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1 Professional Diploma in Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies

Centre for Alternatve Technology


Jodie Smith UEL 1147759
Propertes of Bamboo and Roundwood Timber as Constructon Materials and their Potental Development
in the European Market
1.0 INTRODUCTION
2.0 BAMBOO
2.1 BAMBOO PROPERTIES
2.2 THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC ADVANTAGES OF BAMBOO
2.3 BAMBOO REVIVAL
3.0 MECHANICAL AND MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF BAMBOO AND ROUNDWOOD
4.0 JOINERY TECHNIQUES
5.0 IMPORTING BAMBOO TO EUROPE
6.0 ROUNDWOOD
6.1 ROUNDWOOD REVIVAL
6.2 POTENTIAL UK MARKET FOR ROUNDWOOD
7.0 CONCLUSION
Contents
Propertes of Bamboo and Roundwood Timber as Constructon Materials and
their Potental Development in the UK Market
Propertes of Bamboo and Roundwood Timber as Constructon Materials and their Potental Development
in the European Market
2
Professional Diploma in Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies
Centre for Alternatve Technology
Jodie Smith UEL 1147759
1.0 INTRODUCTION
This essay sets out to demonstrate some of the advantages
and issues in constructng with bamboo and roundwood
tmber poles, both types of naturally occurring vegetal
rods. The techniques have developed from within very
diferent cultures and climates while sharing many similar
propertes.
The materials would have been used very early on in
humans development and as such are probably some of
the oldest known, perhaps stll incorporatng constructon
techniques from early history. There is a resurgence of
interest, as an appreciaton for low-tech materials grows
from an increasing awareness of the environmental
impact of industrial materials and techniques.
As knowledge of their material and technical propertes
has developed, a high tech approach is emerging that
acknowledges the natural aesthetc of bamboo and
roundwood, but that atempts to develop and exploit
their superior mechanical qualites. Timber benefts from
the strength inherent in its whole round secton, allowing
less material to perform as well as a larger sawn piece.
Bamboo has many fascinatng material propertes, which
are exalted by many who have discovered its capabilites.
Using the materials in their unprocessed form has many
great economic, environmental and practcal advantages.
However in the mainstream there is a reluctance to adopt
the materials due to a lack of standards and building
codes. As unprocessed and irregular forms, the materials
require a level of crafsmanship and familiarity that is
currently lacking.
Roundwood is a highly underutlized resource of
structurally efcient tmber whose use promotes
sustainable land management. Bamboo also has some
highly desirable mechanical and environmental atributes
whose developed use should be promoted. The energy
cost of sea carriage could negate this however, and needs
investgaton to consider whether its use within Europe
could be considered environmentally sustainable.
1.0 Introducton
Tables 1 + 2
Distributon of Bamboo
3 Professional Diploma in Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies
Centre for Alternatve Technology
Jodie Smith UEL 1147759
roperues of 8amboo and 8oundwood 1lmber as ConsLrucuon MaLerlals and Lhelr oLenual uevelopmenL
ln Lhe Luropean MarkeL
2.0 BAMBOO
Bamboo is a name for many species of giant grasses, with
an estmate of 1100-1500 species growing in the tropics,
1
as
well as some in subtropical and even temperate lattudes.

2
It is the fastest growing plant known,
3
with some species
growing as much as 1.2m in 24 hours.
4
Although there is
no naturally occurring bamboo species in Europe, it is of
huge signifcance to millions of people and communites
within the tropical regions it inhabits, where since early
tmes it has been used not only as a building material
but as food product, as fuel and in paper producton
and consumer goods and hence holds immense cultural
signifcance in these places.
2.1 BAMBOO PROPERTIES
The structure of bamboo has a natural efciency of design
whereby a very small amount of material mass exhibits
tremendous capabilites in terms of tensile, compressive
and bending strength. Its hollow interior makes for
an extremely strong and lightweight structure, with
internodes that act as reinforcement along its length by
resistng against splitng and buckling.
In mechanics, a cylindrical tube has four tmes the rigidity
of a solid round bar that contains the same amount of
material.
5
Table 3 shows the strength to weight rato of
bamboo to be roughly the same as steel in tension, with
twice the compressive strength of concrete.
6

