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Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project

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Section General Description of Boiler Chapter The function of boiler


The production enterprise is called power plant. The simple flowing chart of the production procedure of fossil fired power plant can be expressed by figure 1-1. Fuel is burning in boiler 1, the released heat will heat the water in boiler, and this water will be evaporated and overheated into superheat steam with certain temperature and pressure. This superheat steam will go into turbine2 through pipes. The steam will work in turbine by expansion and roll up the steam turbine to rotate the generator 3 to generate electricity. After work in turbine, the steam will be exhausted into Superheat steam condenser 4, and cooled by the cooling water supplied by circulating water pump 11 into condensate water. After rising pressure by condensate water pump 5, this Making condensate water will go into LP up water heater 6 to be heated. After removing oxygen in deaerator 7, the pressure of it will be raised by feed water pump 8, and then it will be heated by HP heater and then go back to boiler to go on doing the above circulating course. The heating source of water in heater and deaerator comes from the extraction 10 of turbine.
Cooling water From the above circulation, we will know there is a energy transformation course of three kinds of energy in power plant: the 1boiler 2steam turbine 3generator 4condenser chemical energy in the fuel is 5condensate water pump 6 LP heater 7 deaerator transferred into the heat energy of 8feed water pump 9 extraction of steam turbine 10 steam in boiler; the heat energy of circulating water pump Figure 11 steam is transferred into mechanical Production procedure of thermal power plant energy in steam turbine; the mechanical energy is transferred into electric energy in generator. The important equipment in the course of energy transformation ---- boiler, turbine and generator are called three main equipments in fossil fired power plant.

Boiler is the most basic energy transformation equipment in these three main equipments in fossil fired power plant. Its function is burning the fuel in boiler to release heat, and heat the medium ---- water in boiler into superheat steam with enough amounts and certain quality (temperature and pressure) to supply to turbine.

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Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project

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Chapter Classification of boiler


. Classify according to the volume of boiler Boiler is classified into small-scale, middle-scale and large-scale according to the evaporation volume, but there is no fixed boundary between them. Along with the development of boiler industry, the volume of boiler is increased gradually. The large-scale boiler in past is just a middle-scale or even small-scale boiler in nowadays. According to the condition at present, generally, D400t/h is considered as small-scale boiler, and D670t/h is considered as largescale boiler. . Classify according to the parameters of steam According to the pressure of steam, boiler can be classified into: low pressure boiler (P2.45Mpa gauge pressure) / middle pressure boiler (P=2.94-4.92Mpa gauge pressure), high pressure boiler (P=7.84-10.8Mpa gauge pressure), superheat pressure boiler (P=11.8-14.7Mpa gauge pressure), critical pressure boiler (P=15.7-19.6Mpa) and supercritical pressure boiler (P22.1Mpa) and so on. . Classified according to the method of combustion According to the combustion method of method in boiler is different, boiler can be classified into: cyclone furnace boiler and fluidized bed boiler and so on. . Classified according to the circulating method of water According to the different source of the main power that make work medium flow on the evaporating heat surface, boiler can be classified into natural circulating boiler, control circulating boiler and once-through boiler generally. . Vikram thermal power plant The boiler used in Vikram thermal power plant is HP, natural circulating, small-scale fluidized bed according to the above classification method of boiler. The mode of the boiler used in Vikram thermal power plant is DGJ130/9.81-1; it is 130t/h single drum, HP natural circulation, insulation cyclone separator, J valve back material device, water cooling air room, full welding steel structure boiler support, circulating fluidized bed combustion type boiler designed and produced by Dongfang Boiler Industry Group Co., Ltd for M/s. Vikram Cement Indian.

Chapter The composition and principle of CFB boiler


The composition of boiler
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Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project

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Boiler is very complicated in modern thermal power plants, and it consists of boiler proper and a series of auxiliary equipments. Boiler proper is the main part of a boiler; it consists of a pot and a furnace. The pot consists of economizer; drum, down comers, water walls, super-heaters and their accessories, etc. its task is to make water absorb heat and evaporate it into steam, and become into certain pressure and temperature superheat steam at last; the furnace consists of furnace chamber, flue, firing equipments and air preheater, etc. so as to produce flame and flue gas with high temperature. The flue gas produced in pulverized coal combustion will be discharged into atmosphere after removing dusts. Except boiler proper, ID fans, FD fans, exhausters, chimney, dust and slag removal equipments, coal pulverization equipments, thermal instruments, and automation devices belong to auxiliary equipments of boiler. In order to pledge the safe and economic operation of boiler, some accessories as safety valves, water level indicators, sootblowers, water level alarm, furnace protection, etc, are equipped. . The working principle of circulating fluidized bed boiler The technology of circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFB) is a new technology development in the 70th s. Its prime power is the appreciation for the environment protection of human society. The technology of circulating fluidized bed is a kind of clean combustion technology. Its special combustion way reduced the releasing amount of SO2 and NOx in coal fired power plant that are the main source of air pollution in world, i.e. it solve the problem of acid rain fundamentally. At the same time, the circulating fluidized bed boiler also has wide conformance for fuel and good accommodation for load, and the investment and operation cost are also lower compared with other. So this technology develops fast and strongly as one of the three directions of the development of energy technology in the world. Fluidization refers to the air flow cross the material on air arrangement device under certain speed to make the particle of material contact with air flow to transfer into the state that is similar with fluid. The type of fluidized bed is depended on the flow velocity on the section of empty bed. Along with the rising of the velocity of air flow, the drag force produced by air flow to the material particle in bed is balanced with the gravity and buoyancy worked on the particles; the material in bed gets to rapid fluidized state from static bed condition through boiling, and turbulent state. The technology of circulating combustion is developed on the base of boiling fluidized bed combustion; the fundamental distinction of circulating combustion and boiling bed combustion is that the multiple circulating combustion of solid material in fluidized bed is realized. Vikram thermal power plant The boiling fluidized bed is operated under the condition that the speed of the section of air flow empty bed is lower than 2~3m/s, and there is obvious parting surface on the layer of bed. After the speed of air flow is increased and exceed the speed of boiling, the lay of bed begin
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Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project

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to expand, and a large amount of solid particle is thrown into the suspending space over the bed layer, and the surface of bed lay tends to diffusion, and there is no obvious parting surface at this time, but the concentration increased along the height of combustion room is lower and lower. The air flow velocity inside of circulating fluidized bed is generally at 3.5-8m/s, the mixture of the material in bed is uniform and the fluidization is stable. The material in bed is brought out of furnace by high speed air, and it is caught by air solid separator, and then this part of material is sent into fluidized bed to combust again by material returning system. After multiple circulation, the combustion efficiency of solid material is very high, and the air flow with high concentration of dust strengthen the heat transformation; at the same time, the temperature of bed is controlled by the pressure of bed and the arrangement of primary air and secondary air so that the low temperature combustion at 850-950 is realized; the productions of SO2 and NOx are also limited effectively by adding desulphurization agent and adopting hierarchical air arrangement to make the emission of boiler meet the standard of environment protection. . The technological process of circulating fluidized bed boiler The main component parts of circulating fluidized bed boiler are as follows: The main loop of the circulation of solid particle includes furnace, cyclone separator, and material return device. Tail vertical shaft (include high temperature superheater, low temperature superheater, economizer and air preheater)

In the technological process of circulating fluidized bed boiler, the combustion and desulphurization take place at the bed lay whose temperature is lower that is composed by a large amount of ash particle, and the improvement of combustion efficiency and the efficiency of desulphurization should be taken into consideration in the choose of temperature. These fine particles or solid particles is suspending in furnace supported by the ascending flue gas stream produced by primary air through air arrangement plate, and the secondary air is divided into two layers to send into furnace, so the hierarchical combustion can be realized. After overwhelming majority of solid particles is separated from gas solid flow by cyclone separator, it will be sent back into furnace again and attend combustion. This forms the main loop of circulating fluidized bed boiler. The characteristics of the main loop of circulating fluidized bed are: strong disturbance and mixture, inside circulation and outside circulation of high concentration of solid particle, high velocity of solid/ gas and longer staying time; the above characteristic supplied good outside condition for heat transferring and chemical reaction. The good performance of reducing the pollution of SO 2 of circulating fluidized bed boiler can be described as follow: The sulfur in the coal used in circulating fluidized bed boiler reacts with the CaO in the coal ash or the added limestone so that the desulphurization can be realized in furnace directly. The limestone added in furnace is decomposed into CaO, and then CaO reacts with SO2 and produce CaSO4, shown in following:
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Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project CaO + CO2 CaO + SO2 + 1/2 O2 CaCO3 CaSO4

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The best temperature of this reaction is about 850. The temperature of furnace should be controlled at 850 when the changing range of load is larger. The hierarchical combustion and lower temperature of furnace can reduce the emission of NOx farthest at the same time. The characteristic of the technological process of circulating fluidized bed boiler are as follow: The particle of material mixes uniformly and the temperature of bed distributes uniformly. The fuel stays in furnace for longer time. Keep the temperature of furnace at the best temperature of removing SO2. The above characteristic can guarantee the realization of following performances: The combustion rate of carbon is higher and the efficiency of desulphurization is higher; Low emission of NOX and better conformance

. Integral arrangement of DGJ130/9.81-1type boiler This boiler is single drum, natural circulation, circulating fluidized bed combustion way, and it is out door. The boiler is composed by one diaphragm water wall furnace, one insulation cyclone separator and one heat recovery area (HRA) covered by steam cooling wall enclosure There are two plates of platen superheater in furnace. There are two coal feeders and two limestone feeding mouths in boiler and all of them are set in front of boiler and equipped at the compressed section at the lower part of the water wall of front wall in the direction of width. There is water cooling air room made by the pipes of water wall at the bottom of furnace; it is connected with two sets of air duct igniters; and one oil igniter is arranged in the air duct igniter. Between the furnace and tail vertical well, a insulation cyclone separator is arranged here, and a J valve material returning device is equipped under it. High temperature superheater, low temperature superheater, economizer, and horizontal air preheater are quipped in tail vertical well from up to down. There is secondary water jet attemperator is set in superheater system. The whole boiler is symmetrical from its left side to right side, and it is supported by boiler steel support. Attached drawing 3 is the side view of boiler and attached drawing 4 is the top view of boiler. The important structure sides and components are shown in these drawings.
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Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project

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Section Fuel and Combustion Equipment Chapter Fuel


Coal 1. The composition of coal The composition of coal can be researched by ultimate analysis method and proximate analysis method. The composition of ultimate analysis of coal include carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), ash (A), water (W). Carbon, hydrogen, and partial sulfur are combustible, other parts are incombustible. Carbon is the main combustible component in coal. The proximate analysis method of coal includes water, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash. The components of volatile matter have some combustible material such as CO, H2, CH4, H2S and so on and incombustible material such as CO2, O2, N2 and so on. The main characteristics of coal include heat value, volatile matter, coking property, grindability, and ash melting point. The coals used Vikram thermal power plant are ignite, Indian coal, imported coal, and coke. 2. The characteristic of fuel of Vikram power plant
Characteristic of fuel Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Sulfur Water Ash Volatile matter Low heating value Grind-ability index Car Har Oar Nar Sar Mar Aar Vdaf LHV HGI Characteristics of limestone
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% % % % % % % % kJ/kg /

29.82 2.41 10.69 0.41 2.06 50 4.61 27.13 10292

Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project


CaCO3 MgCO3 H2O Other % % % %

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75 3 2 20

3. The combustion of fuel and limestone of two units of Vikram power plant
Performance Best Worst lignite lignite lignite The consumption amount of fuel per hour (t) 74 76.6 66.8 The consumption amount of fuel per day (t) 1776 1838.4 1603.2 The consumption amount of limestone per hour (t) 18.2 18.2 6.2 The consumption amount of limestone per day (t) 436.8 436.8 148.8 Note: The above data is calculated under the condition of the unit operates 24h/per day at 100% BMCR. Item

. Fuel oil The physical characteristic of fuel oil includes viscosity, solidifying point, flash point, ignition temperature and so on. Viscosity refers to the resistance produced by oil to the flow of itself; it can express the flow characteristic. The phenomenon of the liquid material is changed into solid state is called solidification, and the temperature when begin to solidify is called solidifying point. The temperature of fuel oil should be controlled above the solidifying point to avoid the solidification of fuel oil to block the pipes. When the fuel oil is heated to a certain temperature, oil vapor will appear on the surface of oil. When the mixture of oil and air gets a certain concentration, if there is fire near them, the blue light of fire will be produced and this blue light will disappear instantaneously. This temperature is called the flash point of oil. The temperature of fuel oil should be controlled under flash point to avoid explosion. The oil vapor molecule on the surface of fuel oil trends to saturate when the temperature of oil rises to a certain temperature. if the mixture of it and air reaches certain concentration and there is fire nearly, it can be burned and continuous combustion can be kept. This temperature is called ignition temperature. The under bed ignition method is adopted by Vikram power plant. 0# light diesel is used in ignition. The parameters of the oil used in ignition are as follows:
Serial No. 1 Analysis item Kinetic viscosity (200C) Unit m2/s
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Standard requirement 310-6810-6

Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project


2 3 4 5 6 Low heating value Flash point in closed up Solidifying point Ash Sulfur kJ/kg % %

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41868 No less than 65 0 No more than 0.025 No more than 0.2

Chapter Coal preparation equipment and coal feeding equipment


. Coal crusher Two reversible hammer coal crushers are set in the coal crushing part in the coal conveying system in Vikram power plant; one is operating and one is standby. After crushing, the coal will go into the sieve equipment to sieve, and then it will be sent into the coal conveyor in next section, and the coal left on mesh will be sent back to the inlet of crusher by bucket elevator to crush again. The graininess of fuel after grading should satisfy the following requirements:
Size of grading Petroleum coke Imported coal Indian coal and ignite Limestone

The percentage left on sieve (total accumulation) + 90 mm + 75 mm + 60 mm + 50 mm + 40 mm + 32 mm + 25 mm + 20 mm + 12.5 mm + 10 mm + 6.3 mm + 4.0 mm 2.56 5.47 25.93 34.62 51.32 60.48 69.37 +2.8mm + 2.0 mm 80.46
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0.0 -

0.0 4.12 1.91 14.16 22.74 30.14 41.62 58.55 68.90 75.89

0.0 20.64 8.87 35.58 41.21 46.53 53.56 68.38 71.08 74.71 81.65

3.0 12.5 15.0 23.0 32.0 38.0 65.0 80.0 -

94.0

Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project


+ 1.0 mm 85.00 85.00 84.00

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95.0

. Coal feeding equipment The coal feeding equipment has coal bunker, limestone silo, coal feeder, and pneumatic conveying device. 1. Coal bunker The main task of coal bunker is coal storage and guaranteeing the necessary amount of coal needed by coal feeder. In design, the volume of coal bunker can be used by boiler for supporting 6~8 hours continuous operation. The coal bunker is arranged from 27.5m to 1m in front of coal feed in Vikram thermal power plant. It is divided into two parts: the first one is used for petroleum coke/ limestone, and the other part is used for Indian coal/ imported coal; and the effective volume of every part is 300m3. Coal bunker is reinforced concrete structure and SS304 inside lining whose min. thickness is 3mm is set at cone. Limestone bunker is placed in front of coal feeder from 27.5m to 15m. It is divided into two parts, and the effective volume of every part is 171m3. It can meet the required amount of limestone under the condition of boiler is operating for 18.8 hours under BMCR. The limestone bunker is reinforced concrete structure and SS304 inside lining whose min. thickness is 3mm is set at cone. 2. Coal feeder The task of coal feeder is mixing the raw coal that has be produced and has proper grading with limestone and sending them into boiler to burn. Coal and limestone is mixed inside of coal feeder. Four fully-enclosed electronic weighing belt coal feeders whose accuracy are set 15meters layer for every boiler; and the amount of coal feeding is changed depending on the rotating speed of pole slip operating motor. The compatibility of this kind of coal feeder is good, and the amount of conveying is large, the structure of it is simple, the maintenance of it is easy, and the cost of it is lower; the new closed box structure is suitable for the operation under positive and negative pressures. The shortage of it is the wearing of it is serious, its belt is sliding and easy to deviate, and it is easy to leaks coal and so on. Coal feeder is installed at 15.00m place of BC span in main factory building. Two coal feeders in every lay whose length are same should be arranged symmetrical. 3. Pneumatic conveying device Two pneumatic coal distributed devices are arranged at the lower part of the front wall of furnace along the direction of width. After fuel goes into conveyor belt from coal bunker, it falls down into wind power distributed device by gravity. Three coal distributed wind streams
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arranged under coal distributed device blow the fuel into furnace to combust. This coal distributed wind is supplied by boost air fan. The inner wall of coal feeding chamfer is spliced by 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel plate.

Chapter Combustion Equipment


. Furnace The furnace of Vikram Thermal Power Plant is 26554 mm (height) 5791.2mm (width) 5791.2mm (depth) combustion chamber; it is composed by front wall, rear wall and two side walls. At the bottom of furnace, the pipes of rear become sparse and from the bottom of air room and the air arrangement plate of fluidized bed, which form the water cooling air room with the water walls at two sides; the elevation of air arrangement plate is 7000mm; at the top of furnace, the front wall is bent to the back of furnace to form the top of furnace; and the pipes is connected with the outlet header of the water wall of front wall behind the furnace; the highest elevation of the top of furnace is 51228mm. A down header of the water wall of front wall and a bottom header of water wall of air room at the same level are positioned at the place of 5000mm elevation at the lower part of furnace; there is one outlet header of the water wall of front wall, and also on outlet header of water wall of rear wall, the elevation of them are 38860mm; one up header and one down header are set for every side wall; the elevation of the down header of side wall is 5000mm, and the elevation of the up header of side wall is 38460mm. The whole furnace can be divided into three parts: up, middle, down. Take 15511.1 elevation as boundary, because the water wall of front wall and rear wall intersect the horizontal level to form 80angle and then form a trapezoid. At the horizontal air arrangement plate whose elevation is 7000mm, the depth of furnace is 2895mm. Wearing material is laid on the water wall at the down density phase area, rear wall near the outlet of up flue gas, two side walls and roof to avoid wearing, and the thickness of this wearing material is 51mm (to the central line of pipe). The boiler water is sent to every loop from drum by two central draining water pipes. The pitches of the pipes of front wall (including the top of boiler), rear wall and the water walls at two sides are 76.2mm, and the sizes are51. The pipes of front wall and rear wall are 75, and the pipes of two side walls are 75. The air distribution plate is composed by 38 inner screwed pipes whose pitches are 152.4mm and sizes are63.5; the bottom of air room is composed by 38 pipes membrane wall whose pitch is 152.4mm and size is 51. The sizes of the outlet and inlet headers of all water walls are 219. Two coal feeding openings and two limestone openings are set at the front wall of furnace above air distributed plate. Two rows of secondary air openings are installed at the front wall and rear wall of furnace; there are 5 up secondary air opening at single side, and 6 down secondary air opening at single side. There are three ash extraction openings installed evenly at the bottom of furnace, the middle one is emergency ash extraction opening; the outlet of flue gas of furnace is at the top of rear wall. . The flue gas duct at the inlet of cyclone separator and cyclone separator
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One inlet flue duct of cyclone separator is installed in boiler. It connects the outlet of flue gas of back wall of furnace with cyclone separator, and form a air seal flue gas duct. The upper half part of cyclone separator is cylinder, and the lower half part is cone. The outlet of flue gas is cylindrical steel plate forming a cyclone whose end is opening and whose length will reach the certain position of cyclone separator. The fine particle and flue will flow to the bottom of cylinder, and then flow awards to leave cyclone separator. The coarse particles fall into the vertical pipes connected with J shape material returning device directly. The cyclone separator is adiabatic type structure, wearing layer is laid inside of it, and its thickness is 350mm. The size of cyclone separator is2576, and it is made by high strength, anticorrosive, wearing Durimet RA-253MA steel plate. . Lighting-up burner Two air duct igniters are installed under bed for every boiler in Vikram Thermal Power Plant; the heat capacity of ignition burner is designed according to 30% BMCR output; and it is arranged at 5785mm elevation place of two side walls. The fuel used for ignition is fuel highspeed diesel oil, and the oil gun is mechanical central oil back type, there are two oil guns. The rated capacity of single oil gun is 1350kg/h, and the designed air amount of single burner is 40380Nm3/h. . J valve material returning device The bed material and ash separated by steel plate type cyclone separator flow downwards through back material vertical pipes laying fire-resistive material and are discharged to J valve. J valve material back device is installed under cyclone separator, and it is supported on the beam of framework. The connection between separator and material returning device, material returning device and lower part furnace are flexible expansion joint connection. It has two key functions: make the re-circulating bed material return to furnace continuously and stably from cyclone separator; supply seal between the negative pressure of cyclone separator and positive pressure of lower burner. The static pressure of separator is very near to the atmospheric pressure, the pressure of the material returning point of burner is very high because of primary air, so the seal between them must be supplied, or the flue gas of burner will flow back to separator. This seal is realized by building material level in vertical pipe by the material at the outlet at the bottom of separator by J valve. The air used by material returning device is send by individual HP J valve, the J valve air goes into J valve through the bottom air tank and the four layers of aeration mouth, the aeration pipes on every layer have their own air amount measuring point that can show exact flow. The air distribution is adjusted by manual and motor-driven governing valves to realize sending certain amount of air. Pressure measuring point is set on vertical pipes to realize the monitor for material level. The making up inlet of startup material is also set at the top of J valve. Emergency ash removing opening also set at the bottom of J valve material returning device used to remove the ash and slag under the condition of repair and emergency condition; it is not included in ash removing system. The J valve material running device and material returning vertical pipe are made by steel
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plate laying wearing and adiabatic layer whose inner diameter is 1120mm.

