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CHAPTER 7: CIRCULATION AND BLOOD

Cardiovascular disease: leading cause of death in NA 44000 Canadians (40% under 65)/ year Campaigns educating about importance of organ donation + numbers of donors 4000+ of sickest patients in Canada/United States waiting list new heart. Some dont receive. Past few years demand for organs rise 15%/year (rate will increase). 3000- worldwide receive heart transplants/annually Dr. Michael Sefton (director Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering at UofT): solution almost unlimited number of hearts for transplant: heart in a box: transplantable heart grown in lab 1) create scaffolding (biodegradable plastic) for cells to grow around 2) seed it with living cells 3) placed in bioreactor (incubator): maintains constant body temperature, gives nutrients + oxygen cell division 4) cells secrete proteins + growth factors = bind them together tissues 5) successful component of the heart

7.1 The Importance of a Circulatory System


Circulatory System: Carries nutrients to cells, wastes away from cells, chemical messages from cells to tissues Distributes heat in body With kidneys maintains acceptable levels of body fluid Transports wastes + helps defend against invading organisms (transport of immune cells through body). E.g. David, the boy in the plastic bubble, born w.o immune system (body unable to produce cells that protect from disease) Lived in germ-free environment. Eventually, received bone marrow transplant from sister with virus hidden inside. How it works: 96000 km of blood vessels 100 trillion cells (every cell is less than 2 cells away from a blood vessel) The heart (size of fist, mass 300 g) beats 70 times/min. (One lifetime = enough blood 2 ocean tankers) In 1 minute: 5L of blood: heart lungs oxygen heart oxygen rich blood and nutrients tissues. Oxygen: helps break down high energy glucose low energy compounds + releases energy in tissue cells. Cells use energy build new materials, repair structures, other energy-consuming reactions. Oxygen = necessary, and provided by circulatory system. The Challenge of Transporting Oxygen and Nutrients Single celled organisms: no circulatory system: oxygen diffuses directly in from seawater, and wastes out Simple multicellular organisms: e.g. sponge: none in aquatic environment. Sponge: 2 cell layers, all in contact with water. Flagella pulls water in (incl: oxygen and nutrients). Water and wastes out through large pore/osculum at top of body Complex multicellular organisms: 3 cell layers: middle: mesoderm (of an animal embryo: more complex becomes muscles + other connective tissues, blood vessels, blood cells, other organs, structures, systems) is between ectoderm (outermost tissue layer of animal embryo: more complex becomes skin, outermost nervous system, other outer organs, structures, systems) and endoderm (innermost: more complex becomes digestive tract, respiratory tract, other inner organs, structures, systems). Mesoderm: no contact with circulating fluids or water needs circulatory system (oxygen + nutrients) Open Circulatory Systems Blood with oxygen and nutrients directly pumped into body cavities, bathing cells. Low pressure. Found in snails, insects, crustaceans. No distinction between blood + interstitial (space between cells) fluid. Contraction of 1+ hearts pushes blood to different body cavities (sinus: air space surrounding internal organ). Muscular movements during locomotion assists, but diverting blood flow to diff areas = limited Closed Circulatory System

Blood always in blood tubes, vessels. In earthworms, squids, octopuses, vertebrates. Separates blood from interstitial fluid. E.g. Earthworm: 5 heartlike vessels: pump blood 3 major blood vessels. Blood larger blood vessels smaller vessels various tissues.