2.2 ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC ADVANTAGES
Bamboo can grow 30% faster than the fastest growing
tree and yield 25% more than tmber.
7
Culms are ready for
Bamboo Propertes 2.1
Table 3
Propertes of Bamboo and Roundwood Timber as Constructon Materials and their Potental Development
in the European Market
4
Professional Diploma in Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies
Centre for Alternatve Technology
Jodie Smith UEL 1147759
constructon from between 3-5 years, making it a highly
renewable commodity with fast economic returns that
promotes rotatonal and sustainable land use. Due to its
root system of rhizomes, regrowth occurs afer harvestng
without atenton. The netlike interlocking roots provide
protecton against erosion, protectng slopes and
riverbanks and conserving and regulatng water. Its high
yield and growth rate mean that bamboo produces more
oxygen and sequesters more C02 than tmber.
8
According to UNESCO, 70 hectares of bamboo produce
enough material to build 1,000 houses.
9
The typical Asian
or Latn American bamboo hut can be built entrely out
of bamboo utlizing every part of the plant. Components
can be replaced, dismantled and recycled with ease
while the loose ft nature of constructon provides
much needed ventlaton making bamboo constructon
partcularly appropriate within the climate it grows. Its
fexibility and lightweight nature also make it extremely
efectve in providing protecton against earthquakes and
withstanding tropical storms.
Bamboo as a building material has maintained its
importance in the daily lives of the less wealthy in tropical
areas, but by associaton has embodied a low status and is
ofen considered the poor mans wood. Where wages are
low it is used without preservaton or treatment, making
it susceptble to fungal and insect atack and limitng its
life span dramatcally. Concrete and brick have begun to
replace the traditonal materials, bringing with them the
promise of wealth and higher status. As such, many of the
traditonal artsan techniques and trades are disappearing
in South East Asia, where the largest bamboo resources
and greatest variaton of usage has traditonally existed.
10

2.3 BAMBOO REVIVAL
Fortunately there is to some degree a renaissance
occurring with bamboo constructon as its superior
structural qualites and environmental credentals are
becoming known and celebrated by more people. New
jointng techniques are being developed in order to
maximize the structural potental of the material, with
careful detailing that both utlizes and celebrates the
nature and peculiarites of the material.
In Colombia, both Simon Velez and Marcelo Villegas are
pioneering the revival of bamboo, which they hope will
2.2 Environmental and Economic Advantages
Simon Velez ZERI Pavillion, Hanover Expo, 2000
5 Professional Diploma in Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies
Centre for Alternatve Technology
Jodie Smith UEL 1147759
roperues of 8amboo and 8oundwood 1lmber as ConsLrucuon MaLerlals and Lhelr oLenual uevelopmenL
ln Lhe Luropean MarkeL
COMMON ADVANTAGES
Fast rotatonal yields - consistently renewable resource
Short economic returns
Self replenishing
Low maintenance
Support sustainable land management - bamboo rhizome root system prevents soil erosion, round-
wood discourages environmentally damaging clear felling operatons
Lightweight
Easily to disassemble and recycle
Small scale producton and treatment possible, supportng local rural workforce
Preservaton of traditonal crafsmanship and knowledge
Bamboo is abundant in tropical and some semi-tropical reigons, roundwood tmber in Europe and
elsewhere
Neither widely available in Europe through common commericial routes
Low processing
Low wastage
Low cost
Strength inherent in wholeness of form
COMMON DISADVANTAGES

SOLOUTIONS
Higher labour costs in terms of joinery Development of efectve jointng techniques
Straightness, sweep and crook in tmber Good plantaton management, species selecton,
heat straightening, visual grading
Variability of species Plantaton management and quality control
Variability of surface Species selecton, visual grading
Prominence, unevenness and spacing of inter-
nodes/ knots
Species selecton, visual grading
Dimensional variability Species selecton, visual grading
Taper Visual grading
Moisture content causing shrinkage Selecton of drying method. Suitability of jointng
technique
Tendency to split Efectve jointng techniques
Susceptability to insect and fungal atack Efectve preservaton techniques
Efect of age on pole strength Plantaton management
Common Advantages and Disadvantages
Table 4
Table 5
Propertes of Bamboo and Roundwood Timber as Constructon Materials and their Potental Development
in the European Market
6
Professional Diploma in Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies
Centre for Alternatve Technology
Jodie Smith UEL 1147759
act as a stmulus to reactvate the old traditonal building
methods and develop new constructon techniques.
11