Section Principle of Circulation of Natural Water and Evaporation Equipment Chapter Composition and principle of natural water circulation system
Natural water circulation system is the important composition part of steam boiler. It is composed by drum, down comer, water wall, header and connected pipes. Its task is absorbing the heat released by fuel and making the saturated water become saturated steam. In the circulation loop composed by drum, down comer, header, ascension pipe (water wall) and so on, the ascension pipe is heated in boiler, the water is heated to saturated temperature and produces a part of steam; the down comer is set at the outside of boiler and does not heated, the water in pipes is saturated water or non saturated water. So the density of steam and water mixture in ascension pipe is smaller than the density in down comer, and that will produce differential weight of liquid bar at two sides of the center of down heater. It will thrust the mixture of water and steam moves award along the ascension pipe, and the water moves downwards along down comer. The movement of working medium in the loop from drum, down comer, down header, ascension pipe, up header, to connected pipes and then to drum is caused by its differential density. So this kind of circulation of working medium is called natural circulation.

ChapterDrum
. The function of drum Drum is one of the most important equipments in natural circulation boiler. It is connected with the outlet pipe of upper header of water wall, outlet pipe of economizer, and the outlet pipe of centralized down comer and the outlet pipe of saturated steam. In one hand, it composes the circulation loop for evaporation; in the other hand, it accepts the feed water coming from economizer and sends saturated steam to superheater. So it is key position for the connection of heating, evaporation, and superheat. It is a cylinder shape metal container collected boiler water and saturated steam, has certain heat storing and relief ability. . The arrangement of drum and the inside structure The drum in Vikram Thermal Power Plant is positioned at the middle of the top of boiler across the width of boiler. Separating device, dosing medicine pipe, feed water distribution pipe and blowdown pipe are installed inside of it. The setup inside of drum is shown in
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appendix drawing 7. The inner diameter of drum is 1600mm, the length of the straight section of drum is 5m (not include ball shape head). The main equipments inside of it have: Horizontal steam and water separator-----totally 32, arranged in two balanced row Dry tank -----W type vertical wave plate dry tank, totally 12.. Distributed pipe of feed water ---- single end of feed water pipe is leaded into drum, and two multi hole water distributed pipe along the length of drum is connected out of it using three-way valve. Continuous blowdown pipe ---- it is multi hole pipe, and it is leaded out from one end after merging into single pipe in the middle of drum by three-way valve. Dosing pipe ----- It is multi hole pipe, and it is leaded out from one end after merging into single pipe in the middle of drum by three-way valve.

Arc dampers are installed along the straight part of the whole drum and these arc dampers form a jacket room at the lower half of drum. The mixture of steam and water coming out from the outlet pipe of water wall goes into this jacket, and then goes into horizontal steam and water separator to separate, the steam goes into the upper room through central guide pipe and then goes into drying tank; water goes down to the bottom of drum through drainage outlet and iron wire net along water wall. The iron wire net reduces the kinetic energy of draining water and make the brought steam overwing to steam room. The second separation of steam is finished in drying tank. Because the flow velocity of steam gone into drying tank is lower, and the direction of steam flow changed suddenly for many times, the water droplets brought by steam can adhere on the wave plate better and these water droplets can flow to the bottom of drum by gravity. After second separation, the steam will go into steam collection room, and it will be guide out by the connection pipe at the top of drum. The separated water goes into drum, and goes into the centralized water draining pipe through anti-eddy device to attend the next circulation. . The water level in drum The water levels of drum can influent the safe operation of boiler. The water level of drum is controlled by adjust the feed water pump or the governing valve of feed water by operator. The normal water level of boiler in Vikram Thermal Power Plant is at 76mm below the central line of drum. The long-time operation under the condition of higher or lower this water level will influent the performance of separator. If the water level of drum is 125mm higher than normal water level (the highest safe water level or high alarm water level), DCS will alarm; if it is 200mm higher than normal water level (The Max. highest water level or high water level trip), the boiler will be shutdown by itself. High water level will flood the horizontal separator and the ability of separating steam and water will be reduced; the low water level also can reduce the efficiency of separator. The wet steam will leave the drum and go into superheating system. If the water level in drum is 200mm lower than the normal water level (the lowest safe water level or low alarm water level), DCS will alarm; if the water level is 280mm lower than normal water level (lowest lowest water level or low water level trip), the boiler will be shutdown by itself. The moisture in steam will make the solid impurities deposit on the pipe wall of superheater and the blade of steam turbine, that will influent the safe and economic operation of power plant seriously. So the operator should monitor the water level of drum usually.
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Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project . Water level indicator

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In order to monitor and adjust the water level and guarantee the normal water level, various kinds of water level indicators are installed on drum. a. Local close-up water level indicator The local visual water level indicator is equipped near the drum of boiler. The steam and water guide pipes are equipped in the steam and water room in drum to the outside of drum, and then these steam and water pipes are connected and form a closed connecting device. Transparent material such as mica is set in connection pipes, which can reflect the real water level of drum visually. It is real and reliable. No bland zone double color water level indicator is equipped on the drum in Vikram Thermal Power Plant. They are installed at two sides of boiler, there is one at every left end plate and right end plate as lock water level indicator to monitor and check the water level of drum. b. Differential pressure type water level indicator The differential pressure water level indicator transfers the water level signal into differential pressure signal by a balanced container, and then it will be reflected by differential pressure meter, thus we can know the water level and the varying condition. Two double room balanced containers are equipped on the drum of boiler in Vikram Thermal Power Plant, and there are one on every left end plate and right end plate. It is used with differential pressure transmitter together to monitor the water level of drum and output the differential pressure signal when the water level is changed. c. Remote level indicator The remote level indicator measures the water level based on the difference of the conductivity of steam and water. After the electrode of water level container is powering, it will transfer the water level signal into electric signal. Electrode will become water level on water level container. The insulation between the core of electrode and cover of water level container should be good. Because the conductivity of steam is very small, and the resistance is big, the electric circuit of the electrode in steam is blocked. The conductivity of water is big, and its resistance is smaller, the electrode immersed in water connects with the shell, the AC current will bright the indicating light by water. So the water level decides the amount of electrodes immersed in water. If the water level is high, the electrode immersed in water will be more, and the bright indicating lights will be more. We can know the water level from the amount of bright indicating lights. Remote level indicator is equipped on the drum of boiler in Vikram Thermal Power Plant, and it is equipped at two sides of the drum of boiler. One is equipped on left end plate and one is equipped on right end plate. There are 19 electric junctions, and there also have the functions such as visual and audible alarm, output of lock out signal and so on as the alarm, indication, and protection of water level.
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Chapter Water wall and down comer


Water wall is the important steam heating surface that is arranged around the furnace, top of furnace and air arrangement plate. Water wall can absorb the radiating heat released in the combustion of fuel in furnace, and then transfer this heat to the water or mixture of steam and water in pipes to evaporate a part of water. The pitch between the pipes of the water wall of front wall (including the top of furnace), rear wall and side wall of boiler is 76.2mm and the size of it is 51mm. The pipes of front wall and rear wall are 75 respectively; the air arrangement plate is composed by 38 inside screw pipes whose size is 63.5mm pitch is 152.4mm. The bottom of air room is composed by 38 51mm whose pitch is 152.4mm. the sizes of the outlet and inlet header of all water wall are 219mm. Down comer is an equipment that can send the water in drum into the down header of water wall and then into water wall continuously without interruption. Two pipes that can lead water into every down header of water wall respectively are adopted by the boiler in Vikram thermal power plant. The arrangement of the centralized down comer and draining water connected pipe are shown in attached drawing 8.

Chapter Economizer
. The function of economizer Economizer is a kind of equipment that uses the heat energy of fuel gas at the end of boiler to heat the feed water. After adopting economizer, the Gas temperature leaving AH is reduced; and the temperature of feed water is increased; the material is saved, and the differential temperature between feed water and the wall of drum is reduced. . The arrangement of economizer The economizer in Vikram thermal power plant is arranged inside of the vertical well of boiler, and it is composed by three horizontal pipes; the pipe is 32 SA-210M A1 bare pipe; there are 76 sheets along the direction of width, and the horizontal pitch is 74, and it is arranged in the type of two cycle in-line position. The routine wearing protection measures adopted by the pipes of economizer: current distribution plate is equipped between the inlet of pipe team of economizer and the walls around to prevent flue gas from deviating; the pipes in the front row of every pipe team adopt wearing cover plate. The feed water is led from the left side of inlet header and flows through the pipe team of economizer, and it is led into drum through connecting pipe at the right side of outlet header at last. . Recirculation of economizer Because economizer is heated equipment, after shutdown or when the water is not supplied in
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the beginning time of starting up boiler, in order to avoid static vaporization of the water inside of the pipes of economizer, the re-circulating valve of economizer should be open using the water in drum to cool the economizer. One end of the re-circulating pipe of economizer in Vikram Thermal Power Plant is connected with down comer and the other end is connected with the distributed header of the inlet header of economizer. A motor-driven valve is installed on this pipe. It is closed when the operation of boiler is normal to prevent the feed water from going into drum directly and avoid threatening the safety of economizer and drum.

Chapter Feed water system


Feed water system is the important compositing part of drum. It is composed of feed water pipe, economizer, drum, re-circulating pipe and relevant parts. Its task is supplying water to boiler and absorbing the heat of flue gas to improve the temperature of feed water. The feed water of the boiler in Vikram Thermal Power Plant is guided to the inlet header of the economizer in tail flue duct firstly, and then the feed water refluxes upwards into the outlet header through the pipe teams of economizer that are horizontally arranged, and then the feed water goes into drum from the right end plate of drum through the guide out pipe of economizer The feed water coming from machine side should be inducted into control desk of feed water. The adjustment and control of boiler feed water are realized by the control desk of feed water. There are three feed water pipes on the control desk of feed water in Vikram Thermal Power Plant; and motor-driven stop valves, motor-drive drop gates and governing valves are equipped on every feed water pipe to control the feed water of boiler. Before the feed water pipes are put into operation, the air valve and the air vent valve to atmosphere on steam header must be open, and other valves on pipes must be closed. Then start up the feed water pump and open its outlet valve to feed water; this valve cannot be closed until water overflows the dewatering outlet. In addition, when switch over the feed water pipes, the motor-driven valve of the feed water pipe that is prepared to put into operation must be open first and then the motor-driven valve of the feed water pipe that is prepared to stop using can be closed. The switchover procedures of feed water pipe are: A. Open the motor-driven valve of feed water pipe that is prepared to put into operation. B. Turn down the governing valve of feed water pipe that is prepared to stop using, and turn up the governing valve of feed water pipe that is going to be put into operation till the governing valve of the feed water pipe that is going to stop using is closed completely. The flow of feed water should be not changed. C. Close the motor-driven valve of feed water pipe that is prepared to stop using.

Chapter Blowdown of Boiler


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The feed water gone into boiler has salt content, and the boiler water will corrode the boiler to produce corrosion product. So, the boiler water will contain various dissolved and undissolved impurities more or less. Although the impurity content and corrosion produce in the feed water of boiler is very small, but the salt content brought away by every kilogram of steam is smaller than the salt content brought in by every kilogram of water. So the amount of salt and water dross will be increased gradually along with the evaporation of boiler water. The too big salt content in boiler water not only pollutes the steam but also scales on the heating surface of water wall or even corrodes the heating surface. In order to maintain the salt content in boiler water in allowable range, a part of boiler water should be discharged in operation, and some clear feed water should be supplied into boiler to instead of this part of boiler water in order to remove a part of salt and water dross. This kind of method is called blowdown. Blowdown of boiler is one of the most important methods to improve the quality of steam. In power plant, there are two blowdown methods: periodic blowdown and continuous blowdown. Periodic blowdown is done at the down header under the water wall of boiler. Its task is removing the water dross accumulated at the lower part of boiler and the soft deposition produced after phosphate treatment. The time of periodic blowdown is very short, but the ability of removing the deposition in boiler is very strong. The continuous blowdown can blowdown the boiler water whose thickness is biggest from the surface of boiler water continuously. Its aim is reducing the salt content in boiler water and preventing the too high thickness of boiler water from affecting the quality of steam.

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Section Superheated and Steam Temperature Adjustable Equipment Chapter Superheater


. Classification of superheater Superheater is the important compositing part of boiler. Its function is heating the saturated steam coming from drum to superheated steam with certain temperature and pressure. The superheater can be divided into three kinds: radiation, half radiation, and convection according to the different heat exchanging methods. The arrangement of superheater can be divided into three ways: co-current, countercurrent, and mixed-flow according to the relative direction of steam and flue gas. . The working characteristics of superheater The working characteristic of superheater is called steam temperature characteristic; it refers to the variation relationship between the load of boiler and the temperature of steam. Generally, the temperature of the steam of convection superheater will be increased along with the increasing of load. When the load is increasing, the consuming speed of fuel is accelerated, and the heating transferring ratio increase; the temperature of flue gas of the outlet of furnace increases too, so the differential temperature of heat transformation is increased. The heat absorbing amount of unit steam increases, so the temperature of superheater steam rises. The steam temperature characteristic of radiation superheater is that the temperature of steam will be reduced if the load is increased. When the load is increased, the amount of steam will be increased; the radiation heat obtained by radiation superheater is not increased along with the increase of steam amount in direct proportion; the amount absorbed by unit steam reduces so the temperature of steam is reduced. . The flow of superheater system In Vikram Power Plant, after leading out from drum, the saturated steam is leaded into the upper header at the inlet flue duct of insulation cyclone separator by saturated steam connected pipes; it goes into the down header of the inlet duct after going downwards into cooling flue duct; and then it is guided into the bottom ring header of cyclone separator by
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connected pipes; and then it is leaded into the upper header at the front enclosure of tail vertical well from the upper ring header of cyclone separator through connected pipe after going upwards into cooling separator. It passes through front enclosure superheater, two sides enclosure superheater, rear enclosure superheater and collects in the inlet header of low temperature superheater, after flowing downwards into the tube bunch of low temperature superheater that is horizontal arranged, it is guided into the platen superheater from the left side of boiler by connected pipe; and then it returns the high temperature superheater in the tail vertical well from the right side of boiler by connected pipe; at last the qualified superheat steam is leaded from the outlet header of high temperature superheater. Water spraying temperature reduction whose adjustment is flexible is adopted for superheater system to adjust the temperature of steam and protection the pipes of heating surface of every stages. There are two stages of water spraying in the whole superheater system. The primary attemperator is installed on the pipe from the outlet of low temperature superheater to the inlet of platen superheater for coarse adjustment; the secondary attemperator is fixed on the connected pipes between the platen superheater to high temperature superheater for fine adjustment. The above two stages of water jet attemperator can reaches the aim of eliminate the deviation of the temperature of steam by the method of adjusting the amount of spraying water. 1. Enclosure superheater The walls of enclosure superheater are connected by the inlet and outlet headers; at the inlet of flue gas at the upper part of front wall of enclosure superheater, the pipes are sparse to make the pitch increase to 360 from 120 and form the inlet flue gas access; the upper part of the pipes of rear wall bend to the direction of front wall and form the roof of tail vertical well; the front wall and rear wall are composed by 46 pipes respectively, the size of pipe is42, and the size of suspending pipes at the inlet flue window of front wall is60; The walls at two sides are composed by 3142 pipes respectively. Except the size of the upper heater and down header of front enclosure and the inlet header of superheater is273, the size of other headers of enclosure superheater is 219. The characteristic of enclosure superheater is convection heat exchange. 2. Low temperature superheater The low temperature superheater is fixed in the flue duct of tail convection vertical well. The low temperature superheater is composed by 46 pieces of double winding horizontal pipe rings arranged along the width direction of boiler which is sequential and downstream arrangement and whose size is 38. Routine wearing protection measures is adopted by low temperature superheater. Flow blocking board is fixed between the inlet of the pipe team of low temperature superheater and the around wall to prevent deflection of flue gas. The wearing cover plate is adopted at the windward surface for the pipe of front row of low temperature superheater. The 273 outlet header of low temperature superheater is arranged at the vertical rigid beam at the rear wall of vertical flue duct. The characteristic of low temperature superheater is convection heat exchanging. 3. Platen superheater
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The platen superheater has two pieces arranged at the upper part of furnace and near to the front wall of furnace. The superheater is membrane structure; the pitch of pipes is 63.5mm. There are 2442 pipes for every piece. Wearing material is laid at the lower part of platen superheater. The whole platen superheater expands from the lower part to upper part. The outlet header of platen superheater is installed at the upper part of furnace. The characteristic of platen superheater is radiation heat exchanging. 4. High temperature superheater The steam comes out from secondary water spraying attemperator and then flow into the high temperature superheater installed at the upper part of tail flue duct through connected pipes. The steam is leaded from the right side of the inlet header of high temperature superheater outside the boiler, and after flowing through the high temperature superheater in the reverse direction of flue gas, it goes into the outlet header of high temperature superheater. The high temperature superheater is double winding four circles worm tube bunch whose outer diameter is38; and there are 46 pieces of tube bunch along the direction of width. The characteristic of high temperature superheater is convection heat exchange.

