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Bad Example

We received the package

Good Example
We received the

2. after a command

Give the questionnaire to your manager

Give the questionnaire to yourmanago

3. after an indirect question

He asked if we would be able to attend the party?

He asked if we would be able to attend the

4. after a non-question request

Would you please give your comments?

us

Would you please give us

5.in certain abbreviations BUT NOT in abbreviated organizational names

Mr Ms Co inc Corp F.B.:.C!.A. l.BM. YM.C.A. N.A.S.A. M.|.T.:. U.N.:.C.E.F.

MO MO COlnO cOrO FBI CIA IBM YMCA NASA M!T:UNiCEF

NO PERIOD

l.after a heading or title

Section Four: Problems

Section Four: Problems

2. after a sentence ending in a punctuated


abbreviation

The new employee used to work for Bruin, lnc..

The new employee used to work for Bruin, : :11111

3. after listed numbers enclosed in

parentheses

Please supplythe following: (1.) Account Name (2.) Account Number (3.) Year End Balance

Please supply the following:

(@Account Name

($Account Number
( Year End Balance

4. after even amounts of dollars

The $50. fee covers


entrance only. ]hiu

Vers

5. after a roman numeral that is part of a name

Bruce Hall lll. is the sole owner of that company.

F@

COMMA, 1.before a coordinalng coniunCIOn

Bad Example

Good Example

Wx

:x

2. after an introductory subordinate clause

Before we proceed you should try to contact him. :Y r21.

3. after an introductory element such as a) a transition


t 111K |:|\ 11] 1:11 |c E E ==c

Unfortunately we didn't meet our sales targets. r : lV ] ,11 w 11,1 1 , 1 11] E E == E =====1 = === ===-11== -1 When the meeting is When the meeling is finished there will be a V x

b) an introductory phrase

cocKail party.
i b ::=:==11L :11 a

m 1,,

4. to separate items in a list

All the regional managers

department managers and group managers will


have to submit reports. 14: :|'1111 :|||||II:::

a N 1] have to submit reports _ t:::I:L ::411 g

5. to set off interrupting expressions, including a) contrasting elements

The supervisor not her staff caused the mistake. P e.

b) parenthetical expressions

The material we assure you is original. The CEO Ms. Vaughan will show you around.

1d

y :Grassuc

c) appositives

d) explanatory expressions, such as [i] degrees and titles

Benjamin Bruce Ph. D. co-wrote the article. V ti QE

[ii] corporate abbreviations

West Tools lnc. began to

C 9" 1, 11= =======|R I:pas

diversify last year. l :1] 11] 1 :` 111 := 1 1I O ,1 :| , 1: | : ] = = == == = = = ==1, Las Vegas Nevada was [iii]state names

chosen as the venue.

:i:ViC

[iv] years in date references F


lives near me to work.

e) non-restrictive clauses

My boss who lives

near

My

me drives me to work.

6. to set off words in direct addresses

Mr. Chairman thank you for inviting me today.

iF Qa w

pu

Bad Example
Our sales team is the best. , 1 1 =

Good Example

Our sales team is the bq 1)

2. after an interjection

Wow. Look at the growth


in the demand curve.

W@-oor

at the growth

in the demand curve.

QUEST:ON MARK?

1,after a direct question


1 111111a

When will the freshmen begin work.

When wia the freshmen begin wol(?)

2. when directly quoting a question

The chairman asked, there any questions."

"Are

The chairman asked, "Are


here anyb B

COLON:

1.after a formalintroductory statement

Dear Ms. Georgiou

Dear Ms.

Georgi@

C 2. before
a) a list
You must supply the following, name, age, address, and job title.
Your summary should be straight to the point; you don't want to waste your listener's time. YOu must supply the ::e ] m

b) an explanation

Your summary should be straight to the po(lFu don't want to waste your listener's time. The mayor are my I

c) a quotation
: :V a IIG : 1 : :11e:Ia 1 : 3.between a title and a subtitle

The mayor said "Taxes are my responsibility.'

: f Ca x : N 1:p M
Regional Offices, All You Need to Know 1::FIIIRIw (])a You

4. between the hour and minutes of a time reference

6,15 AM

10.47 PM

OAM

OPM

Bad Example
Your job is to write the reports, mine is to review them.

