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Rachel Frankenfield April 24, 2012 World History Renaissance and Reformation Study Guide Quizlet: http://quizlet.

com/11700831/renaissance-and-reformation-flash-cards/ Renaissance Rebirth, referring in this context to a revival of art and learning. While trying to revive the past (and the culture of Greece and Rome), the educated men and women involved in this renaissance actually created something new. This led to new values and ideas, and eventually spread from Northern Italy to the rest of Europe. Education Human Achievements Secular Focus City-States with a unified king and a few wealthy families taking control. City-State in Italy. Medici family held power here. Governed by an Oligarchy. An intellectual movement, focused on the potential and achievements of humans. Studied classical texts for a better understanding of ancient Greek values instead of trying to make classical texts agree with the teachings of Christianity. Embraced Greco-Roman civilization Concerned itself with the everyday problems of regular people. Emphasized reason. Poet, emphasized the importance of living a full life on Earth, rather than focusing on the afterlife. Wrote Decameron. Wrote The Prince, in which he justified the rights of a ruler to rule using any means necessary. Wrote The Courtier. Early writer in the Italian vernacular

Themes of Renaissance Renaissance Politics Milan Florence Venice Humanism

Francesco Petrarch Giovanni Boccaccio Niccolo Machivelli Baldassare Castiiglione Dante

Miguel Cervantes William Shakespeare Desiderius Erasmus Sir Thomas Moore Patrons Terms/Characteristics of Renaissance Art

Wrote Don Quixote, which pokes fun of the main character, representing what many knights actually did tried to appear heroic, or were over glorified. One of the greatest poets/playwrights of the English language. Criticized the lack of spirituality in the Roman Catholic church through his writing. Wrote the book Utopia, describing a perfect society. A person who supports artists, especially financially. Sfumato: the subtle shading of tone and color in painting Linear Perspective: converging lines meeting at a single vanishing point Vanishing Point: a point of disappearance "Creation of Adam" in the Sistine Chapel, he used perfection of human body and emotions in faces A Renaissance Man with many skills and interestsscientist, inventor, artist (Mona Lisa), engineering & bridges. Learned from Michelangelo and Da Vinci, painted "School Of Athens", represented Greek philosophers, used linear perspective, painted Michelangelo's face on a body (in School of Athens). A period of Renaissance art that emerged later on. The spread of Renaissance ideas to Northern Europe that occurred in the 1400s. Invented the printing press, listed as one of the most influential people of the millennium. More books were printed, and therefore Invented by Johann Gutenberg, this was a device that made it possible to mass-produce books and documents. Before this innovation, a copyist would take about 5 months to copy one book. After the press was invented, one man could produce 500 books in the same amount of time. A movement in the 16th century for religious reform, leading to the founding of Catholic churches that rejected the authority of the pope. People claimed that leaders were corrupt. Popes patronized the arts, and acted worldly, spending .their money extravagantly on materialistic things. Many popes were too busy with their worldly interests to

Michelangelo Leonardo Da Vinci Raphael

Mannerism Northern Renaissance Johann Gutenberg Printing Press

Reformation Why does criticism of the church develop??

.fulfill spiritual duties. Renaissance Popes In General: (not positive about this, its my own ideas) Popes in the era of the Renaissance likely had a harder time ruling because peoples views on religion changed during reformation. Julius II: warrior pope during the Renaissance. Sale of Indulgences The sale of an indulgence was the exchange of money for the promise of salvation. Pluralism/Absenteeism Pluralism: Some nobles paid to rule, buying positions of power in the church. Absenteeism: Because some people held more than one position, they could not fulfill the duties of the jobs. Christian Humanists Christians who believed in human potential and achievement. Erasmus Dutch humanist, wrote The Praise of Folly. Martin Luther Protested over abuses in the Catholic church, leading to the founding of the Protestant church. Took a stand against Johann Tetzel, who was selling indulgences, and taught that on the contrary people could be salvaged by having faith in Gods forgiveness. He also taught that the church should only teach directly from the Bible, and that all people of faith were equal and could interpret the Bible for themselves without the interpretation of priests. List written by Martin Luther of all the churchs flaws, and posted on the door of the church by its author himself in 1517. Self explanatory Religion: Leadership: Salvation: Bible: Roman Catholic Pope. By faith and good works. Bible and church tradition are the sources of revealed truth. Based on ritual. Lutheran Minister. By faith alone. Bible is the sole source of revealed truth.