ChapterAttemperating water system


The temperature of steam is one of the most important parameters that have to be monitored and controlled in the operation of boiler as water level. If the temperature of steam is too high, it will accelerate the creep deformation of metal and affect the security of boiler and steam turbine directly; if the temperature is too low, the thermal efficiency of steam turbine will be reduced, the humidity of the steam at the last stages of steam turbine will be increased to corrode the blade of steam turbine even produce water impact when serious; so the temperature of steam has to be controlled in regulated range. The adjustment of steam has two aspects: adjustment at steam side and adjustment at flue gas side. Attemperator is the common equipment used to adjust the temperature at steam side. There are two kinds of attemperator: mixed attemperator and surface attemperator. The mixed attemperator is water and steam mixture device; and surface attemperator is heat exchanger. The attemperator used in Vikram Thermal Power Plant is mixed attemperator. . Primary attemperator Primary spraying water attemperator is installed in the steam connected pipe from the outlet header of low temperature superheater to the inlet header of plant superheater at the front wall of furnace. Spraying pipe and mixed sleeve are installed inside of it. The mixed sleeve is installed at the downstream of spraying pipe used to prevent the attemperator from heat impact. Temperature and flow measuring device is installed on attemperating water pipes to measure the amount of water spraying entering into attemperator and the temperature behind attemperator. . Secondary attemperator
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The secondary spraying water attemperator is installed in the steam connected pipe from the outlet header of platen superheater to the inlet header of high temperature superheater of tail convection flue duct. The temperature of superheat steam can be adjusted further in the secondary spraying water attemperator. The structure of secondary attemperator is same with the primary attemperator basically. . The application of attemperator When the temperature is variable, the primary attemperator is used for coarse adjustment and the protection of platen superheater to prevent the pipe wall from exceeding temperature. The secondary attemperator is nearest with the outlet of superheater. When the temperature of superheat steam is changed, it is used for fine adjustment and it can adjust the temperature of steam in regulated range soon; in addition, it also can protection the convection superheater in thermal section to prevent this superheater from exceeding temperature. The temperature of the steam whose temperature is reduced by water spraying entering into the inlet header of platen superheater and the inlet header of high temperature superheater should be 11 higher than the saturated temperature under the pressure of the inlet of pipe. In the initial stages of the startup of boiler, the temperature of steam is low, and the superheat degree is also very small, the thermal load of furnace is not big, the flow of steam is small, the flow velocity is low, and the speed of temperature rising is controlled within 1~1.5 usually. This temperature rising speed should be controlled by combustion instead of controlled by spraying water, and attemperator should not be used at this time. In the startup of boiler, when the pressure of steam raises to 1.0~1.2MPa, the attemperator should be back washed . The aim of this is prevent attemperator from blocking. The washing should be done in single loop way that is benefit for the effect of washing. When the fire in boiler is flame out, the attemperator should be paralleled off immediately to prevent the temperature of steam from going down rapidly. After discharging water of boiler, the water deposited in the water pipes of attemperator should be discharged that is benefit for the anticorrosion of pipes.

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Section Air and Gas System Chapter Ventilating device


. The method of ventilation In the combustion course of boiler, the air needed by combustion has to be sent into furnace unceasingly, and the product of combustion should be removed continuously. This kind of procedure is called ventilation of boiler. The ventilation methods of boiler are four: natural ventilation, negative ventilation, boost ventilation, and balanced ventilation. The one adopted by Vikram Power Plant is balanced ventilation. In air and gas system, there are IDF and FDF. The resistance in airway is gotten over by FDF, and the resistance of flue duct is gotten over by IDF. The working condition of air fan will affect the operation of boiler greatly. The load of boiler is usually limited by the insufficient output or insufficient pressure so that the reliability of the operation of boiler unit becomes bad. One primary air fan, one FDF, and one IDF will be supplied for every boiler in Vikram Power plant. Every one of them can operate independently under 100% BMCR. Two j valve air fan and one pressure air fan are supplied for every boiler. . The classification and function of the air system of circulating fluidized bed boiler 1. Primary air Function: Fluidize the bed material in furnace, and send a certain amount of oxygen to the dense phase area at the bottom of furnace to support the combustion at the same time. The head pressure of primary air is decided by the content and density of material, the size of solid particles, the thickness of bed material, the temperature of bed layer, and so on. The amount of primary air is decided by the speed of fluidization, the characteristic of fuel, the combustion in furnace, the heat transformation, and so on. The amount of primary air is 40~70% of total air amount. One single induction centrifugal primary air fan will be supplied for every boiler in Vikram Power Plant. The model of this air fan is G9-19-11 N0 20.6D.
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Function: make up the oxygen combusted in boiler and strengthen the mixture of material; in addition, it also can adjust the distribution of the temperature field in boiler properly. It can prevent from too high temperature of flue gas in partial area and reducing the discharging amount of NOx. The layered secondary air entered also can reduce the temperature of bed. One single induction centrifugal secondary air fan (FDF) will be supplied for every boiler in Vikram Power Plant. Its model is G6-25-14 N0 20D. 3. Sowing coal air Function: The coal feeding can go into furnace uniformly; the combustion efficiency can be improved to make the temperature in furnace become uniform. And it also can seal the coal chute. The secondary air was used as sowing coal air in past commonly, but primary air is used as sowing coal air now. Because the air pressure of primary air is not enough, one boosting pressure air fan should be supplied to boost the pressure. One single induction centrifugal boosting pressure air fan is set for every boiler in Vikram Power Plant, and its model is G9-12-11NO11.2D. 4. Returning material air Blow the material in material returning device become loose to make the material in material returning air room fluidize slightly and make the returning material can drop into furnace smoothly. Two Roots material returning air fan (J valve air fan) are set of every boiler in Vikram Power Plant, and their model is 3L52WC. . The operation of ventilation device The air fan should be checked before startup to confirm the cooling water and lubricating oil are normal. The inlet damper should be closed when start up the centrifugal air fan; the outlet and inlet dampers should be open when start up Roots material returning air fan, and then, the air fan can be started up to prevent from startup with load. After the monitor is normal, the inlet damper can be opened gradually. The adjustment of air fan is changing the working condition of air fan manually to make the working flow amount can meet the necessary of the working condition of air power in boiler. The common adjusting methods have throttle adjustment, guiding adjustment and speed variation adjustment. The IDF and FDF used in Vikram Power Plant adopt guide adjustor; governing valve is set at the axial direction in front of the air inlet of air fan, and governing guide blades are installed on governing valve that are fixed evenly on circle, the guide blade is supported by juncture bearing; the steam amount can be adjusted by changing the openness
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of blade so that the working characteristic of air fan can be changed. This kind of adjusting method is convenient and economic.

Chapter Air Preheater


Air preheater uses the residual heat of flue gas to raise the temperature of air, that improves the thermal efficiency of boiler greatly and strengthen the combustion in boiler. The air preheater can be divided into two kinds: regeneration and surface, and the second type also can be divided into platen preheater and tube preheater. The air preheater used in Vikram Thermal Power Plant is platen air preheater. The arrangement of it is horizontal type, and it is positioned under the flue duct of tail vertical well. The pipes of it are 452.5mm, 453.5mm normal carbon steel pipes; these pipes are sequentially arranged; the transverse pitch of the pipe tanks of primary air and secondary pipes is 76mm; and the longitudinal pitch is 60mm. Every two pipe tanks are connected by a connecting tank to form two independent accesses from each other. The primary air and secondary air go through these two accesses with different pressures in pipes and exchange heat with the flue gas flowing outside the pipes. The arrangement of flue gas and air is crossed. The temperature of the air at outlet is 199.

Chapter Flow of air and gas system


The circulation of the material inside of the circulating fluidized bed boiler in Vikram Thermal Power Plant is startup and maintained by the kinetic energy supplied by IDF and FDF. Balanced ventilation is adopted by for boiler, and the balanced point of pressure is positioned at the outlet of furnace. After the air coming from primary air fan is heated by air preheater, the first part of it goes into the air room at the bottom of furnace, and fluidizes the bed by the blast cap arranged on air distributed plate, and forms upward two phases flow of gas and solid that will go through furnace; two high speed diesel oil igniting burners under bed are equipped on this road. After heated by air preheater, the second road of hot air will be boosted by coal feeding booster fan using for pneumatic coal distribution. The air coming from secondary air fan is divided into two roads. After heating by air preheater, the first road is sent into furnace through the secondary wind box at the upper part of furnace directly; the second road is not heated by preheater, and this part of air is used as the seal wind of belt conveyor. The air fan should be equipped for slag cooler respectively, and this air fan supplies fluidized air to slag cooler. The wind gone out of slag cooler is leaded into boiler a secondary air. The flue gas and the solid particles brought by it leave the furnace and go into cyclone separator through the flue duct of the inlet of cyclone separator installed on the rear wall of water wall. In separator, overwhelming majority material particles are separated from the flow of flue gas, and the flue gas is guided out through the central barrel of cyclone separator, and guide into the flue duct of tail vertical well from the flue duct of the outlet of separator; and it enters from the flue window of front enclosure and flows downwards to wash the horizontal convection heating surface pipe team arranged in it to transfer the heat to heating surface; and then the flue gas flows through the horizontal air preheater and goes into dust remover; at last
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There are three Roots fan with high pressure head installed for two J valve material returning devices of boiler; the output of every air fan is 100%. In normal operation, every boiler uses one air fan, and the last one is used to standby for two boilers. The air fan is fixed capacity type, so the adjusting principle of the air amount of returned material is sending the residual air through bypass into the air duct of first road of primary air.

Section Dust Removing and Slag Disposal System


After burning in boiler, the coal becomes ash. The ash can be divided into two parts: one part is exhausted out of boiler along with flue gas, and the other part is deposited in boiler. The former is called fly ash, and the latter is called slag. If a large amount of fly ash is exhausted into atmosphere, it will cause serious harm: first, the thickness of dust in atmosphere will be raised, and the environmental health will be affected that is bad for the health of human; second, the fly ash is bad for the power plant itself, it will aggravate the wearing of FDF and reduce the insulation level of electric equipment. In order to reduce the thickness of dust in atmosphere and prevent from sharp wearing of FDF, the fly ash must be collected by dust remover. So dust remover is the indispensable auxiliary equipment of coal-fired boiler. The slag collected in boiler and the fly ash collected by dust remover must be snapped out in time and rapidly. Or the safe and economic operation and the environmental health on site will be affected. So, a set of ash handing and removing system must be equipped for coalfired boiler. . Dust remover In order to satisfy the requirement of environment protection, bag filter is used in Vikram Power Plant; the efficiency of dust remover is 99.9%. #1 and #2 boilers are connected with a same chimney at the same time (the height is 110m, and the diameter of the outlet of every flue duct is 3m). . Bottom ash handling system 1. Fixed slag removing pipe There are three fixed slag outlet (159) along the width direction of air distributed plate at the bottom of furnace. The slag is removed from the slag outlet of water wall in air room at the bottom of furnace. The evaporation of slag outlet is 4400. There is one emergency slag outlet among them. The advantages of bottom slag removing are the operation is safe and reliable, and the operation is simply and convenient. 2. Slag cooler
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There are two multi-pipe water cooling type drum slag cooler arranged under the normal slag outlet at the bottom of furnace; the slag is removed from the bottom of wind water wall; bell jar type blast cap is installed on the air distributed steel plate of slag entering pipe; the smooth transportation of slag from furnace to slag cooler can be guaranteed by the uniform arrangement by blast cap. Multi-pipe water cooling drum slag cooler adopts several small barrel built-in spiral blade to transfer cooled slag at the same time; the high temperature material rotates along with the small barrel of several built-in spiral blade, and the material is transferred continuously; the cooling water goes through the intermediate layer between small barrels continuously and uniformly and exchange heat with the high temperature slag indirectly, in this way the high temperature material is cooled; the temperature of cooling water rises and it can be used again. The heat exchanging surface of this structure is large, the heat exchange is rapid, and the efficiency is high. There is no fly ash and heat radiation because the material feeding and discharging device and rotating barrel adopt seal structure. The slag cooler is composed by material feeder, heat exchanging barrel, discharging device, driving device, base frame, rotating joint, and control tank and so on. The variable frequency governing speed control is adopted, the speed can be governed continuously according to the carbon content in a large range of slag, and it is benefit for steadying the pressure of bed. . The principle of impulse bag filter: The flue gas goes into the ash hopper from the inlet, and then it will go into the bag filter. The dust will adhere on the outside surface of filter and the purified gas will be discharged into atmosphere through the air exhaustion pipe and then through the stack by air fan. The resistance of bag filter will be increased continuously along with the increasing of the dust adhered in bag filter. When the resistance is 1500-1800pa, the dust in bag filter should be removed so that the bag filter can work continuously. The filtrate bag is arranged in a straight line. One pulse valve is used to control the compressed air pulse to remove the dust. And the pulse valve is controlled by program controller. In the process of removing dust, the dust removing controller will send order to make the pulse valve release 0.5----0.7Mpa compressed air in the same time of the action of pulse valve. This compressed air will go into the filtrate bag through the small holes that face to the filtrate bag directly on the blowing pipe; at the same time, and secondary gas flow is also produced at this time, so that a transient impact will be produced and it will spread along the direction of the length of the whole filter; so that the dust depositing on the outside of bag will drop. The dust will fall into the material hopper and be sent into the ash yard by ash conveying system. The lasting time of pulse can be adjusted to suit the characteristics of the different dust. There are four rooms of the bag filter used in this power plant. There are 288 bags in each room. The total numbers of bags is 1152, and the filtrate area is 4052 m 2. The specification of bag is 140 800 mm.

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Section Hydraulic Test of Boiler


Hydraulic test is a method that can check the tightness of bearing components of boiler, and it is also a test for the strength of bearing components. The hydraulic test must be done after new installation or overhaul of boiler in order to check the unit thoroughly. It is a examine method to guarantee the safe operation of bearing components of boiler. The classification of hydraulic test 1. The hydraulic test at working pressure The hydraulic test at working pressure is generally done after repair and overhaul of boiler. The test pressure is the working pressure of drum, i.e. 10.98Mpa. 2. The hydraulic test at over pressure According to the Supervisory Regulation of The Safe Technology of Steam Boiler issued by Labor and Personnel Ministry of PRC, the hydraulic test has to be done in the first operation and after any repair of any bearing component. The test pressure is 1.25 times of the working pressure of drum, i.e. 10.981.25=13.725MPa. The over pressure test of boiler is harm for the service life of it, and this test is dangerous, so it should be done as less as possible. The requirements for water quality in hydraulic test: The boiler in hydraulic test has been filled treated water fully. The water used in the hydraulic test in Vikram power plant should be condensate water or demineralised water. The temperature of the test water should be in the range of 20~70, but it should be higher than the temperature of environment. The temperature of water should be near to the temperature of the metal wall of drum at the beginning of filling water, and the temperature of other bearing components should be no less than 20. The aim of it is to guarantee the hydraulic test can be finished at the temperature higher than the transferring temperature of metal from brittleness to plasticity.

. The qualified standard of hydraulic test Raise the pressure to test pressure, close the valves on feed water pipes; after stop the feed water pump, the pressure reducing of drum is not bigger than 0.5Mpa in every 5 minutes;
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there is no leakage on the metal wall and welding place of compression components, and there is also no obvious deformation. . The operation procedure of hydraulic test: 1. The check before hydraulic test: 1) All impurities and tools have been left. 2) There is nobody in unit. 3) The pressure gauge has been calibrated correctly and it has been installed on the drum correctly; its valves are in opening condition. 4) Any component that does not bear the pressure of hydraulic test in design has been insulated or divided properly. 5) The action states of all valves are at correct position. 6) All spring hanging pins are fixed on a fixed position in steam system. 7) All safety valves have been insulated. 8) The emergency water discharging valve and exhaustion valve to atmosphere in order to depressurize over pressure; 2. Fill water into boiler After the water quality is qualified proved by analysis, close the water discharging valve of drain water tank, re-circulating valve of drain water pump, stop valve gone to deaerator, and open the demineralised water valve, and keep the water level of drain water tank above 1/2. 2) Close the drain water valve of feed water system, discharging water valve of economizer, emergency water discharging valve, back washing valve of superheater, valves on the pipes of attemperator, and drain water valve. 3) Open the inlet valve of drain water pump, exhaustion valve to atmosphere, stop valve of the water feeding to cold boiler, general valve of periodic blowdown station, and every branch valve. 4) Start up drain water pump, and control the speed of water feeding at outlet valve. After seen water in drum, open the re-circulating valve of economizer to supply water into economizer till the water in bearing components is full; after the air in main steam system is discharged clearly, close air valve, exhaustion valve to atmosphere, and the valves in cold boiler water feeding system in succession; stop the operation of drain water pump, and close the outlet valve of pump and the water approaching valve of demineralised water. At the same time, when seen water in drum, put steam into operation to increase the temperature till 50-70C. If cold boiler water feeding system of drain water pump is in trouble, should use small bypass to feed water and go another way. 5) In order to reach these temperatures of hydraulic test, the temperature of water can be raised by the following ways: When the oil ignition system under the bed of boiler cannot be put into operation (such as in the beginning of operation), if the temperature of the medium in drum is lower than 20, saturated steam can be put into drum by blowdown of drum or through medicine dosing pipe to heat the water and barrel
1)
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to the necessary temperature. when the operating water level in drum is normal, the water should be heated till its temperature is 2~5 higher than the recommended temperature to guarantee the final temperature of water is not lower than the smallest recommended value. If the igniter under the bed of boiler can be put into operation, after the filling water of unit reaches the normal water level, the high speed diesel oil igniter can be fired to raise the temperature of drum till it is 2~5 higher than the recommended value. Flame out and fill water continuously. 3. Raising pressure After filling water fully, the feed water pump is used to pressuring the bearing component. The adjustment for the speed of main raising pressure is controlled by the governing valve of small bypass. In hydraulic test, the raising and reducing of pressure should be slow. When the pressure is lower than working pressure, the raising and reducing speed cannot exceed 0.196~0.29Mpa/min; and when the pressure is near to the working pressure, the speed should be slower; and after exceeding the working pressure, the raising and reducing speed cannot exceed 0.098Mpa/min. Because water does not have compactibility, every component will bear equal pressure. The emergency water discharging valve can be used to control the pressure release. 2) The pressure raising cannot be stopped till it reaches 1.0-1.5 MPa, and then a total check should be done. 3) The pressure is raised to working pressure, close the governing valve and motordriven valve at small bypass; and stop the raising pressure to check completely; stop the operation of feed water pump after confirming there is no problem, and write down the speed of pressure reducing. 4) Over pressure hydraulic test. All water level monitoring instruments do not attend the over pressure hydraulic test, and they should be paralleled off when reaching working pressure. When the pressure raises to working pressure, the raising pressure should be stopped to check completely; after there is no problem, the pressure should be raised till 1.25 times working pressure; after keeping for 20 minutes, it should be reduced to working pressure, and check it completely.
1)

4. Pressure release After checking, the pressure can be reduced, and the speed of pressure reducing can be controlled at no more than 0.3Mpa/minute by emergency water discharging valve. When the pressure reduces to normal, open the air valve, drain water valve, pulse safety valve, steam coming valve of steam system; and use emergency to discharge water till normal water level in drum. After finish the test, the blind or block on safety valve should be demolished, and all positioning bin of spring hanger should be removed. After the hydraulic test is finished, the boiler water should be discharged clearly and the anticorrosion and maintenance measures should be set down in time; if the environment
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temperature is lower than 5, the antifreeze measures also should be adopted.

Section Normal Startup, Shutdown and Operation of Boiler Chapter Startup of CFB boiler
The startup of boiler include drying out, boiling out, first time startup, normal startup for new installed unit. The normal startup of boiler can be divided into two kinds: cold state startup and hot state startup. The cold startup refers to the startup after repair or long time standby under the condition without pressure and the temperature is normal; the hot startup refers to the startup under the condition of boiler has standby for short time, and it still keeps certain pressure and temperature. The courses of hot startup and cold startup is same mainly, just some working contents can be omit or simplify. The cold startup of boiler include: the checks and preparation before startup, ignition, boosting, warm up pipes, adding load and so on. . The preparation before startup of circulating fluidized boiler Before ignition of boiler, a thorough external check has to be done for boiler to guarantee the security of equipment and person. 1. The following checks should be finished before the startup of boiler. All air fans must be able to put into operation; the lubricating system must be able to put into operation at any moment; the equipment should be operated normally under the condition whose vibration is in the allowable deviation range. 2) All dampers, operators, and actuators have to be checked thoroughly; these auxiliary equipments have to be able to satisfy the requirements of all operating working condition without cementing or blocked. Conform the dampers can reach its right position according to the requirement of control. 3) Guarantee the dust removing system has been connected with slag cooler and the slag cooler has been prepared well to put into operation. 4) All remote operating valve and sliding drop gates can be able to operation. Check the position limit switch to confirm whether the installation is correct or not and supply the exact position indication.
1)
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5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

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10) 11) 12) 13)

The trial runs of all transferring devices have to be done to guarantee its normal operation. All key flow devices have to be calibrated. The ignition device under bed and flame detector and interlock device must be under the condition of preparing to operation. All key thermocouples and pressure transducers have to be checked to confirm their connections are correct and make sure they are able to operate. All flue ducts, airways, pipes, grooves, or guide pipes of air, flue gas, water, steam, and solid fluid have to be connected correctly and reliably. All expansion joints have to be check to confirm the correct connection. The dust remover has to be checked to confirm the system can operate normally. All electric joints must be checked to prove that they have been installed correctly and they have good insulation. Check the remote water level indicator of drum is working; compare its reading with the local water level indicator exactly. This procedure should be done periodically.

