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oCLOBUS IIII
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haoe a request regarding the lohnson

REAp[R
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CONFIRMAT:ON COMMUNiCAT:ON

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CLOSiNG

`.

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COMPARE

O CLOBUS

1.ASK:NG NANCY
To: Nancy Jones From: Jim Sawyer Date: Subject: Johnson Report Request Nancy,

2.SWEDiSH SEMiCONDUCTORS
To: Jurgen Leichnann From: Naoko Nakamura Date:

3.MISSiNG FAXED PACES


To: Ali Salaam From: Taro Hirota Date: Subject: Missing Fax Pages Needed Dear Ali, O Could you kindly re-send the 20page fax on the new factory automation project sent to Simon? O According to your cover letter there should have been 20 pages, but we only received the first 10 pages.

Subject: SC-3590 Shipment Request (Urgent) Dear Mr. Leichnann,


@ We need immediate shipment of

O I have a request regarding the Johnson account report. I I know


you are quite busy, but would you be able to complete it on my behalP O Due to some budget problems I have to stay in New York until Sat-

1,000 units of SC-3590 for Yosan Electric. O Can you get them to us
byWednesday 10 p.m. Tolcyotime? Yosan must have them for Fridat's demonstration. @ We'll pay all express shipping costs.

urday. g You should find everything you need in the file in my


bottom left-hand drawer.
@ lf

Please call me if you have any

questions. Regards,

6 Thanks.

you could complete this for me, I would really owe you one. O lt must be on the regional manage/s desk by Friday 5 p.m. Tokyo time as she intends to study it over the weekend. @ Please fax your confirmation to me at The Plaza Hotel, tax (212) 555-1212, Room 1563.

@ We must have immediate


confirmation. l Please call me on
my mobile phone, 81-30-555-9037, no laterthan 9 a.m. Stockholm iime.

Taro

O We are awaiting your reply. Sincerely, Ms. Naoko Nakamura

6 Contiact me here atanytime if you have any questions. 6 Thanks very much for your kind assistance. O
See you next week. Regards, Jim

O BRIEFING

BR]EF]NG

BRIE ]NG

REQUEST

REQUEST
nEAS NS

REQUEST

O REASONS
O DETAILS
O BENEFITS RiSKS

O DETA]LS

O REASONS O DETA]LS

O DEADLINE

O CONF:RMAT,ON O COMMUNICAT10N O THANK


O CLOSING

BENEF]T ]SKS O DEADLINE O CONFIRMAT10N

DENE lTttRISKS

O EDIEADL[NE
C N ]RMAT] lll

O COMMUNiCAT10N
O TttANK O CLOSiNG

O COMMUNICAT:ON O THANK
__L S]lllG

LAYOUT NOTE: You should not indent your messages. The numbers in the messages above have been included so that you can match each sentence with its corresponding logic step (below). These numbers should not confuse you into thinking that the messages have been indented.

SIART T PHRASES
O BR:EF:NG
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Can l ask a favor of you?


Could l ask your help on something?
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START T PHRASES corPi


You shoulil

O CL03US

O DETAILS

finil mentthing vou need in my b ott om7eft-hant ttr ad {r.

the

file in

The details are ...

In detail, ... Specifically, ... T.o do this, vou'll need to ... What vou liave to do is ... What heeds to be done is ... The steps to follow are listed below. You should find everything you need

...

lf you could complete


oTDe

() BENEFITS/RISKS
you one.

this

for me,I zoould really

The benefits are ... If you can take care of this, I would appreciate it.

If vou can do this, then BENEFIT. If ihis can be done, then...

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l

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...

I realize I'm asking a lot, so please let me know there is an-"ything I can do for you.

if

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if you can't do this, then RISK.


If this can't be done, then RISK.

It must be on the resional

O DEADLINE

0
tnanaser's desk bu

Friilav 5 p.m- Tokv7 time, as shE intenils to"study it oadr trte uteekaid
To meet-my deadline, could you take care of this

bv'... If nossibl6. could vou do this bv ... Afso, sorry for thdrush, but wduld you do this bi/ "'
The deadline is ... We need this bv ... Your earliest reisponse would be appreciated
because... Please do this as soon as possible. Please do this at your earliest convenience.

This isrt't

a rush.

Please fax rtour confirmation to me at The Plaza Hotel, fax (zlz) ssi-1272, Room 7563.

O CONFIRMATION

Can vou please send me vour confirmation?


Pleade

e-irait your confirination because

...

Send me your confirmation by ... Can vou do this?

Abolwould you let me know that you got this


If this is not pd_ssible, then please reply
oosdible. messase/
as soon as

E ?
?

Is this p6ssible? If not, please let me know. We must have immediate confirmation.

Lf t\ere a^y VuSq\ b\'rtJ th q1 - You c,z ,^l A Wotr\t Ysu b. oblc te ?, I *og wonder'vr-tr 'i{ i,r wru\A

lac- foftibte

START T PHRASES coni

O CLOBUS

O COMMUNICATION Contactmehere at any timeif youhaoe any


questions. Contact me any time if anything remains unclear.

If you need additional information, please let us know. If you have any questions, dort't hesitate to contact
me.

If you need any further information, you can reach me by e-mail. If I can help you in any way or you need any additional information feel free to call me.
For any further details, just give me a call at ... Please call me if you have any questions.
Feel free to give me a call if you have any

questions.

O THANK Thanks uery much for yout kind assistance, Thanks. Thanks a lot. Thanks very much. Thanks and sorry for the rush. Thanks in advance. I appreciate your help. Thanks for your time and consideration. Thanks for your help. We appreciate your cooperation in advance. Thanks very much for your kind assistance.

0 L
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See

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you next uteek

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I am awaiting your reply. We are waiting foryour reply. I'm looking forward to hearingbackfromyou. Sorry for any inconvenience this may have caused you. I look forward to receiving your reply. Talk to you soon. Have a great weekend!

LOG C30

oCLOBUS IIII

READER
is not ready for information and/or
(

DECA SE

S0
provide

EXAMPLE
@
Regarding the lohnson aeount report,...

subject is unclear

BR:EF:NG
(0 give

is waiting for response)

of previous request)

ACCEPTANCE)

I wiII

be

able to finish it as requested.

needs

procedures
are unclear

O supply

spec:lcations

DETAILS

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needs and or

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expects 2-way

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COMMUNICAT10N

Let me know if there is anything else canhelp you with.

communication
needs and/or

necessary
reader wants to be treated
respectfu y

e THANK
o give

expects

acknowledgment

ln ci dentally, thanks again for cooeing fur me in my absencelast month.

CLOS:NG

Good luck back!

with the budget and hurry

COMPARE

O CLOBUS

1.DIRK S WORK
To: Dirk Weston From: Junko Kokubo
Date:

2.MEETiNG MEMO
To: Department Managers From: Naomi Thompson
Date:

3.COMPUTER DOWNTIME
To: All Staff From: Satoshi Arai Date:

Subject: Re: Johnson Report Request Dirk, O Regarding the Johnson account report, O lwill be able to finish it as requested. O To confirm, I have taken a look at it and can finish the last few pages. I will have it on the regional manager's desk by 5 p.m. Tokyo time on Friday. O Let me know if there is anything else I can help you with. O lncidentally, thanks again for covering for me in my absence last month.

Subject: Flextime Meeting Announcement


Ail,
O This is to announce a meeting for all department managers as follows:

Subject: Computer Downtime Announcement


Everyone:

O PleaSe be informed that you will not be able to use your office computers on this weekend as follows: Saturday & Sunday (April 17-18) 10:00 am - 5:00 pm

Date: Monday, April 13 Time:9:00 a.m. Place: My office (Room 472) Purpose: Discuss a possible flextime system ln detail, many employees have

O The

lT department will be run-

complained about the current sys-

tem. Therefore, I m looking forward


to hearing your ideas and suggestions on this issue.

ning tests on the new intranet system during that time. lf you use your computers while the tests are being carried out, you will run the risk of losing your work.

O Good luck with the budget and


hurry back! Regards, Junko

Please call my secretary at extension 472 by Friday to confirm


your attendance. See you in the meeting, Naomi

Please let us know if you need more details. Thank you for your cooperation in advance.
@

Regards, lT Department

O BRIEFiNG

O ACCEPTANCE
DETAILS

O BRIEFING

ACCEPTANCE

BRIEFING

O ACCEPTANCE

DETAILS

DETAILS

O COMMUNICAT:ON O THANK
O CLOSiNG

C MMUNOCATl TttANK CLOS]NG

OC MMUNOCATI N O THANK
CL SIFluG

SIART T PrRASES

O CLOBUS

O BRIEFING
Regarding the f ohnson account rryort,...

I am writing to inform you Please be informed that... Please note that ...

...

This is to confirm that ... I would like to announce that...

According to your request, ... As you requested, ... In regards to ... In response to your inqurry, ... Here are the answers to your questions.

O ACCEPTANCE

/
as requested,

I utillbe ablc
I will...
I can ... We can...

to

finish it

will be able to... will have it done by... will be able to finish it as requested.
would be happy to
...

O DETAILS To confirm, I haae taken a look at it anil can finish the last feu pages. I will hazte it on the rcgional manage/s ileskby 5 p.n Tokyo time onFriilay.

In detail, ... Specifically,... The information is listed below: The details are as follows: I have included ... You will find the information you need attached. To complete this request I will ...
This is because ... The purpose of the meeting is to ... Please send me a confirmation of your attendance

by...

STARTfT PHRASES cor71

CLOBUS

O COMMUNICATION Let tne knoat if there is anything else I can help you

utitlt
Let me know if there is anything else I can help

you with. Please let me know if you need more details.

If anything remains unclear, please don't hesitate


to contact me.

If any information is lacking, just let me know. Should you need more informatiorl please let us know. If you need to, you can reach me at ... If you have any questions or problems, please feel
free to contact me.

I'll

be in touch. If you have any questions or problems in the future, dorft hesitate to call.

O THANK Incidentally, thanks again for coaering for me in absence last montlt Thanks.

ny

Thankyou. Thanks for your questions. Thanks for your cooperation. I thank you for your time. Thank you for your understanding. Thank you for your continued support.
I would appreciate your comments or suggestions. Thanks for the opportunity to work with you on this. We appreciate your cooperation in advance.

O GLOSING Gooil luck with the builget anil hurry back!


I hope that the above information has been helpful. I hope this has answered all your questions. I hope this has clarified everything. I'm looking forward to discussing this with you.

Talk to you soon. Talk to you on ... I'm looking forward to talking with you. We're looking forward to ...

OG C

BO

CLOBUS

RE DER
O is not ready for rejection

BEcn sE
subject is unclear and/or
cooperation is insufficient

S0
O prov:de

EXAMPLE
@ Thnnkyoufor your e-mail regarding the Johnson account.

BRIEFING O show

CONSiDERAT:ON

A I know

hoto hard you haoe been working

on this account. Unfortunately,


howeaer,,..