Velez lays claim to the inventon of the bolted and concrete
fled joint, which with an understanding of bamboos
mechanical propertes has allowed him to engineer vast
cantlevers and express its structural potental. At the
same tme he maintains a sense of the traditonal with
inspiraton from local building styles while artculatng the
character and materiality of the giant bamboo species so
relied upon in Colombia, Guadua angustfolia.
Many other notable architects have extoled the beauty
and material propertes of bamboo, including Renzo
Piano, Buckminster Fuller, Arata Isozaki, Shoei Yoh, Kengo
Kuma and many others. While Velez has largely focused on
straight rectlinear forms, others have explored the great
fexibility and elastcity of bamboo, investgatng a wide
range of purposes in arched, vaulted and organic forms.
The Insttute for Lightweight Structures - IL, directed by Frei
Oto made extensive research into the various strengths
and propertes of bamboo and vegetal rods, with much
2.2 Environmental and Economic Advantages
Marcelo Villegas (Lef top)
Kengo Kuma (Lef botom)
Shoei Yoh (botom)
Investgatons from the Insttute of Lightweight Structures
7 Professional Diploma in Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies
Centre for Alternatve Technology
Jodie Smith UEL 1147759
Propertes of Bamboo and Roundwood Timber as Constructon Materials and their Potental Development
in the European Market
MATERIAL ISSUES - BAMBOO SOLUTION
Consistencey of internodes Accommodaton by design
Hollow cross secton Can be flled with wood core or concrete for rein-
forcement
Splitng or fssibility along longitudinal grain Predrilling holes for dowels, nails etc
Hard silicifed exterior Appropriate tools and machinery
Removal of exterior layer prior to gluing
Shrinkage across culm wall (12-25) Efectve jointng

MATERIAL ISSUES - ROUNDWOOD SOLUTION
Spiral grain due to twistng in growth can cause ad-
ditonal stresses at joints
Careful jointng and selecton
Tangental splitng across circumference Care with dowel connectons in axial directon
Flexibility or reinforcement of joints
Radial shrinkage - loosening of bolts and lacings Reinforcement at joints
End splitng Poles cut over length untl fnal fabricaton/ machin-
ing
investgaton into their applicaton as suspended and
gridshell structures, and curved compression and tension
arches.
As a natural constructon material there are characteristcs
inherent to bamboo that make eforts at standardizaton
problematc. The Internatonal Standard Organizaton
(ISO) have approved two bamboo standards related to
constructon in 2004, but few countries in the West have
used them as a basis to develop and approve building
codes. As such there is reluctance among professionals
to consider uptake of the material, as a lack of available
calculatons impede proper dimensioning. Architects are
not familiar with the strengths, jointng techniques or
detailing, which allow for the natural variability of the
product. These issues need to be addressed in order for a
market to develop, and the material needs producton at
an acceptable specifcaton through accessible commercial
routes.
3.0 MECHANICAL AND MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF BAMBOO
AND ROUNDWOOD TIMBER
Bamboo is highly susceptble to rot, fungi and invasion by
insects and needs treatment in order to make it durable.
These issues are likely to be more considerable in the
tropics, where the warm moist conditons are preferable
Mechanical and Material Propertes 3.0
Tables 6 and 7
Bamboo fracture and elec-
tron micrograph - vascular
bundles
Propertes of Bamboo and Roundwood Timber as Constructon Materials and their Potental Development
in the European Market
8
Professional Diploma in Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies
Centre for Alternatve Technology
Jodie Smith UEL 1147759
to the beetles and termites which feed from the starches
and sugars in bamboo.
12
The powder-post beetle, which
can consume the entre culm, causes problems in UK wood
species, as do subterranean termites.
13
Unlike tmber,
bamboo does not produce chemical extractves to help
resist fungal atack. There is a vast array of techniques
to preserve bamboo, but the most common and widely
considered most benign is with a Borate soluton which is
the accepted method within the ISO standards.
Within each species there are characteristcs and
propertes that must be taken into account when
evaluatng suitability and purpose, with the relatve
proportons and distributon of tssues efectng density
and strength diferently.
As a grass, the bamboo culm grows by stretching and as
such contains longitudinal fbres, which are reinforced
in the cross directon at the internodes. As such, loads
cannot be maintained in the transverse directon, causing
splitng along its natural grain if care is not taken with
stresses and in joining and framing.
Drying causes shrinkage and cracking mostly along the
circumference of roundwood poles, which can lead to
problems with dowel connectons placed axially. Radial
shrinkage can also lead to connectons such as bolts and
lacings becoming loose.
14

