Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

6th International DAAAM Baltic Conference "INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING" 24-26 April 2008, Tallinn, Estonia

ANALYSIS OF THERMOELASTIC STRESSES IN LAYERED PLATES


Ko, J. & Valgur, J.

Abstract: This paper deals with thermoelastic effects in deformation of plates with arbitrarily changing elastic parameters and temperature through thickness. Using the semi-inverse method, a simple analytical solution is obtained for the thermoelastic problem of a nonhomogeneous plate with an arbitrary contour. Plates with free, sliding and fixed edges are considered. The results are applied to the layered plate. As an example of application, thermoelastic stresses and deformations are determined for a copper plate with a steel coating. The edge effects for this plate are examined by the finite element method. Key words: semi-inverse method; thermoelastic stresses; layered plates; edge effects; finite element method. 1. INTRODUCTION In modern engineering design, nonhomogeneous layered structures are widely used due to their superiority in stiffness-toweight and strength-to-weight ratios, as well as longevity. The study of mechanical, especially thermoelastic, characteristics of layered beams and plates has been of increasing interest for engineers. Thermo-mechanical analysis of layered beams (narrow strips) is presented in papers [1, 2]. In the monograph [3] the thermoelastic problem is solved for a homogeneous free plate with temperature variation through thickness. In the paper [4] this solution is extended to the plate with variation of thermoelastic parameters through thickness. In present paper the solution under consideration will be applied to thermoelastic

analysis of layered plates. In connection with this, the plate with free, sliding, and fixed edges will be studied. As an example of such application, thermoelastic stresses and deformations will be determined for a quadratic copper plate with a steel coating. The edge effects for this plate will be examined using the finite element program ANSYS. 2. PLATE WITH ARBITRARY VARIATION OF THERMOELASTIC PARAMETERS THROUGH THICKNESS 2.1. Plate with free edges Consider a plate (Fig. 1) of an arbitrary form and of constant thickness h. The plate is completely free of the surface load. The rectangular coordinates x, y and z are used, where the lower surface of the plate is taken as the reference surface (x, y) and the coordinate z is directed upwards.

Fig. 1. Free plate with an arbitrary shape

The plate is fixed at the origin of the coordinates, where deflection and its derivau u tions are zero, i.e. u z = z = z = 0 . x y The temperature T, the coefficient of linear thermal expansion , the modulus of elasticity (Youngs modulus) E and the Poissons ratio vary through thickness only, i.e. T = T ( z ) , = ( z ) , E = E ( z ) and

2 + T = 0. 2 * z E Therefore = E * ( T + az + b ) ,

(7) (8)

= ( z ) . By analogy with the homogeneous plate [3], it is reasonable to assume that the stress components will be of the following form: x = y = ( z) (1) . z = xy = yz = zx = 0 These stresses satisfy identically the following equilibrium equations of the theory of elasticity [3, 5]: x yx xz (x, y, z). (2) + + =0 x y z Here and below the symbol (x, y, z) denotes permutation by means of which we can write two more equations corresponding to the other two axes, changing x for y, y for z, and z for x. From the thermoelastic stress-strain relations [3, 5] 1 (3) x = x ( y + z ) + T E (x, y, z) we have x = y = ( z ) = * + T E (4) , 2 z = + T E where E E* = (5) 1 is the biaxial elastic modulus. For strains (4) the compatibility equations [3, 5] 2 2 2 x y xy (6) + 2 = 0 (x, y, z) y 2 x xy are reduced to

where the constants a and b are to be determined from the boundary conditions of zero resultant force and moment on the edges of the plate. These conditions are reduced to:

dz = zdz = 0.
0 0

(9)

Substitution of expression (8) yields the two equations for the unknown constants a and b. From these equations we find: CNT BM T a= C 2 BD (10) , CM T DNT b= C 2 BD where the quantities NT, MT, B, C and D are defined as follows: h NT = E * Tdz 0 (11) ; h * M T = E Tzdz 0 h B = E *dz 0 h (12) C = E * zdz . 0 h D = E * z 2 dz 0 The displacements ux, uy and uz in the x, y and z directions, respectively, are obtained by using equations [3, 5] u ( x, y, z) (13) x = x x and (4) as well as (8). The solution is then found to be: u x = x ( az + b ) (14) ; u y = y ( az + b )

a 2 ( x + y2 ) + 2 (15) z 2 1+ T dz. + ( az + b ) + 1 1 0 For completeness of the solution, we determine the deformation characteristics of the reference surface (z = 0). Using equations (14) and (13) we have for strain on the reference surface: (16) ( 0) 0 = b . uz = In the case of small deflections we can use for curvatures the approximations: 2u 2u x = 2z ; y = 2z . x y Then, using equation (15) we find the curvatures of the reference surface x = y 0 = a . (17) Thus, the plate subjected to a uniform temperature change is bent to a spherical surface.
2.2. Plate with sliding edges

