaw down trees!; Trees sometimes get gnawed down by beavers.

It is used as an adjective. For transitive verbs, it is used as a passive: the written word (=the word that has been written). For intransitive verbs, it is used as a perfect: a fallen tree (=a tree that has fallen). Present participle

Formation The present participle is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the base form: go going. The ending in most dialects is pronounced //, and the pronunciation of the root does not change. If the base ends in silent e, the e is dropped: believe believing. If the e is not silent, the e is retained: agree agreeing. If the base ends in -ie, the ie is changed to y: lie lying.


Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

If the final consonant is doubled to form the past preterite, including c ck (see above), it is also doubled before adding the ing: dab dabbing. Some exceptions include forms such as singeing, ageing, rueing, cacheing and whingeing, where the e may be retained to avoid confusion with otherwise identical words (e.g. singing), to clarify pronunciation (for example to show that a word has a soft g or ch), or for aesthetic reasons.

The present participle is used to form a past, present or future tense with progressive or imperfective aspect: He is writing another long book about beavers. It is used with quasi-auxiliaries to form verb phrases: He tried writing about opossums instead, but his muse deserted him. It is modified by an adverb: He is writing quickly. It can be used as an adjective: It is a thrilling book. In this use, it can govern a personal pronoun: Her thrilling novel.

NB: Other words also end in -ing, notably certain nouns formed from verbs (verbal nouns) and the gerund. These are usually considered different entities. However, since there is a lack of consensus for this view, these are considered here. Gerund The English gerund is that form of a verb that acts as a noun but retains its identity as a verb. Since it has different properties from the Verbal noun in -ing (below) these two forms are usually, but not always, considered to be separate entities. The gerund has indeed been dubbed a Nounal verb to help distinguish these two uses of the -ing form, but this term is not normal.

The gerund is formed by adding -ing to the base form in the same manner as the present participle; pronunciation is also identical to that of the present participle. The gerund can often be distinguished from the present participle by inserting the words the act of before it, (though this is true of the verbal noun, too): I enjoy [the act of] drinking wine. The gerund acts as a noun by standing at the head of a noun phrase: ...drinking wine (in the above context). It can stand alone in this role: I enjoy drinking. The gerund remains a verb because it is modified by an adverb not by an adjective: I enjoy drinking wine slowly. [Not: ...drinking wine slow].


Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

The gerund is typically modified by a possessive determiner or a noun in possessive case I do not like your/Jim's drinking wine, though it is also frequently found with a personal pronoun or a simple noun:I do not like you/Jim drinking wine. See below for an explanation of this usage. Note that this is a contentious issue.

[edit]Verbal Nouns The verbal noun is a noun formed from a verb: arrival, drinking, flight, decision. Note that many verbal nouns end in -ing, but they are actually nouns and not verbs. It acts as a normal noun. It can, like other nouns, act as an adjective: a writing desk, building beavers, a flight simulator, departure lounge. History On the history of the verb "be", see Indo-European copula. Verbs had more forms when the pronoun thou was still in regular use and there was a number distinction in the second person. To be, for instance, had art, wast and wert. Irregular verbs in English come from several historical sources; some are technically strong verbs (i.e., their forms display specific vowel changes of the type known as ablaut in linguistics); others have had various phonetic changes or contractions added to them over the history of English. English verbs possess a number of properties that make them somewhat unusual among other Germanic languages. All English verbs can be derived from a maximum of three principal parts. This represents an extensive paring down of the inflectional categories of the more conservative Germanic languages.


Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

Adjectives According to Carter and McCarthy, "Adjectives describe properties, qualities, and states attributed to a noun or a pronoun."[31] As was the case with nouns and verbs, the class of adjectives cannot be identified by the forms of its constituents.[31] However, adjectives are commonly formed by the addition of a suffix to a noun.[31] Examples: "-al" ("habitual," "multidimensional," "visceral"), "-ful" ("blissful," "pitiful," "woeful"), "-ic" ("atomic," "gigantic," "pedantic"), "-ish" ("impish," "peckish," "youngish"), "-ous" ("fabulous," "hazardous"). As with nouns and verbs, there are exceptions: "homosexual" can be a noun, "earful" is a noun, "anesthetic" can be a noun, "brandish" is a verb. Adjectives can also be formed from other adjectives through the addition of a suffix or more commonly a prefix:[31] weakish, implacable, disloyal, irredeemable, unforeseen. A number of adjectives are formed by adding "a" as a prefix to a verb: "adrift," "astride," "awry." Gradability Adjectives come in two varieties: gradable and non-gradable.[32] In a gradable adjective, the properties or qualities associated with it, exist along a scale.[32] In the case of the adjective "hot," for example, we can speak of: not at all hot, ever so slightly hot, only just hot, quite hot, very hot, extremely hot, dangerously hot, and so forth. Consequently, "hot" is a gradable adjective. Gradable adjectives usually have antonyms: hot/cold, hard/soft, smart/dumb, light/heavy.[32] Some adjectives do not have room for qualification or modification. These are the non-gradable adjectives, such as: pregnant, married, incarcerated, condemned, adolescent (as adjective), dead, and so forth. Gradable adjectives can occur in comparative and superlative forms.[32] For many common adjectives, these are formed by adding "-er" and "-est" to the base form:[32] cold, colder, coldest; hot, hotter, hottest; dry, drier, driest, and so forth; however, for other adjectives, "more" and "most" are needed to provide the necessary qualification: more apparent, most apparent; more iconic, most iconic; more hazardous, most hazardous. Some gradable adjectives change forms atypically:[32] good, better, best; bad, worse, worst; little, less, least; some/many, more, most. Adjective phrases Forms An adjective phrase may consist of just one adjective, or a single adjective which has been modified or complemented. Adjectives are usually modified by adverb phrases Adverbs Adverbs typically modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. They perform a wide range of functions and are especially important for indicating "time, manner, place, degree, and frequency of an event, action, or process."[49] Adjectives and adverbs are often derived from the same word, the majority being formed by adding the "-ly" ending to the corresponding adjective form.[49] Recall the adjectives, "habitual", "pitiful", "impish", We can use them to form the adverbs:


Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

Adverb placement Adverbs are most usually placed at the end of a phrase. Time adverbs (yesterday, soon, habitually) are the most flexible exception. "Connecting Adverbs", such as next, then, however, may also be placed at the beginning of a clause. Other exceptions include "focusing adverbs", which can occupy a middle position for emphasis. "[69] Adverb phrases Forms An adverb phrase is a phrase that collectively acts as an adverb within a sentence; in other words, it modifies a verb (or verb phrase), an adjective (or adjective phrase), or another adverb.[70] The head of an adverb phrase (roman boldface), which is an adverb, may be modified by another adverb (italics boldface) or followed by a complement (italics boldface):[70]

Prepositions Prepositions relate two events in time or two people or things in space.[85] They form a closed class.[85] They also represent abstract relations between two entities:[85] Examples: Conjunctions According to Carter and McCarthy, "Conjunctions express a variety of logical relations between phrases, clauses and sentences."[95] There are two kinds of conjunctions: coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions.[95]


Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)

Evaluation Technology and Language are a very different aspect no matter in any subject. Technology is the making, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, and procedures. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. Language may refer either to the specifically human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication, or to a specific instance of such a system of complex communication. The scientific study of language in any of its senses is called linguistics. Two description are different , but they can be combined . Teaching people is an eternal work .One generation to one generation. Teaching knowledge will also teach ones responsibility ,moral learning . English must be taught well since it is an international language .By this reason , people communicate by using it , writing .English mainly uses tenses to tell the whole incident ,this is the basic .An saying in Chinese : If a base is not stable , neither the build-up things will . By teaching the basic to an optimal best form , we believe children can use the English to communicate much more easier. In nowadays society ,Fluent usage of English is one of the most important criteria in meeting a job . From these example , understanding of English and fluent usage of it are very important. In this project , we know more about English , which improved much our progress of learning English .Though we know how to use English , but we dont know much in it and why we have to learn .From this project , we can extend our topic to globalization ,which is a very academically important topic. We definitely learn much in it .English is really for communication . We literally used the design from our C L lesson assignment which have fulfilled the requirement of the Technology .Though it may be simple but it is entertaining and easy learning though .


Shiu Chung Haang 8P (28) Ng Yui Kan 8M(29) Li Yi Chun 8J (29)