Both bamboo and roundwood, as unprocessed, natural
materials have an inherent variability that needs to be
accommodated by design. Tables 6 & 7 show some of the
material characteristcs of the materials, as well as the
design consideratons and techniques used.
4.0 JOINERY
Traditonal lashed and pegged joinery has been used in
both bamboo and roundwood constructon for many
centuries, and can be intricately detailed and beautful.
4.0 Joinery
Oscar Hidalgo Lopez studies of lashed bamboo joinery
9 Professional Diploma in Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies
Centre for Alternatve Technology
Jodie Smith UEL 1147759
Propertes of Bamboo and Roundwood Timber as Constructon Materials and their Potental Development
in the European Market
However, the ease at which joints can be formed is important as the economics
of labour can quickly outweigh that of the material. Joinery is ofen key to the
aesthetcs of pole frame architecture, and a balance must be made between
these aspects for success.
Joinery 4.0
Mortar flled bamboo joints (Right top)
Traditonal and modern lashed joinery
Shoei Yoh space frame connectons (Lef botom)
Fishmouth joint technique
ZERI Pavillion, Velez (Right botom)
Propertes of Bamboo and Roundwood Timber as Constructon Materials and their Potental Development
in the European Market
10
Professional Diploma in Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies
Centre for Alternatve Technology
Jodie Smith UEL 1147759
Efectve jointng is paramount in any framed constructon
as structural integrity depends on it. Tests carried out in
a EU funded project Round Small Diameter Timber for
Constructon (ed. Ranta-Maunus, A.) into diferent types
of joints incorporated steel plates for reinforcement and
lacings that counter the potental for axial splitng,
15
but
were unatractve.
5.0 IMPORTING BAMBOO TO EUROPE
A study by Delf University of Technology, (van der Lugt, et
al)
16
found that bamboo culms could in fact be considered
an environmentally and economically sustainable building
material in Europe and could be compettve to materials
such as steel, concrete and tmber. Even despite the energy
inherent in sea carriage, the bamboo culm was 20 tmes
more favourable than its alternatves in several functons
from a sustainability point of view.
17

A Life Cycle Analysis study showed that due to the minimal
processing required, almost all of the Environmental Cost,
Graph 1, of the bamboo originated from its sea carriage
from Costa Rica to the Netherlands. In terms of its Annual
Environmental Cost, Graph 2, which takes into account the
technical life span of bamboo and accounts for its waste
and recyclability, bamboo far outperforms steel, concrete
and tmber in all functons. Due to its lightweight nature
and structural efciency, far less material is needed to
carry the same load as a larger piece of sawn tmber.
18
A Life Cycle Costng study found bamboo to have the
lowest Purchasing Costs, Graph 3, in comparison to the
other materials despite the costs of transportaton,
19

although in terms of Annual Products Costs, Graph 4,
taking into account the whole product lifecycle, steel is
the most favourable. Due to its irregularity, bamboo incurs
higher labour costs due to assembling and disassembling,
however the results do show that bamboo can compete
with tmber alternatves.
20

5.0 Importng Bamboo to Europe
Graph 2 Annual Environmental Costs
Graph 4 Annual Purchasing Costs
Graph 1 Environmental Cost
Graph 3 Purchasing Costs
11 Professional Diploma in Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies
Centre for Alternatve Technology
Jodie Smith UEL 1147759
Propertes of Bamboo and Roundwood Timber as Constructon Materials and their Potental Development
in the European Market
The Internatonal Network for Bamboo and Ratan (INBAR) are improving the
gap in knowledge and providing some internatonal building codes, although
need further development for both the raw material and in testng complete
joints.
21
Untl then it may be more practcable to consider bamboo in cases
where precise or fxed measurements are not necessary, such as in temporary
buildings and small civic projects (tents, pavilions, bridges), or as a non-
structural or fnishing material.
6.0 ROUNDWOOD
Roundwood tmber is a by-product from plantaton management and
woodland coppicing that is currently considered a waste or secondary product
ofen with litle or no commercial value. Ranta-Maunus shows that there is
a vast resource of constructon quality small diameter roundwood tmber in
Europe, with millions of cubic metres coming from Finland alone.
22
Its fast and
contnuous regrowth promotes sustainable land use, and provides a low cost
and predictable resource of tmber. Research upholds that there is commercial
value in using roundwood a structural member within the constructon industry
and in developing its volume use in local industry.
23