2. The following works have to be done well before operation. Before operation, when the water level of drum is lower than the lowest sighted point of double color water level indicator, the water inside of water level indicator should be drained completely. Whenever the water level indicator is repaired or replaced, whether draining water of it is normal or not should be checked. 2) The blowdown pipes of balance container and water level indicator should be connected to safety area, and the blowdown valve has to be closed. Suitable light should be supplied for double color water level indicator in order to benefit the operator on operating plate to obvious the reading of water level indicator. 3) All exhaustion pipes drain water pipes and blowdown pipes have to be benefit for operation and should be connected to blowdown container or other safe place correctly to prevent from threatening the security of operator at any time. 4) The valves between the drum and water level indicator have to be locked at fully opening position. 5) The blinds of all safety valves and hydraulic test have to be demolished. The valves must be under the good working condition; the dump steam of safety valve and the drain water pipe must be arranged and supported according to the recommendation of the manufactory of safety valve. 6) The components inside of drum must be installed correctly according to drawings to guarantee there is not any steam short cut. 7) All necessary junctions used for measure have already been installed. 8) The seal test of air and gas system of boiler has to be done to eliminate all leakage. 9) The heat emission area of boiler must be adiabatic or using robe to fence out it to protect the operators. 10) All thermal expansion equipments are not disturbed by erecting frame, ladder, fragment, and the left construction material.
1)

3. The following checks should be done before operation: 3.1 The proper of boiler
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1)

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The proper of boiler, auxiliary equipment, and main equipments have been installed completely; the step trail operation has been finished and the startup condition is met. 2) The surface of the boiler wall is level and the appearance is complete without crack so that the seal quality can be guaranteed. This is very important for the normal operation of boiler. 3) The observation hole, poke hole, and manhole are completely well, and they can be operated flexibly. They should be closed fully after check. Especially the hole at the pulverized combustion part in furnace should be closed tightly. 4) There is no depositing ash and impurities in the flue duct, airway and ash remover. 5) There is no oil leakage in the fuel oil system and the pipes and valve in this system; the atomizing quality of the nozzle of oil gun is good; the heat flue gas producer should be good and not broken; there should be enough oil in oil storage tank; and before ignition, should check whether it is blocked or not. 6) There is enough coal storage in coal bunker; the coal feeder is not blocked; the flex of belt is suitable; and the foot screw is firm. 7) There is enough storage in ash silo; the outside insulation of material circulating system is good. 8) Check the installation of blast cap should be correct and the hole of blast cap is not blocked. 9) There are no impurities in air room, the slag removing pipe is blocked and clear, and it can open and closed flexibly. 10) The operation of slag cooler is normal, and the circulation of cooling circulating water is normal. 11) The IDF, FDF, secondary air fan should rotate without load, the lubricating oil level of bearing should be normal (the oil level should be in the range of 1/23/4). The cooling water is unblocked; the safety cover is firm; the foot anchor is not loose; the grounding of motor is well; and the damper of IDF is at close position. 3.2 The I&C operation panel of boiler The panels are clear, and there are not any tools and sundries on them. All operating switches have been installed completely. And the startup and shutdown light are complete. 3) The installation of all I&C control instrument, electric instrument are finished completely; their indications are correct. And the calibrations of them are qualified. 4) The sound of alarm in test is loud. 5) The signs of name are correct and complete, the script are clear. 6) The components of remote devices (valves, dampers, tie rods) should be complete. After check, the power should be sent for them to do fully opening and close test; the action of them should be flexible, the indication and action should be coincident. The fully open and fully close positions should be reached. And the operation charger should supervise this test. 7) The papers and ink should be prepared well for auto recording instrument. 8) The illumination inside of operating room and the emergency illumination are good.
1) 2)
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9) The I&C instrument, valves, and components are complete. 3.3 The construction quality of the installation for the devices inside of drum 1) The devices inside of boiler should be installed according to drawings strictly. It is confirmed there is no weld missing. 2) The local water level indicator, steam valve, and water valve are tight without leakage; the switches are flexible. The installation positions are correct and the signs are obvious. The water level indicator should be at operating condition. The water valve and steam valve should be open and the water discharging valve should be closed. 3) The safety valve on drum and superheater must be adjusted and calibrated according to the regulated pressure. 4) For the boiler that has superheater, the safety valves that are adjusted according to lower pressure have to be on superheater. 5) The opening pressure the safety valve of economizer should be adjusted to 1.10 times of the working pressure of fixed place. 6) Check the lever safety valve. The device that can prevent from self-moving of counter weight should be supplied; the spring safety valve should has lifting handhold and the device that can avoid screwing the screw at random. 7) Check whether all water discharging valves, drain water valves and blowdown valves can open and close flexibly or not. After check, they should be closed. 8) Check whether the actions of all valves on feed water pipes are flexible or not. All valves except the main feed water valve in front of economizer should be open. The main feed water valve should be open when supply water into boiler. 9) The pressure gauges should be clear and clean, the red line on scale plate should indicate its working pressure. And there should be good illumination. The check of pressure gauge expresses it is qualified. 10) The support hanger frames of steam system, feed water system, and blowdown system are firm and dependable, the insulation is complete. The hand-hole, manhole of boiler should be sealed tightly. The installations of every expansion indicator are correct, and its indicating pin should be at zero position in cold state. 4. Supply water to boiler After the checks before ignition of boiler are finished, water can be supplied into boiler. The following items should be paid attention to in this period.
1)

2)

The air valve of steam and water system should be open before supplying water in order to exhaust the air in boiler. The temperature of water cannot be higher, and the water supply should be done slowly. This period should be lasted at least 2 hours in summer and at least 4 hours in winter from no water in boiler to reaching the lowest water level indicating place on the water level indicator of drum. In the process of water feeding, the manhole cover, hand-hole cover, jointing surface of flange and blowdown valve should be checked to confirm whether they leak to not. If it does, it should be repaired in time.
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3) When the water level of drum rises to the lowest water level indication of water level indicator, the water feeding should be stopped. The water level inside of boiler should be kept not changed inside of boiler after stopping water feeding. If the water level goes down, the reason of it should be found out in time, the leakage place should be found out and eliminated try best. If the water level rises, that express the feed water valve leaks water, it should be repaired or replaced. . The ignition method of circulating fluidized bed boiler The ignition process of circulating fluidized bed boiler refers to the process of the bed material inside of burner is heated to certain temperature by some method, and the bed material become fluidized state by air till the fuel feed by coal feeder can combust continuously and stably. The ignition method of circulating fluidized bed boiler is different from the common boiler. It seems difficult to master for the staff who never contact the circulating fluidized bed boiler. It is easy to cause foul or flame out for them. So the staff of boiler section must be trained in advance. The ignition methods of circulating fluidize bed boiler can be divided into two kinds: wood ignition or oil ignition on bed and oil ignition under bed. The last method is adopted in Vikram Thermal Power Plant. This kind of method has the following advantages: the combustion of oil is small; the startup is fast; the success rate is high; the environmental health is good; and the labor intensity of workers is low. The oil ignition under bed is fluidized ignition, and the whole startup process is proceeding under fluidized state. First, 400mm-500mm bed material should be laid on the air distribution plate composed by membrane water wall; because the heat energy is sent into the material layer from air distribution plate uniformly, the whole heating startup process is finished under fluidized state that cannot cause low temperature or high temperature foul. . The cold startup procedure of the circulating fluidized bed boiler in Vikram Power Plant 1 The preparation before startup Attention: before startup, at least two person have been patrol inspect the equipments of the whole unit to verify all equipments have meet the startup condition. Fill material into fluidized bed and J valve. 1.1 Put the blowing out system of piezometer into operation The blow out system of piezometer should be put into operation; a little amount of air can be put into boiler by it; manual blow out should be done for it periodically using compressed air used for instrument. The frequency of blow out should be decided according to experience. The relevant valves should be closed in order to protect the instrument of blowing out system when it is blowing out. The similar procedure can be taken for other pressure measuring pipes at air side and flue gas side of boiler.
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1.2 Check and confirm the plugs or blinds used in the hydraulic test for safety valves have been demolished. 1.3 Check the common system, kinetic and ignition fuel and main fuel and the supplying condition of feed water after treatment; and confirm they are qualified and can be used. 1.4 Check the operation conditions of all valves and dampers. 1.5 Check the high speed diesel oil igniter under bed and all auxiliary equipments of boiler, and confirm all relative valves are under proper opening or closed position. 1.6 Check that the thermocouples used for measure the temperature of wall of drum are good. 1.7 After confirm there is no person inside of boiler, all manholes and obvious holes should be closed, and all safety sign on the equipment that is prepared to operate should be taken away. 1.8 Before supplying water to unit, the relevant valves of boiler including air vent valve, drain water valve and the valves using for instruments should be under the following conditions:
The name and description of valves State

Pulse safety device of the outlet pipe of high temperature Tuning at 10.3MPa (gauge pressure) superheater Pulse safety device of drum Stop valve fixed on the pulse safety device Drop gate on the main feed water pipes Non-return valve on the main feed water pipes Air vent valve on the saturated steam guide pipe Stop valve used to transmit the pressure of drum Stop valve at water side and steam side of high, low water level indicators of drum Drain water valve of high, low water level indicators of drum Stop valve used for dosing in boiler water Emergency water discharge valve of drum Continuous blowdown valve of drum Sampling valve of boiler water Three way valve used of the pressure gauge of drum Sampling water of saturated steam Drain water stop valve of centralized down-comer of boiler
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Tuning at 10.6MPa (gauge pressure) Open Close Auto Open Open Open Close Close Close Close Close Open Close Close

Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project


Stop valve of re-circulating pipe Routine blowdown of the down header of water wall Cooling steam exhaust valve of upper header of cyclone separator Drain water valve of the inlet connected pipe of lower part ring header of cyclone separator Air vent valve of the upper header of front wall and rear wall Drain water valve of the down header of front wall, rear wall, left side wall, and right side wall. Drain water valve of the inlet header of screen superheater Air vent air of the outlet header of screen superheater Drain water valve of the inlet header of HT superheater Air vent valve of the outlet header of HT superheater Three way valve used for the pressure gauge of connected pipe of the outlet of HT superheater Steam exhaust valve to atmosphere of the connected pipe of the outlet of HT superheater Manual stop valve of water jet attemperator Stop valve of main feed water bypass

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Open Close Auto Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Close Close

1.9 The feeding water should pass the bypass valve of main feed water and go through the economizer system, and then go into boiler in first time. 1.10 In the period of feeding water, when the air vent valves discharge water of corresponding components, this air vent valve should be closed. And the temperature of water feeding should be controlled in the range of 2070, and it should be not lower than the temperature of drum. 1.11 Check the operating condition of electric contact water level indicator of drum in main control room, and compare its reading with the reading of double color water level indicator exactly. 31.12 Check whether all pressure gauges and draft meter are calibrated, and whether their functions are proper. 1.13 Check all safety interlock devices to guarantee the actions are correct. 1.14 Validate the water level shown by double color water level indicator of drum is clear to see.

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1.15 Check the lubricating and cooling systems of all driven device satisfy the technical requirements of the manufactory. The cooling water has to be obtained at the places needed to cool. 1.16 The position of the dampers of flue duct and airway are as follows. The positions of dampers are shown in main control room. All dampers of fuel, limestone and other manual insulation and / or sliding drop gate should be in the following state:
The position of damper Guide blade of the inlet of IDF Guide blade of the inlet of primary and secondary air fan Inlet of limestone Air nozzle of the slag pipe of slag cooler The inlet of the cooling air of slag cooler Supply secondary air Manual stop valve of the inlet of the boost air fan of coal feeding The stop valve of the bypass of the boost air fan of coal feeding Motor-driven stop valve of the outlet of coal feeder Motor-driven stop valve at the inlet of coal feeder Under bed oil igniter and fluidized air of furnace The fluidized air of the upper and lower material legs of J valve The fluidized air at the bottom of J valve Lower secondary air Sliding valve of the inlet of coal feeder Bypass governing valve from the outlet of J valve to primary air flue duct Purging air of fuel Seal air of the coal feeder of fuel Rotating valve of the outlet of slag cooler State Open Open Close Close Open Open Open Close Open Close Open Open Open Open Close Open Open Open Close

2. Blow out Before blowing out of boiler and oil ignition under bed, the check for the airway behind the oil igniter under bed and the inside of air room are very important; the purpose is checking the
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leaking of bed material. All bed material leaked in airway and air room should be removed to prevent the blast cap from blocking in blowing out. Before startup of every time and before the startup after cutting off the main fuel, the furnace, cyclone separator and the tail heating surface area have to be blown out (except hot startup); the blowing out must be prepared according to the following procedure: 2.1 Confirm there is not hot startup working condition (the even temperature of bed is lower than 650). 2.2 Confirm the boil is under the condition that the main fuel is cut off, and there is not the working condition of main fuel trip. 2.3 Confirm the steam supplying valve of the oil igniter under bed is closed. 2.4 Verify all limestone and fuel feeder are at cut off condition and the bed material ash removing system is closed. 2.5 The IDF, FDF and coal feeding booster air fan and J valve air fan should be started up according to the following methods. 2.5.1 Before start up every air fan, the air way from the inlet of IDF to chimney should be unblocked to prevent from breaking the furnace and flue gas way caused by the positive pressure and negative pressure 2.5.2 The sequence is start up one J valve air fan firstly, and then start up IDF, primary air fan and secondary air fan and one coal feeding booster air fan; and then build the air flow required for blow out, and put all air fans under auto control method. After blow out, all of these air fans should be kept at the following startup condition. 2.5.3 Guarantee all dampers of fuel and flue gas way are at the position mentioned in 1.16 clause. 2..5.4 Start up one J valve air fan, and the ventilation rate of the air nozzle of J valve of every road should be controlled at the value given in form 1 (93). 2.5.5 In trial operation stage, the auto control of the operation of J valve is realized by the procedure input into the operating system of J valve. In the operation period of unit, the adjustment of air flow of every air opening is not very important, but the operating condition of J valve should be monitored closely to avoid abnormal condition and trouble in the next step. 2.5.6 In startup, it should be operated according to the following procedure (the ventilation rate should be adjusted slightly). What is necessary to explain is J has the function of selfbalance; after the commission of unit is finished, the air flow of every air opening is not needed to adjust. The following procedures just focus on the commission and startup. 1) The correct operating parameter is shown in attached form 1 and attached
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drawing 13 J valve pipe connected drawing. 2) Put the control of the air flow of the air flow of the ascension pipe and down comer pipe of J valve at auto state. 3) Put the pressure governing valve of J valve air fan at auto way, and check whether its function is normal or not. 4) Put the openness of every valve of inflatable pipe at 65%. 5) Put the flow controls of every inflatable pipes of ascension pipes and downcomer pipes at auto state. 6) Confirm the flow of every vent opening pipe. If non flow indication appears in any above pipe, it may be caused by the block of vent opening. The method of eliminating the accident is adopt high pressure air to blow out this pipe to guarantee the unobstructed of pipes. Mechanical method cannot be used to evacuate the blocked pipe in the operating period of unit. Record every ventilation rate, temperature of J valve, and compare it with attached form 1. 8) When the ventilation rate is far from the given value in attached form 1, it should be adjusted till it reaches the satisfied value. The control of ventilation should be put at manual operation way. The air flow should be adjusted according to 14Nm3/h increment at the same time of recording the differential pressure value. The air flow should be built on the basis on steadying the lowest differential pressure value. 9) In order to evacuate many inflation inlets that are blocked or out of service, shutdown the boiler as soon as possible is necessary. If the vent openings that are out of service or blocked have been found out, and there is no blocked phenomenon with the other horizontal or vertical vent openings near it, the unit can be maintained for operating for short time. When it is verified there are several vent opening cannot work, the unit should be shutdown forcedly to avoid block of J valve. 10) Record the air flow of J valve under 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% MCR loads respectively. If it is necessary, adjust it according to step (8).
7)

2.5.7 Start up IDF. Close the governing guide blade of the inlet of IDF, close the tripping switch of IDF, and start up the motor of IDF. Once this motor is operating and reaches the regulated rotating speed, govern the governing air valve of IDF to adjust the negative pressure of furnace. 2.5.8 Startup secondary air fan, primary air fan, close the inlet governing air fan of air fan, close the tripping switch of FDF to operate the motor. After the operation of the motor of air fan is normal, adjust the governing air valve of the inlet of air fan to adjust the combustion. In this step, the secondary air fan should be started up firstly, after the startup of secondary is finished, the secondary air flow should be governed to minimum, and then start up primary air fan. 2.5.9 Start up one coal feeding booster air fan. Close the governing damper of the inlet of this coal feeding booster air fan, close the tripping switch to operate the motor. After the operation
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of motor is normal, open the damper of blowing out air fan to make the air fan can operate normally, and open the outlet closed damper of this air fan at the same time. 2.5.10 The unit is adjusted to the condition of prepare to blow out by control system automatically. 2.6 Add initial bed material to J valve and air distributed plate of furnace according to the following methods: 2.6.1 When begin to fill J valve, the seal should be formed between the up material leg and down material leg by using J valve (it is realized of bed material filling). The bed material should be filled from the filling opening of J valve. J valve air fan has to be put into operation to supply necessary air flow at this time, and the grain size of bed material must be fit. 2.6.2 When filling material to the air distributed plate of furnace, the initial bed material can be limestone and also can be slag, and the grain size is 0~3mm. The filling amount should be decided according to the size of furnace, and the height of reduced static material layer is about 380mm. the filling material into furnace cannot be stopped until the pressure of bed reaches 3300Pa. 2.7 The unit should be blown out at 25% total air flow (cannot exceed 40%) for at least 5 minutes. 2.8 After the blowing out of boiler is finished, the condition of MFT (main fuel trip) should be recovered and the following items should be carried out: 2.8.1 All governing dampers of secondary air should be at the position of min openness. 2.8.2 Maintain the fluidized air flow at ~1.2m/s. 2.8.3 The following equipments should be prepared well at given position: Put the governing dampers of high speed diesel oil igniter under bed and the governing damper of the fluidized air of furnace (to air room) at the prepared position to build proper combustion air amount. Adjust the air valve of the inlet of IDF to build 23940m 3/h min fluidized air flow (attached drawing 11, 1.2m/s, 600). Guarantee the supply of fuel to oil igniter under bed is not interrupt, and the blow out pipes are expedite. 2.8.4 The even temperature at the cold end of air preheater should be kept at 80. 3 Ignition and warm machine 3.1 Before ignition, there must be bed material on the air distributed plate of furnace. The unit has been blown out, and there must be bed material in J valve.
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3.2 Attached drawing 14 is the corresponding curve of the height of static bed material and the differential pressure of bed layer; and the attached drawing 11 is the corresponding curve of the fluidized rate and air amount. The fluidizing rate can be confirmed under fixed bed temperature using figure 11 by measuring the air amount passed through the bed layer under furnace. When using mixed fuel, the surface fluidized speed cannot be lower than 1.2m/s; this speed of the min surface fluidized speed required for maintaining the fluidization. The differential pressure can be read on the panel in main control room. 3.3 In order to avoid over heat stress, the differential temperature of the upper wall and lower wall of drum cannot exceed 50. Monitor the differential temperature of the upper wall and lower wall of drum according to the reading of metal wall temperature displaying meter. 3.4 Confirm the two re-circulating stop valves from the inlet of economizer to the down centralized down-comer are at opening position. The following drain water valve should be at closed condition, and then they should be turn on at 1/2 cycle. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Drain water valve of the lower header of front enclosure Drain water valve of the lower header of the left and right enclosure Drain water valve of the lower header of rear enclosure Drain water valve of the inlet header of screen superheater Drain water valve of the inlet header of high temperature superheater

3.5 Ignite the oil igniter under bed, obverse the ignition condition through the observation window to confirm good combustion (fame quality). 3.6 The limestone feeding system should be put into operation at min speed manually (including the limestone feeding air fan). Before startup, in startup and in operation, the operating condition of every rotating device should be verified and monitored. The bed material should be made up according to the specific condition in operating period. 3.7 Monitor the oxygen amount to confirm whether the complete combustion is realized. The temperature of the flue duct wall of oil igniter under bed should be controlled under 1500 according to the requirements of the oil igniter under bed. 3.8 After confirming the ignition of oil igniter under bed, on the basis of min combustion speed, the auto temperature control system should be put into operation. 3.9 The pressure of drum is raised by heating the bed material. The booster of drum should controlled by adjusting the combustion speed of oil igniter under bed; and the temperature rising velocity cannot exceed 50/h. 3.10 The temperature of the flue gas at the outlet of oil igniter under bed should be controlled under 980 by adjusting the combustion. In this period, the temperature rising rate cannot exceed 28/per 2030min (the oil igniter under bed is 15% MCR heat output). 3.11 When the unit is header and the pressure of drum has been built; the temperature of the metal wall of drum and water level should be checked.
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3.12 Rise the temperature of bed to 468, and maintain the combustion air amount at 23940Nm3/h. In the heating period of unit, the water level will be raised. The water level of drum should be maintained in allowable range by continuous blowdown valve and the feed water governing speed pump. In order to maintain the water level in drum, the emergency water discharging and continuous blowdown can be used at the same time when necessary. The blowdown valve and the drain water valve of water wall cannot be used as water discharging valve under any condition. 3.13 When the pressure of drum reaches 0.069 0.103MPa (gauge pressure), the following air vent valve should be closed: 1) Air vent valve of the saturated steam guide pipe. 2) Air vent valve of the upper header of front enclosure. 3) Air vent valve of the upper header of rear enclosure. 4)Air vent valve of the outlet header of screen superheater. 5) Air vent valve of the outlet header of high temperature superheater Close the following drain water valves: 1) 2) 3) 4) Drain water valve of the lower header of front and rear enclosures. Drain water valve of the lower header of left and right enclosures. Drain water valve of the inlet header of screen superheater. Drain water valve of the inlet header of high temperature superheater.

