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Adverse yaw:

Definition: Adverse yaw is a secondary effect of the ailerons. When the ailerons are actuated, one of its effects is an asymmetrical change in drag. In essence, when the ailerons are being used, drag is increased on both wings to a certain extent, but this drag is stronger on one side than the other. The result is that when rolling an aircraft for a turn, the aircraft will have a tendency to want to yaw in the opposite direction of the roll. Description: Adverse yaw is a yaw moment on a which results from an aileron deflection and a roll rate, such as when entering or exiting a turn. It is called "adverse" because it acts opposite to the yaw moment needed to execute the desired turn. Adverse yaw has three mechanisms, listed below in decreasing order of importance. Assuming a roll rate to the right, as in the diagram below, these three mechanisms are explained as follows: 1) By definition, lift is perpendicular to the oncoming flow. Hence, as the left wing moves up, its lift vector tilts back; as the right wing descends, its lift vector tilts forward. The result is an adverse yaw moment to the left, opposite to the intended right turn. 2) The downward aileron deflection on the left increases the airfoil camber, which will typically increase the profile drag. Conversely, the upward aileron deflection on the right will decrease the camber and profile drag. The profile drag imbalance adds to the adverse yaw. The exception is on a Frise aileron, described father below. 3) Initiating the right roll rate requires a briefly greater lift on the left than the right. This also causes a greater induced drag on the left than the right, which further adds to the adverse yaw. But this mechanism disappears once a steady roll rate is established (and the left/right lift imbalance disappears), while mechanisms 1) and 2) persist.

How to overcome on adverse yaw: 1. Adverse yaw is countered by using the aircraft's rudder to perform a coordinated turn; however an aircraft designer can reduce the amount of correction required by careful design of the aircraft. Some methods are common: 2. As the tilting of the left/right lift vectors is the major cause to adverse yaw, an important parameter is the magnitude of these lifts vectors, or the aircraft's lift coefficient to be more specific. Flight at low lift coefficient (or high speed compared to minimum speed) produces less adverse yaw

3. A strong directional stability is the first way to reduce adverse yaw. That means important vertical tail moment (area and lever arm about gravity center). 4. Because downwards deflection of an aileron typically causes more profile drag than an upwards deflection, a simple way of mitigating adverse yaw would be to rely solely on the upward deflection of the opposite aileron to cause the aircraft to roll. However, this would lead to a slow roll rate - and therefore a better solution is to make a compromise between adverse yaw and roll rate 5. Cross-coupled controls: One of the most effective solutions to adverse yaw is to couple the ailerons and rudder so that both surfaces deflect simultaneously. As the ailerons create a yaw motion in one direction, the rudder automatically deflects to create a yaw motion in the opposite direction. The two effects counteract each other eliminating the undesired yaw. This form of cross-coupling was often built into the cable-and-pulley control systems of older aircraft. The problem was recognized even as early as the Wright brothers who incorporated such controls into the Wright Flyer. In addition, most major aircraft today utilize some sort of computerized fly-by-wire control system, and it is rather trivial to program cross-coupled control measures into the automated systems.

Differential Ailerons:
Definition: With differential ailerons, one aileron is raised a greater distance than the other aileron is lowered for a given movement of the control wheel or control stick. This produces an increase in drag on the descending wing. The greater drag results from deflecting the up aileron on the descending wing to a greater angle than the down aileron on the rising wing. While adverse yaw is reduced, it is not eliminated completely.

Differential ailerons are designed so that the up-going aileron rises a greater angle than the down going aileron. When we use ailerons we want the ship to roll only on its longitudinal axis. The problem is that to raise a wing the aileron increases lift on that wing with the resultant increase in drag. At the same time there usually is a decreased lift on the opposite wing with a decrease in drag. The descending wing has less drag and moves forward while the rising wing has more drag and moves backwards. This produces a tendency to yaw (turn) in the wrong direction or into the rising wing and away from the intended turn direction. This usually results in a nose high slip with the fuselage side presented to the relative wind with high drag. This is called "adverse yaw" and is fine if you need to lose altitude with lateral fuselage drag as in a landing approach, but bad for beginning a coordinated turn with the fuselage parallel to the relative wind. To compensate for this problem and make flying easier, aircraft are usually designed with one or a combination of a number of methods to decrease adverse yaw. The common fix for adverse yaw is to mechanically produce differential aileron movement so that there is more up travel than down. In other planes the aileron is hinged towards the top of the wing/aileron joint so that a portion of the leading edge of the aileron sticks down into the slipstream creating drag when the wing is descending to balance the resultant drag from the rising wing.