Roundwood 6.0
Roundwood shrinkage
Propertes of Bamboo and Roundwood Timber as Constructon Materials and their Potental Development
in the European Market
12
Professional Diploma in Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies
Centre for Alternatve Technology
Jodie Smith UEL 1147759
Plantatons go through a process of thinning number of tmes during their
lifetme, as a high stocking rate in the early stages encourages rapid vertcal
growth and restricted lateral branching. Small diameter poles ofen wasted
from this process provide an undervalued resource of low cost and structurally
efcient constructon tmber. Coppice wood is another underused resource of
roundwood tmber, which was traditonally considered a valuable crop and
supported a large rural workforce. It rarely needs replantng and is managed
in a consistent cycle, protectng the soil from erosion and nutrient depleton,
and producing a unique natural ecosystem and contnuously renewable
resource.
24

This frst couple of thinnings are not considered economically viable by
commercial operators, which can even lead to badly managed plantatons
not being thinned at all, which provides a great source of slowly grown tmber
with minimal knots.
25

Results from the EU project show that the availability of constructon quality
roundwood is vast, especially if diameters from the frst thinning can be utlized
(usually 100mm or so), with millions of cubic metres available in Finland alone.
According to the Food and Agriculture Organisaton, the availability of forestry
thinnings is set to increase worldwide.
2627
6.1 Roundwood Revival
Traditonal log frame joinery
Mortce and tenon
Ben Law mortce and tenon
Roundwood scribe joints
13 Professional Diploma in Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies
Centre for Alternatve Technology
Jodie Smith UEL 1147759
Propertes of Bamboo and Roundwood Timber as Constructon Materials and their Potental Development
in the European Market
6.1 ROUNDWOOD REVIVAL

Although having been a long established traditon in the UK and Europe,
changes in building industry, planning and technical requirements and
commercial expediency have meant that roundwood has become sidelined
in the 20
th
Century.
28
Ben Law has recently heralded the revival of traditonal
woodsmanship and the roundwood tmber frame, with his hand-built
Woodland House from roundwood and coppice harvested from his own
woodland. He has developed a roundwood tmber A frame, based on the
traditonal English cruck frame and using scribing techniques from the log
builders of Canada and North America.
29
It boasts an aesthetc frame using
far less tmber than a log building and younger trees than a traditonal oak
frame.
Roundwood Revival 6.1
Roundwood joints
Dowels
Post and sleeve
Steel frame
Pretensioned endcaps
Flitch plates (Right top)
Wire lacings (Right botom)
Propertes of Bamboo and Roundwood Timber as Constructon Materials and their Potental Development
in the European Market
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Professional Diploma in Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies
Centre for Alternatve Technology
Jodie Smith UEL 1147759
6.1 Roundwood Revival
Ben Law - Woodland House
Roundwood cruck A frame
Efeling theme park at Kaatsheuvel, Holland by Ton Van de Ven
15 Professional Diploma in Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies
Centre for Alternatve Technology
Jodie Smith UEL 1147759
roperues of 8amboo and 8oundwood 1lmber as ConsLrucuon MaLerlals and Lhelr oLenual uevelopmenL
ln Lhe Luropean MarkeL
Aside from the revival of the traditonal aesthetc, the IL
have done much work in the feld of three-dimensional
space frames, where a short length and small diameter
of the round pole are an advantage and the whole cross-
secton reduces problems from natural tmber weakness.
The entrance pavilion to the Efeling theme park at
Kaatsheuvel, Holland by Ton Van de Ven, which consists
of three 40m high peaks and a 60m wide span, is a highly
engineered building with a fantasy aesthetc that stems
from the traditonal nature of the roundwood. The Acacia
Hall, Teahouse and Observaton Tower at Apeldoorn in
Holland by Peter Hubyens, uses 16mm diameter high
strength bolts and wire lacing to reduce the efects of
splitng.
The Prototype House, Workshop Building and Westminster
Lodge at Hooke Park by Buro Happold, consists of round
poles with epoxy gluing.
6.2 POTENTIAL UK MARKET FOR ROUNDWOOD
The handpicked nature of poles makes conforming to
building regulatons problematc. According to Law, current
grading systems such as those by Ranta-Maunus et al, are
complicated leading to overly engineered structures in
order to meet building regulatons.
30

The EU survey showed reluctance amongst architects to
adopt roundwood, partly due to the aesthetcs and cost of
connectons and the lack of calculatons needed in order
to dimension structures properly.
31