3.14 Every drain water valve on the main steam connected pipe should be still opened to guarantee the water in all steam loops can be drained at this time. 3.15 When the pressure of drum reaches about 0.17Mpa (gauge pressure), check the water level indication of double colors water level indicator of drum with the help of short time blowdown. In the period of blowdown for double colors water level indicator/ water level component, it is necessary to test whether the fuel cut off protection under low water level can work or not in order to get rid of unnecessary cut off. The visible water level of double colors water level indicator should be kept. The water level in drum will rise because of the expansion of water in system, the continuous blowdown valve and emergency discharging water valve of drum can be opened according to necessary to discharge the water in drum. 3.16 Put the control of the water level of drum under the unit auto control condition. 3.17 In boosting process and in normal operation, the silicon content and slat content in boiler water should be kept in allowable range of value. 3.18 If the silica content or slat content in boiler water exceeds the standard limitation, the continuous blowdown valve of drum should be opened to blowdown the boiler water till it goes down to within the allowable range. If the content exceeds the recommended value under relevant pressure, it is forbidden to go on boosting. 3.19 Heat continuously to build the pressure of drum and maintain 470 bed temperature. If
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it is necessary, limestone can be put into furnace to maintain the total amount of bed material in the period of warming machine. The total amount of bed material should be decided according to the signal of bed pressure. 3.20 If it is necessary to discharge water from high temperature superheater, the atmospheric relief valve on the main steam connected pipe can be opened discontinuously; but this method cannot be used until the pressure of boiler reaches 3.45MPa (gauge pressure). 4 Startup (supply coal) 4.1 Put the ash removing system into operation. 4.2 Open the manual stop valve of water spraying attemperator. 4.3 Put the steam temperature control loop at auto way, and set the expected temperature. 4.4 Start up two coal feeders, and adjust their outputs to 15% of the rated fuel amount of furnace. After operating for 5 minutes, stop their operating, these coal feeders should be stopped; the oxygen amount and even bed temperature should be monitored. In the first several minutes, the even bed temperature will go down totally, and then it will rise. And the oxygen amount will be kept without change, and then it will be reduced before the even bed temperature rising. The time cycle of combusting all fuel in furnace completely should be recorded from the beginning of fuel feeding to the highest even bed temperature and the lowest oxygen amount appear. After practice on site, this cycle should be set, but this cycle should be changed if the coal qualities are different. In the above process, the bed temperature thermocouple should be monitored; the partial temperature near fuel feeding place will go down usually; the further from the coal feeding place, the higher the temperature is. 4.5 Start up two coal feeders again, and adjust their output to 15% of the rated fuel amount of furnace; and then stop these coal feeders after supplying material for 5 minutes. Monitor the even bed temperature and oxygen amount. Start up the coal feeder with 15% output before the temperature of bed increasing to the peak value, and then add into fuel and keep for 5 minutes. 4.6 Repeat the procedure 4.4 and 4.5 to make the even bed temperature increases to 760 gradually. When the relevant relationship between the even bed temperature and oxygen amount is good, the coal feeder can be put into operation normally. The increasing of the load of boiler can be realized by increasing the output of material feed. The combustion rate of primary material feeding will be increased along with the increasing of even bed temperature that will shorten the coal feeding cycle actually. Some measures must be adopted to prevent from feeding too much material along with the increasing of coal feeding amount, or the indication on some indicating instruments will show the coal feeding is out of proportion. The oxygen amount must be reduced rapidly maybe reduced to zero, and the even bed temperature will be increased substantially and continuously. Some measures can be adopted respectively according to the different conditions of excess coal feeding. Wait the fuel is combusted completely, but it is forbidden to add into additional
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fuel. Monitor this trend. Increase the making up rate of limestone and bed material that can absorb the increasing heat. Reduce the air amount of fluidized bed to make the furnace under the condition of insufficient combustion. 4.7 When the amount of oxygen is reduced continuously and the temperature of bed increase to 790, the combustion air amount should be increased gradually to make it reaches above 23940Nm3/h; the temperature of airway burner should be decreased to 540 at this time and the ratio of air and coal should be kept. 4.8 In startup, the required superheat steam temperature should be maintained by the following method: The superheater degree of the steam temperature goes into screen superheater and high temperature superheater after going through the primary and secondary attemperator at least is about 11. The min limited value of the steam temperature behind water spraying desuperheat is shown in attached drawing 14----the min limited value of steam temperature after water spraying de-superheat. 4.9 When the steam pressure and steam temperature are proper, the warming, rolling up, and acceleration of steam turbine can be done. 4.10 When the rotating speed of turbine reaches to the synchronized rotating speed and the flow of feeding water is stable, or the steam flow is bigger than 7%, the stop valve on the recirculating pipes from economizer to down comer should be closed. 4.11 When the steam amount entered in steam turbine is 10% of rated steam amount, the drain water valve of the outlet header of high temperature superheater and the pipes behind it should be closed. 4.12 If the operating conditions are satisfied, the water level of drum, the temperature of superheat steam, and the air amount can be controlled automatically. 4.13 When the coal feeding is increased gradually, the output of the high speed diesel oil igniter under bed should be reduced gradually till the temperature of bed is higher than 830 and the oxygen content is stable. 4.14 When stop the operation of high speed diesel oil igniter under bed, the combustion air flow and coal amount should be adjusted to make the temperature of bed reaches about 900 and the oxygen amount should be kept at 3.5% at the same time. 4.15 In normal operation, the supplying amount of limestone will be changed along with the amount of coal feeding in proportion. The ratio of limestone and coal should be amended according to the thickness of SO2 in smoke. The attached drawing 3 is the relationship curves of the variation of the height of static bed
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material and the differential temperature of fluidized bed, cold state test should be done to verify these curves before startup or in trial operation. The fluidized speed cannot be lower than 1.2m/s in the period of combustion. 4.16 The slag cooler should be put into operation according to the following procedures. a) Confirm the operation of ash removing system is normal and the water spraying cooling system has the condition of auto operation. b) The correct operation of water spraying system is shown in 1.4.14. c) Confirm the insulation valve on the header of slag pipe is closed, and the governing valve is opened partially. d) When one slag cooler is on fault, the other slag cooler can operate with 100% output. . Hot startup The boiler in Vikram Thermal Power Plant can be shutdown for some time and be in hot standby condition (banking fire hot standby). The hot standby of boiler refers to the condition of the even bed temperature (after banking fire) is still higher than 650. If the even bed temperature is lower than 650, the cold startup procedure should be followed in the next startup. 1 Banking fire When the boiler is banking fire, the supply of coal should be stopped firstly, and the oxygen amount at the outlet of boiler should be monitored. Once the oxygen amount begins to increase, the air supply to furnace should be stopped to reduce the heat loss of fluidized bed to minimum. The increasing of oxygen amount expresses most fuel in material layer has been combusted completely, so the banking fire hot standby can be done safely by reducing the air flow to zero. And then, IDF, FDF, coal feeding boosting air fan, and the air fans in limestone feeding system should be stopped. But the operation of J valve air fan should be kept after the above air fans and other air fans stop operating. The J valve air fan cannot be stopped until the temperature of J is reduced to lower than 260 in order to prevent the components of J valve from breaking. All valves and dampers should be closed to reduce the thermal loss to minimum. The pressure of drum will be decreased because there is no combustion in furnace, but the water level in drum must be kept at proper value. The attached drawing 13 shows the relationship between the height of static bed material and the differential pressure of bed. The attached drawing 11 shows the relationship between fluidization speed and air flow. According to the measured air flow, the fluidization speed on surface should be fixed using attached drawing 11 under the given temperature of bed; when using designed fuel, the fluidization speed cannot be lower than 1.2m/s. The so called hot standby of boiler refers to the condition of the even bed temperature is still higher than 650 after banking fire. If the even bed temperature is lower than 650, the cold start up procedure mentioned above should be followed in the next startup. When banking fire, because the heat capacity of boiler is bigger, the water level of drum should be paid attention to. The steam exhaustion valve should be closed to maintain a certain
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pressure. the damper of IDF and all manholes should be closed after banking fire as soon as possible to prevent cold air from entering in order to reduce the heat losses released from material layer and guarantee the boiler wall does not be cooled suddenly in the period of banking fire. The time of banking fire is decided by the decreasing speed of the temperature of static material layer. If the material layer is thicker, the temperature before banking fire is higher, the temperature decreasing of static material layer after banking fire will be slower; the heat loss of the static material layer after banking fire will be smaller; and the time of banking fire will be longer. The time of primary banking fire can be maintained for 8-10 hours. If it is necessary to prolong time, the bed can be started up again when the temperature of bed is not lower than 700; and banking fire should be done again after the temperature of material layer is increased. 2. Startup after banking fire After banking fire, it should be started up again according to the different condition. If the temperature of material is lower than 500 and the material layer is thicker, the cold ash on the surface of material layer should be scooped out till the thickness of the left material layer is about 350-400mm; and then a layer of red charcoal fire should be made as doing in cold startup of boiler. If oil ignition under bed is adopted, the oil gun can be put into operation directly and it can be started up rapidly. If the temperature of material layer is lower than 700 but higher than 500, the cold static material layer on surface should be scooped out till the thickness of left material layer is about 350-400mm; and then small air flow should be used to loose the material layer. Start up the air blower and IDF to adjust the air flow to critical fluidized air flow; the material layer may be declined at this time, and it will be ascended after the bituminous coal is burned. The air flow should be increased gradually along with the increasing of temperature. The coal feeder should be started up. And then it should be transited to normal operating condition gradually. If the temperature of the static material layer is higher (not lower than 700), the air flow can be increased to a little higher than the lowest air flow in operating, and then the coal feeder can be started up. What should be emphasized is the IDF should be started up firstly under any condition in the start up process after banking fire, and then the primary FDF can be started up; the main steam valve should be opened in time according to the steam pressure before the startup of banking fire, and the water level, steam temperature and steam pressure should be monitored closely. 3. In the hot startup of boiler, it should obey the following procedures: 1) Check the water level in drum. If it is necessary, the water level of drum should be adjusted to normal water level (at 76mm below the central line of drum).
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2) The fuel and limestone system and ash removing system should be prepared well to operate. 3) Start up J valve air fan, and set proper air flow to obtain suitable speed of fluidization. The air fan should be under auto control condition. Start up IDF, FDF and coal feeding boosting air fan according to the procedure in cold startup. 4) If there are large numbers of carbon particles that is not combusted completely or we suspect there are, the combustion air flow has to be increased gradually to blow out the bed layer and get the aim of controlling combustion efficiency. 5) Adjust the combustion air to the working condition of 25% BMCR. When all air fans are put into operation, the coal feeder should be operated again and the corresponding air flow should be built. Because the temperature of bed may reduce rapidly, it is very important to build proper air flow and feeding rate of fuel. Or, the temperature and the amount of oxygen will be not the expected one. If there is not expected response given by unit to the proper air flow and material feeding, the hot start up should be stop to do cold startup. It should be confirmed the blowing out has been done before the ignition of high speed oil igniter under bed. 6) If the fuel supplied to fluidized bed is too much, the temperature of bed is high and the fuel is not combusted completely in the period of hot startup again, the temperature of bed maybe rise rapidly and the amount of oxygen will be reduced rapidly. If this condition appears, the fuel cannot be supplied into furnace until the condition of fluidized bed is stable. If the temperature of bed rises rapidly and nearly above 950, the following items should be done before the temperature reached 950. a) The air supplied to bed should be reduced to control the combustion. b) If it is shown that the combustion of unit is unstable according to the oxygen amount and the temperature of bed, the damper of the primary airway at the bottom of boiler should be closed to lack the oxygen in combustion. 7) The temperature of bed maybe reduce rapidly when built the air flow again under the condition of hot startup; the secondary air should be supplied firstly, and then the primary air can be supplied to reduce the heat loss. 8) When the temperature of bed does not rise after 5 minutes of coal feeding, the hot startup is failed. The coal feeding should be stopped and the blowing out should be done again; and then normal cold startup of boiler will begin. 4. The operation in the procedure of ignition After the ignition of boiler, the operators should do the relevant operation and checks under differential pressure according certain requirement along with the rising of pressure gradually. The time of these works is regulated clearly in the operation regulation. When the large-scale boiler is boosting pressure, when the pressure reaches 0.19~0.39Mpa, the water at the bottom of boiler can be discharged to make the heating surface of every part can be heated evenly and discharge deposits to improve the quality of boiler water; and whether the water discharging system is unblocked or not of water wall also should be checked. In the procedure of water discharging, the variation of water level in drum should be paid more attention to; in order to built normal water circulation, in the initial procedure of igniting boosting pressure, the time of water discharging for the lower heater of water wall can be longer. When the pressure of high pressure boiler goes to 1.47~2.9Mpa, the water should be discharged again. In addition, in the medium-period of pressure boosting, the water can be discharged for one or two times
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according to the temperature of the wall of drum and the expansion of water wall. The water discharging should be strengthened especially for the header whose expansion is small. When the pressure of steam rises near to 0.29Mpa, it should be stayed for a while to check whether there is leakage or not. The demolished manhole cover, hand-hole cover and the connected bolt of flange should be twist tightly once again because when the temperature is high they will become loose. The feed water of boiler should be supplied from blowdown. In blowdown, the water level should be observed; it cannot be lower than the lowest safety water level of water level indicator. After blowdown, the blowdown valve should be closed tightly and whether there is water leakage or not should be checked. When the pressure of boiler boosts to above 50% of working pressure, the thorough check should be done for the boiler unit; if some faults are found, they should be eliminated in time; the boosting pressure cannot be done until every thing is normal. When the pressure boosts to 1/3 of working pressure, the works of draining water and warming pipes should be done to avoid from water hammer when sending steam. In the period of boosting pressure, the exhaustion valve and drain water valve of superheater should be opened to cool the superheater properly by the flow of steam in it. When boost the pressure of boiler, the main steam valve and its bypass valve should be closed till the boosting pressure is near to the working pressure; and then open the bypass valve to warm the pipes; the main steam valve cannot be opened until the pressure in pipes are same with the pressure of boiler. When several boilers are operated at the same time, the steam of other boilers has been sent into the steam manifold, the boiler that is ignited newly open the bypass valve of main steam valve slowly to warm pipes and balance the pressures at two sides after the steam temperature and pressure reach the condition of combining steam; the motor-driven valve of main steam should be turned up after the pressure is uniform, and then the bypass valve and the drain water valve on the manifold of steam and on the main steam pipe should be closed to finish the operation of steam combination. The steam pressure and water level should be kept normally in the steam combination. If there is water hammer in pipes, the water should be drained before steam combination. Sliding parameter startup The sliding parameter startup is generally adopted when the boiler and steam turbine are started up at the same time. Its characteristic is: when the parameters of boiler are low, the steam turbine can be started up; the procedure of the rising pressure of boiler is the procedure of warming up, rolling, rising speed, taking load of steam turbine; while the pressure of boiler reaches rated pressure, the steam turbine takes rated load. In sliding parameter startup, the startup of steam turbine relates with boiler closely, and the requirements of the heating for components of steam turbine is stricter, so the procedures of temperature rising and pressure rising should take the heating requirement of steam turbine as basis.
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Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project The advantages of sliding parameter startup are:

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1) The steam turbine and boiler are started up at the same time, so the total startup time is shorten. 2) It increases the dependability of security. The whole unit rises temperature from low to high at the same time, the condition of heating expansion of components will be better; the working condition of the circulation of the boiler water is proved; and the cooling condition of superheater is also good. 3) It improves the economy. Because the startup time is short, the loss of fuel and working material will be reduced, and the unit can take load earlier to generate more electricity.

Chapter Shutdown of CFB Boiler


I. The classification of shutdown of boiler The operating method of shutdown boiler is same with the method of banking fire basically. The difference between them is air is still sending after the coal feeding is stopped; the fuel in the middle layer of material lays is combusted basic completely; after the temperature of bed decreases (generally, it is below 700), the supply air valve should be closed; the IDF, FDF should be stopped. The ash exhausting pipe of slag chute should be open at last to remove the all slag in bed. The shutdown of boiler can be divided into three kinds: temporary shutdown, normal shutdown and emergency shutdown. 1. Temporary shutdown The temporary shutdown is also called banking fire shutdown. When the load of boiler is zero temporarily, after banking fire for a certain time, the startup can be done at any time. Water induction and blowdown should be done for boiler in the period of banking fire to make the water level is a little higher than the normal water level. After the steam supply of boiler is stopped, the main steam valve should be closed. The water level indicator should be washed once according to the normal operation procedure after banking fire. The steam pressure and the variation of water level in boiler should be checked usually in the period of banking fire; whether the closes of the damper of flue gas way and air way are closed or not should be checked to prevent the temperature of bed from decreasing too fast in the period of banking fire. 2. Normal shutdown The normal shutdown of boiler is the designed repair shutdown. Its operating procedures are:
1)

2)

Decrease load gradually, reduce the coal feeding amount and air amount. The coal feeding, air entering, and air induction should be stopped while the load is zero. The main steam valve should be closed. And the water in steam pipes should be drained. The water level should be kept a little higher than normal water level before shutdown completely. Because the temperature of furnace is very high, boiler water is still going on
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3)

4)

evaporated, if the steam and water system is not tight, the water level of boiler will be decreased gradually that may even cause water shortage of boiler. The damper of flue gas way should be closed to prevent the boiler from cooling sharply. When the pressure of boiler is decreased lower than the pressure of atmosphere, the air vent valve or lift safe valve should be open. After shutdown of boiler, blinds should be set in the pipes of steam, feed water, blow down, and so on. The thickness of blind should be met that is cannot be open by the pressure in the pipes of steam and feed water and blowdown pressure of boiler in parallel operation to make sure it is isolated with other operating boiler. No one is allowed to work in drum before that. The fouling at the water side of heating surface should be cleaned in time after discharging water in shutdown. After the cooling of boiler, manhole should be opened and it should be checked roundly to clean the ash deposit and ash fouling at the flue gas side of every heating surface should be cleaned in time. Its maintaining method should be confirmed according to the off-duty time of boiler.

