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1. What is the chemical composition of steel? What is the effect of carbon on the mechanical properties of steel?

It all starts with iron and ore taken from the mines and brought to the steel mill and into the furnace. Steel is made by changing the level of carbon in iron thru heating it changes from solid to liquid. This transformation forces carbon atoms to separate from iron atoms. Carbon is very essential in the production of steel. The carbon to iron ratio must be exact because too much carbon will make it hard and brittle while too little carbon will make it malleable and unable to support weight.

2. Briefly discuss four heat methods to enhance the properties of steel. What are the advantages of each treatment? Steel heat treatment is a group of industrial and metalworking processes use in the alteration of the physical and chemical properties of a material to improve its properties and workability. Some of the heat treatment is Annealing, Annealing is used to induce ductility, soften material, relieve internal stresses, refine the structure by making it homogeneous, and improve cold working properties. Another kind of treatment is Case hardening, this is usually done after the part in question has been formed into its final shape, but this can also be done to increase the hardening element content of bars to be used in a pattern welding or similar process. Precipitation hardening is a heat treatment technique used to increase the yield strength of malleable materials, including most structural alloys of aluminum, magnesium, nickel and titanium, and some stainless steels. A common heat treatment is Tempering, this is a heat treatment technique applied to metals, alloys, and glass to achieve greater toughness by increasing the strength of materials and/or ductility.

3. Define alloy steels. Explain why alloys are added to steel? Alloy Steels are basically carbon steels with certain chemical elements added to improve the properties of the metal for specific applications or end products. Alloy steel is often subdivided into two groups: high alloy steels and low alloy steels. The difference between the two is defined somewhat arbitrarily. However, most agree that any steel that is alloyed with more than eight percent of its weight being other elements beside iron and carbon, is high alloy steel. Low alloy steels are slightly more common. The physical properties of these steels are modified by the other elements, to give them greater hardness, durability, corrosion resistance, or toughness as compared to carbon steel. To achieve such properties, these alloys often require heat treatment.