Good Example

Youriob iS tO wa te the Dine b ew ]

2. when separating items in complex lists

We have researched three different areas:


Nice, France, Rome, ltaly,

We have researched three different areas:

ttice, Fran@)ome,

rt@

and Barcelona, Spain.

and Barceloi6, Spain.

APOSTROPHE'

1.to indicate possession

Marys son, Janiss boss, the companys policy,

somebodys mistake, the trainees agenda

2. in contractions

ld weve

theyre

3. to form special plurals, for example

'@ The ts on her handwntten Thy n her handwltten q report were not crossed. report were not crossed. ,:t 11 |111R |=== llil 1 |:= ] ] 1 1.1E 11L a 11, \ E =|: ====L == = =11111 = =" == = ===: === He passed out a lot of dm JdJ b) abbreviations ending with periods l.OU.s.

a) lower case letters

QUOTAT:ON MARKSg

"

1.to enclose direct quotationsE

We're all responsible, said


our manager.

@"'r"

att

responsib@

said our manager.

2. to enclose the titles of short works (stories,

The article Success in Business was the cover story in this week's Business magazine.

ln

articles, essays, poems and chapters). Underline or italicize the titles of fulllength works (books, magazines, newspapers, plays, movies and television shows)

the cover story in this week's


Business magazine.

3. to enclose words used in a special sense

The word forward best

rnewor@rw"@"rt

sums up the direction the company.

of

sums up the direction of the company.

*The prefened American style is for periods and commas to go thslde the closing quotation mark (e.9. He said "Let me finish."). ln British English, the period is placed oufsrUe when it punctuates the whole sentence (e.9. He said "Let me finish'.), tnside when it punctuates only the quoted mattrer (e.9. 'l'm still hungry.1. The comma is always placed outslde (e.9. "Let me finish', he said.)

3. with such prefixes as ex-, all-, self-, and pro-

exboss allencompassing

e@oss
a@ncompassing

selfesteem progolf

se@steem pr@olf

4. to divide a word, between syllables, at the end of a line

ma MStt_ [M_We_

DASH

1.to indicate an abrupt break in thought

It

took a lot of hard work

and a little apple polishing. 1Q

ittook a lot of hard d a little apple y

2. to break ofi an unfinished statement

What Bia xclairnedg on." e

Biaexclaimedg What

3. between an introductory list and the


explanatory sentence that follows

Determination, direction

Determination, direction and

and intelligence, these are


the factors of success.

intelligenc@'u""

are the factors of success.

PARENTHESES()

to enclose statements that are separate from the main idea ofthe sentence,such as a)Supplements
gX } 9X casual dress on Fridays casual dress on Fridays. 11111 111a 11111 , aa ,|1111 1,1a , 11 a a 11111 11111111, 1 ] =a ntract enforces a The contract enforces a h :X l l:a :l ::! D 1 a ] ] a a 4 : 1] 11 ] 1 ] =" E C L ][w ttd

II,

|", 1"1 nces

b)referv

a 11== 11,11 |lrll] 111 =a The

a :P m a 1 I11 11 1] a d 1 8:[ d : lX

|] 1a

V (3)a rulertO the test

Oruerbhetest.

Bad Example
They were reported missing (see the Village Gazette, May 3 (p. 3)).

Good Example
They were reported :

2. around interpolations within a quotation

The CEO said: "(This kind of system) is completely


unacceptable."

d r:II(ik u :`V t x unacceptab!e."

3. around editorial comments and corrections

He accused us of being discapable (srd.

a:ubeing

CAPITALiZAT10N a

l.ofthe lrst word of a sentence

the car came to a stop.

@ ""r""r"

to a stop.

2. of the first word of complete sentences within sentences: a) quotations

d z rdO 11 1111 N R 11 1111a111 il1,1` I=R111 11,I: b : 1F 1Y , m | = =:a "=E = = g = The real issue was what b) specific questions \ were we going to do? 1: rp

The professor said: 'here are your results."

c) emphasized statements after colons

We found a solution: we would do it ourselves.

VVe fbund a

would do it ourselves.

3. of the first and last words of a title or heading as well as all other words (including short verbs such as is or are) except: - articles (a, an, the) - conjunctions (such as and, or, but) - short prepositions (such as in, on, of)

Advertising Strategy For The Small Business


lntroduction To Computer Programming

iness Rr

4. ofspecial nouns such as a) names of specific persons, places and things N

1 N T

E e . N 1:Ja1 a111: a D1111 1111111lil | lI:1111111111 1 111,a 1 R P R aP1a 1 11111 11 l 1 =: ="=""a b) names of organizations and institutions The national sports
association met at the university of virginia.

