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Chapter 3 - Operational Amplifiers

Experiment 3.1 - Inverter Amplifier



Objectives:

- The operational amplifier.
- Constructing an inverter amplifier.
- Measuring amplifier parameters.

Equipment required:

- Analog trainer
- Power supply
- A multitester
- Jumper wires
- LM358 or 741
- Resistors: 2 x 1K, 4.7K, 10K

Procedure:

Step 1: Connect the analog trainer to the power supply and the power supply to the
Mains.

Inverting Amplifier:

Step 2: Implement the following circuit:
















Circuit for single voltage power supply:

+12V
-12V
V
o

V
i

10K
4.7K
+
-
















Step 3: Connect V
i
to the variable voltage source, change the input voltage V
i
, measure
the output voltage V
o
and fill in the following table.

31 31 33 31 9 8 7 6 5 4 1 1 3 No.
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 V
i

V
o


A
V



+12V
V
o

V
i

10K
4.7K
+
-
+12V
1K
1K
Step 4: Plot your results on the following graph.











Step 5: Connect the V
i
terminal of the operational amplifier to the OUT output terminal
of the function generator. Adjust the function generator to 1Vp-p 1KHz sine
wave.

Note:

The TPS-3371 trainer does not include a power supply for negative voltage. The
experiments can be performed with a single voltage power supply. In this case, the V
input is connected to the GND and the non-inverter input is connected to the voltage
divider with two equals resistors of the power supply voltage.

Step 6: Connect the scope probe CH1 to the oscillator output and the CH2 probe to the
amplifier output.

Step 7: Plot the scope picture on the following graph:















V
o

V
i

t
VCH1
t
VCH1





Step 8: What is the phase shift between the signals?

Step 9: Implement the following circuit:
















Circuit for single voltage power supply:

















Step 10: Connect the function generator output as V
S
.

Step 11: Measure the voltages V
C
(V
o
), V
RS
and V
i
, with AC voltmeter.

Step 12: Connect a 1K resistor between V
o
and ground. This resistor acts as R
L
.

Measure V
L
.

Step 13: Calculate and record the A
V
, A
I
, R
i
, R
o
according to your measurements and to
paragraph 3.1.4.

+12V
-12V
V
o

V
S

10K
4.7K
+
-
1K
R
S

R
2

Vi
+12V
V
o

+
-
+12V
1K
1K
V
S

4.7K 1K
R
S
R
1

10K
R
2

Vi
Experiment report:

1) Write the name of each experiment and draw below the electronic circuit.

For each circuit include the experiment measurements, results and graphs.

2) Compare between the preliminary questions and the examples with the measurement
results.

Experiment 3.2 - Non Inverter & Follower
Amplifier

Objectives:

- Constructing and measuring a comparator amplifier.
- Constructing and measuring a non inverter amplifier.

Equipment required:

- Analog trainer
- Power supply
- A multitester
- An oscilloscope or PC with SESCOPE
- Jumper wires
- LM358 or 741
- Resistors: 1K, 4.7K, 10K

Procedure:

Step 1: Connect the analog trainer to the power supply and the power supply to the
Mains.

Non Inverting Amplifier:

Step 2: Implement the following circuit:









V
i

V
o

+
-
R
1
10K
R
2

4.7K
+12V
-12V









Step 3: Connect V
i
to the variable voltage source, change the input voltage V
i
, measure
the output voltage V
o
and fill in the following table.

31 31 33 31 9 8 7 6 5 4 1 1 3 No.
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 V
i

V
o

A
V


Step 4: Plot your results on the following graph.











Step 5: Supply 6V to V
i
input.

Step 6: Measure the voltage on R
2
(4.7K) and calculate its current.

Step 7: Change R
2
to 1K.
V
o

V
i

Step 8: Measure the voltage on R
2
and calculate its current.

Does changing R
2
value affects its current?

Step 9: Change V
i
voltage to 3V.

Step 10: Measure the voltage on R
2
and calculate its current.

Step 11: Draw your conclusions.

Step 12: Connect the V
i
terminal of the operational amplifier to the output terminal of the
function generator. Adjust the function generator to 2Vp-p 1KHz sine wave.

Step 13: Connect the scope probe CH1 to the oscillator output and the CH2 probe to the
amplifier output. Adjust the oscillator potentiometers until you form smooth
sinusoidal waves on both channels.

Step 14: Plot the scope picture on the following graph:




















t
VCH1
t
VCH1
Step 15: What is the phase shift between the signals?


Step 16: Implement the following circuit:


















Step 17: Connect the function generator output as V
S
.

Step 18: Measure the voltages V
C
(V
o
), V
RS
and V
i
, with AC voltmeter.

Step 19: Connect a 1K resistor between V
o
and ground. This resistor acts as R
L
.