:s ready
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subject is clear; cooperation is sufficient

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REJECT:ON

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:
.

needs
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necessity
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4 J1/0 70f 6o" COMMUNICAT10N


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necessary
reader wants to be treated
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expects

O THANW APOL001ZE
o give

s. T E oy raS: yO rs` N

acknowledgment

CLOSiNG

COMPARE

O CL03US

1.SHIRKING D:RK

2.COMPANY VISIT
To: Matti Leinonen
From: Hiroshi Murasaki Date: Subject: Re: Mr. Norstrom Trip Re-

3.MiSSED MARTINI

To: Dirk Weston From: Junko Kokubo Date:

To: Beth Bunkenberg


From: Nori Mikami Date: Subject: May 1 Cocktails Beth,

Subject: Re: Johnson Report Request Dirk,


O Thank you for your e-mail regarding the Johnson account. O I know how hard you have been working on

quest Dear Mr. Leinonen,


O ln response to your request about arranging some company visits for

O Thank you for the invitation to your cocktail party on May 1. O


Unfortunately, O I won t be able to
make it this time. O I ll be in Europe from April 2SloMay 12.

Mr. Norstrom s upcoming visit to


Tokyo, O we understand the importance of satisffing him as one of our intemational clients. Unfortunately however, O the two companies he requested to visit (Suzuki Retail and Vexa K.K.) are not available for visi-

this account. Unfortunately, however, O I can't complete it by the Friday deadline. O This is because I must leave tomorrow for a oneweek training seminar in Singapore.
G)

(} I'm sure it will be a great success.


I

hope I can make it to the next one.

Accordingly, I have refened your

tation during the period he is in


Tokyo. O This is because March 31 is the end ofthe fiscal year in Japan, and so many companies are at their
busiest around then.

Kind regards, Nori

request on to Ritsuko. She has agreed to finish it by Friday. Her

e-mail

address

is

ritsu kosato@thebank.co.j p.

) lf you have any questions, feel


tree to contact either of us. 6 Thanks. 6 Enjoy the rest ofyour stay in New

() Alternatively, if he were able to


delay his trip by two weeks then
both of these companies would allow a visit. lf this is not possible, @ we muld try to anange some other company visits for him.

York. Regards, Junko

6 Please let us know if you wish us to proceed with either of these alternatives, or if you have any other
response. Regards, Hiroshi Murasaki

ideas. 6 We are awaiting your

O BR:EFING

O BRIEFING

O BRIEFlNG

O CONS:DERATiON
RE ECT10N

O CONSIDERAT10N

O CONSiDERAT10N
REJECT10N

REJECT10N

O REASONS
O ALTERNATIVE

O REASONS
O ALTERNAttiVE

O REASONS
O ALTERNAT:VE
C MMUN]CAT3 N O TttANMAP L G]ZE

O COMMUNICAT10N O THANKJAPOLOGlZE
O CLOSING

O COMMUNICAT10N THANMAP L G]ZE


O CLOSiNG

O CL SONG

START T PHRASES
O BR:EFING
T y C

GLOBUS

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received your message. got your e-mail. received your request to ... We received ... Regarding your request to ... In regards to ... In response to your request about ... Thank you for your request to ... We must inform you that ... O CONSIDERATION

I knout how hard you haae been zaorking


account. Unfortunately,
hozn m

on this

...

er, ...

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I'm sorry to have to tell you that... We are sorry to inform you, however, ... I'm sorry but...
I appreciate your request but
...

I know how much you needed this done, but

I really wish I could help you as requested, but ...

It is a good idea, however

I can't complete itby theEiilay ilendline.


I am unable to
...

REJECTION

I can't ... We cannot... We will not be able to ... I won't be able to ... I can't complete it by the deadline. At this time, it isn't possible for us to ... At this time I am unable to ...

REASONS This is because

O
I must leaoe tomorrow for a one-

week training setninar in Singapore.

The reason is ... This is because ... This is due to the fact that ... We hope you can understand our position as ... We decided this because ... The decision was based on We can't do this because ...

...

START T PHRASES corPi 0

O CLOBUS

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O THAN APOLOGIZE
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u.

I am sorry l couldnlt helP you aS requested.

Sorry for any inconvenience.


We're sorry we canit do lnore for you.

Thank you for your mterest.

E rgStOry rs j

O CLOSiNG

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reports.

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needs incentive

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CLOSiNG

COM2ARE

O CLOBUS

1.PUSHING TOM

2.WEEKEND
SECURITY L:ST

3.PRINTING WPOS

To: Tom Lee From: Mari Tanaka Date: Subject Delayed Reports Problem Tom,

To: All staff From: Jac,ob Tanner Date: Subject: Weekend Advance Checkin Required

To: Mr. U. Sless From: Hidemi Fukuhara


Date:

Subjecl Printing Errors Complaint


(Order #80049) Dear Mr. Sless,

A[,
O I'm writing in regard to the monthly

reports. O We have been receiving them consistently after the deadline. O Specifically, the last three reports have arrived from three to seven days too late. O Tom, you know I cannot do myjob ifyou don t
give me the summaries.
@

O I need to bring an important matter to your attention. O Some staff have been forgetting to register their names before mming to the office

O Today we received the 1,000 invitation cards we ordered from


you (order #80049) on October 1 8. O There are three mistakes as follows:

on weekends. o This is causing confusion with the security staff. O As you know, while we are having construction done, all employees
who wish to work on the weekends are required to register their names. O So, please do so with me before 3:00 o.m. on the orevious Fridav.

O. Spelling mistakes: the words


presentation and executive were
spelt presenlalton and exceutive respectively

So, please send your trading vol-

ume and income data summaries by the 10th of everv month. 6 lf I


don't receive the report bythe dead-

line, I'll be forced to contact your


boss and I really don't want to do that.6 I'll be waiting for your repod by the 10th starting next month. 6 Also, please let me know that you
got this message and can start send-

Font size mistake: we requested

ing the reports on time. there is some problem that you have in completing the summaries, byall means let me know. @Thanks
@ lf

have been asked to tell you that from now on security staff will be instructed to refuse entry to anyone whose name does not appear on @ Thank you the weekend for your cooperation.
I

font size 12 for the title, but you have used size 15

list.

Regards, Jacob Tanner

Please send the conected cards to us 6 by November'10. 6 lwill be calling today to mnfirm that this is possible. @ lfyou have any questions please contact me as soon as possible.
@

for your cooperation. @ I'll talk to


you soon. Sincerely, Mari

Sincerely, Hidemi Fukuhara

O BRIEFING

O BR:EFING

O BRIEFING
PROBLEM D LS

PROBLEM
DETAILS

PROBLEM
DETAILS

O AGREEMENT
O SOLUT10N
O BENEFITS RiSKS

O AGREEMENT
O SOLUT10N
O BENEFITS RiSKS

AGREEMENT

O SOLU10N

O DEADLINE

O CONFIRMAT]ON O COMMUNICAT:ON O THANK


O CLOSING

O DEADLONE OC N [RMAT10N
O THANK
C MMftnN]cAT] CL SING

BENEFOTS n]SKS

O DEADLINE

O CONFIRMAT10N N O COMMUNiCAT10N
TttANK CL SING

START T PHRASES
O
BRIEFING

O CLOBUS

I'm writing in regards to the monthly reports.


I need to bring an important matter to your

attentionI'm writing to express my concern over the fact

that... I'm writing to ask for your immediate assistance in resolving a problem. I'd like to report a problem that I think needs immediate attention. I want to bring up an issue of mutual concem. I am writing in regard to a problem with We are having a problem regarding ... This is a complaint concerning ...
...

O PROBLEM ileailline.
We haae bem receioing them consistmtly aftet the

The problem is that... The issue is ...

This problem occurred when... We are having a problem with ... We have had some difficulty with The difficulty can be tracedio ... There is a mistake in... We're not satisfied with...

...

O DETAILS
Specifically, the la.st three reports haoe arrioeil three to seuen days too late.

lrom

Specifically,

...

The details are ...

In particular, ... In detail ... This is what has happened. Let me describe the background of this. Let me give you some background. The following detaiis may help clarify the situation.

O AGREEMENT
Tom, youknow

I cannot do my job if you don't giae


methe summaies.
As you know, ... As you can understand, we need
...

Asyou canimagine,... As I'm sure you'll agree, ... I'm sure you are aware of the importance of We both know that this is a problem.

...

We hope you can understand our position as ...

It is our understanding that we agreed to

...

T SIAR PHRASES coni


@

O CLOBUS

Please send your trailing aolume and income ilata summaries by the 70th of mery month.

SOLUTION

( )

I suggest that

...

We recommend that... We must ask thatyou ... Please... So this won't happen agairy could you please ...

Under these conditions,I feel the only possible solution is to ... Therefore, in order to prevent a further occurrence of this, ... Do you have any alternative ideas?
We are open to any suggestions you might have.

Now that you are aware of this situation I am confident we can ...
O BENEFITS/RISKS do that.

lf I don't receiae the report by the deadline I'II be f or ced. t o cont act y our b o ss and I r ally don' t w ant t o
e

O /

If you can do this, then BENEFIT.


If we can solve this problem, then If you do so, then we can ...
...

If this problem is corrected, it will be possible to

...

( ) ( )

If you can't do this, then RISK. If we cannot resolve the situation quickly, then we will have no choice but to ... If this is not possible, then we will be forced to ... If this can't be taken care of then we will have to
O DEADLINE
...

I'lI

waiting for your rcport by the 70th starting nextmonth


be

We should clear this up by ... We need this resolved by ... We must solve this problem by ... Would it be possible to take care of this matter by Please respond with your suggestion by ... I would like this resolved by ... We would like you to take care of this matter

...

immediately. At the very latest, we need to solve this problem by... Can you please contact me with your decision by

...

START T PHRASES con4

GLOBUS

S %Z :% 1 %:
Please let me know if this IInessage rnade itto you.

1 ]:
Send ine an e rrlail to let me know this has been

CttyouPI b:
I nbecanttld

solved.

Please confi by rep

TVh

W and whenthis sue


yOu received is

at

tts Posstta coJ at

;%
If we can helP in any Way Please let us know.


O THANK s/or
y

THOn

" `

FIa.IIs :I [IN
matter. Thank you for your tilne and corlsideration. Thank you for your efforts to resolve this.
We will all be grate whendis

problemis resolved.

Sorry to have to bring this to your attention.

O CLOSING
I ZJ` J

0
s

ta y

i.

LOG

C30X

OGLCIBUS I

READER
O is not ready for apology (or
consideration)

gEcn sE
O subject is unclear

S0
O provide

EXAMPLE
Your shipment of computers scheduled to arrioe by June 24 has been delayed.

BR:EFING

is

sti not ready for apology(or

O problem is unresolved

O ofFer

SOLUT:ON

2
17

yo 4` rs r ` " yo :4g zs 77t

consideralon)

riO
o fweo s

`:Jb`

Fri `28.

apOrOgyJ

ls ready for

problem is

O give

apology(o

resolved
Or
solution is

APOLOGY CONS:DERAT:ON

I

.

