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Tropospheric scatter: Tropospheric scatter (known as "troposcatter" among practitioners) is a method of transmitting and receiving microwave radio signals

over considerable distances often up to 300 km. This method of propagation uses the tropospheric scatter phenomenon, where radio waves at particular frequencies are randomly scattered as they pass through the upper layers of the troposphere (hence troposcatter). Radio signals are transmitted in a tight beam aimed at the tropopause, midway between the transmitter and receiver sites; as the signals pass through the troposphere they are scattered, allowing the receiver station to pick up the signal. Direct wave: A radio wave that is propagated directly through space from transmitter to receiver without being refracted by the ionosphere. Direct wave is the direct propagation of radio waves between antennas that are visible to each other. This is probably the most common of the radio propagation modes at VHF and higher frequencies. Because radio signals can travel through many non-metallic objects, radio can be picked up through walls. Examples would include propagation between a satellite and a ground antenna or reception of television signals from a local TV transmitter. sky wave: A radio wave that is reflected back to earth by the ionosphere or a communications satellite; permits transmission around the curve of the earth's surface. Ionosphere: The ionosphere is a part of the upper atmosphere, from about 85 km to 600 km altitude, comprising portions of the mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. It plays an important part in atmospheric electricity and forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere. It has practical importance because, among other functions, it influences radio propagation to distant places on the Earth. ionospheric wave: A sky wave that is reflected by the ionosphere. Reflective wave: A wave reflected from a surface, discontinuity, or junction of two different media, such as the sky wave in radio, the echo wave from a target in radar, or the wave that travels back to the source end of a mismatched transmission line. Ground wave: Ground wave propagation is particularly important on the LF and MF portion of the radio spectrum. Ground wave radio propagation is used to provide relatively local radio communications coverage, especially by radio broadcast stations that require to cover a particular locality. A ground wave radio signal is made up from a number of constituents. If the antennas are in the line of sight then there will be a direct wave as well as a reflected signal. As the names suggest the direct signal is one that travels directly between the two antenna and is not affected by the locality. In addition to this there is surface wave. This tends to follow the curvature of the Earth and enables coverage to be achieved beyond the horizon. It is the sum of all these components that is known as the ground wave.

In radio transmission, a ground wave is a surface wave that propagates close to the surface of the Earth. Spherical waves: Spherical waves arise physicaally from the point source, if a point source emit waves uniformly in all directions then we expect the waves to depend only on the radial distaance, r, from the point source.

Troposphere: The troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere. It contains approximately 80% of the atmosphere's mass and 99% of its water vapor and aerosols.[1] The average depth of the troposphere is approximately 17 km (11 mi) in the middle latitudes. It is deeper in the tropics, up to 20 km (12 mi), and shallower near the polar regions, at 7 km (4.3 mi) in summer, and indistinct in winter. The lowest part of the troposphere, where friction with the Earth's surface influences air flow, is the planetary boundary layer. This layer is typically a few hundred meters to 2 km (1.2 mi) deep depending on the landform and time of day. The border between the troposphere and stratosphere, called the tropopause, is a temperature inversion.

Inverse square law: An inverse-square law is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or strength is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity. Huygens law: The principle that any point on a wave front may be regarded as a source of spherical or circular wavelets. The sum of all such wavelets emanating from the front is same as the wavefront itself. This principle can be used to derive the laws of reflection and refraction. Polarization: It is the orientation of electric feild with respect to earth surface. Linear polarization: linear polarization or plane polarization of electromagnetic radiation is a confinement of the electric field vector or magnetic field vector to a given plane along the direction of propagation.

Elliptical Polarization If the E-field has two perpendicular components that are out of phase by 90 degrees but are not equal in magnitude, the field will end up Elliptically Polarized. Circular polarization: circular polarization of an electromagnetic wave is a polarization in which the electric field of the passing wave does not change strength but only changes direction in a rotary type manner. Criteria for Circular Polarization -field must have two orthogonal (perpendicular) components. -field's orthogonal components must have equal magnitude.