3. Emergency shutdown Emergency shutdown is emergency measure in order to prevent the accident from expanding when the boiler or relevant equipment is on fault. 3.1 When one of the following conditions appears in the operation of boiler, the emergency shutdown should be done:
1) 2) 3)

4) 5) 6)
7)

8)

The water level of boiler is lower than the visual border of the lower part of water level indicator. The feeding water amount is increased continuously and other measures are adopted, but the water level still goes on declining. The water level of boiler exceeds the highest visual water level (full water), and the water level still cannot be seen after discharging water. All water feed pumps are out of control or the water feeding system is on fault and it cannot supply water to boiler. All water level meters or safety valves are out of control. The components of boiler are broken that threaten the security of operator. The combustion equipment is broken, the wall of furnace is dilapidated, or the structure of boiler is burned to become red and so on. Other abnormal conditions appear that will threaten the safe operation of boiler.

3.2 The operation procedures of emergency shutdown of boiler are as follows: Stop coal feeding immediately; and stop the air sending and air induction when the temperature of bed layer decreases to lower than 400. 2) If the steam pressure of boiler is very high or has the trend of increasing rapidly, the exhaustion valve of superheater should be opened to decrease the pressure of steam. 3) Open the valve of furnace after shutdown to prompt the convection of air and accelerate the cooling of furnace. 4) When it needs emergency shutdown caused of water shortage, it is forbidden to feed
1)
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5)

water into boiler and the vent valve or lifting safety valve to exhaust steam can not be done to prevent the accident from expanding by the variation of the temperature or pressure suffered suddenly by boiler. If there is no water shortage, the pressure decreasing method by alternation of water induction and blowdown can be adopted. The feeding water should be stopped immediately in emergency shutdown caused by the accident of full water in boiler. The blowdown valve should be open to discharge water to reduce the water level properly. And the drain water valve on main steam pipe should be opened to drain water.

. Normal shutdown of the boiler in Vikram Thermal Power Plant


1)

2)
3) 4)

5)
6)

7)

8) 9)

10)

11)
12)

Normal shutdown refers to reduce the load of boiler orderly to make the steam turbine parallel off with boiler without the large fluctuation of temperature and pressure and make the boiler to be under the hot standby condition as possible as it can, and the load decreasing of unit can be finished automatically completely. Blow out should be done before reducing load and shutdown boiler. In the process of shutdown, the differential temperature between the upper wall and lower wall of drum should be paid attention to control without exceeding 50 . If it is necessary, the temperature at the outlet of superheater can be governed by the adjustment of the spraying water amount of attemperator. When it is not necessary to decrease temperature, the stop valve on the attemperating pipe should be closed. Check the drum and keep the normal water level in drum. The load of unit should be reduced to the min stable load that should be maintained for about 30 minutes to cool the fire resistant material of cyclone gradually. The main control of boiler should be switched over to manual control method. Close all stop valves at the outlet of the fuel material bunker, and the fuel of coal feeder should be removed completely (if the operation of boiler should be stopped for a long time). And the fuel in the fuel storage bunker should be reduced to the lowest safe storage level. The operation of limestone feeding system is stopped. Monitor the oxygen amount and the temperature of bed. When the oxygen amount increases and the temperature of bed decreases, the damper of the air valve to the bottom of furnace should be closed, and the air sending to the large air tank to the bottom of furnace should be stopped. When the load of boiler be decreased to below about 10% of rated load, the drain water valve on the main steam pipe at the outlet of high temperature superheater should be open. And you should pay more attention to control the cooling velocity of boiler. These drain water valve cannot be closed completely until the steam is not produced here. After flame out of boiler, the IDF, FDF and blow out air fan and the fuel feeding blow out air fan should go on operating for 5 minutes at least in order to blow out the combustible material in furnace, and then they can be stopped. After the operation of boiler is stopped, if it is necessary to maintain the pressure of boiler, every air fan should be closed after blowing out. All dampers of relevant air fans should be closed to make the unit go into hot standby condition. When the pressure of drum has been decreased to below the lowest tuning pressure of safety valve and there is not enough accumulated heat to produce steam so that the safety valve moved, the drain water valve on the main steam pipe at the outlet of high temperature superheater should
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13)

14)

15) 16)
17)

18)
19)

20)
21)

be closed. When there is not combustion in furnace, the drain water valve and vent valve should be closed. Before the combustion that is be done in order to keep pressure, the drain water valve on the connected pipe of main steam at the outlet of high temperature superheater should be opened. In the process of combustion, all of these valves should be open. The feed water system should be put into operation once the steam is produced from boiler. The water level of drum should be maintained to near the normal indicating value of water level indicator in combustion. If it needs the boiler to stop using for a long time or it needs repair, the boiler should be cooled by air fan and the bed material should be removed by slag cooler. The drain water valve at the downstream of the outlet header of high temperature superheater can be used to drain water with the drain water valves of other superheater in order to decrease the pressure of drum according to the requirement; cooling of unit should be done as uniform as possible; the residual heat of the boiler wall and the components of boiler will produce steam in a certain long time. In this period, the water level in drum should be kept near the upper limited value of the visual measuring travel of the water level indicator. Once all bed material is removed from boiler, the boiler should be blown out for 5 minutes. And then, the slag cooler should exit the operation. When the boiler is cold enough to be entered, the operation of air fan can be stopped. The damper of fluidized air of slag cooler should be closed. The air sending of J valve on the slag entering pipes of slag cooler also should be stopped. The operation of material feeding system should be closed. The operation of FDF, IDF, and coal feeding boost air fan should be stopped. After the operations of FDF, IDF, and coal feeding boosting air fan are stopped, the air fan of J valve should be gone on operating. The operation of J valve air fan cannot be stopped until the temperature of J valve is cooled to below 260. Cut off ash removing system. If the steam and water inside of boiler should be removed completely, when the pressure of drum decreases to 0.1MPa (gauge pressure), all vent valves and drain water valves should be open to drain water in boiler. The temperature of the boiler water cannot be higher than 120 in the period of drain water. It is suggested that the water draining should be done when the boiler still has pressure even it is very small. The residual heat of boiler is good for drying the inner surface of the pipes of boiler. When the boiler is shutdown for short time, the drain water valve and vent valve of the header of superheater should be opened. It is not allowable to keep partial water filling for a long time in the period of shutdown of boiler. The boiler should be filled fully with anticorrosion hydrazine deoxygenation alkali water. If the shutdown period will last for several weeks or several months or the condition of climate is not allowable to fill water into boiler, drain water and drying should be done for drum. Several thin pans with certain amount of silica get should be placed inside of drum to absorb the water content in drum to keep the inner surface dry. If the shutdown period will just last for several days or little longer, all ash deposit inside of boiler should be removed, because the ash deposit has sulfur content will absorb water content so that to corrode the pipes. Under common condition, the ash in boiler should be soot blown before the shutdown of boiler.

Chapter Operation of CFB boiler


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. The characteristic of the adjustment of circulating fluidized bed boiler The operator should adjust the working condition of combustion according to the requirements and the quality of coal to guarantee the safe and economic operation of boiler after it transfers from ignition into normal coal feeding of circulating fluidized bed boiler. The operation of the steam and water part of circulating fluidized bed boiler is same with common boiler that should be carried out according to the relevant safety operation rules that will not introduced here. The performance of the material circulating system in the combustion method of circulating fluidized bed boiler related with the heating transformation of heating surface and the combustion of material closely, so its adjustment of combustion is different from other boiler completely. In the design and operation of circulating fluidized bed boiler, two problems should be paid more attention to: one is the balance of material, and the other is the balance of heat. After cracking, the coal and limestone will form certain size and they will be sent into the lower part of combustion of material feeding device. The coal whose size is bigger will be left to combust at the lower part, and some fine coal and limestone will be taken to the upper part to finished combustion. It will go into separator at the outlet of burner, the fly ash that is not collected by separator will be exhausted out of boiler through tail flue duct, the material collected by separator will return to the lower part of burner to form the circulation of ash. This has produced the distribution problem for the combustion quantum, i.e. the production and absorption of every part of heat in the burner of circulating fluidized bed are balanced at which temperature. The burner of circulating fluidized bed boiler can be divided into two areas: one is the dense phase area at lower part, ad the other one is rare phase area at upper part. The space rate of rare phase area is far greater than the dense phase area. The heat released in the combustion of coal is also be divided into two parts; the fuel goes into the dense phase bed area at lower part completely, and volatilization is released firstly that will be combusted immediately; ad then fixed carbon is combusted followed it. The combustion of the carbon of coarse particle appears in dense phase bed layer, but partial coke of fine particle will be taken to rare phase area to combust. Because air is sent from the stages with different height from furnace, the primary air amount is sent into dense phase bed area from the blast cap from the bottom air room of bed, so the dense phase bed area can be under the reducing atmosphere by controlling the proportion of the total air amount of primary air under the condition of the quality of fluidization is guaranteed; the incomplete combustion of the particles of carbon will form CO that will turn into CO2 in the further combustion by mixing with secondary air at the upper part of furnace that will change the combustion quantum of dense phase are to make higher temperature at the upper part f furnace. It is benefit for combusting the fine particles of carbon fully. The distribution of the combustion quantum is also decided by the cracking condition, the content of volatilization, and the distributed ratio of primary and secondary air besides related with the quality and quantity of the material circulation. If the coal is fine, the volatilization is high, the proportion of primary air is small, the combustion quantum of rare will be bigger, and the combustion quantum of dense phase area will be smaller. For the given fuel, in order to steady the operation with full load, the coal whose size is 0~1mm is expected to more than
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40%. The lower the volatilization is, the bigger the proportion of the coal whose size is 0-mm should be. After the side and quality of coal is confirmed, the primary air has heavy influence to the adjustment of operation. In dense phase bed area, the heat released by the combustion of coal is absorbed by three parts: one is the heat taken away by the hot flue gas formed by primary air; the heat absorbed by the around water wall; and the heater taken away by circulating ash. This is heat balance. It can be known by calculation, in these three parts of heat, the heat taken away of the hot flue gas formed by primary air is the most; the heat taken away by circulating ash is the second one; the heat absorbed by the around water wall is min. If the combustion quantum in dense phase area is confirmed, the heat taken away of primary air and the heat taken away by the heating surface of the around water wall in dense phase area are confirmed for given temperature of bed; the heat balance for reaches the temperature of bed which is the heat taken away by circulating ash. The heat taken away of circulating ash is decided by the circulating ash amount and the temperature of circulating ash returning to dense phase area. The more the circulating ash amount is, the lower the temperature of circulating ash is. And the bigger the differential temperature of it and the dense phase is, the bigger the heat taken away by circulating ash is. This will produce the balance problem of circulating material. The main functions of material circulating system is collect the material whose particle is finer and send them to furnace to control the combustion quantum in dense phase area effectively and improve the heating transferring ratio in main loop. The quality and quantity of the material circulation have direct relationship with the flow in main loop, combustion, and heat transformation, there exist a balance. The circulating ash amount is decided by the material bring rate adopted in the design of boiler, and this rate is decided by the cracking condition of raw coal, the cracking and adding amount of limestone, the air flow of furnace adopted in design and the type of separator and so on. 1. The air sending amount and the ratio of primary and secondary air In order to reduce the exhaustion amount of NOx, stage air sending is adopted in the combustion of circulating fluidized bed to make the combustion is be done under the condition of lower excessive air ratio. The primary air amount is 55 65 of the operating air amount under common condition, and the secondary air is 35 45. For the bituminous coal whose volatilization is higher, the primary air ratio can take the low limited value. For meager coal and anthracite, the primary air ratio can choose the up limited value. When the load is reduced, the secondary air can be reduced along with it. In the process of the load is decreased from 100% to 70%, the coal distributed air and primary air cannot be change, and just the secondary should be reduced till the cooling of the air opening is met. In the process of going on reducing load, the primary air amount should be decreased properly till to about 90% of the primary air amount in the operation with 100% load, and it can be
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Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project

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operated under the condition of going on reducing load. But for the 0-8mm fuel, the velocity cannot be lower than 0.7-0.8m/s that is the lowest limited value of primary air. i.e. when the load is low, the operation should be done under high excessive air ratio. In order to steady the operation, air amount and air pressure gauges should be installed in the primary and secondary air way and the air way of material returning valve, and they should be calibrated. The control of the air flow in combustion chamber should be 1.1m/s under the cold condition without load. For example, for 75t/h circulating fluidized bed, the area of bed is 18 m2, the total operating air amount is 70000~80000Nm3/h, the area of circulating fluidized bed is 32 m2, the total operating air amount is 130000~135000Nm3/h. what has to be explained is what can decide the quality of fluidization is the air flow instead of the static pressure of air room. Only there is enough fluidization speed, there will be good fluidizing condition. So in operation, the air amount must be taken as the basis. 2. The thickness of material layer The thickness of the material layer is decided by the head of FDF in the operation of circulating fluidized bed, it is necessary to maintain certain thickness of material layer. The thickness of material can be judged according to the variation of the static pressure of air room. When the air amount is fixed, the static pressure increases that expresses the resistance become bigger, and the material layer become thicker and vice visa. When the head of FDF is fixed, the thickness of operating material layer is decided by the density of bed material and the operating load. If the density of bed material is smaller, the thickness of material layer can be thicker and vice visa. When the load is full, if the circulating amount of material is bigger, the material layer should be thicker. When the load is lower, if the circulating amount is less, the material layer should be thin. For 130t/h circulating fluidized bed boiler, the thickness of material layer can be controlled at 700-1000mm commonly that can be adjusted according to the static pressure of air room. When the fluidization of bed layer is normal, the indicating pin of the static pressure of air room will swing cyclically. When the thickness of material layer is too thick, the indicating pin of the pressure of air room cannot swing that expresses the fluidization is bad, partial slag should be removed to decrease the thickness of material layer. When the indicating pin of the pressure of air room fluctuate substantially, slag maybe appears or a large amount of slag may deposit at the bottom of boiler; it should be removed in time. If the bed material in operation becomes thin by itself, additional bed material should be added in. The continuous or half continuous slag removing method should be adopted for circulating fluidized bed boiler as possible as it can, i.e. the times of slag removing should be more, and the amount of slag removing should be less. The material layer of bed can be steadied by this way to prevent the effective circulating particles from losing and it is benefit for the stable operation of boiler. In the operation, the primary air amount should be kept unchanged along with the increasing of load. If the thickness of material layer become thicker and the indication of air amount gauge decreases, the air valve should be turned up properly to maintain the primary air amount. It is prohibit to turn up the air valve at random and just to use the static pressure of air room as the monitoring method of operation.
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Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project 3. The temperature of material layer

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The variation of the temperature of the material layer should be paid more attention to in operation. If the temperature is higher than 1000, it is easy to slag and influent the exhaustion of NOx and reduce the efficiency of desulphurization. If the temperature is too low, it is bad for combusting all fuel and also bad for the output. If the temperature is too low (600~700), it is easy to flame out. The normal operating temperature is 850-950. In this range of temperature, the exhaustion of NOx is the lowest, and the efficiency of desulphurization is the best. It can be increased or decreased according to its ash fusion point and the combustion condition. In order to guarantee the normal operation of circulating fluidized bed boiler, besides the factors of air amount, air pressure, bed temperature, and so on, the more important is building a stable and reliable material circulating procedure. A large amount of circulating ash can transfer heat and increase the combustion quantum in furnace, and bring much heat to the whole furnace so that the temperature of furnace can be reduce and the range adjusted by load can be increased. The circulating material is composed by the ash in coal, desulphurization agent limestone and additional material such as slag and sand and so on. For the coal of middle and high sulfur content, limestone is used as desulphurization agent and also as the circulating material. The grain size of limestone should be 0~1mm; if the grain size is too big, the reaction of desulphurization will be bad. If the grain size is too bad, the staying time in bed will be too short and it is also bad for the efficiency. For the bituminous coal whose heat value is very high, and sulfur content is very low, it is not necessary to adding limestone into desulphurization. Because the ash content in coal is very low, it is not enough for meeting the need of circulating material just depending on the ash of itself, some additional material from outside should be made up to instead the loss of circulating material, so good coal pulverization and ash system should be supplied for circulating fluidized bed. The coal pulverization system should meet the requirement of the grain size of as-fired coal is 0-8mm in which the coal whose grain size is 0~1mm should be get 40%~50%. The ash produced by this kind of fuel can become the material that can attend the circulation. For ash system, an ash bunker that has certain capacity should be set at the proper position in front of boiler to storage the material that has certain grain size. If the fuel is changed, when the ash content in raw coal is very low, the making up material can be sent into furnace through ash bunker with raw coal to attend the circulating combustion. The circulating amount should be adjusted at any time by adjusting the adding ash amount at outside according to the variation of load to satisfy the demand of normal combustion. The ash without carbon content needed in ignition can be added into bed directly through ash bunker that reduce the labor intensity of manual laying bottom material largely. The more the capacity of boiler is, the more obvious the function is. The temperature of bed is taken as the main parameter in the adjustment of the load of circulating fluidized bed boiler. The suitable operating temperature should be set according to the necessary of coal and desulphurization by user. In order to make the boiler is operated under the condition of the requirement of load can be met, the combustion must be adjusted to
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keep higher temperature and certain circulating amount at the upper part of furnace. When the load is changed, just the air amount and the coal feeding amount should be changed. There is self adaptability between the circulating system of material and the load. The load bears on the efficiency of separator. The temperature of furnace will decrease along with the decreasing of load, so the efficiency of separator will reduced, the carbon content in the fly ash will increase. Put this part of fly ash return to furnace to combust can reduce the carbon content in fly ash and improve the efficiency of combustion. J valve is a kind of self balanced valve whose material level does not need to be monitored. The disadvantages of it is if the ash level in the material leg is high, it is difficult to start up it again; the air needed by it should has higher head; it should be started up at the beginning of hot startup and is operated with constant air amount to avoid slag in material leg. . The combustion adjustment of the operation of the boiler in Vikram Power Plant 1. Task of the combustion adjustment of boiler Keep the evaporation of boiler conforming to the regulated load curve. Balance the water induction and keep the normal water level. 2) Guarantee the quality of steam is qualified. 3) Maintain the normal bed temperature, bed pressure, steam temperature, and steam pressure. 4) The discharging amount of SO2 and NOX should be in regulated range. 5) The security and economy of the operation of boiler should be guaranteed.
1)

2. Adjustment of load The adjustment of load is realized by change the feeding fuel amount and the corresponding air amount. The adjustment of air and coal should be done fore many times but the adjusting amount should be less to avoid the fluctuation of bed temperature. When increasing load, the primary air amount and secondary air amount should be increased a little, and then the coal feeding amount can be increased a little to increase the differential pressure between material layers gradually, and then increase the air amount and coal feeding amount, and adjust them alternatively till the necessary output. 2) When the load is reduced, the coal feeding amount should be reduced firstly, and then the primary air amount and secondary air amount can be reduced properly, and a part of circulating ash can be removed slowly to reduce the differential pressure between material layers. This process should be done again and again till the output is necessary. 3) The controlling of the thickness of bed layer and the temperature of bed can be used as the auxiliary method for the adjustment of load.
1)

3. Adjustment of bed temperature


1)

The temperature of bed is measured by the thermocouple placed on the air distributed
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2)

3)

4)

plate. The operation range of the normal temperature of bed of this boiler is 790~920. The temperature of bed should be monitored strictly in the operation, and the operation of boiler should be done in this range of temperature. The high value alarming point of the temperature of bed is 955. When the temperature is 990, the main fuel will be tripped automatically. The lowest operating temperature of bed is 790, it is forbidden that the temperature of bed is lower than this value under the condition of no assist combustion. The alarming point of the low temperature of bed is 760. When the temperature of bed is lower than 650, the main fuel will be tripped automatically unless the air duct ignition burner is put into operation. But when the temperature of bed decreases to below 540, no matter the air duct ignition burner operates or not, the coal feeder will be cut off automatically. The actual operating temperature of the bed of boiler can be increased higher than the above requirement properly under the premise of no fouling in boiler along with the accumulation of the experiences of the operation of boiler and the particular stress on the combustion efficiency or desulphurization efficiency and the mastery of the characteristic of coal. If the temperature of the bed layer is too high and the lasting time is too long, the bed material will slag and the operation cannot go on. On the contrary, if the temperature of bed layer is too low, the combustion will be not completely and even flame out. The main method of the adjustment for the temperature of bed layer is to adjust the coal feeding amount and the primary air amount; and the temperature of bed also can be adjusted by change the limestone feeding amount and the slag removing amount. When the temperature of bed exceeds the normal range, the air mixture and coal feeding should be adjusted. When the temperature of bed is higher, the coal feeding amount should be decreased properly, and the fluidized air amount should be increased properly; and vice versa. In order to prevent from too high temperature of bed, the feeding amount of limestone can be increased and the operation of slag cooler should be stopped to increase the amount of bed material to decrease the temperature of bed and the load till the temperature of bed begin to decrease and vice versa.