Fig. 3. Plate with fixed edges Then a = b = 0 and equation (8) for stresses is reduced to = E * T . (20)
3. LAYERED PLATE SUBJECTED TO A UNIFORM TEMPERATURE CHANGE 3.1. Plate with free edges

Consider a layered plate (Fig. 4) consisting of an arbitrary number n of layers with different constant thicknesses hi.

For a plate with sliding edges (Fig. 2), we can suppose that u u uz = 0 , z = z = 0 x y for every point of the reference surface.

Fig. 4. Layered plate The location of an arbitrary layer i of the plate is specified by the coordinate zi, which is the distance from the bottom plane of the plate to the top plane of the ith layer. Assume that the coefficient of thermal expansion i, the modulus of elasticity Ei and the Poissons ratio i do not change through the thickness of the ith layer. Then, assuming that the plate is subjected to a uniform temperature change T, and using piecewise integration, we can write the parameters NT, MT, B, C and D in equations (11) and (12) as n n NT = T Ei*i ( zi zi1 ) = T Ei*i hi i =1 i =1 ; (21) n T * 2 2 MT = Ei i ( zi zi1 ) 2 i=1

Fig. 2. Plate with sliding edges Then a = 0 and from equations (10) it follows that N (18) b= T B and expression (8) for stresses is reduced to = E * ( T + b ) . (19)
2.3. Plate with fixed edges

For a plate with fixed edges (Fig. 3), we can start from the assumptions that u u ux = u y = uz = 0 , z = z = 0 x y on the reference surface.

n n B = Ei* ( zi zi 1 ) = Ei*hi i =1 i =1 n 1 C = Ei* ( zi2 zi21 ) . 2 i =1 1 n * 3 3 D = Ei ( zi zi 1 ) 3 i =1 For the constants (10) we have a = a T ; b = b T , where CNT BM T a= C 2 BD . CM T DNT b= C 2 BD Here

(22)

4. APPLICATIONS: THERMAL STRESSES DUE TO UNIFORM TEMPERATURE CHANGE IN A COPPER PLATE WITH A GALVANIC STEEL COATING

(23)

n n NT = Ei*i ( zi zi 1 ) = Ei*i hi i =1 i =1 . (24) n 1 * 2 2 MT = Ei i ( zi zi 1 ) 2 i =1 In accordance with equation (8) stresses in the ith layer are i = Ei*T ( i + az + b ) . (25)

Usually, the coefficients of thermal expansion of the substrate and coating are different and the temperature of the coating process differs from room temperature (+20C). Therefore, thermal stresses are generated in coated parts. In experimental analysis of residual stresses it may turn out that coating temperature differs from the temperature at which the deformation parameters of the substrate are measured. In such cases measurement results have to be corrected taking into account thermal stresses. As a numerical example, thermal stresses and displacements for a quadratic copper plate 30301 mm with galvanic steel coating deposited at 95C are calculated.

Deformation parameters are 0 = b T . 0 = a T


3.2. Plate with sliding edges

(26)

In this case a = 0 , and N b= T . B Stresses in the ith layer are i = Ei*T ( i + b ) . Strain on the reference surface 0 = b T .
3.3. Plate with fixed edges

(27) (28)

(29)

Fig. 5. Copper plate with a steel coating In addition, the following data is used: h1 = = 1.00 mm; E1 = 110 GPa; 1 = 0.34; 1 = = 17.5 10-6 1/C for the substrate and h2 = = 0.26 mm; E2 = 202 GPa; 2 = 0.28; 2 = = 14.3 10-6 1/C for the coating.

For this case a = b = 0 , and stresses in the ith layer are (30) i = Ei* i T .