Measure V
L
.

Step 20: Calculate and record the A
V
, A
I
, R
i
, R
o
according to your measurements and to
paragraph 3.1.4.

Follower Amplifier:

Step 21: Implement the following circuit:












+12V
-12V
V
i

V
o

-
+
V
S

V
o

+
-
R
1
10K
R
2

4.7K
+12V
-12V
R
S

1K
V
i

Step 22: Connect V
i
to the variable voltage source, change the input voltage V
i
, measure
the output voltage V
o
and fill in the following table.

31 31 33 31 9 8 7 6 5 4 1 1 3 No.
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 V
i

V
o

A
V


Step 23: Plot your results on the following graph.












Step 24: Connect the V
i
terminal of the operational amplifier to the output terminal of the
function generator. Adjust the function generator to 2Vp-p 1KHz sine wave.

Step 25: Connect the scope CH1 to the oscillator output and the CH2 to the amplifier
output.

Step 26: Plot the scope picture on the following graph:













V
o

V
i

t
VCH1
t
VCH1







Step 27: What is the phase shift between the signals?
Step 28: Implement the following circuit:














Step 29: Measure the voltages V
C
(V
o
), V
RS
and V
i
, with AC voltmeter.

Step 30: Connect a 1K resistor between V
o
and ground. This resistor acts as R
L
.

Measure V
L
.

Step 31: Calculate and record the A
V
, A
I
, R
i
, R
o
according to your measurements and to
paragraph 3.1.4.

Experiment report:

1) Write the name of each experiment and draw below the electronic circuit.

For each circuit include the experiment measurements, results and graphs.

2) Compare between the preliminary questions and the examples with the measurement
results.


Experiment 3.3 - Summing & Difference
Amplifiers

Objectives:

- Constructing and measuring a summing amplifier.
- Constructing and measuring a difference amplifier.

Equipment required:

- Analog trainer
- Power supply
- A multitester
- An oscilloscope or PC with SESCOPE
- Jumper wires
+12V
-12V
V
o

-
+ V
S

R
S

1K
V
i

- LM358 or 741
- Resistors: 2 x 1K, 4.7K, 2 x 10K, 100K

Procedure:

Step 1: Connect the analog trainer to the power supply and the power supply to the
Mains.

Summing Amplifier:

Step 2: Implement the following circuit on the main plug in board.

















Circuit for single voltage power supply:





4.7K
V
1

10K
V
2

V
o

-
+
100K
+12V
-12V
4.7K
V
1

10K
V
2

V
o

-
+
100K
+12V
1K
1K
+12V












Step 3: Turn ON the trainer.

Step 4: Connect V
2
to +12V terminal.

Step 5: Connect V
1
to the variable voltage source.

Step 6: Change the input voltage V
1
and measure the output voltage V
o
and fill in the
following table.

13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No.
3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 -2.5 -3 V
1

V
o


Step 7: Draw your conclusions.

Step 8: Connect the V
1
terminal of the operational amplifier to the output terminal of the
function generator. Adjust the function generator to 3Vp-p 1KHz sine wave.

Step 9: Connect the scope CH1 to the generator OUT output and the CH2 to the amplifier
output.

Step 10: Plot the scope picture on the following graph:


















t
VCH1
t
VCH1



Difference Amplifier:

Step 11: Implement the following circuit:














Step 12: Connect V
2
to +5V terminal.

Step 13: Connect V
1
to the variable voltage source.

Step 14: Change the input voltage V
1
and measure the output voltage V
o
and fill in the
following table.

13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No.
3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 -2.5 -3 V
1

V
o


Step 15: Draw your conclusions.

Step 16: Connect the V
1
terminal of the operational amplifier to the OUT output terminal
of the function generator. Adjust the function generator to 8Vp-p 1KHz sine
wave.

Step 17: Connect the scope CH1 to the generator output and the CH2 to the amplifier
output.
V
1

V
2

-
+
10K
10K
4.7K
4.7K
+12V
-12V

Step 18: Plot the scope picture on the following graph:




















Experiment report:

1) Write the name of each experiment and draw below the electronic circuit.

For each circuit include the experiment measurements, results and graphs.

2) Compare between the preliminary questions and the examples with the measurement
results.


t
VCH1
t
VCH1
Experiment 3.4 - Comparator & Schmitt
Trigger Comparator

Objectives:

- Constructing and measuring a comparator amplifier.
- Constructing and measuring a comparator amplifier.

Equipment required:

- Analog trainer
- Power supply
- A multitester
- An oscilloscope or PC with SESCOPE
- Jumper wires
- LM358 or 741
- Resistors: 2 x 1K, 4.7K, 10K


Procedure:

Step 1: Connect the analog trainer to the power supply and the power supply to the
Mains.