7.2 Components of Blood


Avg 70 kg person nourished and protected by 5 L of blood Blood is a fluid tissue (fluid is 90% water) individual cells work together common, specialized purpose 55% fluid plasma 90% water blood proteins, glucose, vitamins, minerals, dissolved gases, waste products of cell metabolism large plasma proteins maintain homeostasis one group albumins: + organic minerals osmotic pressure draws water back into capillaries + helps maintain body fluid levels second group globulins: protection against invading microbes third group fibrinogens: blood clotting 45% blood cells percentage: hematocrit 1% (less) white blood cells Erythrocytes (red blood cells) Function Transport of oxygen hemoglobin increases ability of blood to carry oxygen 70x (though some oxygen diffuses into plasma). Life can continue for 5 mins. After cells die. Hemoglobin 280 mill hemoglobin molecules in 1 red blood cell (need sufficient amounts oxygen delivery) Heme (iron-containing pigment) + globin (protein structure). 4 iron molecules folded protein structure, bind with oxygen molecules = oxyhemoglobin complex red color (oxygen gone, shape changes blue) Shape and Biconcave (concave on both sides) disks 7 micrometers in D = greater SA for gas exchange Structure (20% - 30%+ sphere) Cell Reproduction 5 million/ minute, live only 120 days. Outer membranes brittle with age, rupture in narrow capillaries. Specialized white blood cells in spleen + liver monitor age/ remove debris. Haemoglobin - released after breakdown of red blood cells, iron recovered and stored in bone marrow for later. Heme bile pigments. (male 5.5 bill red blood cells/ ml of blood, female: 4.5 bill/ ml) Enucleated (more room for hemoglobin): produced in bone marrow by nucleated stem cells, lose nuclei when discharged into blood stream Anemia Condition: deficiency in hemoglobin/ red blood cells decreases oxygen delivery low energy levels. Most common cause: hemorrhage, physical injury, bleeding from ulcers, hemorrhage in lungs (tuberculosis). Body cant cope after 40% blood loss. Anemia associated with dietary deficiency of iron (part of hemoglobin). Raisins + liver = rich in iron Leukocytes (white blood cells) Description Less numerous than red blood cells: 700 to 1 Nucleus (easily distinguishable). Size and shape identification Identification Granulocytes: small cytoplasmic granules visible when stained (from bone marrow) Agranulocytes: no granular cytoplasm (from bone marrow, modified in lymph nodes) Function Some destroy invading microbes: phagocytosis Squeeze out of capillaries toward microbe like amoeba engulfs releases enzymes that digest microbe + leukocyte pus (protein fragments after white blood cells engulf +

Platelets Description

destroy microbe) Antibodies are formed by some white blood cells invading microbes + toxins

Function

No nucleus, produced from large nucleated cells in bone marrow Small fragments of cytoplasm break from megakaryocyte (large cell in bone marrow) platelets Move through smooth blood vessels, rupture if they strike sharp edge (torn blood vessel) blood clotting reactions

7.3 Blood Groups


Successful transfusions need correct matching of blood types Some red blood cells have special markers on membrane (A marker, B marker, AB marker, O = no marker) Type A Type O. Antibodies (special proteins) are produced to react to A-type protein, which acts as antigen (substance (usually protein): stimulates production of antibodies). Antibodies attach to A-type proteins, they clump together clog capillaries + prevent oxygen/nutrient delivery to tissue cells. Result = extensive tissue damage, death. Wont happen with same type of blood cells A A. B B. A + B AB. O O. O A, B, AB, O = universal donors. Antigens + antibodies in serum (liquid after solid/liquid components of blood have separated) for blood groups. Rhesus Factor 1940s: discovered inherited antigen on red blood cell 85% of Canadians Rh-positive. Rh negative Rh positive, shouldnt receive. No natural antibodies against Rh factors, but antibodies can be produced after antigens from a transfusion. Immune reaction subdued compared to ABO group. Frontiers of Technology: Artificial Blood Fluosol: artificial blood: non toxic liquid containing fluorine, with both oxygen and carbon dioxide. Requires no blood matching, can be stored when frozen. Doesnt need expensive screening procedures, cant carry HIV, hepatitis, etc. Carries oxygen, but ill-suited for other functions (blood clotting, immunity). Real value: provides time for natural human blood, supplement for patients with diseases like thalassemia (Cooleys anemia), aplastic anemia (multiple transfusions). Helps prevent overload of iron. -

7.4 Blood Vessels


Arteries Description

Aneurysm

Arterioles

Blood vessels: blood away from heart Thick walls: outer + inner layers primarily connective tissue, middle layers muscle fibres and elastic connective tissue. Heart contracts: blood surges from heart arteries stretch (pulse = change in D). Heart relaxes: pressure drops, elastic fibres in wall recoil. Cells of artery have blood vessels for nourishment Birth defect, injury causes inner wall of artery to bulge. Weakened segment of artery protrudes as blood pulses through less support, eventually ruptures less oxygen + nutrients to tissues cell death. In brain Stroke. Smaller arteries elastic fibres and smooth muscle Autonomic Nervous System (part of nervous system, involuntary, controls motor nerves that maintain homeostasis): regulates D of arterioles Vasoconstriction: nerve impulse smooth muscles to contract reducing D

decreases blood flow. Vasodilation: relaxation dilation of arterioles increased blood flow cells in area energy-consuming tasks. Precapillary sphincter muscles regulate blood flow from arterioles to capillaries. E.g. Blushing: vasodilation of arterioles to skin capillaries. Pink = red blood cells close to surface. Releases excess heat produced nervous E.g. Paling: constriction of arteriolar muscles diverts blood from outer capillaries muscles = more oxygen, glucose for energy (danger or threat) Arterioles to capillaries open only if blood is needed. Majority of brain remains open, 1/50 in resting muscle open.

Fat in the Arteries: Atherosclerosis