95 Theses Path to Salvation Lutheran vs. Christian Beliefs and Ideas

Worship: Spread of Luthers Ideas Germany

Based on ritual and preaching. Interpretation: By priests. By believers. Luthers ideas were spread largely by the Printing Press, but also by his followers, which he gained fairly quickly. German Princes Convert: Some princes converted to Lutheranism (mostly those who ruled parts of Northern

England

Switzerland

Anabaptism

Catholic Reformation

Germany) and no longer needed to pay tributes to Rome or enforce these tributes on their subjects. They could also shut down monasteries to reclaim their land. State > Church. In this case, religious and political beliefs went hand in hand, and the leaders conviently believed in Lutheran beliefs while also enjoying the political benefits. Peasant Revolt: when thousands of German peasants revolted against the government the revolt was suppressed and participants were executed. Peace of Augsburg: A 1555 agreement that declared that the religion of each German state was to be determined by its ruler. Henry VIII: Became king of England in 1509 as a devout Catholic. Had 6 wives. Act of Supremacy: made King Henry VIII the head of the Church of England Mary: Henry VIIIs daughter with Catherine of Aragon. Succeeds her father and restores the Catholic church. Elizabeth: Henry VIIIs daughter with Anne Boleyn, also later succeeded her father, thus becoming Queen Elizabeth I and restoring the Protestant Church. Spanish Armada: the Spanish Navy, whose task was to overthrow Queen Elizabeth. Zwingli: Founded the reformation in Switzerland. Calvin and Predestination: John Calvin believed that God has known forever who would be salvaged and who would not (this idea is called Predestination), and very few people would be- the elect. He believed that how the person behaved on Earth could not affect whether or not theyd be salvaged. A form of Protestantism that was particularly attractive to those who had suffered economically. Favored adult baptism, equality amongst believers, and separation of church and state. Council of Trent: a meeting of Roman Catholic leaders (called by Pope Paul III) to rule on the doctrines that were being criticized by Protestant reformers Jesuits: members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Ignatius Loyola Artist Masaccio Paolo Uccello

Painting Adam and Eve Expelled By Paradise The Hunt In The Forest

The Birth of Venus Mona Lisa School of Athens

(this is the one that reminds me of The Little Mermaid)

Sandro Botticelli Leonardo da Vinci Raphael

(Raphael includes Michelangelos face painted on another body in this work note that Michelangelo was one of his teachers)

Creation of Adam (Ceiling of The Sistine Chapel) Last Supper

Michelangelo Tintoretto

Guiding Questions: 1. What new values emerge due to humanism during the Renaissance and how are they reflected in the art and literature of the time? Emphasis on Education. i. School of Athens by Raphael. ii. Lots of new literature and styles emerge. Focus on the achievements of humans, not their flaws. i. Encouraged artists to paint new subjects. ii. More artists emerged. Secular ideas. i. People focused more on living their lives to the fullest in their time on Earth, rather than working their whole lives toward their afterlives. ii. Utopia by Thomas Moore. 2. How do these values contribute to the emergence of new religious ideas in European society? Secular ideas. i. Allow people to think differently about the role of religion. 3. List and explain the causes of the Protestant and Counter-Reformations. Social i. Values of humanism and secularism led to people questioning the church.

ii. Printing press spread ideas. Political i. Monarchs challenged the Churchs authority in Europe. ii. Leaders challenged the authority of the pope. Economic i. Royals were jealous of the churchs wealth. ii. Merchants didnt like paying taxes to the church. Religious i. Church leaders became worldly/corrupt. ii. People found the sale of indulgences unacceptable.