Comparator Amplifier:

Step 2: Implement the following circuit on the main plug in board.










V
i

V
o

+
-
+12V
-12V





Circuit for single voltage power supply:














Step 3: Turn ON the trainer.

Step 4: Change the input voltage V
i
and measure the output voltage V
o
and fill in the
following table.

31 31 33 31 9 8 7 6 5 4 1 1 3 No.
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 V
i

V
o


V
i

V
o

+
-
+12V
1K
1K
+12V
Step 5: Plot your results on the following graph.












Step 6: Connect the V
i
terminal of the operational amplifier to the OUT e output terminal
of the function generator. Adjust the function generator to 8Vp-p 1KHz sine
wave.

Step 7: Connect the scope CH1 to the generator output and the CH2 to the amplifier
output.

Step 8: Plot the scope picture on the following graph:



















V
o

V
i

t
VCH1
t
VCH1

Schmitt Trigger Comparator:

Step 9: Implement the following circuit:


















Circuit for single voltage power supply:









V
i

V
o

-
+
R
1

R
2

4.7K
10K
+12V
-12V
+12V
V
i

V
o

-
+
R
1

R
2

4.7K
10K
4.7K
+12V









Step 10: Connect the V
i
terminal of the operational amplifier to the OUT output terminal
of the function generator.

Step 11: Connect the scope CH1 to the generator OUT output and the CH2 to the amplifier
output.

Step 12: Plot the scope picture on the following graph:





















Experiment report:

1) Write the name of each experiment and draw below the electronic circuit.

For each circuit include the experiment measurements, results and graphs.

2) Compare between the preliminary questions and the examples with the measurement
results.


Experiment 3.5 - Integrator & Differentiator
Amplifiers

Objectives:

- Constructing and measuring an integrator amplifier.
- Constructing and measuring a differentiator amplifier.

Equipment required:

- Analog trainer
- Power supply
- A multitester
- An oscilloscope or PC with SESCOPE
- Jumper wires
- LM358 or 741
t
VCH1
t
VCH1
- Resistors: 1K, 10K
- Capacitors: 2 x 0.1F

Procedure:

Step 1: Connect the analog trainer to the power supply and the power supply to the
Mains.

Integrator Amplifier:

Step 2: Implement the following circuit on the main plug in board.

















Step 3: Turn ON the trainer.

Step 4: Connect the V
i
terminal of the operational amplifier to the OUT e output terminal
of the function generator. Adjust the function generator to 4Vp-p 1KHz sine
wave.

Step 5: Connect the scope CH1 to the generator output and the CH2 to the amplifier
output.
V
o

V
i

0.1F
1K
+
-
+12V
-12V

Step 6: Plot the scope picture on the following graph:




















t
VCH1
t
VCH1
Step 7: Change the generator signal to triangle wave of 1KHz and 1Vp-p and plot the
scope picture.

Step 8: Explain the results.

Differentiator Amplifier:

Step 9: Implement the following circuit:

















Step 10: Connect the V
i
terminal of the operational amplifier to the OUT output terminal
of the function generator. Adjust the function generator to 8Vp-p 700Hz sine
wave.

Step 11: Connect the scope CH1 to the generator output and the CH2 to the amplifier
output.

Step 12: Plot the scope picture on the following graph:



+12V
-12V
V
o

V
i

1K
0.1F
+
-
0.1F 10K
t
VCH1
VCH1

















Step 13: Change the generator signal to triangle wave of 1KHz and 1Vp-p and plot the
scope picture.

Step 14: Explain the results.

Experiment report:

1) Write the name of each experiment and draw below the electronic circuit.

For each circuit include the experiment measurements, results and graphs.

2) Compare between the preliminary questions and the examples with the measurement
results.

Experiment 3.6 - Oscillators

Objectives:

- An amplifier with positive feedback.
- Constructing and measuring a Wein bridge oscillator.
- Constructing and measuring a square wave oscillator.
- Constructing and measuring a triangle wave oscillator.

Equipment required:

- Analog trainer
- Power supply
- A multitester
- An oscilloscope or PC with SESCOPE
- Jumper wires
- LM358 or 741
- Resistors: 2 x 1K, 4.7K, 10K, 2 x 100K
- Capacitors: 2 x 0.1F
- Potentiometer 10K
- Coils: 2 x 47Hy

Procedure:

Step 1: Connect the analog trainer to the power supply and the power supply to the
Mains.

Wein bridge oscillator:

Step 2: Implement the following circuit on the main plug in board.






















Use the following values:

R
1
= 100KO Potentiometer
R
2
= 10KO
R
3
= 1.5KO
R
4
= 1.5KO
C
1
= 0.1F
C
2
= 0.1F

Step 3: Turn ON the trainer.