Bad Example
The museum displayed renaissance art, world war

Good Example

ll documents and images


from the magna carta.

ll documents and
fromthOna

d) members of national, political, religious,


racial, social and athletic groups

He was a methodist, a

republican and fan of the giants.

e)dayS Ofthe week,months ofthe year, and names of holidays BUT NO seasons ofthe year

This year, easter sunday fell on the last weekend in march. We spent the Winter in

his lle

We spent th{wDter in

Monte Carlo, Monte Carlo, R1a a 11111 1111 1111 |:n 111111111a.1111:11R:=:=:R 11111 1111R 1 1 111' |11111 11111 J 1a 11111111 | a 1:"g := 1 111 =`:=L '111 g Those in the northeast are Those in tn@tneast 0 mpaSS directions used to referto a reglon BUT NOT compass directions used as directions Newcastle is North of Sydney. F :B g hd often called liberals. are often called liberals.

g) words referring to a deity or to religious documents

There was a bible and a booklet with stories on

There was

zeus in my hotel room.

d:

WF

5. in additional special situations: a) regular nouns when they are part of a name BUT NOT when they otherwise appear b) adjectives that are formed from names

I met Mary on forty-

second street. The Street was crowded. They called the japanese professor machiavellian

[V ThC

d was crowded.

abbreviations of non-capitalized words

cash on delivery--.O.D.

cash on

delivery@

6.oftitles that appear before names BUT NOT titles that appear after names

The teacher was professor Miller. Steven Miller, a Professor of physics, gave the class. a lt of physics,gave the ciass.

7.of Ia

es of high rank(not necessanlyl used BUtt NOT

The president of the United Strates was not available for comment. Our company President took the week ofi.

with a name regular tltles

a r

w it

W took the week off.

CAPITALIZATION a--+ A (cont.)


8. of certain terms of kinship when used as a name

Bad Examp:e

Good Example

l gave dad a watch for his igW dattthbrtts @ birthday. birthday.

9. of the pronoun /

He is younger than i.

He is younger

tna@

10. of the first word of a complimentary closing

Sincerely Yours yours truly

ABBREV:AT:ONSb

_TITLES Mister c

Mr.

1.of Misre4 Missus and Docfor when used before names.(Ms.iS always an abbreviation;Miss is never abbreviated)

Mister Ryan Appleton Missus N. Simpson Doctor Everingham

Fn r Miss Smth

2. of the word Saint (if desired) when used before the name of a Christian saint BUT when part of a personal name, the bearer's usage should be followed

Saint Patrick St. Francis


Genevieve Saint-Juste Andrew St. Baker

3. of Professor, Governor, Coloneland Senafor if desired when used before a full name (i.e. a first name or initialfollowed by a family name) BUT NOT when used only before a family name

Prof. L.S. Leung Gov. Michael Burke Col. P. Thompson Sen. Mary Ryan

Prof.Saxby

Professor Saxby

4. ol Reverend and Honorable, only if they appear in addresses or lists. (They must also be used before a full name,)

Rev. Bryant

Reverend Peter Bryant


Rev. Peter Bryant Rev. P. Bryant Rev. Dr. Bryant

Hon. Lun

Honorable Li Lun Hon. Li Lun Hon. L. Lun

*ln

Mr. demonstrates. ln British English American English, all abbreviations are followed with a period (.) as the example Mister a period is not required for abbreviations whose last letter is the same as the last letter of the abbreviated word. The examples

Mister

Mr and Reverend

Rev. should be compared.

Bad Example

Good Example
L.J. \Mlliams, Esquire L.J. Williams, Esq. Peter Brown, Sr. Nadeem Korin, Jr. Maryann Stillson, Ph. D. Edward Tipton, C.P.A.

P.L. Phillips, gov.

P.L. Phillips, govemor

C & C Group Spencer and Hawkins

2. of organizations and agencies that are better

UNICEF produces

known by by their initials (if desired)

greeting cards annually.