Currently it is not available via the usual commercial
channels. Architects, engineers and carpenters are not
familiar with the strengths or jointng characteristcs, nor
do they have adequate guidelines for design.
For a market to develop, quality in terms of strength and
straightness is needed as well as practcality in terms of
available length and proporton of tmbers for meetng
acceptable specifcaton.
32

Potental for Roundwood in the UK 6.2
Acacia Hall, Teahouse and Observaton Tower at Apeldoorn in Holland by Peter Hubyens
Popular current roundwood applicatons - Playgrounds and footbridges
Propertes of Bamboo and Roundwood Timber as Constructon Materials and their Potental Development
in the European Market
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Professional Diploma in Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies
Centre for Alternatve Technology
Jodie Smith UEL 1147759
Currently much of the existng use of roundwood lies
within agricultural buildings, playground equipment, zoos,
footbridges, park facilites and the like. The EU market
research has illustrated the potental for roundwood
constructon in small, largely rural buildings, generally
related to the leisure and recreatonal industries as well
as within agriculture.
7.0 CONCLUSION
As constructon materials, bamboo and roundwood
tmber share practcal, environmental, social and
economic benefts. They have structural, material and
aesthetc advantages inherent in the wholeness of their
form. However, difcultes originate from their natural
irregularity, which can be accommodated for with efcient
joint design. Efectve jointng is therefore imperatve for
economic and aesthetc success.
There is scope for bamboo and roundwood to make
the transiton from low-tech materials to ones with
high innovatve potental. Intensifying research could
lead to lower material requirements whilst at the same
tme developing standards for use within sensible
applicatons. This has proven to be the case with other
natural constructon materials such as unfred bricks
and hempcrete, for which a market has been steadily
developing.
The lack of standard commercial routes, strength
values, standards and models is impeding the potental
development of bamboo and roundwood tmber within
the current market. There is currently a lack of modern
representatonal examples, which accommodate and
express the materiality and structural integrity of the
materials. Development of such methods is needed in
order to change percepton and encourage growth.
7.0 Conclusion
The Prototype House, Workshop Building and Westminster
Lodge at Hooke Park by Buro Happold
17 Professional Diploma in Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies
Centre for Alternatve Technology
Jodie Smith UEL 1147759
Propertes of Bamboo and Roundwood Timber as Constructon Materials and their Potental Development
in the European Market
1 van der Lught, P., van der Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F, and Janssen, J.J.A. (2005) An Environmental, Economic And
Practcal Assessment Of Bamboo As Building Material For Supportng Structures Netherlands: Delf University of
Technology, p.1-2.
2 IL 31 (1985) Bambus Bamboo / Bambus als Baustof - Bamboo as a Building Material / Bauen mit pfanzlichen
Stben - Building with Vegetal Rods, Germany: Kraemer Karl Gmbh + Co., p51.
3 ibid. p.53.
4 ibid. p.42.
5 ibid. p.69.
6 Lynne, E. and Adams, C. (2000) Alternatve Constructon: Contemporary Natural Building Methods New York;
Chichester: Wiley, p.240.
7 von Vegesack, A. and Kries, M. (2000) Grown your own house: Simon Velez and the Bamboo Architecture Weil
am Rhein: Vitra Design Museum, p.151.
8 van der Lugt, P., Vogtlander, J and Brezet, H (2009) Bamboo, A Sustainable Soluton for Western Europe, Design
Cases LCAs and Land Use Netherlands: Delf University of Technology, p.82-85
9 Roseleib, M. (2011) Chiang Mai Life Constructon Available at:www.chiangmailifeconstructon.com (Accessed
10 Februaru 2012).
10 IL 31 (1985) Bambus Bamboo / Bambus als Baustof - Bamboo as a Building Material / Bauen mit pfanzlichen
Stben - Building with Vegetal Rods, Germany: Kraemer Karl Gmbh + Co., p42.
11 ibid., p.15.