`ly sbr

/Or

:4C

consideralon)

O show

offered

h /s : 4
c

sa yo

`S

O needs
explanation

@ needs to

o give

understand

REASONS

rC g as
S riS`

situation/
relationship

` `s` `: ` rottg ss, brtt ` ar r b sh :` crt is


j

s`

r7`7

I W S

needs
reassurance

O of potential

O ofFer LONG

recurrences

SOLUT10N

TERM h

7 i4g ` ` ` `c raC` S t iS ` i g ag :".

O needs further consideration

O emphasls
:ncreases
credibillty

O repeat

APOLOGY
O repeat

CONSIDERAT10N

4 4y /`gr``` Js` ` rob tt S a7s i y 1/o


``

O needs further

O emphasis
increases
credibility

reassurance

SOLUT:ON

:::b Ag : rS ` ` ` Fri
.

`2

@ needs

and/or expects 2-way


communication

@ additional

O invite

input may be

COMMUNICAT:ON O THANK
o give

Please feel free to contact me anything else I can do.

if there is

necessary
@ reader wants

@ needs and/or

expects

acknowledgment

to be treated respectfully

CLOSiNG

@ We certainly appreciate your understanding and .,. @ look furward to senting you in the future.

COMPARE

O CLOBUS

1.LATE COMPUTER DELiVERY

2.CONSiSTENTLY LATE REPORT


To: Mari Tanaka From: Tom Lee
Date: Subject: lnventory Report On Time Dear Mari,

3.WRONG DIRECTORY RESPONSE


To: Taro Arakawa From: Naomi lzumi Date: Subject NZM Contacted Taro,

To: Karen Davis From: Yuko lgarashi


Date: Subject: Computer Shipment Dear Ms. Davis,

O I am writing to inform you that


your shipment of computers scheduled to arrive by June 24 has been delayed. O The 20 computers you ordered on June 17 are being rushed to your office- They will be there by Friday, June 28. O I am extremely sorry for the inconvenience. @ We understand the difficulties this may cause you.

O l'm writing to assure you that O


our monthly inventory report will be on time from now on. O I am very sorry forthe repeated delays and g I certainly understand the difficulties this must have caused you.
@

O Regarding NZM, O I have contacted them, and they have revised their directory so that the problem will not happen again. O I apologize for being so slow to fix this problem myself.
O Let me know if you need anything

We have been having problems

gathering our material in time to


make the report.

6 However, these

difficulties have all been fixed. O Thank you for your patience. Regards, Tom

else. O Thanks for taking time to forward the faxes over to me and sorry again for the inconvenience.
Best regards, Naomi

() After checking on the shipment,

was surprised to see that we sent it to the wrong address. Unfortunately,

we did not catch this error before shipping. l We have modi ed our
checking procedures to prevent this

from ever happening again. @ I deeply regret this error and any
@

problems it may have caused you. Again, your shipment will be there by Friday, June 28.

O Please feel fiee to contact me if there is anything else I can do. A We certainly appreciate your under-standing and O look forward to serving you in the future. Sincerely,

Yuko lgarashi

O BRIEFING

O BRIEFING

O BRIEF:NG

SOLUT10N

SOLUT:ON

SOLUTION

O APOLOGY O CONSIDERAT10N O REASONS


O LONC ERM SOLUT:ON

O APOLOGY O CONSIDERAT10N O REASONS


O LONG TERM SOLUT10N

O APOLOGY
C NSlDERAT]

nEAS NS
lN

G TEttM

S LUT] N

O APOLOGY

AP L GY

CONSIDERA 10N O SOLUT10N O COMMUN:CAT10N

S LUT] N

CONSlDERATl N N

AP LGY s LuT]oN

C NSIDEnAT]

O THANK

O THANK

C MMUNOCAT] CL SON(G

O COMMUN:CAT10N

O THANK

O CLOSING

CL SING

START T PHRASES 0
atiaeby

O CLOBUS

O BRIEFING Your shipment of computers scheduled to lune 24 has been ilelayed

I'm writing to inform you that ... I'm writing to ... I am sorry to inform you that ...
We need to inform you that ... Regarding the problem with ...

Regarding... In regard to the concerns you have about In reference to your request to ...

...

fune 28.

O SOLUTION The 20 computers you ordercil on lune 77 are being rushed to your ffice. Thq willbe thereby Eiilay,

To solve this problem, we

will

...

To correct this situatiorU ... The best solution to this is ... The solution is ... We have ... As you requested, we will ...

I assure you that ... For the time being, could we

...

Do you have any suggestions as to what we could


do?

O APOLOGY am extremely sorry

0
for
the inconvenience.

I am sorry for the inconvenience. We deeply regret the problem we have caused.
Please accept my apologies for the problem. Please accept our apologies for the inconvenience.
Please accept my apologies

for

...

I apologize for any inconvenience. We are sincerely sorry for the problem. I apologize for all the trouble caused by ...

I'm really sorry'.

START T PHRASES coni


e CONSIDERAT:ON rs t Z

O CLOBUS

`S 'S

y
tt

cttse yOL L t :I : gmm.


I recorttee magninde ofthis error.

O REASONS

The reason for his was.

This happened because. This resulted from."

I have no excuse for dis happettg.

O LONG TERM SOLUT:ON

: : ll:1: :have errssuchasthisone/ InorderttT lmrep

d not

[l:Il

lililil]:[lttlill:

This should not happen agaln because

O APOLOGY CONSiDERAT:ON
tt IS`rrar tts i c 4 rab

O /

; il
Aguir", I appreciate your understanding.

lra

Aeairr' I am very sony about this. efiain, we are s6rry f6r the inconvenience.

I'm sorry for the problems this has caused you.


I deeply regret this error and any problems it may have caused you.

START T PHRASES con4


O SOLUTION

CLOBUS

0
will
be there by Eriday, fune

( )

Again, your shipment


28.

Agurrv...

Aguttt,I will... To confirm, we have ... Agu-, as you requested, I will


Once again, I

...

will make sure...

Please feel free

O COMMUNICATION to contact me

0
if
there is anything

elseI can do.

Please let me know if you need anything else. Please feel free to contact me if there is anything else I can do.

Please don't hesitate to call me directly if anything comes up. Please let me know if you need any more

information or if you have any questions. If you have any questions or concerns I would be happy to talk to you at any time.
Should you need anything else, let me know.

O THANK
We eeftainly appreciate your unilerctanding.

Thank you for your understanding. I appreciate your understanding. We certainly appreciate your understanding. We certainly appreciate your patience. Thank you for your patience. I really appreciate your input. I really appreciate your considerate response to the

situation.

o cLostNG
We look

0
the

fonaard to senting you in

future.

I'm looking forward to discussing this with you.


We look forward to hearing back from you.

I look forward to ... I'm glad we were able to resolve this problem.

Talk to you again soon.

LOC C80

oCLOBUS IIII

READER
acknowledgment

Ecn sf

S0
O state

EXAMPLE
@ Congratulations! I was thrilled to hcar you had been promoted to New York IT manager,

O would respond to O of good or bad

circumstances

G00DW:LL

needs
validation

goodwilllacks
credibility

give

DETAILS

AI r sO Sy g` tt s s 9 : yo
'

Z 4`s 9zif Si:y. Yoz ` ys ` o S : ,4g. :" g rob Z

o give

REWARDS

IJ 4 ` `b `yo ` I : N Yo 4
.

needs and or

expects more

)reader wants to be treated


respectfu y

O repeat

G00DWiLL CLOSING

g II :

b.

acknowledgment

o give

S``1/o

s O

COMPARE

O CLOBUS

1.CONGRATULAT:NG A COLLEAGUE
To: Satoko Nozwa
From: Daie: Subject: Congratulations Dear Satoko, O Congratulations!
I

2.GOLDEN GATE
To: Jake Winslow From: Date: Subject Thank you! Dear Jake,

3.MAURICE S MOTHER
YOUR PERSONAL STAT10NERY
%

hear you had been promoted to


New York lT manager.

was thrilled to

O Thank you very much for the


enjoyable weekend. O The Giants
game was quite exciting for me since

wrlv

a,h"appy

pelww

I am a baseball

fan. Also, I really

g Although it is not easy for someone our age to reach such a level so

quickly, you seem to have done so quite easily. You always were good at problem solving. O How about I take you outto dinnerto celebrate when I m in New York next month. O Once again, well done Satoko.

enjoyed seeing the Golden Gate Bridge for the first time. O When you visit Tokyo, I would like to be your host. I ll try to make your visit as memorable as mine.
.

O Thanks again for your hospitality. O I hope to see you and your family

soon!

~~

vre*e*d>etllez

dad/fiatteha\) I

O G00DWiLL

0 000DWiLL

O G00DW:LL

DETAILS

REWARDS

DETAILS

REWARDS

DETAILS

REWARDS

O G00DWiLL O CLOS:NG

O G00DWiLL
O CLOSiNG

G DW]LL CL SBNG

START T PHRASES

O CLOBUS

0 000DWiLL
s C ttZ: ti ttsI I t77riZ
`

ry b ` rO ]Va Y r rr,7, ` 4g

Ijust wantto say thankyou for.


I

m writing to exPress my sincere thanks for.

Thank you very much for.

CongratulatioFIS!
I would like to congratulate you on.

We were pleased to hearthat you will be coming


tO.

Happy Birthday from a1l of us.


m writing to tell you how sorry l wasto hear."

Happy New Yeari

m writing to wisl you good luck on.