ABBREVIATIONS-WITH

UMBERS
4,000 Before Christ Vesuvius erupted in anno
Domini 79. @ 7aS em

1. always of the designation A.D. (anno Domini,

4,0000.0 eg n

meaning "year of our Lord") which precedes the year, and B.C. ("before Christ") which follows the year

2, always of A.M. (ante meidiem, meaning before midday) and P.M. Qtost meridiem, meaning after midday). Note that these abbreviations are used only with figures and never with the term o'clock.

I always start work

at

8:30 a.u. and finish at 6:00


p.ra.

We met at six o'clock n u.

We met at six o'clock.

3.of number and numbers,if desired,when used before ngures BUT NOT atthe beginning of a sentence

Order model no. 17. We lost nos. 3 and 47. Number 19393 is the
check that didn't clear.

4. of monetary signs ($, Y, writing

f,

etc.) if desired, in

We paid Y40,000.

Bad Example

Good Example

cf, e.g.
et.

compare for example and others and so forth that is namely versus

etc. i.e. viz. vs.

al.

M:STAKES ABBREViAT:ONS
1. Some words should not be abbreviated in

writing, even though they are sometimes seen abbreviated in addresses, lists, etc. a) names of cities, states and countries

The dealwas signed in Edmtn., AB, even though it wouldn't affect Can.

The deal was signed in Edmonton, Alberta, even

much. a1 1 aJ1 h a a ~ : 1a R1 V a a a ,1 | 1a D :H :,,====Ja a a 1 1~ :" t1 1N a a 1I a a 1 :t 1 1 |, = ''11R We placed the order on We placed the order on b) months of the year and days of the

though it wouldn't affect Canada much.

week
:, 11:x ~F =x =

Thurs., Aug.22.

Thursday, August 22.

c) parts of place
and compass

directions

aR rR1Y h ia R a 1 x kc j h 11Ig :K 'w A : a l E u = E c We strolled down Fifth We strolled down Fifth names (such as

Street),

Ave.

Avenue.

\d)

\d J 11 a@ M H 11I:: a:R T I a I atE q P D W = = = = = c The problem on page 17 The problem on p. 17 of units of measure, @urses of study,

the words page, chapter and

and volume.

the math text describes the car's speed as 20


km/hr.

of the mathematics text

describes the ca/s speed as 20 kilometers per hour.

2. An abbreviation with a period at the end appearing at the end of a sentence does not require a second period; it does,

The time is 3 a.m.. Did you go after 2 p.m?


It is already 9 p.ml

il n

however require other punctuation marks.

ABBREV:AT:ONS

STANDARD EE MA:L

The following acronyms andg emolcons"are acceptable in inforrnal e] mail: FYI For Your lnformation BIW By the Way IMHO ln My Humble Opinion LOL Laugh Out Loud (happy face) ) m (sad face) ( m (wink) ) (surprised face) :-0

Bad Example
50,000 employees $40

Good Example
fifty thousand employees
51 ,087 employees forty dollars

$39.75

2. if they

a) begin a sentence
E G 11 ===~= \

200 people attended. 14 a 11 :\ =g ====== = = Three billion yen.

Two hundred people attended. 1 Three balion yen \3ba !lon

b) are large round numbers (unless emphasis is desired as in the last

c) are used for time expressed as a number alone, or with oblock (Use figures with n.rr,l. or e.rvr.)

7 in the evening
5 o'clock

seven in the evening five o'clock


3 n.u.

three n.u.

NUMBERS\

WR:TTEN AS FIGURES

l.for addresses

Thirty Summer Street

30 Summer Street, Amherst,MA,20012 P.0.Box 72 : a1t b

Amherst, MA, Twentythousand and twelve P.O. Box seventy-two G | | ` W

a I k : R t :1

2. for decimals (which never use commas)

4.29438 0.00038409

3. for dates

January 12,1969

4. for the first number of an expression requiring two numbers

We made a booking for


3 2-night stays.

We made a booking for


three 2-night stays.

NUMBERS\

SYMBOLS

Some symbols should not be used in formal writing: a)the percent symbd(%)

Unemployment dropped

Unemployment dropped by 2 percent. :"M J R t ~ = =a =: I need to borrow 50 cents. Were you able to

by 2%. @ a 11g1R 1 a I ~ t :m 11 a = =n = "u = == = = = \ g lneed to borow 50 . b)the Cent symbol( )

c) the number symbol (#)

Were you able to complete # 12?

complete number 12?

Bad Example
The president,Ms. Cohen,was absent.