12 Schroder, S. (2012) Guadua Bamboo Availiable at: www.guaduabamboo.com/bamboo-insect-infestaton.
html#ixzz1mDpTzfDV (Accessed 10 February 2012).
13 Lyons, A. (2004) Materials for Architects and Builders Michigan: Elsevier Buterworth-Heinemann pp. 105-
106.
14 Ranta-Maunus, A., ed. (2000) Round Small-Diameter Timber for Constructon Finland: Technical Research
Centre of Finland (VTT) p.106.
15 ibid., p.106.
16 van der Lught, P., van der Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F, and Janssen, J.J.A. (2005) An Environmental, Economic and
Practcal Assessment of Bamboo as a Building Material for Supportng Structures Netherlands: Delf University of
Technology.
17 van der Lught, P., van der Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F, and Janssen, J.J.A. (2005) An Environmental, Economic And
Practcal Assessment Of Bamboo As Building Material For Supportng Structures Netherlands: Delf University of
Technology, p.7.
18 ibid., p.5.
19 ibid., p.5.
20 ibid., p.6.
21 ibid., p.7.
22 Ranta-Maunus, A. (1999) Round Small-Diameter Timber for Constructon Final Report of Project FAIR CT 95-
0091; Finland: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, p3-4.
23 Ibid., p.133
24 Law, B. (2010) Roundwood Timber Framing, Somerset: Butler Tanner and Dennis, p10.
25 Law, B. (2010) Roundwood Timber Framing, Somerset: Butler Tanner and Dennis, p14.
26 Jayanet, L. and Follet, P. (2000) Timber Pole Constructon An Introducton London: Intermediate Technology
Publicatons, p1.
27 ibid., p2.
28 Ranta-Maunus, A. (1999) Round Small-Diameter Timber for Constructon Final Report of Project FAIR CT 95-
0091; Finland: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, p133.
29 Law, B. (2010) Roundwood Timber Framing, Somerset: Butler Tanner and Dennis, p.7.
30 ibid., p.8.
31 Ranta-Maunus, A. (1999) Round Small-Diameter Timber for Constructon Final Report of Project FAIR CT 95-
0091; Finland: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, p137.
32 ibid. p.137.
REFERENCES
Propertes of Bamboo and Roundwood Timber as Constructon Materials and their Potental Development
in the European Market
18
Professional Diploma in Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies
Centre for Alternatve Technology
Jodie Smith UEL 1147759
APPENDIX - Insttute of Lighweight Structures
19 Professional Diploma in Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies
CenLre for AlLernauve 1echnology
Jodie Smith UEL 1147759
Propertes of Bamboo and Roundwood Timber as Constructon Materials and their Potental Development
in the European Market
APPENDIX - Insttute of Lightweight Structures
Propertes of Bamboo and Roundwood Timber as Constructon Materials and their Potental Development
in the European Market
20
Professional Diploma in Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies
Centre for Alternatve Technology
Jodie Smith UEL 1147759
APPENDIX - Insttute of Lightweight Structures
21 Professional Diploma in Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies
CenLre for AlLernauve 1echnology
Jodie Smith UEL 1147759
Propertes of Bamboo and Roundwood Timber as Constructon Materials and their Potental Development
in the European Market
PAGE 2.
Map of distributon:
van der Lught, P., van der Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F, and Janssen, J.J.A. (2005) An Environmental, Economic and
Practcal Assessment of Bamboo as a Building Material for Supportng Structures Netherlands: Delf University of
Technology.
Photographs:
Authors own
Tables:
Lynne, E. and Adams, C. (2000) Alternatve Constructon: Contemporary Natural Building Methods New York;
Chichester: Wiley.
Bamboo shoots:
van der Lugt, P., Vogtlander, J and Brezet, H (2009) Bamboo, A Sustainable Soluton for Western Europe, De-
sign Cases LCAs and Land Use Netherlands: Delf University of Technology.
PAGE 3.
Roots:
IL 31 (1985) Bambus Bamboo / Bambus als Baustof - Bamboo as a Building Material / Bauen mit pfanzli-
chen Stben - Building with Vegetal Rods, Germany: Kraemer Karl Gmbh + Co.
Table:
Lynne, E. and Adams, C. (2000) Alternatve Constructon: Contemporary Natural Building Methods New York;
Chichester: Wiley.
Other:
IL 31 (1985) Bambus Bamboo / Bambus als Baustof - Bamboo as a Building Material / Bauen mit pfanzli-