4. Adjustment of bed pressure Bed pressure is important parameters monitored in CFB boiler, and it is the important index monitored the quality of fluidization of bed layer and the thickness of material layer. 1) When the operation of boiler is normal, the pressure of bed should be controlled about 6KPa. 2) Under common condition, the pressure of bed can be maintained normally according to change the slag removing amount and limestone amount. 3) When the pressure of bed is higher, the primary air rate can be increased to make it is easy to remove slag to reduce the pressure of bed to normal value. 4) When the bed pressure is too high, whether there is slag or not on bed layer should be paid attention to. 5) When the bed pressure is lower, the slag removing amount and limestone feeding amount should be reduced. 5. Adjustment of the discharging thickness of NOx, SO2
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Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project


1)

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2)

Check the exhaustion of SO2; adjust the feeding rate of limestone manually or automatically, guarantee the exhaustion value of SO2 is conformed with the local rules; it is forbidden that the exhaustion value of SO2 is lower than 75% of standard value because it can make the boiler operating with low efficiency. Adjusting the temperature of bed is one of the methods of controlling the exhaustion value of NOx in flue gas. When the temperature of bed is higher than 940, the NOx will be increased obviously. It can be adjusted by changing the mixture ratio of primary and secondary airs and the secondary air and the surplus air ratio and so on. When the temperature of bed is in the range of 820~900, the exhaustion value of NOx is the lowest.

6. Adjustment of mixture of air The principles of the adjustment of primary and secondary airs are:
1) 2)

3) 4)

The fluidization, temperature of bed and pressure of bed is adjusted by primary air. The total air amount is controlled by secondary air. Under the premise of the primary air is enough for the demands of fluidization, temperature of bed, and the differential pressure of material layer, when the total air amount is not enough, the secondary air valve can be opened gradually; the amount of secondary air flow will be increased gradually along with the increasing of load. When it is conclude that partial bed materials have been not fluidized yet, the primary air flow and the amount of slag removing should be increased temporarily. The working condition of fluidization in bed, the combustion condition, and the material returning condition should be paid attention to; if any problem is found, it should be eliminated in time. When the temperature is increased or decreased, the ratio of primary air and secondary air, the coal feeding amount and so on should be adjusted in time.

7. Others Before the temperature of bed is decreased to 800, the startup burner should be put into operation. 2) The variation of the temperature of resistance of every part should be observed in the operation of boiler. When the temperature or resistance is abnormal, should check whether it is caused by air leakage, too much surplus air, fouling and abnormal combustion, and some measures should be taken to eliminate it. 3) Blow out should be done once by every shift. 4) The variation of the quality of coal should be paid attention to in operation; and the operation of boiler should be adjusted according to the condition of the quality of coal.
1)

8. Points for attention in the combustion adjustment


1)

The main methods of changing the load of boiler are adjusting the coal feeding amount and air amount. The temperature of bed is allowable to change in the range of 790 911, and it is allowable to change substantially in short time. The temperature of bed and the upper and lower differential temperature are adjusted by the mixture ratio of primary air and secondary air; besides reducing load, the temperature of bed and the
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upper and lower differential temperature of furnace can be decreased by increasing the amount of primary air. The differential temperature in furnace is better to keep min when the load is high. When the steam flow is the required one, the temperature of bed should be steadied at bout 900 again, and it should be kept by adjusting the amount of bed material and adjusting the velocity of combustion. If it is possible, the best method is to keep a fixed temperature of bed when the load of boiler is changed. Under any condition, the mixture ratio of air and coal and the normal combustion should be guaranteed. 2) Monitor and control the oxygen amount at tail continuously to maintain the normal combustion. The attached drawing 10 shows the control requirements for the oxygen amount under different load. 3) The exhaustion amount of SO2 should be monitored and measured. The exhaustion amount of it should be controlled in allowable range by adjusting the feeding amount of limestone. 4) If the temperature of furnace is in the normal range in operation, the low exhausting value of NOx is the characteristic of this boiler. Along with the increasing of the temperature of furnace, the exhausting value of NOx also will increase with it, so the exhaustion of NOx should be checked regularly in the continuous exhaustion monitor system. If it is necessary, the operating temperature of furnace should be adjusted, and the distribution of the air amount of secondary air also should be adjusted at the same time. 5) The fluidizing condition of bed layer should be checked periodically to check whether the fluidization is uniform or not. If any thermocouple on air distributed plate shows low temperature that expresses the bed material may be in bad fluidizing condition. If partial bed layer loss fluidization, the air flow amount of bed layer has to be increased and the slag removing amount should be increased temporarily. If the above measures cannot improve the effect of fluidization, it is necessary to shutdown the boiler to check whether the blast cap of air distributed plate is blocked or not or whether the bed material is fouling or not, or whether the condition of the bed materials whose size is big are accumulated together. 6) The differential pressure at the flue gas side of convection heating surface should be monitored continuously; the ash depositing condition on heating surface should be checked periodically. 7) Check whether the fuel and limestone feeding systems are blocked or not, whether there is abnormal sound, vibration or not periodically. The belt transferring system, lubricating and temperature measured points should be checked. 8) Monitor the height of the material level of fluidized bed continuously, the normal fluidized height should be maintained by adding in limestone and removing more slag. The purpose of removing of bed slag is in order to keep the proper total amount of material and proper composition of material and also in order to control the exhaustion amount of SO2. 9) Monitor the differential pressure of air distributed plate continuously. If this differential pressure decreases obviously, the operation of instrument should be checked to confirm whether its operation is normal or not, and whether the sensing line is blocked or not. If the instruments and sensing line are normal, the operation of boiler should be stopped to check the condition of air distributed plate. . Blow out

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In order to guarantee the boiler gets rated load and high efficiency, the outer surface of all pipes and components must be soot blew to keep clear and no ash. 1. After the boiler is put into operation, sootblower can be used to remove ash. The sootblowing should be done according to the sequence without consider the load of boiler. But the operation way of IDF and FDF should be changed to manual operation in sootblowing period when the boiler is operated below 50% load. 2. The operation of blow out is one part of the operation of boiler; in order to get the best cleaning effect; the following items should be monitored and checked: 2.1 During the period of shutdown of boiler, the ash depositing condition in convection pass should be checked. 2.2 Monitor the temperature of the wall of pipe of high temperature superheater and the temperature of the steam at outlet. 2.3 Monitor the change of the flow of spray water of attemperator. 2.4 Monitor the temperature of flue gas at the outlet of economizer and air preheater. 2.5 Monitor the change of the differential pressure between the air side and flue gas side of air preheater. 2.6 Monitor the resistance at the flue gas side through the tail heating surface. In conclusion, the above parameters of boiler should be monitored when the blow out system is put into operation for the first time. And a kind of better blow out procedure should be adopted. The system should be monitored periodically to avoid emergency shutdown out of plan. . The adjustment of steam temperature (water jet attemperating) The temperature of the steam that goes into the inlet header of screen superheater and the inlet header of high temperature superheater and then goes through water spraying attemperator should be 11 higher than the saturated temperature under the pressure of the inlet of connected pipe (Shown in attached drawing 15). 1 The factors that can influent the temperature of steam: 1) The amount of fuel changes; 2) The negative pressure of furnace changes; 3) The proportion of primary air and secondary air changes; 4) The changes of excess air coefficient; 5) The changes of the pressure and temperature of feed water; 6) The changes of load; 7) The changes of the quality of coal;
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Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project


8) 9) 10) 11)

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12)
13)

14) 15) 16)

The changes of the amount of de-superheating water; The ash collection, foul, ash blowing out on heating surface; The boiler leaks air and has leakage; The water level of drum changes; The pressure of superheated steam changes; The fineness of coal particle changes; The temperature and pressure of bed change; The operation and stop of limestone system; The material returning system is abnormal.

2. Adjustment of steam turbine The water jet attemperators of primary superheater and secondary superheater are adopted to adjust the steam temperature of boiler; the primary is used as coarse adjustment and the secondary is used as fine adjustment. 2) The temperature of the outlet of superheater should be maintained at 540+-105 3) Pay attention to the influence of the change of pressure to the temperature of steam and the influence of the pressure of feed water to the amount of de-superheating water, master its law and adjust it in advance; 4) The temperature of steam can be increased by blowing out by superheater; 5) In the course of the adjustment of the temperature of steam, the temperature of the wall of every pipe section should be controlled in the allowable range strictly; 6) The change of the temperature of steam should be paid attention to under the following conditions:
1)

When the load is reduced; When the combustion is unstable; When the HP heater is put into operation or exit the operation; When the change of the kind of coal is big; When the change of the pressure of feed water is big. . The adjustment of the pressure of steam Except the startup and shutdown of boiler, in the normal operation, when adopt the operation with constant pressure, the pressure of superheated steam should be maintained at9.810.1MPa. When adopt the operation way of constant-sliding-constant, sliding pressure operation should be adopted at 50%~90% rated load; and constant pressure operation way should be recovered when the load is lower than 50% rated load. 1. Stabilize the combustion of boiler and control the fluctuating range of the pressure of steam by adjusting the amount of coal feeding to boiler according to the demands of the height of bed and temperature of bed under different load. 2. Pay attention to the corresponding relation among the pressure of steam, load and the differential pressure of furnace; the differential pressure of furnace expresses the particle concentration at dilute phase area and it has very important function for the control of pressure and load.
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Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project . Adjustment of water level

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1. The water supply should be even and continuously in operation as possible as it can; and the water level of drum should be kept normally. 2. The zero water level of drum is at 76mm below the central line of drum, and the water level of drum is maintained between 50mm. the limitation of the water level of drum: when the water level of drum reaches -200n or +120mm, the visual and audible alarm should be sent; when the water level of drum reaches -2810mm or +200mm, the MFT will act. 3. When the water feeding is at automatic state, the variations of its operation and water level should be monitored strictly. If the automatic control of it is out of control, it should be switched over to manual adjustment in time. 4. The normal water level should be kept in operation. The variation rules of the steam flow, feed water flow, and feed water pressure should be paid attention to obvious usually. The difference of the feed water flow and steam flow should be obtained; when the water level changes, it should be adjusted in time. 5. The local water level indicator should be taken as the water level of boiler. The secondary water level indicator is taken as the basis of monitor and adjustment. 6. The water level meter should be washed and calibrated once every shift under normal condition;

Section Emergency Treatment of Boiler


The accident in power plant is one of the misfortunes for the production of industry and agriculture. The emergency shutdown of power plant not only makes the power plant itself suffers damage, but also influent the production of other occupation and the lift of human directly.
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Quite a few accidents in fossil fired power plant are caused by the accidents of boiler. The reasons of the accidents appears in boiler section are many: such as the qualities of design, manufacture, installation, and maintenance of equipment are bad; the technology of the operators are not skillful, the operators work careless and the judges and operations are wrong and so on when accident is found. The first responsibility of the operators of boiler section is preventing the accident actively to avoid the accident of boiler as possible as he can. So, the operators should familiar with the conditions of equipment and master the operation technique skillfully, maintain the equipment carefully, operate correctly; when accident appears, the operators should be composed and even-tempered, judge it correctly, deal with it accurately and rapidly, eliminate the root of accident as soon as possible, insulate the accident place to prevent from expanding.

Chapter General principle of emergency treatment


1.

2. 3.

4.

When accident happens, the operator should eliminate the root of accident as soon as possible to limit the development of accident to release the from the threaten to human and equipment; Under the precondition of guaranteeing the security of human and the equipment is not broken; the operation of unit should be maintained as possible as you can; The operators are required to be level-headed, composed and even-tempered and to judge the condition rapidly and deal with it decidedly to eliminate the accident at embryonic stage to prevent from expanding; The time, phenomenon, treatment procedure of the accident should be recorded specifically and report to relevant leaders in time.

Chapter Important preventive measure of the operation of boiler


1. Furnace gate

In operation, the furnace gate at the positive pressure area at the bottom of furnace is not allowable to open to prevent from hurting person. 2. Limitation of the pressure of furnace

The unit and auxiliary equipment will be broken seriously caused by too large negative pressure or too large positive pressure of furnace, so the pressure of furnace has to be controlled in operation, and the following controls can put into operation dependably before startup. The negative pressure of furnace should be monitored (measured at the balanced point of the outlet of furnace), and this negative pressure should be controlled in the range of -127 245Pa automatically. 2) The main fuel trip should be set at 2489Pa of the pressure value at the outlet of furnace (the inlet of cyclone separator) with 5 seconds delay. 3) The trip of IDF and FDF should be set at3744Pa of the pressure value of furnace area without delay.
1)
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Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project 3.

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The water level and differential temperature of the water level of drum

The normal water level of drum is at 76mm below the central line of drum; the alarm water level is adjusted at -200mm and +125mm of corresponding to normal water level; the shutdown water level should be adjusted at -280mm and +200mm corresponding to normal water level. When the drum is under low low water level working condition (lower than normal water level 280mm), or high high water level working condition (higher than normal water level 200mm), main fuel trip, and the IDF and FDF trip; in order to prevent the boiler from suffering too large hot stress, the differential temperature of the upper wall and lower wall of drum should be controlled not exceed 50. The temperatures of upper wall and lower wall should be monitored in the main control room, and there should be differential temperature indicator in main control room. The dependability of the all water level indicators of drum should be paid more attention to. It is suggested to check once at every shift. The contents of check include all double color water level indicator, electric contact water level indicator, and water level record instrument. The water level of drum can be changed in check in order to obvious the reactions of all indicator and water level indicator. 4. Safety valve

All safety valves are adjusted by its manufactory, but it should be calibrated again under real operating conditions at the first startup of boiler and boosting pressure. If some safety valve does not trip or return sit improper when its nameplate pressure is reached, this valve has to be adjusted again. It is forbidden to change the tuning value at random. 5. Requirement for excess air

In order to maintain good combustion, should pay attention to control the excess air ratio of furnace to guarantee the proper proportion of air and coal in combustion. The excess air ratio at the outlet of furnace in operation is controlled by measuring the oxygen amount at the outlet of tail flue duct. The corresponding oxygen amount value is controlled about 3.5% at rated output (volume ratios, take wet flue gas as basis). The relationship of this oxygen amount with the load of boiler is shown in attached drawing 10. The above measured value of oxygen is just a reference; the best value should be set by combustion adjustment. The operation whose excess air is lower than the one set above is bad for the good combustion and safety operation of boiler. The oxygen analyzer should be repaired and calibrated before the startup at any time of boiler and periodically. 6. Distribution of the temperature of bed

The temperature of bed is measured by the thermocouple arranged on air distributed plate. The normal bed temperature range of this boiler is 790~920. The temperature of bed should be monitored strictly in operation and the boiler should be operated in this range. The high value alarming point of the temperature of bed is 955. When the temperature reaches
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Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project

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990, the main fuel will be tripped automatically. The lowest operating bed temperature is 790. Under the condition of no auxiliary combustion, it is not allowable to lower than this level. The low value alarming point of the temperature of bed is 760, when the temperature of bed is lower to 650, the main fuel will be tripped automatically, unless the airway ignition burner is put into operation. But when the temperature of bed goes down to below 540, no matter the airway ignition burner is operating or not, the coal feeder will be tripped automatically. Along with the accumulation of the operation experience of boiler and the mastery for the characteristic of coal, the actual operating temperature of bed can be increased properly that is higher than the above demand. 7. The temperature of heating surface Wall thermocouples are set at the relevant positions of steam loop. The positions of these thermocouples are as follows:
Part Drum Screen superheater Low temperature superheater High temperature superheater Position Top and bottom Outlet pipe ring Outlet pipe ring Outlet pipe ring Number 2 for every one 8 6 9 468 540 452 Steam temperature alarm limitation

The above thermocouples are positioned at the area that is not scoured by flue gas, so the temperature obtained by them means the temperature of medium, these thermocouples and all other thermocouples (including the indicator in control room) should be checked, and all of them can be put into operation at any time. In the operation process of unit, the continuous operation of unit can be kept if the steam temperature does not exceed the alarm limited value shown on the above meter. When alarm appears, the operators should adjust it according to the working condition to protect the security of equipment. In the stopping operation of boiler every time, the ash depositing condition at the flue gas side of tail heating surface should be checked; if serious ash deposits is found here, the heating surface should be cleaned before startup again. 9. In order to prevent from blocking, rusting and oxidation and operation accident of equipment, the air used for the operation of boiler, no matter used as seal air, inject or automation should be no dust, no oil, and no water. 10. Before start up IDF, all HP safety interlock devices of furnace should be checked to confirm they can supply proper values and correct switchover actions, and all of these safety interlock devices have to be put into operation. 11. It is not allowable that the fluidized speed of furnace is lower than 1.2m/s (this is the min fluidized velocity required to maintain the normal fluidization), shown in attached drawing
8.
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Chapter Typical emergency treatment of boiler


1. Emergency shutdown of boiler 1.1 Emergency shutdown of boiler should be done when one of the following conditions appears:
1) 2)

3)
4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

11) 12)
13)

14)

When the water level in drum is high and to +250mm; When the water level in drum is low and to 200mm; When the pipes on heating surface is broken and the water level cannot be maintained; When the main pipes of feed water and the pipes of main steam explodes; When the slag in boiler is very serious; When all water level indicator of boiler are broken and the water level in drum cannot be monitored; When re-combustion appears in the flue gas duct in behind of the outlet of boiler and the temperature of smoke removing rises abnormally to 200; When the wall of boiler is broken and it may be collapse, and the security of person and equipment are threatened; When the system eject load and the pressure of steam exceeds the limited value, and the safety valve refuse to act, and the exhaustion is not enough to relief pressure; When the safety valve does not go back to original position after acting, and the temperature and pressure of steam goes down to the unallowable value of turbine; When all operator station of DCS system are in trouble and there is no dependable standby operation monitor method; When the power of I&C instrument is cut off, and the main operating parameters cannot be monitored and adjusted; When MFT should act but it refuse to act; When fire appears in the boiler unit and it threaten the safe operation of boiler directly.