Good Example

he pres:dent, Ms. Cohen, was absent.

2. after a colon

You need two things:a pen and a ruler.

You need two things:Da


pen and a ruler.

3. after a semicolon 1:::

She told me:i toid him.

She told me; :told him.

4. before and after parentheses (within a


sentence

My boss(who has three children)couldn't attend.

My bossD(who has three

children)lcouldn't attend.

5. after a bullet (or other mark used as a bullet)

.bullet
-hyphen

.Dbullet
-Dhyphen

*asterisk l.numeration
(1)numeration

*Easterisk l.Dnumeration
(1)Dnumeration

IWO SPACES

Atthe sentence end a)after a period

... after the merger.We will then ...


Can we?l don't know.

... after the merger.llWe


will then ... Can

b) after a question mark c) after an exclamation point

we?lil

don't know.

WowlThat's great.

Wow!DlThat's great.

NO SPACE

l.elher before or a era dash cuSe mo hyphens if your keyboard does not have a dash)

When we arrived late

little - a lan was speaking. When we anived - a little late - lan was speaking.

:N

was speaking.

2. either before or after a slash

and / or

aC )

3. after a comma within a number

2,000,000

PARAGRAPHING GUIDELINES
1. Do not begin a new line with each sentence that you type. 2. Group related sentences into paragraphs.

3. Use double line spacing between paragraphs. 4. Keep paragraphs fairly short (2 - 4 sentences) in business correspondence. 5. Longer paragraphs are acceptable in reports (maximum 6 - 7 sentences). 6. Limit total length of business letters, e-mails, faxes and memos to 24 paragraphs.

Bad Examples
Dear Akiko, Dear Akiko,

Good Example

I have a request regarding the Simpson account financial analysis. I know you are quite busy, but would you be able to
complete it on my behalf? Due to some budget problems I have to stay here in New York until Saturday. You should find everything you need in the file in my bottom left-hand drawer. lf you could complete this for me, I would really owe you one. It must be on the regional manager's desk by Friday 5 p.m. Tokyo time as she intends to study it overthe weekend. Please fax me your confirmation at (212) 55*1212, Room 1563. Contad me here at any time if you have any questions. Thanks very much for your kind assistance. See you next week. Regards,

I have a request regarding the Simpson account financial analysis. I know you are quite busy, but would you be able to complete it on my behalf? Due
to some budget problems
I

have to stay here in New

York until Saturday. You should find everything you need in the file in my bottom left-hand drawer.
lf you could complete this for me, I would really owe you one. lt must be on the regional manage/s desk by Friday 5 p.m. Tokyo time as she intends to study it over the weekend. Please fax me your confirmation at (212) 555-1212, Room 1 563.
Contract me here at any time if you have any questions.

Thanks very much for your kind assistiance. See you next week. Regards,

Pedro Pedro

Dear Akiko,

I have a request regarding the Simpson account financial analysis. I know you are quite busy, but would you be able to complete it on my behalf? Due
to some budget problems I have to stay here in New York until Saturday. You should find everything you need in the file in my boftom left-hand drawer. lf you

could complete this for me, I would really owe you

one. lt must be on the regional manager's desk by


Friday 5 p.m, Tokyo time as she intends to study it over the weekend. Please fax me your confirmation al(2121 555-1212, Room 1563. Contact me here at

any time if you have any questions. Thanks very much foryour kind assistance. See you nextweek.
Regards, Pedro

SUBJECT LINES
1. should be short and specific, removing

Bad Example
Re: A Moming Meeting Re: Meeting about

Good Example
Re: Moming Meeting Re: Work Meeting Re: New Project Re: Summer Event

- unnecessary articles - u nnecessary prepositions - unnecessary pronouns - other unnecessary words

Work

Re: Our New Project Re: A Nice Summer

Event

2. should be capitalized (as titles) 3. can be formatted according to category: a) REQUESTS: Topic + Action

Re: retirement fund

Re: Retirement Fund

Subject Assistance for


my trip

Subject Trip Assistance

iR |M 1 L 1111111111111111111:1 11111 R |1lII111:==I 1 :=: 1111,| 11=11R 1 111111111,:R :i111111111 111111#:11 | 1 =M Re: Scheduling the next Re: Meeting Schedule b) INFORMATION: Short, specific topic
:==-11111:=:c c)REv ECT10N: Request topic(reply using the a requester's subieCtline) ::===c 11,I==== :=:11 = meeting 111 |'|11=\ 11E E E === 7.]:=======:|: |==:\ =|:

Subject Can you finish


my report?