4.1. Plate with free edges

4.4. FEM analysis

For uniform temperature change T = = 20 95 = 75C, the values defined by equations (5), (22) and (24) are: E1* = 166.7 GPa; E2* = 280.6 GPa; NT = 3961 N/m; MT = 2.638 N; 6 B = 239.66 10 N/m; C = 165.790 103 N; D = 149.10 Nm. By means of equations (23) we have a = -2.980 10-3 1/m; b = 18.635 10-6. For stresses in layers from equation (25) it follows that: i = 75Ei* ( i + 2.980 103 z 18.635 106 )
(i = 1, 2). (31) At typical points of thickness stresses in MPa are: 1 ( 0 ) = 14.19 (13.51) 1 (1 103 ) = 23.07 (23.62) . (32) 3 2 (110 ) = 28.52 (27.56) 2 (1.26 103 ) = 12.21 (11.32) From (26) for the strain and curvature of the reference surface we find 0 = 1398 106 ( 1393.6 106 ) . (33) 3 3 -1 0 = 216 10 (222.53 10 ) m
4.2. Plate with sliding edges

A similar problem was analysed by the finite element program ANSYS. The obtained distribution of normal stress x = = y = in the middle region of the plate is presented in Fig. 6. The values of stresses at typical points of thickness are given in the parentheses at the given data sets (32), (35) and (37). The values of the deformation parameters 0 and 0 are presented in the same manner at the data sets (33) and (36). Comparison of the results shows that discrepancy between data is less than 5%. Some results of stress analysis in the edge region (12.5 mm x 15 mm, y = 0, 0 z 1.26 mm) are presented in Fig. 7. As we can see, the normal stresses x = y = in the edge region are reduced. The normal stress z, known as peeling stress, and the shear stress zx are highly localized near the edge. These facts once again confirm the validity of the well-known Saint-Venants principle.

According to (27), we have b =16.52810-6 and for stresses in layers (28) we obtain i = 75Ei* ( i 16.528 106 ) (34) (i = 1, 2). From here for stresses in MPa we have: 1 = 12.15 (12.16) (35) . 2 = 46.89 (46.77) Strain on the reference surface (29) has the value 0 = 1240 106 ( 1239.6 106 ) . (36)
4.3. Plate with fixed edges

By means of equation (30) we calculate stresses in the layers in MPa: 1 = 218.79 (218.7) (37) . 2 = 300.94 (300.8)

Fig. 6. Normal stresses x = y = (z) in the middle region of a free copper plate with a steel coating

(a)

(c)

(b) (d) Fig. 7. Stress distributions in the edge region: (a) normal stress x, (b) normal stress y, (c) normal stress (peeling stress) z, (d) shear stress zx (MPa)
5. CONCLUSIONS

1. Using the semi-inverse method, an analytical solution is obtained for the thermoelastic problem of a plate with an arbitrary contour nonhomogeneous through thickness. The results are applied for analysis of a layered plate subjected to a uniform temperature change. 2. As an application, stresses due to uniform temperature change in a copper plate with a galvanic steel coating are determined. 3. Using the finite element method, the thermo-mechanical state of the same plate with the coating is studied. For the middle region, good agreement is achieved between the data of the analytical and numerical methods. The data obtained with the use of the finite element method for stresses in the edge region of the plate confirm the validity of the well-known SaintVenants principle.
6. REFERENCES

2.

3.

4.

5.

stresses caused by thermal strain in semiconductor multilayer structures. J. Appl. Phys., 1983, 54 (1), 83 85. Hsueh, C. H. Thermal stresses in elastic multilayer systems. Thin Solid Films, 2002, 418, 182 188. Boley, B. A. and Weiner, J. H. Theory of Thermal Stresses. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, London, 1960. Ko, J. P. Problem of thermoelasticity for a free nonhomogeneous plate with temperature variation through thickness. In Heat Stresses in Structural Members. Naukova Dumka, Kyiv, 1979, 19, 89 91 (in Russian). Timoshenko, S. P., Goodier, J. N. Theory of Elasticity. Third Edition. McGraw-Hill, Singapore, 1970.

7. CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

1. Feng, Z. C. and Liu, H. D. Generalized formula for curvature radius and layer

Prof. emer. Jakub Ko Estonian University of Life Sciences Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering Kreutzwaldi 5, Tartu 51014, Estonia, E-mail: jakub.koo@emu.ee