DETALS Sy/or AJ
sttc

O
O s tt rag`fo
`

Z` `

``` s : zg.
Because of yollr assistance

` s ry y tt s``r ` r7 g ra ` br Sfry. Y yS l

`Js

Thanks to you
Because of your efforts

I was thrilled to hear."


1

re sure youll enioy

Wdve all eniOyed workingwith you this year.


We all wish you the best of everything on this

SPeCial day.

I wass v to hear .

l amSure yOu will be a success.

START T PHRASES cont


O REWARDS I'Il take you out to ilinner to celebrate uthen I'm in New York next month. As a way of saying thanks, ... To show my appreciatiory... As a small token of my appreciatioru I have Let's get together over lunch to celebrate. To celebrate, why don't we ... While you are getting well,
...

O CLOBUS

y z : Na"Yor `rO
I JJ`

J br

`r fa c

` `,

`L

...

O GOODWILL
Once again, well done Satoko. Thanks again for ... Thanks again for everything. Also, please convey my thanks to ... Once again, congratulations on... Agurrv please get well soon. As I said before ...

0 /
Once agail well done S ro

O CLOSING See you soon!


I hope we can return the favor in some way in the

0
Sag y
s

future. I look forward to returning the hospitality.


contact you to see when we can get together to celebrate. We look forward to working with you in your new

I'll

position.
I wish you all the very best. See you next year.

My thoughts are with you. I'm looking forward to seeing you soon.

LO C 30X
S0
O get

OCLOBUS IE

READER
O is not ready for persuasion

ECA SE

EXAMPLE
Can you beline it?

O interest is
insufficient and/or O subject is unclear and/or

A ENT:ON
BRIEFING

O p vide

A A

The copy machine broke down again Iast week.


You know how important it is that we haue a copy machine which lue can dEend on.

O cooperation
is insufficient

O create

AGREEMENT

is ready fbr

C)interest and

introduce

persuas!on

cooperation
are suttcient:

RECOMMENDAT:ON

With this in mind,

would like to

recommend thepurchnse of anew capy machine, the Zeroz 43XP.

SubieCtiS Clear

C)will measure
plusses

of evaluation

O maxim!ze

process

BENEFITS

Firs

' oosi SOr ` s J:4g.

II S 9 : raSi
sacrg

ill r
`
: .S`6o44

bs br

C)wi

measure

of evaluation

Om:nimize

m:nuses

process

OB ECT:ONS

A frsrgJ 4
J

ils 3245

r72b` rs/yaar @202o r b r srs=s144 S 9 j Iy j 1/S/O ` O :Sar


si r
`

si

H r/7

y z

`s

A4 r
r

c 4s'

Fi tt

is.

``

@ needs

C)reader:s
consider:ng
acting

O explain

direction

ACT10N

yO :: l J b y` 48` j04 : 0 r 4S r
a
,

`.

O needs and or

expects 2-way

C)additional input rnay be

O in te

COMMUN:CAT10N O THANK
o give

communication
O needs and or

necessary
O reader wants
to be treated
respecttu y

expects

Also, ifyouhnae any questions about the machine, don't hesitate to caII me. Thanks fur your time and consideration. We

acknowiedgment

CLOSiNG

all

look

forward to hearing back

fromyou.

COMPARE 7
1.OLD COPIER
To: Gerald Saumon From: Sachie Mishima
Date:

O CLOBUS

2.CONFERENCE TOUR:DEA
To: Leanne Whiftaker From: Yumi Arai
Date:

3.BORED BOARD
YOUR COMPANY LETTERHEAD May

12,20_

Subject: New Copy Machine Recommendation Dear Gerald, O Can you believe it? O The copy machine broke down again last week. O You know

Subject: Company Trip ldea


Dear Leanne,
) I'd like to recommend thatwe change the venue of our company trip to Hong

Dear Board Members, O Opportunites come and go just like many mmpanies in today's business environment. e Accordingly, I would like to introduce one such opportunity: a new office location in Otemachi. O I have outlined the three key features below :
) Space: The proposed office ofiers 20% more space. Although we have grown over
(1

how important it is that we have a copy


machine which we can depend on. ) With this in mind, I would like to recommend the purchase ofa new copy machine, the Zeroz 43XP.

Kong.

@ I've already investigated the

increase in cost. lt comes to JPY 30,000

per person, and staff have all agreed that they would mver this ihemselves.
@ No time would be wasted either, as

O First, it has all the required features: twosided copying, sorting and stapling. This will make our secretaries' jobs a lot easier. Second, ifs fast. We can save two seconds per copy. This may notsound like much, brJt
if

60% in the last ten years, we have not expanded our office space. How many
times have you tripped over the extra files and boxes piled all overthe place? ln short, our office efficiency is decllning.
(2) Location: The office is located just two minutes from the station; we are cunently a

we make 10,000 copies per month we can

save six hours every month. Third, it provides the highest quality copying available.
Our current machine's copy quality has declined as repair costs have climbed. What do our customeG think when we send them low quality copies?
O At first glance its price of USD 2450 may

the week-long lnternational Job Seminar will be held in Hong Kong at that time. We could attend the conference from I to 5 in the day time, and have the evenings to ourselves. This would give us a five-day holiday overseas instead of a two-day weekend in Japan.

ten-minute trek from the nearest station.


Everone can save over an hour every week. In one month we can save 4000 employee hours (1 000 employees @ 4 hours/ month). (3) Prestige: With five Fortune 500 companies in the proposed building, we can only expect to add to our prestige! lt s impressive to have our customers see our name along with these big names on the first floor directory. To enjoy these features, o there would be a JPY 30 million increase in our annual lease expense. Simply put, it's an investment in

O Let me know what you think of the idea. I'd be happy to arrange everything. 6 l'm looking forward to talking
to you about this. Regards, Yumi

look expensive. However, when you consider the time saved (72 hours/year @ USD 2o/hour in labor costs = USD 1440) we can see how quickly it pays for itself. Another consideration is the difiiculty of use. Surprisingly though, with its user-friendly instructions, anyone can leam in just minutes.

lf you would like, I would be happy to arange a free demonstration at your convenience. g Also, ifyou have any questions about the machine, don't hesitate to call me.g Thanks for your time and considera@

ourselves, and one which I am confident would generate a high retum: higher office efficiency, increased employee satisfaction
and morale, improved seNice and customer

satisfac{ion and most importantly, the resulting expansion of revenues!


@ lf you wish to obtain more information on

tion.

O We all look forward to hearing back from you.

Regards,

Sachie

the feasibility of such a move, I would be happy to provide the necessary data. O I appreciate your time and kind consideration. Respecttully,

Tyrone Weaver

O AT ENT10N

O BRIEF:NG

O AGREEMENT RECOMMENDAT10N

ATTENT] N Bnl ]NG L AGnEEMENT

O AENT10N
BREE ]llG AGREEMENT

RECOMMENDAT10N

RECOMMENDAT10N

O BENEFITS O ACT:ON

0 0BJECT10NS

BENEF]TS 0 0BJECT:ONS
O ACT10N
(COMMltlll](DAT]Oll O THAIN

O BENEFITS 00B ECT10NS O ACTION


O COMMUNICAT10N O THANK
O CLOSING

O CLOSING

O THANK

COMMUN](CAT]

lf

CLOSING

START PHRASES

CLOBUS

O ATTENTION
Can youbelieae

0
it?
...

What would you think if

Canyou believe ... Did you know that ... Imagine if we were to ... Are you aware that... Many staff come to me and say; " ..." It is said that
O BRIEFING
The copy machinc broke ilown again last weelc
...

I am writing in regards to ... With regard to ... Regarding... Concerning... As a result of the problems with I have an idea how we can...

...

O AGREEMENT You know how impoftant it is that we haoe a copy machine whichzue c*n depenil on

You know how important it is that


As As As As

...

you can see ... you know ... you can understand

...

I'm sure you're aware

...

With this in minil, I woulil like to reconmend the purchase of a neut copy machine, the Zeroz 43W,
I would like to recommend ... Accordingly,I would like to introduce.., I would like to propose that ... I would like to suggest... We feel it may be a good time to ... We strongly recommend ... We can enjoy a range of benefits if we ... I have come to the conclusion that ... Would it be possible to ...

O RECOMMENDATION

START T PHRASES cont


0

GLOBUS

% ; :: 4...
S C

riCs

bS

s 2

S c

FEAWRE+BENEFIT+EXANIIIpLE FEAWRES
The features are specified below. 1lve listed some of the featues below.
The first featre is.

BENEFITS
With this feature we can.

benefit of

is is.

This means we can.

EXANIIIDLES
For example In comparlsonr...
.

Compared to now/this would.


Overthe long term/this totals to...

Arrirs,g riC O/S2450 J g a `:ts ": H y gr Ftt (72 s, ` ` ` ryyg r@" L r b r c sts=S144 g "7"g s r s`g 7 , Jy,= r/OritSar/.A 0 co :

0 0BJECT:ONS

"ls,"

OBJECTION+COIINTER
OBIECTIONS
Some concerlls are.

Acommon obieCtiOn is.


One big concem is.
We need to review sorne issues such as.

COUttRS
However disis not a problem because.

:F T:: l
Although this may look like a concem7.

O ACT10N "Z b` tO tt 2` I tt s r C :"ca


`

All we have to dois... h nextsteP iS


If you are mterested then...

Ifyou say the worC ICan."


Ifwe could get your aPPrOVat then. In waiting for your insu tiOns On how to proceed.
I

Could you let me know how you wish to PrOCeed?

START T PHRASES coni


O COMMUNICATION AIso, if you haoe any questions about the machine, don't hesitate to call me. If you'd like to discuss this, just give me a call.
Also, if you have any questions, dor{t hesitate to call me. Also, if you would like to discuss this proposal in more detail, please contact me any time. If you wish to obtain more information, I would be huppy to provide the necessary data. No doubt you may have some questions, so please contact me any time at ... I would welcome the opportunity to answer your questions. Can you let me know what you think of the this

CLOBUS

recommendation?

I'll
I

check back with you after you have had a chance to review this recommendation. are any further questions you may want to discuss.


~ =

will contact you to see if there

O THANK
Thanks

0
L

for your time and consideratiott

Thanks for your time and consideration.

I appreciate your time and kind consideration.


Thank you for considering this recommendation.
We would be grateful if you would take the time

to consider this. Thanks in advance for considering this. Thanks for taking the time to review this. Thanks for your consideration. Thanks for your time.

O CLOSING
We

O
back

all look forward to hearing

from you

I look forward to hearing back from you. We are looking forward to hearing from you soon. I look forward to hearing your thoughts on my recommendation. I'm looking forward to talking to you about this.
I hope you feel this is worth considering. I look forward to speaking with you about this

on...
Talk to you soon.

LO C 30X
S0
O get

OCLOBUS IE

READER
O is not ready for persuasion

ECA SE

EXAMPLE
Can you beline it?

O interest is
insufficient and/or O subject is unclear and/or

A ENT:ON
BRIEFING

O p vide

A A

The copy machine broke down again Iast week.


You know how important it is that we haue a copy machine which lue can dEend on.

O cooperation
is insufficient

O create

AGREEMENT

is ready fbr