Subject Re: Report


Request

[ii]Alternative
=Do notusethe word Rev your subiecta ne

Subject I can't do your


report

Subject Report to Eva

iecrior7 in Subiecti JOhnson Report SubieCt Johnson Repon ReiecJOn

V :E O ] 1O |1c i===v | : |g ~ 11 1 R1 E ==| = == = =E E E = =' = Subject Smoking Policy Subject: We need to d) PROBLEMS: Topic + Warning word lssue (lssue, mafter, concern, problem) at our smoking

look policy

e)APOLOGIES:

[i]Topic + Problem warning word liilSolution

Subject Late Delivery

Subject Computer

Re: Broken Computer

Re: Replacement

D G00DWILL: a Goodwill Statement(only r

Subject Your Promotion

[ii] Possible alternative (if reader's circumstances are [iii] No subject line (if reader's circumstances are very negative)

Subject Your Lay-off

Subject A Bright Future

Subject Your Mother's


Death

Subject:

g) PERSUASION:Topic + Suggestion word (recom mendation, suggestion,


idea)

Re: We need to buy new

software

some

Re: New Software Recommendation

4. can contain multiple points

Subject Things

Subjecl (1) Meeting Announcement; (2) Report Request

Bad Example
dear sir, Dear all Dear staff Dear Sir Or Madam:

Good Example

2. a comma can be used in all salutations; a colon is generally considered more formal

Dear Phil, Mr. Vasquez, Dear Mr, Vazquez: 111:a 11:li:

3. once a pattern of informal salutations has been started with someone you know well, it should be permanently continued.

Hey Betty, FOLLOVVED BY hompson: Dear Ms.

Hey Betty, FOLLOWED BY Bettyi

4. observe the following list of recommended salutations: a) to one person

Mariana, Dear Mariana, Dear Ms. Thompson, Dear Dr. Thompson:

b) to one person (gender unknown)

Dear Vivian McCarthy, Dear Sir: Dear Madam: Dear Sir or Madam: 1a 1 == == Dear Mr. Yu \ and Mr. Lin: OR Gentlemen: OR Dear Messrs. Yu and Lin: :,1E i= 1,1 ==== E E Dear Ms. Roland and Ms. Peterson, OR Dear Mss. Roland and Peterson:

c) to one person (name unknown, gender known) d) to one person (name, gender unknown)
:1x ,

e) to two or more men (most important

:=11 ] ,1zx V c Q |L I ===: = '

==:

|=,11

first)

11 111, 11 L 1 :=a 11=c R a| c == =====v

f) to two or more women (most important first)

1.:] c

R |=R 11: , `1N


flrst)

g) to a woman and a man (most

] ] 1 111' =w c

i===== |111=| 11 V 1E ||=g [ : ,E :==== == E ======= =liV Dear Ms. Clarke and Mr. important
I 1x 1 aa11 `

Davidson:

,I IVl | 1 1 V aaaa:a ||a R aQ lV 4 D a c = 'a

h) to a group it is easiest to use a suitable

Dear Staff:

Dear Members, collective noun 11 |IJ1711 |: V l111: ,:==P ] 111 | I O a a R 77JO IFI F =:~ ===== === = =t u To Whom lt May Concern: i) to (a) completely unknown recipient(s) OR (* This style is sometimes unavoidable, C&CGroup, lT but remember its risk is that no Department particular recipient assumes automatic responsibility for receiving the message)

SALUTATIONS
5. remember it is quite possible to be both professionaland friendly. lf your relationship with your reader is friendly, your tone should reflect this.

Bad Example
Dear Mr. Gaultier: Enclosed herewith is...

Good Example
Hi Vincent,

Here is.,,

6. avoid informality or excessive politeness in urgent messages

URGENT URGENT Hiv immy, Jim, How's it going NY? in i need you to caa .N Wou:d you mind caa. ingc

7. clarify internal messages addressed to more than one recipient

DearAll:
Keiko, could you...? Louise, thanks for arranging the room.

COMPL:MENTARY CLOSiNGS

l.capitaaze only the lrst word of a complimentary closing

Sincerely Yours,

sincere@:rs,

3. once a pattern of informal closings has been started with someone you know well, it should be permanently continued.

