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A material on basic types of gear & its characteristics

- Connecting rod Measurements
- Involute Gears
- gears in proe
- Gears and Fuse Gears
- gears
- Gears
- Gear Design
- Advance Assembly net in Pro Engineer
- GEARS
- Automatic Control Theory2
- Gears ( Theory of machine )
- ProE Tutorials
- gears
- Operational Amplifiers
- Fatigue Whitepaper
- engineering drawing
- Engineering Drawing
- Introduction to Gears
- Projection of Line
- Spur Gears

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Introduction

This lesson covers the development of ‘involute’ gears. An involute gear is based on an

involute curve, which is a mathematical shape. To understand what an involute is,

consider a simple cylinder and a string as shown below. Wrap the string around the

cylinder. While maintaining tension on the string, trace the path that the end of the string

makes while un-wrapping it around the cylinder. This path is an involute curve.

A simple cylinder and a string. Wrap the string around the cylinder.

Pull

Involute

curve

Pull the string tight and keep it tangent to the cylinder. Trace the end of the string while un-wrapping it around

the cylinder. The resulting trajectory is an involute

curve.

There are two key parameters that control the involute curve: the diameter of the cylinder

and the angle that the string is un-wrapped around the cylinder. In the example above, the

string is un-wrapped 90º around the cylinder.

CADQUEST 1

The Involute Curve

Development of the mathematical equations for the involute curve uses simple

trigonometry. We will develop the equations for 90º of one full involute. In other words,

we are un-wrapping the string 90º around the cylinder in a counterclockwise direction.

One quarter (90º) of the circumference of a circle is then: c= p*r/2

In the figure below, the line ‘s’ is the same length as the part of the circumference the

string has been un-wrapped ( s’ ).

xc, yc

ang

s

r x, y

s’

define this curve by

0, 0

finding equations for

x and y as (ang)

changes

xc = r * cos (ang) x = xc + ( s * sin (ang))

yc = r * sin (ang) y = yc – ( s * cos (ang))

CADQUEST 2

Datum Curves From Equation

In Pro/ENGINEER, datum curves can be defined using mathematical equations. When

using this feature, a system variable ‘t’ is used, that varies from 0 to 1 over the length of

the curve. For the involute curve, let the angle (ang) be equal to ‘t’ times 90. This means

that the variable ‘ang’ will vary from zero to 90º.

s=(p*r/2)*t

In this example, the diameter of the cylinder is 1.500. This is the base diameter in gear

design terminology. The radius of the cylinder is 0.75 inches.

ang = t * 90

s = (PI * 0.75 * t ) / 2

xc = 0.75 * cos(ang)

yc = 0.75 * sin(ang)

x = xc + ( s * sin(ang))

y = yc – ( s * cos(ang))

z=0

CADQUEST 3

Creating the Gear

In Pro/ENGINEER, the gear is started by modeling a cylinder at the outside diameter of

the gear, see Figure 1. Several datum curves are created to define the root diameter, base

diameter, and pitch diameter of the gear, see Figure 2. Next, the involute shaped datum

curve is created and moved into the correct position to define one side of one gear tooth,

see Figure 3. The curve is mirrored and the gear tooth is cut into the cylinder using the

edge of the involute datum curves, see Figure 4. The cut is patterned and rounds are

added at the base of the gear. The completed gear is shown in Figures 5 and 6.

Involute

curve

CADQUEST 4

Gear Parameters

The following are geometric parameters in gear design:

Root Diameter Circular Pitch = π / Pitch Diameter

Outside Diameter Number of Teeth = Diametrical Pitch * Pitch Diameter

Base Diameter Pressure Angle

Addendum

Dedendum

Tooth Thickness

Tooth Thickness Angle

Fillet Size

Base diameter

Addendum

Root diameter

Dedendum

Fillet size

Gear Parameters

CADQUEST 5

EXERCISE – INVOLUTE GEARS

• Use File, New, pick the Part button, enter < involute > for the name, pick

Copy From and pick the ‘inch’ start part from the list, then press the middle

mouse button

• Create a datum curve using #Feature; #Create; #Datum; #Curve; #From

Equation; #Done

• For the coordinate system, pick CS0 then pick #Cartesian

• In the Notepad window, add the following equations:

r = 1.4095

ang = t * 90

s = (PI * r * t ) / 2

xc = r * cos(ang)

yc = r * sin(ang)

x = xc + ( s * sin(ang))

y = yc - ( s * cos(ang))

z=0

• Save and Exit Notepad then pick OK in the dialog box or press the middle

mouse button

• The result is shown below. This curve will be used to create an involute gear.

• Pick File, Save and press the middle mouse button

CADQUEST 6

Task 2: Create a cylinder at the outside diameter of the gear.

point from the red side of DTM3

• Sketch a circle centered on DTM1 and DTM2, with a diameter of 3.250 which

is the outside diameter of the gear (see the figure on page 5)

• Use a blind depth of 1.000

the root diameter of the gear

• Create a datum curve sketched on DTM3 with a diameter of 2.819 to represent

the base diameter of the gear

• Create a datum curve sketched on DTM3 with a diameter of 3.000 to represent

the pitch diameter of the gear

• Create a datum point at the intersection of the involute curve and the 3.000

diameter circle using the #Crv X Crv option

• Create a datum point at the intersection of datums DTM1, DTM2, and DTM3

using the #Three Srf option

• Create a datum curve through the two datum points using the #Thru Points

option

• Name the feature ‘measure’

• Name the measurement parameter ‘angle’

• Measure the angle between the last curve you created and DTM2

CADQUEST 7

Task 6: Copy the involute curve.

#Done

• Pick the involute curve then pick #Done; #Rotate; #Crv/Edg/Axis

• Pick the axis in the center of the cylinder then pick #Okay

• Enter < 30 > for the angle then pick #Done Move; OK; #Done

• Enter: angle:FID_MEASURE + ( 7.5 / 2 )

• Answer < Y > to add the relation

• #Regenerate the part

• Mirror the copied involute datum curve about DTM2 using #Feature; #Copy;

#Mirror; #Dependent; #Done

• Read the prompts

• Copy the same copied curve (the one created in task 6) again using #Feature;

#Copy; #Move; #Dependent; #Done

• Pick the curve then pick #Done; #Rotate; #Crv/Edg/Axis

• Pick the axis in the center of the cylinder then pick #Flip; #Okay

• Enter < 15 > for the angle then pick #Done Move; #Done; OK; #Done

CADQUEST 8

Task 10: Create an extruded cut.

• Create an extruded (thru all) cut using the edges of the curves as shown below

• Trim the sketch using #Geom Tools; #Trim

sure to get the tangency

constraint as shown

select these curves

• Pick the cut then pick #Done; #Rotate; #Crv/Edg/Axis

CADQUEST 9

• Pick the axis in the center of the cylinder then pick #Flip; #Okay

• Enter < 15 > for the angle then pick #Done Move; #Done; OK; #Done

• Pattern the copied cut, enter < 15 > for the increment, use 23 for the number

of instances in the pattern

• Pattern the round

• Create a coaxial hole with a diameter of 0.750

• The part is shown without the datum curves

(Hint: Use layers)

• Save the part and Close the window

CADQUEST 10

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