C)interest and

introduce

persuas!on

cooperation
are suttcient:

RECOMMENDAT:ON

With this in mind,

would like to

recommend thepurchnse of anew capy machine, the Zeroz 43XP.

SubieCtiS Clear

C)will measure
plusses

of evaluation

O maxim!ze

process

BENEFITS

Firs

' oosi SOr ` s J:4g.

II S 9 : raSi
sacrg

ill r
`
: .S`6o44

bs br

C)wi

measure

of evaluation

Om:nimize

m:nuses

process

OB ECT:ONS

A frsrgJ 4
J

ils 3245

r72b` rs/yaar @202o r b r srs=s144 S 9 j Iy j 1/S/O ` O :Sar


si r
`

si

H r/7

y z

`s

A4 r
r

c 4s'

Fi tt

is.

``

@ needs

C)reader:s
consider:ng
acting

O explain

direction

ACT10N

yO :: l J b y` 48` j04 : 0 r 4S r
a
,

`.

O needs and or

expects 2-way

C)additional input rnay be

O in te

COMMUN:CAT10N O THANK
o give

communication
O needs and or

necessary
O reader wants
to be treated
respecttu y

expects

Also, ifyouhnae any questions about the machine, don't hesitate to caII me. Thanks fur your time and consideration. We

acknowiedgment

CLOSiNG

all

look

forward to hearing back

fromyou.

COMPARE 7
1.OLD COPIER
To: Gerald Saumon From: Sachie Mishima
Date:

O CLOBUS

2.CONFERENCE TOUR:DEA
To: Leanne Whiftaker From: Yumi Arai
Date:

3.BORED BOARD
YOUR COMPANY LETTERHEAD May

12,20_

Subject: New Copy Machine Recommendation Dear Gerald, O Can you believe it? O The copy machine broke down again last week. O You know

Subject: Company Trip ldea


Dear Leanne,
) I'd like to recommend thatwe change the venue of our company trip to Hong

Dear Board Members, O Opportunites come and go just like many mmpanies in today's business environment. e Accordingly, I would like to introduce one such opportunity: a new office location in Otemachi. O I have outlined the three key features below :
) Space: The proposed office ofiers 20% more space. Although we have grown over
(1

how important it is that we have a copy


machine which we can depend on. ) With this in mind, I would like to recommend the purchase ofa new copy machine, the Zeroz 43XP.

Kong.

@ I've already investigated the

increase in cost. lt comes to JPY 30,000

per person, and staff have all agreed that they would mver this ihemselves.
@ No time would be wasted either, as

O First, it has all the required features: twosided copying, sorting and stapling. This will make our secretaries' jobs a lot easier. Second, ifs fast. We can save two seconds per copy. This may notsound like much, brJt
if

60% in the last ten years, we have not expanded our office space. How many
times have you tripped over the extra files and boxes piled all overthe place? ln short, our office efficiency is decllning.
(2) Location: The office is located just two minutes from the station; we are cunently a

we make 10,000 copies per month we can

save six hours every month. Third, it provides the highest quality copying available.
Our current machine's copy quality has declined as repair costs have climbed. What do our customeG think when we send them low quality copies?
O At first glance its price of USD 2450 may

the week-long lnternational Job Seminar will be held in Hong Kong at that time. We could attend the conference from I to 5 in the day time, and have the evenings to ourselves. This would give us a five-day holiday overseas instead of a two-day weekend in Japan.

ten-minute trek from the nearest station.


Everone can save over an hour every week. In one month we can save 4000 employee hours (1 000 employees @ 4 hours/ month). (3) Prestige: With five Fortune 500 companies in the proposed building, we can only expect to add to our prestige! lt s impressive to have our customers see our name along with these big names on the first floor directory. To enjoy these features, o there would be a JPY 30 million increase in our annual lease expense. Simply put, it's an investment in

O Let me know what you think of the idea. I'd be happy to arrange everything. 6 l'm looking forward to talking
to you about this. Regards, Yumi

look expensive. However, when you consider the time saved (72 hours/year @ USD 2o/hour in labor costs = USD 1440) we can see how quickly it pays for itself. Another consideration is the difiiculty of use. Surprisingly though, with its user-friendly instructions, anyone can leam in just minutes.

lf you would like, I would be happy to arange a free demonstration at your convenience. g Also, ifyou have any questions about the machine, don't hesitate to call me.g Thanks for your time and considera@

ourselves, and one which I am confident would generate a high retum: higher office efficiency, increased employee satisfaction
and morale, improved seNice and customer

satisfac{ion and most importantly, the resulting expansion of revenues!


@ lf you wish to obtain more information on

tion.

O We all look forward to hearing back from you.

Regards,

Sachie

the feasibility of such a move, I would be happy to provide the necessary data. O I appreciate your time and kind consideration. Respecttully,

Tyrone Weaver

O AT ENT10N

O BRIEF:NG

O AGREEMENT RECOMMENDAT10N

ATTENT] N Bnl ]NG L AGnEEMENT

O AENT10N
BREE ]llG AGREEMENT

RECOMMENDAT10N

RECOMMENDAT10N

O BENEFITS O ACT:ON

0 0BJECT10NS

BENEF]TS 0 0BJECT:ONS
O ACT10N
(COMMltlll](DAT]Oll O THAIN

O BENEFITS 00B ECT10NS O ACTION


O COMMUNICAT10N O THANK
O CLOSING

O CLOSING

O THANK

COMMUN](CAT]

lf

CLOSING

START PHRASES

CLOBUS

O ATTENTION
Can youbelieae

0
it?
...

What would you think if

Canyou believe ... Did you know that ... Imagine if we were to ... Are you aware that... Many staff come to me and say; " ..." It is said that
O BRIEFING
The copy machinc broke ilown again last weelc
...

I am writing in regards to ... With regard to ... Regarding... Concerning... As a result of the problems with I have an idea how we can...

...

O AGREEMENT You know how impoftant it is that we haoe a copy machine whichzue c*n depenil on

You know how important it is that


As As As As

...

you can see ... you know ... you can understand

...

I'm sure you're aware

...

With this in minil, I woulil like to reconmend the purchase of a neut copy machine, the Zeroz 43W,
I would like to recommend ... Accordingly,I would like to introduce.., I would like to propose that ... I would like to suggest... We feel it may be a good time to ... We strongly recommend ... We can enjoy a range of benefits if we ... I have come to the conclusion that ... Would it be possible to ...

O RECOMMENDATION

START T PHRASES cont


0

GLOBUS

% ; :: 4...
S C

riCs

bS

s 2

S c

FEAWRE+BENEFIT+EXANIIIpLE FEAWRES
The features are specified below. 1lve listed some of the featues below.
The first featre is.

BENEFITS
With this feature we can.

benefit of

is is.

This means we can.

EXANIIIDLES
For example In comparlsonr...
.

Compared to now/this would.


Overthe long term/this totals to...

Arrirs,g riC O/S2450 J g a `:ts ": H y gr Ftt (72 s, ` ` ` ryyg r@" L r b r c sts=S144 g "7"g s r s`g 7 , Jy,= r/OritSar/.A 0 co :

0 0BJECT:ONS

"ls,"

OBJECTION+COIINTER
OBIECTIONS
Some concerlls are.

Acommon obieCtiOn is.


One big concem is.
We need to review sorne issues such as.

COUttRS
However disis not a problem because.

:F T:: l
Although this may look like a concem7.

O ACT10N "Z b` tO tt 2` I tt s r C :"ca


`

All we have to dois... h nextsteP iS


If you are mterested then...

Ifyou say the worC ICan."


Ifwe could get your aPPrOVat then. In waiting for your insu tiOns On how to proceed.
I

Could you let me know how you wish to PrOCeed?

START T PHRASES coni


O COMMUNICATION AIso, if you haoe any questions about the machine, don't hesitate to call me. If you'd like to discuss this, just give me a call.
Also, if you have any questions, dor{t hesitate to call me. Also, if you would like to discuss this proposal in more detail, please contact me any time. If you wish to obtain more information, I would be huppy to provide the necessary data. No doubt you may have some questions, so please contact me any time at ... I would welcome the opportunity to answer your questions. Can you let me know what you think of the this

CLOBUS

recommendation?

I'll
I

check back with you after you have had a chance to review this recommendation. are any further questions you may want to discuss.


~ =

will contact you to see if there

O THANK
Thanks

0
L

for your time and consideratiott

Thanks for your time and consideration.

I appreciate your time and kind consideration.


Thank you for considering this recommendation.
We would be grateful if you would take the time

to consider this. Thanks in advance for considering this. Thanks for taking the time to review this. Thanks for your consideration. Thanks for your time.

O CLOSING
We

O
back

all look forward to hearing

from you

I look forward to hearing back from you. We are looking forward to hearing from you soon. I look forward to hearing your thoughts on my recommendation. I'm looking forward to talking to you about this.
I hope you feel this is worth considering. I look forward to speaking with you about this

on...
Talk to you soon.

START PHRASES

oCLOB
CONCLUDiNG

Also

ADDING
Moreover

Further
Furthermore In addition
Addi ona y

( )

In conclusion In brief In short To sulrmarize In summary Tosum up

ILLUSTRATING
For example To explain To illustrate In other words This means

( )

EMPHAS:ZING
P Irla

ly

In PartiCular

MoSt/mOre importantly / In fact

Of course

Specifically

Please note that( )

GiVING SEQUENCE Now


Next
Finally

QUALIFYING

Subsequently
F st(ly)

lnthe meanm
Second(ly)
Last(ly)

Eventually Atthe same time

However But

Although

Nevertheless Unfottu lately Fortunately

Ideany

CHANGING D:RECT10N
By the way

Therefore

SPECIFY:NG CONSEQUENCE

Incidentally

On a different

As a result Thus Consequently sO Accordingly For this reason

note

ZD+EIa

:

Anyhow Anyway

COMPAR:NG:SiM:LAR:T:ES
Similarly Likewise In the same way

Actuany Frany

BEING CANDID

In reahty
To be honest

COMPAR:NG:DiFFERENCES
On the other hand

I To tellthe tmth

Conversely In contrast

But Flowever

GENERALiZ:NG
As a rule

As usual Generally h general


usua y

PERSONAL VIEWPOINT
According to her As I see it In my opinion
Personally

PER OD

CLOBUS

PER10D.
1.atthe end of a regular sentence

Bad Example
We received the package

Good Example
We received the

2. after a command

Give the questionnaire to your manager

Give the questionnaire to

yourmanago

3. after an indirect question

He asked if we would be able to attend the party?

He asked if we would be able to attend the

4. after a non-question request

Would you please give your comments?

us

Would you please give us

5.in certain abbreviations

Mr Ms Co inc Corp
F.B.:.C!.A. l.BM. YM.C.A. N.A.S.A.
M..T.:. U.N.:.C.E.F.

MO MO COlnO cOrO
FBI CIA IBM YMCA NASA M!T:UNiCEF

BUT NOT
in abbreviated organizational names

NO PERIOD
l.after a heading or title Section Four: Problems
Section Four: Problems

2. after a sentence ending in a punctuated


abbreviation

The new employee used to work for Bruin, lnc..


: :11111

The new employee used to work for Bruin,

3. after listed numbers enclosed in

parentheses

Please supplythe following: (1.) Account Name (2.) Account Number (3.) Year End Balance

Please supply the following:

(@Account Name

($Account Number