Best regards, FOLLOWED BY Sincerely yours,

Best regards, FOLLOWED BY Best regardsi

2. observe the following list of recommended complimentary closings: a) more formal

Respectfully,

Sincerely yours,
(Very) Truly yours,

Cordially 1 11 1 11 11 |1| 1 11 1 : a : , IN 11a\ da , aa1111 11g 1 1"O 1 a e a Ia:a [1aR t 'a = g "a "N

b) less formal

Sincerely,* Regards,

Best regards,

Thanks and regards, With best wishes,

*ln formal British English there is a strict rule for complimentary closings: if the recipient's name is known and used, the appropriate closing is Yours slncere/y if the name is unknown (e.9. when the salutration is Dear Si/1, the closing is Yours faithfully. No such rule exists in American English. Faithfullyis not commonly used. Also, in American English, the word yours, if used, traditionally follows the adverb (e.g. Sincerely yoursl where in British English it traditionally precedes it (e.9. Yours sincerelyl.

LAYOUT-LETTER
. Observe the standard block style format of the business letter. Note that there are no
indentations. Only the lefterhead and subject line (if used) are centered.

Letterhead: Your company's name, address


and important information.

Dateline: Date on which the letter is typed.

Confidential Notation: Note indicating that


letter should be read only by recipient. [Usually

unnecessary and therefore omittedl


l-l-l(Mmirc
nu2Flvtinlohifdqol0964llapat
T*(03)55554949 Fq:(03)55555050

Emilm@golm

lnside Address: Name and address of addressee. lf it is a foreign address, the


country is typed in allcapitals.

Salutation: Opening greeting.

Dear Mr. Oakly:


Re: Johnson Reoort

Subject Line: A means of stating what the letter is about. [Often omitted]
Message: The letter

Thank you for your report. You will be pleased to hear that it was well reeived by our snior management They have only small Equesl Would you be able to send us a copy by mail? A couple of pages of our copy (particularly page 12, a copy of whidr is enclosed) are slightly undear due to the fax tEnsmisgion. One we have a gmd @py, we will statt immediate distribution. Thank you for all of your efforts on this prcject. We look foruard to

text.

Paragraphs are

typed single-spaced with no indentations; the


break between paragraphs are double-spaced.

Complimentary Closing: Parting phrase. Signature

Writer's ldentification: Signer's name and


title.

Reference initials: Typist's initials (and


sometimes those of the writer. [Often omitted]

Enclosure Notation: Reminder that the lefter is accompanied by an enclosure. [Often


omittedl

Delivery Notation: lndication that the letter has been sent a specialway. [Often omifted]

Copy Notation: Names of those who will receive copies of this letter. [Often omitted]

LAYOUT_FAX
. Observe the format of the standard business fax. Note the simplified, less formal layout.

Abbreviated Letterhead: Many companies choose only to print their name at the top of
faxes. Fax Notation: Note indicating that this is a fax.

Recipient's Particulars: Name, address,


telephone and fax numbers of recipient.

Writer's Particulars: Name, address,


NeMon lnc. Phon :(03)5555E 8943 Fax: (03)5555E 9044 central Consu!tancy 4949 Phon :(03)5555] 5050 Fax: (03)5555]

telephone and fax numbers of writer, written parallel to recipient's particulars.

Date: Ap":23,1~ _ Pag(s) including this cover page:

111

Dateline: Date on which the letter is typed.


Page Notation: Note indicating the number of

pages in this transmission.


I have a request regarding the monthly meeting attendane teports. lf possible, @uld you sbd sending ths reports to us by the frflh of every month? We need them in order to mak a complete analysis of th8 way your opgration is being run.
It this wlll

lncomplete Warning: Form note advising recipient to notify in case of incomplete or


illegible message.

for

yur

use arry problere, please dont hsitate to lt 6 knw. Thanks


help

Separator: Line separating form details from


the fax message.

Subject Line: A means of stating what the lefter is about. [Never omitted in faxes]
Salutation: Opening greeting. Message: The letter text. Paragraphs are
typed single-spaced with no indentations; the
break between paragraphs are double-spaced.

Complimentary Closing: Parting phrase. Signature

Writer's ldentification: Signer's name and title. [Often omitted]

Message Type Notation: Note indicating the type of e-mail (incoming, outgoing, draft, etc.)