Frise Aileron:
Fries aileron and its purpose: The concept behind this particular kind of aileron is to minimize the profile drag on the wing with the down aileron while increasing the profile drag on the wing with the up aileron. This difference in profile drag counteracts the effect of induced drag thereby creating a yawing motion that at least partially cancels the adverse yaw effect.

Fries aileron which is essentially a subset of a single-slotted flap. The main difference though is that in its motion, the aileron does not create the slot between the upper skin and the leading edge radius. The Frise type aileron looks like a wing airfoil in its cross-section, utilizing a healthy leading edge radius. The pivot, usually placed some distance below the lower skin, is located at the center of that arc. A small radius then blends the large upper arc with the lower skin. The Frise type aileron has three distinct advantages over the other configurations. 1. First, due to the displacement of the hinge point and overall geometry, the surface requires the least amount of control force for its motion. 2. Second, when the surface moves trailing edge up, the leading edge moves slightly below the lower wing skin, exposing the small radius to the lower flow. This creates a bit of suction at the front of the surface, countering the pressure distribution aft of the hinge point, further reducing the control force necessary for its deflection. 3. And third, when the leading edge protrudes below the lower skin, the geometry creates a slight drag rise. This is of course on the wing thats on the inside of the turn and as such, the effect counters any adverse yaw tendency the airplane might have.

Aileron Drag:
Definition: When you lower an aileron, you increase the angle of attack and consequently the co-efficient of lift on that particular wing. This action raises the wing and produces induced drag at the same time. This induced drag caused by the lowered aileron is known as "aileron drag". Explanation: If the pilot wishes to effect a left turn the ailerons move such that the right aileron will move down and the left will move up. The effect of the right aileron moving down will increase the lift over that wing, whilst the left aileron in moving up will have a net effect of reducing lift on that wing. This then, is essentially going to start the roll (to the left in this case).

There are some secondary effects of this. The right wing, in generating more lift will also generate more drag! The opposite will happen with the left wing. So, we now have a situation where there is a yawing tendency as the right wing generates more drag. So although we are affecting a left bank we have a right yaw - which would need to be countered by applying left rudder. This situation can be dangerous at or near the stalling angle! How to overcome: Frise ailerons: A patented device that when an aileron is deflected up (to reduce lift) there is a lip protrusion into the airflow. This increases drag on that wing. In the case of a down-going aileron the design is such that it is smooth and flush so as to reduce any drag. Differential Ailerons: These are designed so that the down-going aileron moves through less of an angle that the up-going aileron.

Spoilers: These panels which can be raised on the upper wing surface. They can be designed to operate on the down-going wing in conjunction with a bank again increasing drag on that wing to counter the "adverse yaw".

Tip stall:
tip stalling is a term used by pilots of model and full-size aircraft to describe a situation when a wing tip stalls before the wing root. In most cases, this creates a tendency for an aircraft to spiral and, if it occurs close to the ground, may result in the total loss of an aircraft.

Explanation: Tip stall is when the outer edge of a wing loses lift, and causes the plane to roll in that wing direction. For example, you are coming in for a landing, and slow down to much which causes the wings to begin to stall out. Under the start of a wing stall, not both wings may stall at the same time. If there is no wash-out at the wing tips (usually WWII Fighter scale models) then one wing may stall at the outer wing section before the other which causes the plane to roll on its back unless power and down elevator is given in time, and the roll has not gone too far. To counter act this problem, The wing during construction is given a twist so that the outer wing tip leading edge has less of an angle of attack than the inner root section of the wing. This keeps the wing tip area from reaching a stall when the root or inner wing section as entered a stall, and helps stop the famous Dutch roll and crash.