chen Stben - Building with Vegetal Rods, Germany: Kraemer Karl Gmbh + Co.
PAGE 4.
von Vegesack, A. and Kries, M. (2000) Grown your own house: Simon Velez and the Bamboo Architecture
Weil am Rhein: Vitra Design Museum.
PAGE 6.
Villegas, M. (2003) New Bamboo: Architecture and Design Bogota: Villegas Editores
Kengo Kuma:
Braodhurst, R. (2010) Modern Natural, Natural Modern: Houses New York: Rizzoli
Shoei Yoh:
von Vegesack, A. and Kries, M. (2000) Grown your own house: Simon Velez and the Bamboo Architecture
Weil am Rhein: Vitra Design Museum.
Drawings:
IL 31 (1985) Bambus Bamboo / Bambus als Baustof - Bamboo as a Building Material / Bauen mit pfanzli-
chen Stben - Building with Vegetal Rods, Germany: Kraemer Karl Gmbh + Co.
PAGE 7.
Micrograph:
Villegas, M. (1990) Tropical Bamboo New York: Rizzoli
Fracture:
IL 31 (1985) Bambus Bamboo / Bambus als Baustof - Bamboo as a Building Material / Bauen mit pfanzli-
chen Stben - Building with Vegetal Rods, Germany: Kraemer Karl Gmbh + Co.
PAGE 8.
IL 31 (1985) Bambus Bamboo / Bambus als Baustof - Bamboo as a Building Material / Bauen mit pfanzli-
chen Stben - Building with Vegetal Rods, Germany: Kraemer Karl Gmbh + Co.
PAGE 9. Lef Right
von Vegesack, A. and Kries, M. (2000) Grown your own house: Simon Velez and the Bamboo Architecture
Weil am Rhein: Vitra Design Museum.
IL 31 (1985) Bambus Bamboo / Bambus als Baustof - Bamboo as a Building Material / Bauen mit pfanzli-
IMAGE CREDITS
Propertes of Bamboo and Roundwood Timber as Constructon Materials and their Potental Development
in the European Market
22
Professional Diploma in Architecture: Advanced Environmental and Energy Studies
Centre for Alternatve Technology
Jodie Smith UEL 1147759
chen Stben - Building with Vegetal Rods, Germany: Kraemer Karl Gmbh + Co.
von Vegesack, A. and Kries, M. (2000) Grown your own house: Simon Velez and the Bamboo Architecture
Weil am Rhein: Vitra Design Museum.
Schroder, S. (2012) www.guaduabamboo.com/image-fles/how-to-make-a-bamboo-fsh-mouth-joint_5.jpg
(Accessed 10 February 2012).
von Vegesack, A. and Kries, M. (2000) Grown your own house: Simon Velez and the Bamboo Architecture
Weil am Rhein: Vitra Design Museum.
PAGE 10.
van der Lught, P., van der Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F, and Janssen, J.J.A. (2005) An Environmental, Economic And
Practcal Assessment Of Bamboo As Building Material For Supportng Structures Netherlands: Delf University of
Technology.
PAGE 11.
Ranta-Maunus, A. (1999) Round Small-Diameter Timber for Constructon Final Report of Project FAIR CT 95-
0091; Finland: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
Jayanet, L. and Follet, P. (2000) Timber Pole Constructon An Introducton London: Intermediate Technol-
ogy Publicatons.
PAGE 12.
Law, B. (2010) Roundwood Timber Framing, Somerset: Butler Tanner and Dennis.
Ranta-Maunus, A. (1999) Round Small-Diameter Timber for Constructon Final Report of Project FAIR CT 95-
0091; Finland: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
PAGE 13.
Jayanet, L. and Follet, P. (2000) Timber Pole Constructon An Introducton London: Intermediate Technol-
ogy Publicatons.
Ranta-Maunus, A. (1999) Round Small-Diameter Timber for Constructon Final Report of Project FAIR CT 95-
0091; Finland: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
PAGE 14.
Law, B. (2010) Roundwood Timber Framing, Somerset: Butler Tanner and Dennis.
Ranta-Maunus, A. (1999) Round Small-Diameter Timber for Constructon Final Report of Project FAIR CT 95-
0091; Finland: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
PAGE 15.
Ranta-Maunus, A. (1999) Round Small-Diameter Timber for Constructon Final Report of Project FAIR CT 95-
0091; Finland: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
PAGE 16.
Pears, D. (1990) Building Design Special Issue: Structures supplement No. 992 Supplement (June 29)
Ranta-Maunus, A. (1999) Round Small-Diameter Timber for Constructon Final Report of Project FAIR CT 95-
0091; Finland: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
APPENDIX
IL 31 (1985) Bambus Bamboo / Bambus als Baustof - Bamboo as a Building Material / Bauen mit pfanzli-
chen Stben - Building with Vegetal Rods, Germany: Kraemer Karl Gmbh + Co.
IMAGE CREDITS