( Year

End Balance

4. after even amounts of dollars

The $50. fee covers


entrance only.

Vers

]hi

5. after a roman numeral that is part of a name

Bruce Hall lll. is the sole owner of that company.

COMMA

GLOBUS

COMMA,
1.before a coordinalng coniunCIOn

Bad Example

Good Example

W :
:
Before we proceed you should try to contact him.

2. after an introductory subordinate clause

r21. :

3. after an introductory element such as a) a transition


== b) an introductory phrase
111 :

Unfortunately we didn't meet our sales targets.


l , 11
11,1

11

1:11


1, 1

==

=====1

=== =

When the meeting is finished there will be a cocKail party.

m
When the meeling is

-1

11

===-11==

::=:==11 i :11

1,,

4. to separate items in a list

All the regional managers

department managers and group managers will


have to submit reports.
14:
:'1111

1]
have to submit reports

:II:::

t:::I: ::411

5. to set off interrupting expressions, including a) contrasting elements

The supervisor not her staff caused the mistake.


e.

b) parenthetical expressions

The material we assure you is original. The CEO Ms. Vaughan will show you around.

1 :Grassuc

c) appositives

d) explanatory expressions, such as [i] degrees and titles

Benjamin Bruce Ph. D. co-wrote the article.

Q
ti

[ii] corporate abbreviations = = [iii]state names


:1 111 :

West Tools lnc. began to diversify last year.


1 1

9"
1,

111 :=

==1,

,1 :

== ==

, 1:

: = =

======= I:pas

11=

Las Vegas Nevada was

chosen as the venue.

:i:Vi

[iv] years in date references


My boss who lives

e) non-restrictive clauses

near

My

lives near me to work.

me drives me to work.

6. to set off words in direct addresses

Mr. Chairman thank you for inviting me today.

i Q

pu

EXCLAM 7fO

PO QtJFSrro

CLOBUS RKF COLO

EXCLAMAT:ON PO:NT!
1.instead of a period atthe end of a sentence to lndicate emphasis or strong emotion
1 ,
1

Bad Example
Our sales team is the best.

Good Example
Our sales team is the

b 1)

=
Wow. Look at the growth
in the demand curve.

2. after an interjection

W@-oor

at the growth

in the demand curve.

QUEST:ON MARK?
1,after a direct question
When will the freshmen begin work.
1 11111 1

When wi the freshmen

begin wol(?)

2. when directly quoting a question

The chairman asked, there any questions."

"Are

The chairman asked, "Are

here any

COLON:
1.after a formalintroductory statement

Dear Ms. Georgiou

Dear Ms.

Georgi@

2.

before a) a list

You must supply the following, name, age, address, and job title.
Your summary should be straight to the point; you don't want to waste your listener's time.

YOu must supply the


listener's time. The mayor are my

:: ]

b) an explanation

Your summary should be straight to the po(lFu don't want to waste your

c) a quotation
: II :

The mayor said "Taxes are my responsibility.'

1 ::11: I : 1 :

1 : : :
Regional Offices, All You Need to Know

3.between a title and a subtitle

1::FIIIRI

(])

You

4. between the hour and minutes of a time reference

6,15 AM

10.47 PM

OAM

OPM

SEMrCO oN APOSTROPHEF Q O47JON MARKS OCLOBUS

SEMiCOLON;
1.when ioining h o closely related sentences

Bad Example
Your job is to write the reports, mine is to review them.

Good Example
Youriob iS tO w te the

Dine

b ew

2. when separating items in complex lists

We have researched three different areas:


Nice, France, Rome, ltaly,

We have researched three different areas:

ttice, Fran@)ome,

rt@

and Barcelona, Spain.

and Barceloi6, Spain.

APOSTROPHE'
1.to indicate possession
Marys son, Janiss boss, the companys policy,

somebodys mistake, the trainees agenda

2. in contractions

ld weve

theyre

3. to form special plurals, for example

a) lower case letters


1.1 1
== =
11 11,

The ts on her handwntten


report were not crossed.

Th

' n

her handwltten

report were not crossed.

b) abbreviations ending

===:

llil , : 11 111 1 === := =: ==== === ===11111 =" == He passed out a lot of with periods l.OU.s.

dm JdJ

QUOTAT:ON MARKS
1.to enclose direct quotations

"

We're all responsible, said


our manager.

@"'r"

att

responsib@

said our manager.

2. to enclose the titles of short works (stories,

The article Success in Business was the cover story in this week's Business magazine.

ln

articles, essays, poems and chapters). Underline or italicize the titles of fulllength works (books, magazines, newspapers, plays, movies and television shows)

the cover story in this week's


Business magazine.

3. to enclose words used in a special sense

The word forward best

sums up the direction the company.

of

rnewor@rw"@"rt

sums up the direction of the company.

*The prefened American style is for periods and commas to go thslde the closing quotation mark (e.9. He said "Let me finish."). ln British English, the period is placed oufsrUe when it punctuates the whole sentence (e.9. He said "Let me finish'.), tnside when it punctuates only the quoted mattrer (e.9. 'l'm still hungry.1. The comma is always placed outslde (e.9. "Let me finish', he said.)

yPE DASH

PARE THESES

GLOBUS

HYPHEN
1.tOiOin MO or more wordsinto a compound

Bad Example
A do l yourself book

Good Example
Ad(x3)urser b00k

2.with fractions and compounds numbers from


21 to 99

'

One nfth

sixty lve

00h Oe
e@oss
a@ncompassing

3. with such prefixes as ex-, all-, self-, and pro-

exboss allencompassing

selfesteem progolf

se@steem pr@olf

4. to divide a word, between syllables, at the end of a line

MStt

ma

[M_We O

DASH
1.to indicate an abrupt break in thought
It

took a lot of hard work

ittook a lot of hard

and a little apple polishing.

d a little apple

2. to break ofi an unfinished statement

Bi

exclairned

What on."

Bi exclaimed

What

3. between an introductory list and the


explanatory sentence that follows

Determination, direction

Determination, direction and

and intelligence, these are


the factors of success.

intelligenc@'u""

are the factors of success.

PARENTHESES()
to enclose statements that are separate from the

main idea ofthe sentence,such as

a)Supplements


9
casual dress on Fridays
11== 111 11,11 lrll 111 , 11111 , 1111 11111 1,1

g
1

II, ", 1"1

b)refer nces

The

casual dress on Fridays. 11111 11111111, 11

ntract enforces a

The contract enforces a

: 1 1 I11 1 11

l :l ::! 4 11 : 1

: l:

1
L


="

8: :l

][

ttd

(3)a rulertO the test

Oruerbhetest.

BRncKETs cAP TALfZATro

O cLOBUS

BRACKETS I]
1.as parentheses within parentheses

Bad Example
They were reported missing (see the Village Gazette, May 3 (p. 3)).

Good Example
They were reported

:
r:II(i :`
unacceptab!e."

3
d

2. around interpolations within a quotation

The CEO said: "(This kind of system) is completely


unacceptable."

3. around editorial comments and corrections

He accused us of being discapable (srd.

:ubeing

CAPITALiZAT10N a A
l.ofthe lrst word of a sentence
the car came to a stop.

@ ""r""r"

to a stop.

2. of the first word of complete sentences within sentences: a) quotations


11 1111 1111 11
=
111 il 1, 1` I= 111 =:

The professor said: 'here are your results."


11,I:
"=
:
1

b) specific questions

rdO
1 ,

The real issue was what were we going to do?


We found a solution: we would do it ourselves.

1:

rp

c) emphasized statements after colons

VVe fbund a

would do it ourselves.

3. of the first and last words of a title or heading as well as all other words (including short verbs such as is or are) except: - articles (a, an, the) - conjunctions (such as and, or, but) - short prepositions (such as in, on, of)

Advertising Strategy For The Small Business


lntroduction To Computer Programming

iness

4. ofspecial nouns such as a) names of specific persons, places and things


1

="=""

1:J 11 111: 111,

=:

b) names of organizations and

institutions


1
.

llil 1lI: 11111 11111 1 1111 11111 1111111 11 1

The national sports association met at the


university of virginia.

CAP 7 rZArfOM cOn

O CLOBUS

CAPITALiZAT10N a

A (cont.)

Bad Example
The museum displayed renaissance art, world war

Good Example

C)hiStOrical periods,events and

documents

ll documents and images


from the magna carta.

ll documents and

fromthOna

d) members of national, political, religious,


racial, social and athletic groups

He was a methodist, a

republican and fan of the giants.

e)dayS Ofthe week,months ofthe year,


and names of holidays

This year, easter sunday fell on the last weekend in march.

his

BUT NO
seasons ofthe year
11
=`:= 111' 11111

lle

We spent the Winter in Monte Carlo,


11111111
:

11111 1 11111 1111 1111


'111

111111111

We spent th{wDter in Monte Carlo,


.1111:11 1:"
:=:=:

:=1111 11111 111 1 1

0 mpaSS
reglon

directions used to referto a

Those in the northeast are often called liberals. Newcastle is North of Sydney.

Those in tn@tneast
are often called liberals.

BUT NOT
compass directions used as directions


There was

: hd

g) words referring to a deity or to religious documents

There was a bible and a booklet with stories on

zeus in my hotel room.

d: WF
,

5. in additional special situations: a) regular nouns when they are part of a name BUT NOT when they otherwise appear b) adjectives that are formed from names

I met Mary on forty-

second street. The Street was crowded. They called the japanese professor machiavellian

)
was crowded.

ThC d

abbreviations of non-capitalized words

cash on delivery--.O.D.

cash on

delivery@

6.oftitles that appear before names

The teacher was professor Miller. Steven Miller, a Professor of physics, gave the class.

BUT NOT
titles that appear after names

lt
of physics,gave the ciass.

7.of I es

of high rank(not necessanlyl used

The president of the United Strates was not available for comment. Our company President took the week ofi.

with a name

BUtt NOT
regular tltles

it
took the week off.

CAP TALrZATfoN.cOnif ABBREyJATrOIVS

ocLOBUS

CAPITALIZATION a--+ A (cont.)


8. of certain terms of kinship when used as a name

Bad Examp:e
l gave dad a watch for his
birthday.

Good Example
ig

birthday.

dattthbrtts
tna@

9. of the pronoun /

He is younger than i.

He is younger

10. of the first word of a complimentary closing

Sincerely Yours yours truly

ABBREV:AT:ONS _TITLES Mister


1.of Misre4 Missus and Docfor when used

Mr.

before names.(Ms.iS always an


abbreviation;Miss is never abbreviated)

Mister Ryan Appleton Missus N. Simpson Doctor Everingham

Fn
Miss Smth

2. of the word Saint (if desired) when used before the name of a Christian saint BUT when part of a personal name, the bearer's usage should be followed

Saint Patrick St. Francis


Genevieve Saint-Juste Andrew St. Baker

3. of Professor, Governor, Coloneland Senafor if desired when used before a full name (i.e. a first name or initialfollowed by a family name) BUT NOT when used only before a family name

Prof. L.S. Leung Gov. Michael Burke Col. P. Thompson Sen. Mary Ryan Prof.Saxby
Professor Saxby

4. ol Reverend and Honorable, only if they appear in addresses or lists. (They must also be used before a full name,)

Rev. Bryant

Reverend Peter Bryant


Rev. Peter Bryant Rev. P. Bryant Rev. Dr. Bryant

Hon. Lun

Honorable Li Lun Hon. Li Lun Hon. L. Lun

*ln