Subject Heading: The subject line will also


appear here as a means of stating what the letter is about. [Can be omitted, but should not be in e-mails, particularly business e-mailsl
Page Notation: Note indicating the number of pages in this e-mail.

Separator: Line separating form particulars


from the fax message.

Sublect: ght Bookings Fa Date: 0815 5:05 PM Received1 08 15 5:22 PM


To:'Cynthia',cyn@gol.com

Subject Line: A means of stating what the letter is about. [Same as Subject Heading]
Dateline: Time and date on which the letter is

typed. (Localtime of writer)


You'll be pleased to hear that I have booked my flights. The details are
as

follM:
May 7, 15:50

(ar)

LON - l.lYC

(JFK)

BA007

May12,09:15(dep) l'{YC(JFK)-LON 84008


Can you met me at the airport? Or can you at least send me a limousine? It not, let me know beuse I might be able to amnge one

Date Received: Time and date on which the letter is received. (Local time of recipient)

Writer's Details: User name and e-mail


address of writer.

from this end. I really can't wait to see you in NY. I really think we'll be able io decide on the kind of pmduct we want to send lo markel

Recipient's Details: Write/s e-mail nickname (if any) of recipient, and e-mail address of
recipient.
Elaine Wilson

Cinema Publishing: 'Where one art meets anothef

Salutation: Opening greeting [Often less formal and sometimes omitted in e-mailsl
Message: The e-mail text. Paragraphs should

still be typed single-spaced with

no

indentations; the break between paragraphs should still be double-spaced.

Complimentary Closing: Parting phrase. [Often less formaland sometimes omifted in


e-mailsl

Write/s ldentification: Signe/s name. [Often just the first name, just an initial, or sometimes even omitted in e-mailsl Signature File: Writer's e-mail signature (if
any), which is a form message programmed to

appear on the bottom of all of the writer's emails. [Often omitted]

LAYOUT-MEMO
. Observe the format of the standard business memo. This is the most simple of all business
documents.

Abbreviated Letterhead: Many companies choose only to print their name at the top of
memos.

Memo Notation: Note indicating that this is a


memo.

Recipient's Particulars: Name (and


department if necessary) of internal recipient.

Writer's Particulars: Name and department


Dale:
July 14,199_

of writer.
Attachment D

Reply immediately

Dateline: Date on which memo is typed.

All staff are requested to have iheh old lD passes electronically validated by Friday, 5 p.m. ln order to do this you must bring your old lD pass to personnel (room 602) to have it put though the machine. This will take about two minutes, lf you do not do lhis you will be unable to access the building from nexl week. lf you have any queslions please call me on exl. 602.

Subject Line: A means of stating what the memo is about. [Never omitted in memos]
Check Line: Some company memos have a form check line to expedite writing time. Separator: Line separating form particulars
from the fax message.

Salutation: Opening greeting. [Often omitted


in memos]
Message: The memo text. Paragraphs should

still be typed single-spaced with


should still be double-spaced.

no

indentations; the break between paragraphs

Complimentary Closing: Parting phrase.


[Often less formal or omitted in memos]

Signature Writer's ldentification: Signe/s name. [Often


omiftedl

LAYOUT-LINE SPACING
. Observe the standard line spacing guidelines below. Each box on the left indicates a single line
spacing

C.entaConsultancy

13q

t-1-ltXtt&miaqana2FlfnaolorTokpl0*@1U+ar Tel(O3i55554949 Fut03)55555050 Emitw@goton

q
June 6, 199_

6q
Mr. David Oakly Senior Execulive Jopson CorpoEtion 12 S@tt Street Toowong Q 4068 AUSTRALIA

Dear Mr. Oakly: Re: Johnson Report


Thank you for your report You will be pleased to hear that it was well reeived by our senior management. They have only small request. Would you be able lo send us a @py by mail? A 6uple of pages of our copy (partialarly page 12, a opyof which is enclosed) ae slightly uncleardue to thefaxtBnsmission. Onc we have a good copy, we will siart immediate distribution. Thank you tor all of your efforts on this

prcjecl we

look foMard lo continued

business with you.

Sinerely,

t\

-Y. Ta*aha'*hi,
Yumiko Takahashi

DiEctor
jdn onc. by Express Mail cc: Miss Sumie Hayashi