Wash in and Washout:

Wash-in: An increase of the angle of incidence of a wing towards the tips. Wash-out: A decrease of the angle of incidence of a wing towards the tips designed to delay tip stalling. Washout and wash in are terms normally used to describe the twisting of the wing either leading edge down and trailing edge up, washout or leading edge up and trailing edge down, wash in.

Air meets the wing at a constant angle along the wing span but which is not true this angle varies from root to tip due to the wing tip vortices and so washout and wash in are used to better match the angle of the air arriving at the leading edge. if the aircraft stalls the whole wing would stall at the same time if the air meets the leading edge at the same angle all along the leading edge, in practice the problem is worse than this and the outer sections of the wing are at a higher incidence than the inner sections of wing so the outer sections stall first. If the outer sections have ailerons then there will be a lack of control, if one wing stalls before the other then the wing is likely to drop causing a crash. The solution is some washout towards the wing tips to make sure the inner part of the wing stalls first leaving the ailerons still effective. What you dont want is tip

stall where one wing tip may stall and drop causing the aircraft to slide-slip into the ground. Wash in may be used on the inner part of the wing to get a better lift distribution but this is all relative.

Mass Balance:
When a control is deflected a low pressure area forms on the cambered side. This tends to pull the control back into alignment with the wing, stabilizer or fin as the case may be. However, the control surface has mass and therefore momentum. If the center of gravity of the control surface is behind the hinge, the control tends to overshoot the point of alignment. The result is a tendency for the control to flutter. Flutter could become sufficiently severe that the aircraft could break up in flight. To solve the above problem the control must be balanced, so that its centre of gravity is in line with the hinge. The exact distribution of weight on a control surface is very important. For this reason, when a control surface is repainted, repaired or component parts replaced, it is essential to check for proper balance and have it rebalanced if necessary. To do this, the control surface is removed, placed in a jig and the position of the center of gravity checked against the manufacturer's specifications. Without any airflow over the control surface, it must balance about its specified C.G. this is known as static balance. For example, the aileron of the Bonanza is designed for a static nose heavy balance of 0.2 inch pounds. The C.G. of the aileron is forward of the hinge centerline causing the control surface to be nose heavy.

Bob weights
Bob weights are sometimes known as counter weights. Their purpose is to change the amount of control force required to deflect the control column under different g-loadings. Normally the amount of force the pilot must apply to the control column, assuming reversible controls, varies with airspeed only. However, by installing a bob weight the aeronautical engineer can make it more difficult to pull on the control column as g-force increases. The purpose of the bob weight is to reduce the likely hood the pilot will overstress the aircraft.

Dutch roll:
Dutch roll is an aircraft motion that is identified by a combination of a continuous back-and-forth rolling and yawing motion. In general, a Dutch roll is considered to be dynamically stable, meaning that the oscillations tend to decrease in amplitude. Most large airliners have a yaw damper installed that can artificially increase stability. Aircraft that have wings placed above the center of mass, dihedral wings and swept wings tend to increase the roll restoring force, therefore increase the tendency of the aircraft to initiate a Dutch roll. This is the reason why high-winged aircraft are often slightly an hedral, and swept wing aircraft rely on the operation of the yaw damper.

In aircraft design, relatively weaker positive directional stability as opposed to positive lateral stability can result in a Dutch roll. Rolling the aircraft around the longitudinal axis means that a sideslip is introduced into the relative wind in the direction of the rolling motion. What happens is that the somewhat weaker directional stability attempts to correct the sideslip by aligning the aircraft with the perceived relative wind. Because directional stability is weaker than lateral stability for the aircraft in particular, the restoring yaw motion lags significantly behind the restoring roll motion. The aircraft then passes through level flight as the yawing motion is continuing in the direction of the original roll. At this point, a sideslip is introduced in the opposite direction and the process is reversed. Once the aircraft is in Dutch Roll mode, this effect can be excited by any use of rudder or aileron. Periods can range from some seconds for light aircraft to several minutes for large airliners..

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