Mr. demonstrates. ln British English American English, all abbreviations are followed with a period (.) as the example Mister a period is not required for abbreviations whose last letter is the same as the last letter of the abbreviated word. The examples

Mister

Mr and Reverend

Rev. should be compared.

BBREyfATrO S.00

O GLOBUS

ABBREVIAT:ONS T:TLES(cont )
5.of Es9uire,J rand Sen rlf desired),

Bad Example

Good Example
L.J. \Mlliams, Esquire L.J. Williams, Esq. Peter Brown, Sr. Nadeem Korin, Jr. Maryann Stillson, Ph. D. Edward Tipton, C.P.A.

when appearing after a name,as we as


academic,professional and religious designations

BUtt NOT
any other title P.L. Phillips, gov.

P.L. Phillips, govemor

ABBREV:AT10NS COMPANY NAMES


l.of lrm names only ifthe company prefers it
C & C Group Spencer and Hawkins

ThiS includes the usage ofthe ampersand(&).


(and Can be see on theirletterhead)

2. of organizations and agencies that are better

UNICEF produces

known by by their initials (if desired)

greeting cards annually.

ABBREVIATIONS-WITH

UMBERS
4,000 Before Christ Vesuvius erupted in anno
Domini 79.

1. always of the designation A.D. (anno Domini,

4,0000.0
e
n

meaning "year of our Lord") which precedes the year, and B.C. ("before Christ") which follows the year

7aS em

2, always of A.M. (ante meidiem, meaning before midday) and P.M. Qtost meridiem, meaning after midday). Note that these abbreviations are used only with figures and never with the term o'clock.

I always start work


p.ra.

at

8:30 a.u. and finish at 6:00

We met at six o'clock n u.

We met at six o'clock.

3.of number and numbers,if desired,when


used before ngures

Order model no. 17. We lost nos. 3 and 47. Number 19393 is the
check that didn't clear.

BUT NOT
atthe beginning of a sentence

4. of monetary signs ($, Y, writing

f,

etc.) if desired, in

We paid Y40,000.

ABBREyrArroNsa coni

CLOBUS

ABBREV:AT:ONS LATIN
ofthe fo

Bad Example

Good Example

owing words and phrases:

: compare,for exampre,and ers,ar7d

so fo art namett Versus

cf, e.g.
et.

compare for example and others and so forth that is namely versus

etc. i.e. viz. vs.

al.

ABBREViAT:ONS M:STAKES
1. Some words should not be abbreviated in

writing, even though they are sometimes seen abbreviated in addresses, lists, etc. a) names of cities, states and countries

The dealwas signed in Edmtn., AB, even though it wouldn't affect Can.
much.

The deal was signed in Edmonton, Alberta, even

though it wouldn't affect Canada much. = We placed the order on Thursday, August 22. We strolled down Fifth Avenue.

:" 1 11 1 :

1 , 1 1

,1 : 1 1 : : ,,====J 11 11 1

''11 b) months of the year and days of the

We placed the order on


Thurs., Aug.22.

week
11: :,

c) parts of place names (such as


and compass

==

: 11 1 =

directions

Street),
=

:l' r 1 i

We strolled down Fifth


Ave.

d) units of measure, @urses of study, and the words page, chapter and volume.

11I::

The problem on p. 17 of the math text describes the car's speed as 20


km/hr.

11

The problem on page 17 of the mathematics text describes the ca/s speed
as 20 kilometers per hour.

==

2. An abbreviation with a period at the end appearing at the end of a sentence does not require a second period; it does,

The time is 3 a.m.. Did you go after 2 p.m?


It is already 9 p.ml

il

however require other punctuation marks.

ABBREV:AT:ONS STANDARD E MA:L


The following acronyms and

emolcons"are

acceptable in inforrnal e mail:

FYI

BIW IMHO LOL


) (

For Your lnformation By the Way

)
:-0

ln My Humble Opinion Laugh Out Loud (happy face) (sad face) (wink) (surprised face)

MBERS NUMBERS SPELLED OUT


l.ifthey can be expressed in one ortwo words

O CLOBUS

Bad Example
50,000 employees $40

Good Example
fifty thousand employees
51 ,087 employees forty dollars

$39.75

2. if they

a) begin a sentence
b) are large round numbers (unless emphasis is desired as in the last

200 people attended.


14 11 :

Two hundred people


attended.
1 Three b lion yen

=== =

11

===== =

Three billion yen.

3b

!lon

c) are used for time expressed as a number alone, or with oblock (Use figures with n.rr,l. or e.rvr.)

7 in the evening
5 o'clock

seven in the evening five o'clock


3 n.u.

three n.u.

NUMBERS WR:TTEN AS FIGURES


l.for addresses
Thirty Summer Street 30 Summer Street,

Amherst, MA, Twentythousand and twelve P.O. Box seventy-two

Amherst,MA,20012
P.0.Box 72
:

I : :1

2. for decimals (which never use commas)

4.29438 0.00038409

3. for dates

January 12,1969

4. for the first number of an expression requiring two numbers

We made a booking for


3 2-night stays.

We made a booking for


three 2-night stays.

NUMBERS SYMBOLS
Some symbols should not be used in formal
writing:

a)the percent symbd(%)

Unemployment dropped
by 2%.
11 11
.

Unemployment dropped by 2 percent.


:"

b)the Cent symbol(

= =

11
)

=== "

== =

lneed to borow 50 Were you able to complete # 12?

I need

=: to borrow 50 cents.
==

c) the number symbol (#)

Were you able to

complete number 12?

TyPrNG

SPACrNG

CLOBUS

ONE SPACE
l.after a comma

Bad Example
The president,Ms. Cohen,was absent.

Good Example
pres:dent, Ms. he

Cohen, was absent.

2. after a colon

You need two things:a pen and a ruler.

You need two things:Da


pen and a ruler.

3. after a semicolon
1: ::

She told me:i toid him.

She told me; :told him.

4. before and after parentheses (within a


sentence

My boss(who has three children)couldn't attend.

My bossD(who has three

children)lcouldn't attend.

5. after a bullet (or other mark used as a bullet)

.bullet
-hyphen

.Dbullet
-Dhyphen

*asterisk l.numeration
(1)numeration

*Easterisk l.Dnumeration
(1)Dnumeration

IWO SPACES
Atthe sentence end
a)after a period ... after the merger.We will then ...
Can we?l don't know.

... after the merger.llWe


will then ... Can

b) after a question mark c) after an exclamation point

we?lil

don't know.

WowlThat's great.

Wow!DlThat's great.

NO SPACE
l.elher before or a

era dash cuSe mo

When we arrived late

hyphens if your keyboard does not have a dash)

little - a lan was speaking. When we anived - a little late - lan was speaking.

:
was speaking. a )

2. either before or after a slash

and / or

3. after a comma within a number

2,000,000

PARACRAPHING
PARAGRAPHING GUIDELINES
1. Do not begin a new line with each sentence that you type. 2. Group related sentences into paragraphs.

O CLOBUS

3. Use double line spacing between paragraphs. 4. Keep paragraphs fairly short (2 - 4 sentences) in business correspondence. 5. Longer paragraphs are acceptable in reports (maximum 6 - 7 sentences). 6. Limit total length of business letters, e-mails, faxes and memos to 24 paragraphs.

Bad Examples
Dear Akiko, Dear Akiko,

Good Example

I have a request regarding the Simpson account financial analysis. I know you are quite busy, but would you be able to
complete it on my behalf? Due to some budget problems I have to stay here in New York until Saturday. You should find everything you need in the file in my bottom left-hand drawer. lf you could complete this for me, I would really owe you one. It must be on the regional manager's desk by Friday 5 p.m. Tokyo time as she intends to study it overthe weekend. Please fax me your confirmation at (212) 55*1212, Room 1563. Contad me here at any time if you have any questions. Thanks very much for your kind assistance. See you next week. Regards,

I have a request regarding the Simpson account financial analysis. I know you are quite busy, but would you be able to complete it on my behalf? Due
to some budget problems
I

have to stay here in New

York until Saturday. You should find everything you need in the file in my bottom left-hand drawer.
lf you could complete this for me, I would really owe you one. lt must be on the regional manage/s desk by Friday 5 p.m. Tokyo time as she intends to study it over the weekend. Please fax me your confirmation at (212) 555-1212, Room 1 563.
Contract me here at any time if you have any questions.

Thanks very much for your kind assistiance. See you next week. Regards,

Pedro Pedro

Dear Akiko,

I have a request regarding the Simpson account financial analysis. I know you are quite busy, but would you be able to complete it on my behalf? Due
to some budget problems I have to stay here in New York until Saturday. You should find everything you need in the file in my boftom left-hand drawer. lf you

could complete this for me, I would really owe you

one. lt must be on the regional manager's desk by


Friday 5 p.m, Tokyo time as she intends to study it over the weekend. Please fax me your confirmation al(2121 555-1212, Room 1563. Contact me here at

any time if you have any questions. Thanks very much foryour kind assistance. See you nextweek.
Regards, Pedro

SBJECttLrNES

GLOBUS

SUBJECT LINES
1. should be short and specific, removing

Bad Example
Re: A Moming Meeting Re: Meeting about

Good Example
Re: Moming Meeting Re: Work Meeting Re: New Project Re: Summer Event

- unnecessary articles - u nnecessary prepositions - unnecessary pronouns - other unnecessary words

Work

Re: Our New Project Re: A Nice Summer

Event

2. should be capitalized (as titles) 3. can be formatted according to category: a) REQUESTS: Topic + Action b) INFORMATION: Short, specific topic
:==-11111:=: c)RE ECT10N:
11,I====
=
:=:11

Re: retirement fund

Re: Retirement Fund

Subject Assistance for


my trip

Subject Trip Assistance


=

111111111 111 111 1lII111:==I :i 111111111 1111, 111=11 111111111,: 1 111111#:11 :=:

11111111111:1

Re: Scheduling the next meeting


11
111

Re: Meeting Schedule


7. :=======::

::===

===

'11=

=:

==:

Request topic(reply using the


requester's subieCtline)

Subject Can you finish


my report?

Subject Re: Report


Request

[ii]Alternative

Subject I can't do your


report

Subject Report to Eva

=Do notusethe word Re iecrior7 in Subiecti JOhnson Report


your subiect ne
i=== :
11

SubieCt Johnson Repon

= d) PROBLEMS: Topic + Warning word (lssue, mafter, concern, problem)

1 : 1 11 == = = == = = =' Subject Smoking Policy Subject: We need to look


at our smoking

ReiecJOn

policy

lssue

e)APOLOGIES:

[i]Topic + Problem warning word liilSolution

Subject Late Delivery

Subject Computer

Re: Broken Computer

Re: Replacement

D G00DWILL: Goodwill Statement(only r


[ii] Possible alternative (if reader's circumstances are [iii] No subject line (if reader's circumstances are very negative)

Subject Your Promotion

Subject Your Lay-off

Subject A Bright Future

Subject Your Mother's


Death

Subject:

g) PERSUASION:Topic + Suggestion word (recom mendation, suggestion,


idea)

Re: We need to buy new

software

some

Re: New Software Recommendation

4. can contain multiple points

Subject Things

Subjecl (1) Meeting Announcement; (2) Report Request

SAL TArfo s

O GLOBUS

SALUTAT10NS
l.capitalize the frst word,a

Bad Example
nouns and titles
dear sir, Dear all Dear staff Dear Sir Or Madam:

Good Example

2. a comma can be used in all salutations; a colon is generally considered more formal

Dear Phil, Mr. Vasquez, Dear Mr, Vazquez:


111: 11:li:

3. once a pattern of informal salutations has been started with someone you know well, it should be permanently continued.

Hey Betty,

Hey Betty,

FOLLOVVED BY
Dear Ms. hompson:

FOLLOWED BY
Bettyi

4. observe the following list of recommended salutations: a) to one person

Mariana, Dear Mariana, Dear Ms. Thompson, Dear Dr. Thompson:

b) to one person (gender unknown)

Dear Vivian McCarthy, Dear Sir: Dear Madam: Dear Sir or Madam:

c) to one person (name unknown, gender known) d) to one person (name, gender unknown)
:1 ,

e) to two or more men (most important

===:

,1


'

:= 11

==:

=,11

====

1 1

Dear Mr. Yu Mr. Lin: and OR Gentlemen: OR Dear Messrs. Yu and Lin:

first)

=====

f) to two or more women (most important first)

==

11 111, 111 :=

11=

1.:

:,1

====

i= 1,1

Dear Ms. Roland and Ms. Peterson, OR Dear Mss. Roland and
Peterson:

= 11: ,

`1 g)

to a woman and a man (most


=

1 111'

111= 11 : 1 , = :==== i===== == ======= =li Dear Ms. Clarke and Mr. important

flrst)
I l 1 1

Davidson:
l 4 : ,I I 1
'

1 11

h) to a group it is easiest to use a suitable

Dear Staff: Dear Members,


1 11

l111: ,:== F77 IFI === =: =

collective noun

i) to (a) completely unknown recipient(s) (* This style is sometimes unavoidable, but remember its risk is that no

IJ171 1

=====

: 11

To Whom lt May Concern: OR

C&CGroup, lT
Department

particular recipient assumes automatic responsibility for receiving the message)

SALEA70N3o2

EN LOSNGS

OC

BUS

SALUTATIONS
5. remember it is quite possible to be both professionaland friendly. lf your relationship with your reader is friendly, your tone should reflect this.

Bad Example
Dear Mr. Gaultier: Enclosed herewith is...

Good Example
Hi Vincent,

Here is.,,

6. avoid informality or excessive politeness in urgent messages

URGENT
Hi immy,

URGENT
Jim,

How's it going in

NY?
.

i need you to ca

Wou:d you mind ca ing

7. clarify internal messages addressed to more than one recipient

DearAll:
Keiko, could you...? Louise, thanks for arranging the room.

COMPL:MENTARY CLOSiNGS
l.capita ze only the lrst word of a
Sincerely Yours,

sincere@:rs,

complimentary closing

3. once a pattern of informal closings has been started with someone you know well, it should be permanently continued.

Best regards,

Best regards,

FOLLOWED BY
Sincerely yours,

FOLLOWED BY
Best regardsi

2. observe the following list of recommended complimentary closings: a) more formal

Respectfully,

Sincerely yours,
(Very) Truly yours,

Cordially
1 1

, 1111 1 1 : 1
"

1 :" , 1 I

b) less formal

"

'

I :

[1 1

111 1 11 11 1 1 1 1

Sincerely,* Regards, Best regards,

Thanks and regards, With best wishes,

*ln formal British English there is a strict rule for complimentary closings: if the recipient's name is known and used, the appropriate closing is Yours slncere/y if the name is unknown (e.9. when the salutration is Dear Si/1, the closing is Yours faithfully. No such rule exists in American English. Faithfullyis not commonly used. Also, in American English, the word yours, if used, traditionally follows the adverb (e.g. Sincerely yoursl where in British English it traditionally precedes it (e.9. Yours sincerelyl.

YO 7-LETTER

O CLOBUS

LAYOUT-LETTER
. Observe the standard block style format of the business letter. Note that there are no
indentations. Only the lefterhead and subject line (if used) are centered.

Letterhead: Your company's name, address


and important information.

Dateline: Date on which the letter is typed.

Confidential Notation: Note indicating that


letter should be read only by recipient. [Usually

unnecessary and therefore omittedl


l-l-l(Mmirc
nu2Flvtinlohifdqol0964llapat
T*(03)55554949 Fq:(03)55555050

Emilm@golm

lnside Address: Name and address of addressee. lf it is a foreign address, the


country is typed in allcapitals.

Salutation: Opening greeting.

Dear Mr. Oakly:


Re: Johnson Reoort

Subject Line: A means of stating what the letter is about. [Often omitted]
Message: The letter

Thank you for your report. You will be pleased to hear that it was well reeived by our snior management They have only small Equesl Would you be able to send us a copy by mail? A couple of pages of our copy (particularly page 12, a copy of whidr is enclosed) are slightly undear due to the fax tEnsmisgion. One we have a gmd @py, we will statt immediate distribution. Thank you for all of your efforts on this prcject. We look foruard to

text.

Paragraphs are

typed single-spaced with no indentations; the


break between paragraphs are double-spaced.

Complimentary Closing: Parting phrase. Signature

Writer's ldentification: Signer's name and


title.

Reference initials: Typist's initials (and


sometimes those of the writer. [Often omitted]

Enclosure Notation: Reminder that the lefter is accompanied by an enclosure. [Often


omittedl

Delivery Notation: lndication that the letter has been sent a specialway. [Often omifted]

Copy Notation: Names of those who will receive copies of this letter. [Often omitted]

LAYO 7-FAX
LAYOUT_FAX

O GLOBUS

. Observe the format of the standard business fax. Note the simplified, less formal layout.

Abbreviated Letterhead: Many companies choose only to print their name at the top of
faxes. Fax Notation: Note indicating that this is a fax.

Recipient's Particulars: Name, address,


telephone and fax numbers of recipient.

Writer's Particulars: Name, address,


NeMon lnc.
Phon central Consu!tancy Phon

:(03)5555 8943
(03)5555 9044

:(03)5555 4949
(03)5555 5050

Fax:

Fax:

telephone and fax numbers of writer, written parallel to recipient's particulars.

Date:

Ap":23,1 _

Pag(s) including this cover

page:

111

Dateline: Date on which the letter is typed.


Page Notation: Note indicating the number of

pages in this transmission.


I have a request regarding the monthly meeting attendane teports. lf possible, @uld you sbd sending ths reports to us by the frflh of every month? We need them in order to mak a complete analysis of th8 way your opgration is being run.
It this wlll

lncomplete Warning: Form note advising recipient to notify in case of incomplete or


illegible message.

for

yur

use arry problere, please dont hsitate to lt 6 knw. Thanks


help

Separator: Line separating form details from


the fax message.

Subject Line: A means of stating what the lefter is about. [Never omitted in faxes]
Salutation: Opening greeting. Message: The letter text. Paragraphs are
typed single-spaced with no indentations; the
break between paragraphs are double-spaced.

Complimentary Closing: Parting phrase. Signature

Writer's ldentification: Signer's name and title. [Often omitted]

LAYO 7-EMArL

GLOBUS

LAYOUT E MAIL
0 0bse e the format ofthe standard business e ma . Although the layoutis simple,informal and
o en va

ed,lis sI:l helpfulto yourreader r you Obse e standard w1ng practices(e.g.

paragraphing,indentalon,etc.).

Message Type Notation: Note indicating the type of e-mail (incoming, outgoing, draft, etc.)

Subject Heading: The subject line will also


appear here as a means of stating what the letter is about. [Can be omitted, but should not be in e-mails, particularly business e-mailsl
Page Notation: Note indicating the number of pages in this e-mail.

Separator: Line separating form particulars


from the fax message.

Sublect:

F ght Bookings

Date: 0815 5:05 PM Received1 08 15 5:22 PM To:'Cynthia',cyn@gol.com

Subject Line: A means of stating what the letter is about. [Same as Subject Heading]
Dateline: Time and date on which the letter is

typed. (Localtime of writer)


You'll be pleased to hear that I have booked my flights. The details are
as

follM:

May 7, 15:50

May12,09:15(dep) l'{YC(JFK)-LON 84008


Can you met me at the airport? Or can you at least send me a limousine? It not, let me know beuse I might be able to amnge one

(ar)

LON - l.lYC

(JFK)

BA007

Date Received: Time and date on which the letter is received. (Local time of recipient)

Writer's Details: User name and e-mail


address of writer.

from this end. I really can't wait to see you in NY. I really think we'll be able io decide on the kind of pmduct we want to send lo markel

Recipient's Details: Write/s e-mail nickname (if any) of recipient, and e-mail address of
recipient.
Elaine Wilson

Cinema Publishing: 'Where one art meets anothef

Salutation: Opening greeting [Often less formal and sometimes omitted in e-mailsl

still be typed single-spaced with

Message: The e-mail text. Paragraphs should

no

indentations; the break between paragraphs should still be double-spaced.

Complimentary Closing: Parting phrase. [Often less formaland sometimes omifted in


e-mailsl

Write/s ldentification: Signe/s name. [Often just the first name, just an initial, or sometimes even omitted in e-mailsl Signature File: Writer's e-mail signature (if
any), which is a form message programmed to

appear on the bottom of all of the writer's emails. [Often omitted]

LAYO TME 0
LAYOUT-MEMO

GLOBUS

. Observe the format of the standard business memo. This is the most simple of all business
documents.

Abbreviated Letterhead: Many companies choose only to print their name at the top of
memos.

Memo Notation: Note indicating that this is a


memo.

Recipient's Particulars: Name (and


department if necessary) of internal recipient.

Writer's Particulars: Name and department


Dale:
July 14,199_

of writer.
Attachment D

Reply immediately

Dateline: Date on which memo is typed.

All staff are requested to have iheh old lD passes electronically validated by Friday, 5 p.m. ln order to do this you must bring your old lD pass to personnel (room 602) to have it put though the machine. This will take about two minutes, lf you do not do lhis you will be unable to access the building from nexl week. lf you have any queslions please call me on exl. 602.

Subject Line: A means of stating what the memo is about. [Never omitted in memos]
Check Line: Some company memos have a form check line to expedite writing time. Separator: Line separating form particulars
from the fax message.

Salutation: Opening greeting. [Often omitted


in memos]
Message: The memo text. Paragraphs should

still be typed single-spaced with


should still be double-spaced.

no

indentations; the break between paragraphs

Complimentary Closing: Parting phrase.


[Often less formal or omitted in memos]

Signature Writer's ldentification: Signe/s name. [Often


omiftedl

LAYO 7-LfNE SPACrNG


LAYOUT-LINE SPACING

O CLOBUS

. Observe the standard line spacing guidelines below. Each box on the left indicates a single line
spacing

C.entaConsultancy

13q

t-1-ltXtt&miaqana2FlfnaolorTokpl0*@1U+ar Tel(O3i55554949 Fut03)55555050 Emitw@goton

q
June 6, 199_

6q
Mr. David Oakly Senior Execulive Jopson CorpoEtion 12 S@tt Street Toowong Q 4068 AUSTRALIA

Dear Mr. Oakly: Re: Johnson Report


Thank you for your report You will be pleased to hear that it was well reeived by our senior management. They have only small request. Would you be able lo send us a @py by mail? A 6uple of pages of our copy (partialarly page 12, a opyof which is enclosed) ae slightly uncleardue to thefaxtBnsmission. Onc we have a good copy, we will siart immediate distribution. Thank you tor all of your efforts on this

prcjecl we

look foMard lo continued

business with you.

Sinerely,

t\

-Y. Ta*aha'*hi,
Yumiko Takahashi

DiEctor
jdn onc. by Express Mail cc: Miss Sumie Hayashi