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Matrices & Geometry


Authors: Bill Davis and Jerry Uhl 1996-2010
Publisher: Make: Mathematics

MGM.02 2D Matrix Action


LITERACY
What you need to know when you're away from the machine.
L.1)
Here is a random 2D matrix:
A = 88N@Random@Real, 8-2, 2<D, 3D, N@Random@Real, 8-2, 2<D, 3D<,
8N@Random@Real, 8-2, 2<D, 3D, N@Random@Real, 8-2, 2<D, 3D<<;

MatrixForm@AD
1.76234 -0.773071
O
-1.83244 -0.155735

The first horizontal row of A is:


{..............., ..............}.
The second horizontal row of A is:
{..............., ..............}.
L.2)
Here is a random 2D matrix:
A = 88N@Random@Real, 8-2, 2<D, 3D, N@Random@Real, 8-2, 2<D, 3D<,
8N@Random@Real, 8-2, 2<D, 3D, N@Random@Real, 8-2, 2<D, 3D<<;
MatrixForm@
AD

1.48 1.78
O
1.15 0.136

The numbers a, b, c and d that make


a b
At =
c d
are
a = ....................... b = .......................
c =........................ d = .......................
L.6)
Given a 2D matrix A, then the horizontal rows of
At (= Transpose[A])
are the vertical columns of A.
Agree..........
Disagree.......
L.7)
Given a 2D matrix A, then the vertical columns of
At (= Transpose[A])
are the horizontal rows of A.
Agree..........
Disagree.......
L.8)
When you hit a circle with a matrix you get
a) Another circle.
b) An ellipse
c) An ellipse,a line or just one point
d) A hyperbola, ellipse,a line or just one point.
Your response:.............
L.9)
When you hit a rectangle with a matrix you get
a) Another rectangle.
b) An ellipse
c) An ellipse,a line or just one point
d) A parallelogram, a line or just one point.
Your response:.............
L.10)
Here's the unit circle waiting to be hit with a matrix:

Before

0.402723 -1.28007
O
0.116336 -1.55761

The first vertical column of A is:


{..............., ..............}.
The second vertical column of A is:
{..............., ..............}.
L.3)
Here is a 2D matrix A:
2.0 1.0
A=
.
-1.0 0.0
And here's a 2D vector X = 8-0.3, 0.4<:
When you hit X with A by calculating A . X, you get
A.X =8
,
<
L.4)
Here is a 2D matrix A:
2.7 0.5
A=
.
-1.4 1.3
And here's a 2D vector X = 80.7, -1<:
There are numbers a and b so that you can calculate A.X via
A.X = a 82.7, -1.4< + b 80.5, 1.3<.
The correct numbers a and b are
a = .......................
b =........................ .
L.5)
Here is a random 2D matrix:
A = 88N@Random@Real, 8-2, 2<D, 3D, N@Random@Real, 8-2, 2<D, 3D<,
8N@Random@Real, 8-2, 2<D, 3D, N@Random@Real, 8-2, 2<D, 3D<<;
MatrixForm@
AD

y
1.0

0.5

-1.0

-0.5

0.5

-0.5

-1.0
Here's an xystretcher A:
1
2

1
2

Here's what you get when you hit the unit circle A

1.0

After the hit with A

After the hit with A.B

y
1.5

1.0
1.0
0.5

-1.0

-0.5

0.5

0.5

1.0

-1.5

-1.0

-0.5

0.5

1.0

x
1.5

-0.5
-0.5
-1.0
-1.0
Given that the area of the unit circle measures out to p square units, what does the area of
the ellipse plotted above measure out to?
L.11)
Go with this matrix A:
3
2

5
6

B is a rotation matrix whose hits rotate everything by p6 counterclockwise radians.


Here's what you get when you hit the unit circle with B.A:

-1.5
Given that the area of the unit circle measures out to p square units, what does the area of
the ellipse plotted above measure out to?
Why is this ellipse not tilted?
L.13)
For a given 2D matrix A, the inverse matrix A-1 is the matrix you hit with to undo
whatever a hit with A did.
For instance, when you hit with this stretcher matrix A:
K

4 0
O
0 1

The numbers a, b, c and d that make


a b
A-1 =
c d
are
a = ....................... b = .......................
c =........................ d = .......................
L.14)
Hits with the following matrix rotate everything about {0,0} by s counterclockwise radians:
Cos@sD -1. Sin@sD
Sin@sD
Cos@sD

After the hit with B.A


y
1.5

1.0

0.5

-1.5

-1.0

-0.5

0.5

1.0

x
1.5

-0.5

-1.0

-1.5
Given that the area of the unit circle measures out to p square units, what does the area of
the ellipse plotted above measure out to?
L.12)
Go with this matrix A:
3
2

1
6

B is the rotation matrix whose hits rotate everything by p4 counterclockwise radians.


Here's what you get when you hit the unit circle with A.B:

The entries a, b, c and d that make


a b
rotator@sD-1 =
c d
are
a = ....................... b = .......................
c =........................ d = .......................
The entries a, b, c and d that make
a b
rotator@sD-1 =
c d
are
a = ....................... b = .......................
c =........................ d = .......................
L.15)
Remembering that
shear@aD.shear@bD = shear@a + bD
and that
1 0
shear@0D =
,
0 1
come up with the b that makes
shear@aD-1 = shear@bD.
L.16)
Given two invertible matrices A and B, the inverse of A.B is
a) A-1 . B-1
b) B-1 . A-1 .
My choice is ..............
L.17)
Here's the square with corners at {0,0}, {1,0}, {1,1} and {0,1} with lots of points inside:

a b
O
c d

Here's another 2D matrix B:


2

-2

-1

-1

-8.71769 8.30853
O
-33.5797 13.5598
26.1701 -23.945
K
O
30.0249 -21.328

Does the outcome surprise you?


Why or why not?

Here's a random 2D matrix A:


1.15061 -1.44075
O
0.528215 1.10543

Here's what you get when you hit this square and the points inside with A:

y
2

-2

-1

-1

-2
Look at A again:
K

MatrixForm@AD
1.15061 -1.44075
O
0.528215 1.10543

Use what you see to identify the vectors that define the parallelogram.
L.18)
Here is a cleared 2D matrix A:
Clear@a, b, c, dD;
A = 88a, b<, 8c, d<<;
MatrixForm@AD

When you calculate A.B, you get another 2D matrix


x y
.
z w
Your job is to write down what the values of x,y,z and w are.
x = .....................................................
y = .....................................................
z = .....................................................
w = .....................................................
L.19)
Here are calculations of A.B and B.A for two random 2D matrices A and B:
K

-2

1 3
O
4 2