Step 4: Connect the scope probe CH1 to the oscillator output.

Step 5: Adjust the oscillator potentiometer until you form smooth sinusoidal waves on
the oscillator output.

Step 6: Measure the signal frequency. Compare the measured value with the calculated
value.

R
2

Z
2

C
2

Z
1

C
1

V
o

R
1

+
-
R
4

R
3

-12V
+12V
2
3
8
4
1
Square wave oscillator:

Step 7: Implement the following circuit on the main plug in board.























Use the following values:

R
1
= 100KO
R
2
= 4.7KO
R
3
= 100KO
C = 0.1F

Step 8: Connect the scope probe CH1 to the oscillator output.

Step 9: Measure the signal frequency. Compare the measured value with the calculated
value.

Step 10: Connect CH2 to the V
A
. Observe the signal on it.

V
A

C
V
o

R
+
-
R
2

R
1

V
B

+12V
-12V
Triangle wave oscillator:

Step 11: Implement the following circuit on the main plug in board.



















Use the following values:

R
1
= 100KO
R
2
= 10KO
R
3
= 7.4KO
C = 0.1F

Step 12: Connect the scope probe CH1 to the oscillator output.

Step 13: Measure the signal frequency. Compare the measured value with the calculated
value.

Step 14: Connect CH2 to the V
B
. Observe the signal on it.

+12V
-12V
47H
R
1

R
1

V
o

C
+
-
+
-
A
3

A
1

V
B

+12V
-12V
47H
R
2

Experiment report:

1) Write the name of each experiment and draw below the electronic circuit.

For each circuit include the experiment measurements, results and graphs.

2) Compare between the preliminary questions and the examples with the measurement
results.


Experiment 3.7 - Band Pass Filter

Objectives:

- Transmission of signals at different frequencies through a band pass filter.
- Measurement and calculation of the filter bandwidth.
- Spectral analysis of the response curve.

Equipment required:

- Analog trainer
- Power supply
- An oscilloscope or PC with SESCOPE
- Banana wires
- LM358 or 741
- Resistors: 100O, 1K, 4.7K
- Capacitors: 2 x 0.1F

Procedure:

Step 1: Connect the kit to the power supply.

Step 2: Connect the power supply to the electricity and turn it ON.

Step 3: Implement the following band pass filter.




















Step 4: Set the High/Low switch to the Low position.

This position set the function generator frequency range to 600KHz 8KHz.

Step 5: Set the Triangle/Sine switch to the Sine position.

Step 6: Set the Sweep/Const switch to the Const position.

+12V
S
o

S
i

C
4

0.1

C
3

0.1
R
1

1K
R
2

100
+
-
R
5

4.7K
-12V
Step 7: Connect the function generator output (OUT) to the band pass filter input.

Step 8: Connect the scope CH1 to the filter input.

Step 9: Connect the scope CH2 to the filter output.
















Use the Alternate (Alt) mode for maximum quality.

Step 10: Raise the frequency on the generator until you obtain a sine wave of maximum
amplitude at the filter output.

Measure this amplitude and record it.

Record the amplitude of the input voltage to the filter, as well.

Step 11: Record the frequency of the signal in this state. The frequency should be
approximately 2.3KHz.

Signal
Generator
BPF

Sin Sout
CH1

CH2

Scope
Step 12: Raise the frequency until you receive a signal at an amplitude of 0.7Vmax. Make sure
that the input voltage remains unchanged.

Record the frequency of the signal received.

Step 13: Lower the frequency so that the signal intensity at the output rises and then decreases
until we again obtain an amplitude of 0.7Vmax.

Make sure that the input voltage remains unchanged.

Record the frequency of the signal received.

Step 14: Calculate and record the filter bandwidth.

Step 15: Calculate the quality factor of the filter:

f
f
Q
0
A
=
Step 16: Complete the following table:

V
in
= 2Vp-p

F
(
K
H
z
)
5 3
1
3
5
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
6
1
8
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
6
1
8
4
1
4
5
5
1
5
5
Voutp
-
p


With every measurement, check that the amplitude of the input voltage remains the
same.

Step 17: Draw the response curve of the filter.

Step 18: Mark the half-power-point frequencies on the response curve.

Step 19: Implement the following low pass filter.









V
o

V
i

R
-
+
C


R= 1K
C= 0.1F

Step 20: Repeat steps 7-18 with this filter.

Step 21: Implement the following high pass filter.











R= 1K
C= 0.1F

Step 22: Repeat steps 7-18 with this filter.

Experiment report:

1) Gather together all the results of your experiments and measurements. Record the name of
the experiment and the illustration of the circuit measured above the experiment results in
the table.

2) Compare the measured value with the calculated value.

V
o

V
i

-
+
C
R