1.2 The procedure of emergency shutdown:

1) When the condition of emergency shutdown is satisfied, MFT will act. Deal with it according to the action of MFT. 2) If MFT does not act, push down two MFT buttons to shutdown the boiler manually. Confirm stopping to supply all fuel into boiler, and open the exhaustion to atmosphere of superheater. 3) Change the auto operation to manual operation; control the water level of drum, temperature of bed, temperature and pressure of steam well; turn down or close the desuperheating water manual valve according to the temperature of steam. 4) After closing the feed water valve, when the water feeding of boiler is stopped, the recirculation of economizer should be started up (except the condition that the economizer explodes.) 5) If the end flue gas duct is burning again, the air fan should e stopped immediately. Close the flue gas damper. And the ventilation is forbidden. 6) Adopt measures to eliminate trouble rapidly, and the preparation to recover the operation should be done well. Report to superior, and write down the condition of trouble. 7) When it cannot be recovered in short time, feed water to high water level of drum (except when the pipe of boiler explodes and the water level cannot be maintained), close the
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feed water valve, tell turbine section to stop the feed water pump and close the continuous secondary blowdown valve, secondary adding valve and secondary sampling valve.
1.3 Apply for shutdown the boiler

When one of the following conditions occurs, should apply for stopping the operation of boiler: 1) When leakage appears in the steam and water pipes of water wall, superheater, economizer and so on, and the water level still can be maintained; 2) When the qualities of the feed water of boiler, boiler water and steam go to bad seriously, and the treatments taken for them are not effect; 3) When the temperature of the wall of superheater exceed the limited value, and the treatments for it are not effect; 4) When all remote water level indicators are out of work, and they cannot work again in short time; 5) When all oxygen meter is out of work; 6) When the slag appears in boiler, and the adjustments used for it are not effect, and the normal operation cannot be maintained; 7) When the temperature of bed exceeds the regulated value, and it is not effect after adjustments by many parties; 8) The quality of fluid is bad, and the adjustments of it are not effect; 9) When the slag removing system is in trouble and the slag cannot be removed after treatments. 10) When the J valve material returning device is blocked, and the carried out measures are not effect; 11) When the insulation of material returning device breaks off, and the wall of pipes is heated to red; 12) The ash remover is in trouble and cannot work. 1.4 Main fuel trip (MFT) Phenomenon: MFT acts, sending alarm; All coal feeder trip; the limestone system is cut off; the ignition system under bed is cut off; the fast closing valve of fuel oil is closed; 3) The temperature and pressure of bed is reducing; 4) The temperature and pressure of steam go down; the flow of steam reduces seriously and the water level of drum goes down firstly and then raise; 5) All air flow should be changed to manual operating method, and it should be kept at last position; 6) Unless the air fan cuts off itself, or all air fan control should be changed to manual control method, and keep the last position. If it trips because of the low level of drum, the guide blade at the inlet of primary air fan should be closed to 0. Under the condition of the air fan is cut off by itself, the air fan should obey its logical control procedure;
1) 2)
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7)

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The output signal of combustion control limits the auto control of IDF; the pressure of furnace is guaranteed not exceed the limited value; 8) Unless the boiler is under hot restart up condition, or the logic of regulated boiler blow out is built up; 9) The printer prints the time and reason of the action of MFT.
2. 1) 2) 3)

Reason: Push down two MFT buttons of boiler at the same time. The temperature of bed is higher than 980 (signal comes from the self combustion control system). Loss logical control power source. Two in three logic controls display the pressure of furnace is high high value (+2489Pa) (time delay). Two in three logic controls display the pressure of furnace is low low value (2489Pa) (time delay). Two in three logic controls display the water level of boiler is high high value (higher than normal water level 200mm) (time delay). Two in three logic controls display the water level of boiler is low low value (lower than the normal water level 280mm) (time delay) FDF trips. The primary air fan and secondary air fan trip. The total air flow is too low, and it is lower than 25% (with time delay). (the signal comes from self combustion control system). The combustion control system losses power source (signal comes from self combustion control system). The high-speed diesel oil igniter under bed is not put into operation, and the temperature of bed is lower than 650. The pressure to the air room of furnace is too high (with time delay) (the signal comes from the self combustion control system). Cut off of turbine. The level of medium of cyclone barrel is high high value (with time delay). All coal feeding booster fan is stopped, and the bypass is not open (with time delay). The temperature is lower than 540. The following action is followed with the cut off of main fuel

4) 5)
6) 7)

8) 9)
10) 11) 12) 13)

14)
15) 16)

17) 3.

1) Cut off of material feeder; 2) Cut off of limestone system; 3) Cut off of high speed diesel igniter under bed. 4) Cut off of rotating slag removing valve of slag cooler. 5) All controls of air flow are changed to manual control way, and keep the last position. 6) Unless the air fan is cut off by itself, or all controls of air fan should be changed to manual control way and keep the last position. Under the condition of self cut off, the air fan should obey its logic control procedure. 7) The output signal sending to combustion control to limit the auto control of IDF, thus the pressure of furnace is guaranteed not exceeding the limited value.
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8)

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Unless the boiler is under hot restart up condition or the logic of regulated boiler blow out is built up. Treatment after the action of MFT: If it is not caused by the trip of IDF, primary air fan and secondary air fan and the trouble of DCS system, it should be solved according to the following principles:

4.

1) Adjust the damper of air fan, and keep the normal negative pressure of furnace; 2) Adjust the flow of feed water and keep the water level of drum normally; 3) Find out the reason of the action of MFT rapidly; 4) If the reason of the action of MFT cannot be found out or eliminated in short time, the operation of boiler should be stopped, and the boiler should be kept under hot standby condition; 5) If the reason of the action of MFT can be found out and eliminated in short time, the hot start up of boiler can be done to recover the operation of it; 6) If the boiler is shutdown because of the re-combustion of end flue gas duct, ventilation is forbidden and all air fan should be stopped. 7) If it is caused by the trip of IDF, primary air fan and secondary air fan, the partial stacking of bed material and stagnancy of fluidization should be taken into consideration in the treatment beside above principles. Phenomenon: 1) One or many displays of the value of bed temperature is large different from other displays of the value; 2) All displaying value of bed pressure is static reading (the normal displaying value of bed pressure is fluctuant value). The procedure of self fluidization of bed material Put the adjustment of the air flow of boiler under the operating way of manual operation; Turn up the general valve of primary air rapidly, and then recover it to original position; observe whether the display of bed pressure return to normal or not; 3) If it has be done three times in 10 minutes and it is not effect, the further measures of the arrangement of bed material should be taken to fluidize the bed material till satisfied; 4) Put the adjustment of air flow of boiler under the condition of auto control. 5) The operator must pay attention to that the unit has a large amount of energy in operation, and it also has very large amount of energy after main fuel trip. So the water level of drum and the proper steam amount controlled the pressure of steam must be kept.
1) 2)

The temperature of bed is too high or too low. 1. Phenomenon: 1) The measuring point of every bed displays high or low; 2) The alarm of high or low temperature of bed is sending;
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3) The pressure of main steam goes up or reduces; 4) The temperature of the outlet of furnace is higher or lower; 5) When the temperature of bed is serious high, it may cause fouling of bed material or even slag in large area; 6) The temperature of bed is too low and the combustion is unstable. 2. Reason: The graininess of coal is too big or too small and the quality of coal changes too much; 2) The measure of thermocouple of the temperature of bed is in trouble; 3) The work of coal feeder is abnormal; 4) The distribution of secondary air is imbalance; 5) The slag removing system is in trouble; 6) The material returning system is blocked; 7) The limestone system cannot operate normally.
1)

3. Treatment measures 1) Check the thermocouple of the temperature of bed; 2) When the temperature of bed is high, the amount of coal feeding should be reduced to reduce the output of boiler to make the temperature of bed keep at 92040; 3) When the temperature of bed is low, the amount of coal feeding should be increased to increase the temperature of bed; 4) Check whether the operation and control of coal feeder are normal or not; 5) Distribute the air reasonably, and adjust the proportion of primary and secondary air; 6) When the combustion is not stable caused by the too low temperature of bed, oil gun should be put into operation to help combustion; 7) Check the crushing system of coal; if it is in trouble, solve it in time; 8) If the high temperature of bed is caused by the block of material returning system, some measures should be taken to evacuate the material returning device smoothly; when it cannot be evacuate, the boiler should be shutdown. The pressure of bed is high or low. 1. Phenomenon The alarm of high bed pressure or low bed pressure is sent; 2) The indication of bed pressure goes down or raises; 3) The amount of slag removing of slag cooler is too large or too small; 4) The indication of the pressure of water cooling air room is too high or too low.
1)

2. Reason: 1) The trouble of the measure of bed pressure;


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2) The slag cooler is in trouble; the amount of slag removing is too small or too large; 3) The amount of limestone feeding and the amount of fuel are abnormal; 4) The amount of primary air is abnormal; 5) The material returning system is blocked; 6) The crushing system of material is in trouble; 7) The increasing and reducing of the load of boiler are too fast or the quality of coal changes too much. 3. Treatment measures: The bed pressure is too high, the amount of slag removing should be increased and the amount of material feeding should be reduced; when the pressure of bed is too low, the amount of slag removing should be reduced; and if it is necessary, increase the supplying amount of limestone or add bed material into boiler; 2) Check the pressure measuring point of bed, if there is any problem, eliminate it in time; 3) When the crashing system is in trouble, it should be solved in time to make the grain size of material in the qualified range; 4) If the material returning system is in trouble, relative measures should be taken to solve this problem in time.
1)

Water shortage of boiler 1. Phenomenon: The water level of drum is lower than normal water level or the water level cannot be seen from sight hole; 2) The water level alarm send the alarming signal of low water level; 3) The flow of feed water is smaller than the flow of steam abnormally (when the water wall or economizer explodes, the flow of steam is smaller than the flow of feed water).
1)

2. Reason: The feed water pump team is in trouble or trip; and the pressure of the manifold of feed water reduces; 2) The equipment is on fault, such as the auto water feeding is out of service or the water level indicator is blocked to form false water level; 3) The water level transmitting device is in trouble that cause the sudden change of water level; 4) The operator is neglectful of the monitor and control of water level; 5) The drain water system and blowdown system of boiler leak or the amount of discharging is excessive; 6) The range of load changing is big and the adjustment is not in time; 7) The feed water pipe or heating surface of boiler are explodes.
1)

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First, compare the indicating values of all water level indicators to judge the authenticity of the accident of water shortage and the condition of it; 2) Strengthen the water feeding manually to make the water level recover to normal; 3) If blowdown is doing at this time, it should be stopped; 4) If the water level goes on reducing, the load should be reduced and the pressure of drum should be reduced; 5) If necessary, start up the standby feed water pump; 6) The water level goes down to -200mm; emergency shutdown of boiler should be done at this time; 7) The water feeding after serious water shortage should be approved by general technical superintendent.
1)

Accident of full water: 1. Phenomenon: The water level cannot seen from the sight window of water level meter; and the color of boiler water is dark; 2) The water level alarm send high water level alarm signal; 3) The flow of steam is smaller than the flow of feed water abnormally; 4) When serious, the temperature of superheat steam reduces, and water impact appears.
1)

2. Reason: 1) The auto adjustment of feed water is out of control or the pressure of feed water is too high; 2) The operators is neglect of monitor and control the water level; 3) The changing range of load is too big and the adjustment of it is not in time. 3. Treatment: First, compare the indicating condition of several water level indicators to judge the true and false of full water and the condition of it; 2) The auto adjustment of feed water should be exchanged into manual adjustment of feed water to reduce feed water; 3) When it is slight, can adjust it manually and increase the blowdown; 4) When the water level is +150mm, open the emergency water discharging valve, and close it until normal; 5) When the water level raises to 250mm, emergency shutdown of boiler should be done.
1)

The pipes of water wall explode.


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Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project 1. Phenomenon:

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When the pipes broken slightly and leakage occurs at the welding point, the fizzle of steam will appear and the flow of feed water will increase a little; 2) When it is serious, there is obvious exploding sound at the exploded place; the negative pressure of furnace become positive; the water level of drum reduces sharply; and the flow of feed water is bigger than the flow of steam abnormally; 3) When the negative pressure control of furnace is at auto control condition, the adjusting damper of IDF open abnormally, and the current of IDF increases; 4) The temperatures of the smoke at the inlet and outlet of cyclone separator reduce, and the material back temperature of bin leg reduces; 5) The temperature of smoke emission reduces and the slag removing is difficult; 6) The pressure of bed increases; the differential pressure of bed increases; the material of bed lumps; and the distribution of the temperature of bed is not uniform.
1)

2. Reason: The qualities of boiler water and feed water are not qualified for a long time, and this unqualified water make scale in side of pipes that cause the partial heat resistance increases. 2) The water circulation is bad caused partial over heat; 3) The material of pipes is unqualified and the quality of welding is bad; 4) The wearing of the outer wall of pipes is serious; 5) The water shortage of boiler is serious.
1)

3. Treatment measures When the broken of water wall is not serious; Increase the amount of feed water and maintain the water level of drum; the load of boiler can be reduced and apply for shutdown according to the condition; 2) Oil should be put into operation to help combustion in time when the combustion is not stable. 3) When the broken of water wall is broken seriously and the normal water level cannot maintained; Emergency shutdown the boiler, and stop the water feeding to boiler; 4) After shutdown, the power source of ESP should be cut; 5) Keep the operation of IDF, discharging the steam inside of boiler; if the reducing rate of the temperature of bed exceeds the allowable value, IDF should be stopped; 6) After shutdown, the bed material inside of boiler should be removed as soon as possible, and the ash deposits at the bottom of ESP and air preheater should be removed completely; 7) Other operations should be done according to the normal shutdown of boiler.
1)

The pipes of superheater explode. 1. Phenomenon

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1) There is the sound of the steam spraying at superheater, and the flow of feed water is bigger than the flow of steam; 2) The negative pressure of furnace reduces or changes, and the pressure of superheat steam reduces; 3) The adjusted damper of IDF turns up abnormally, and the current of IDF increases; 4) The temperature of flue gas reduces at leaking side. 2. Reason: 1) Scale occurs on the inner wall of superheater or the impurities blocks the pipes that cause the heat transferring is bad; 2) The outer wall of pipe is wearing or occurs high temperature corrosion; 3) The structure of superheater is bad that cause the temperature of steam or temperature of wall exceeds the limitation for a long time; 4) The quality of pipe material is not qualified, and the quality of welding is bad. 3. Treatment measures: If the explosion of pipes is not serious, operate under the condition of reducing pressure and load properly, and apply for shutdown. 2) When the pipes explode; 3) Emergency shutdown the boiler, and keep the operation of IDF, control the reducing rate of bed temperature does not exceed the regulated value; 4) Keep the normal water level; 5) Other operations should be done according to normal shutdown of boiler.
1)

Leakage of economizer 1. Phenomenon: The water level of drum reduces; and the flow of feed water is bigger than the flow of steam abnormally; 2) There is abnormal sound at the leaking place; and there is smoking and wet at the un-tight place of flue gas duct; 3) The adjusting damper of IDF turns up abnormally, and the current of IDF increases; 4) The temperature of the flue gas reduces at leaking side and the temperature of hot air reduces; 5) When the pipes explode seriously; it is difficult to keep the water level.
1)

2. Reason: The quality of feed water is not qualified that cause corrosion and scale in pipes; 2) The flow and temperature of feed water always fluctuate in large range; 3) The material of pipe is not qualified, and the quality of welding is bad; 4) The wearing of the outer wall of pipes is serious;
1)
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5)

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In the startup and shutdown of boiler, the use of the re-circulating valve of economizer is improper; 6) Secondary combustion occurs near the economizer. 3. Treatment: When the broken is not serious, the amount of feed water should be increase to maintain the water level in drum; operates under the condition of reducing pressure and load properly and apply for shutdown; 2) When the leakage is serious and the normal water level cannot be maintained, emergency shutdown should be done; 3) Maintain the operation of IDF, and discharge the steam inside of boiler; 4) It is forbidden to feed water into boiler and open the re-circulating valve of economizer; 5) After shutdown, notice the ESP section to stop the operation of every electric field; 6) After shutdown, the ash deposits at the bottom of ESP and air preheater should be removed as soon as possible; 7) Other operations should be done according to normal shutdown of boiler.
1)

Slag in bed surface: 1. Phenomenon: 1) There is white spark in fluidized bed; 2) CRT displays the distribution of the temperature of bed and the pressure of bed is not uniform extremely; 3) Slag can be seen from the sight hole; the bed material moves abnormally in boiler or the color of fluidized bed is too dark; 4) The combustion is not stable extremely, and the relative parameters fluctuate too much and the deviation is too big. 2. Reason: 1) The temperature of bed of boiler is too high; 2) In the operation of boiler, the proportion of air and coal is not proper for a long time. 3) Before startup of boiler, the fluidized nozzles are blocked too many, or there are some impurities that is fire resistant left in boiler; 4) In the course of shutdown, the fuel is not combustion completely and the tar evolution cause low temperature slag; 5) In the course of startup, the fluidization is bad because partial superheating slag. 3. Treatment 1) Increase the amount of primary air; 2) Reduce the temperature of bed properly; especially should pay attention to the
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temperature rising and the rate of temperature rising cannot seriously rise too much when feeding coal; 3) Strengthen the exchange of bed material; remove the bad fluidized bed material in time and fill new bed material; 4) After adjusting, if this phenomenon still does not improved, the boiler should be shutdown immediately. Re-combustion of flue gas duct 1. Phenomenon: The temperature of smoke emission raises abnormally; When re-combustion in horizontal flue duct, the amount of oxygen in flue gas reduces and the temperature of main steam raises abnormally; 3) When re-combustion occurs in the vertical shaft flue gas duct, the temperature of primary air and secondary air raise, and the temperature of the water at the outlet of economizer raises; 4) The fluctuation of the negative pressure of furnace is big; 5) The un-tight place of fuel duct smokes.
1) 2)

2. Reason: The proportion of air and coal in operation is imbalance; In the startup course, the atomization of oil gun is bad, and the fuel oil operates for a long time at the same time; 3) The coal particle is too fine or the negative pressure of furnace is too big; 4) After the slag of bed surface, the coal feeding is not stopped in time; 5) The flow velocities of the flue gas of firing, shutdown and low load operation are low; and the combustibles that is not complete combustion is stacked in flue gas duct.
1) 2)

3. Treatment 1) Blowing out should be done for the heating surface at the flue gas duct of combustion section; if necessary, the load should be reduced; 2) If it is not effect after treatment, when the temperature of smoke emission raises 200, the emergency shutdown of boiler should be done; 3) All air fans should be stopped; and the combustion and air and gas system of boiler should be closed; 4) Keep the continuous water induction of boiler. The fluidization is bad. 1. Phenomenon The distribution of bed temperature is not uniform. 2) The air pressure in air room is not stable, and the fluctuation of the negative pressure of boiler is big;
1)
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3)

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The changes of discharging value of NOX,CO,SO are big; 4) The temperature of steam and pressure and flow of steam reduce. 2. Reason: 1) The bed material is too much or too small; 2) The air flow is too high or too low; 3) The fire resisting and wearable material inside of boiler falls off. 4) The blast cap is blocked; 5) The air fan is in trouble or the air valve moves wrongly or the operator operates wrongly; 6) The slag removing and material returning system is in trouble; 7) Partial clogging appears; 8) The grain size of material is too coarse or too fine. 3. Treatment:
1) Adjust the fluidized air flow and air pressure, and the primary air flow can be

increased temporarily; 2) Adjust the coal feeding or limestone feeding in this area; 3) Strengthen the slag removing of this area or replace the bed material as soon as possible; 4) When the measures are not effect and it develops seriously, apply for shutdown. XIV The load reduces suddenly. 1. Phenomenon: 1) The flow of steam goes down seriously, and the pressure of main steam rises sharply; 2) When the pressure of steam is too high, the safety valve acts; 3) The water level of drum goes down firstly and then it raises; 4) Relative protection sends visual and audible alarm. 2. Reason: 1) The system of electric power network is in trouble; 2) The main switch of generator trips; 3) The main steam valve of turbine closes. 3. Treatment: The coal feeding should be reduced rapidly or a part of coal feeds can be stopped; when necessary, oil gun should be put into operation to stabilize the combustion; 2) Open the exhaustion to atmosphere according to pressure; 3) The monitor and adjustment of water level should be strengthened; 4) When necessary, the material should be discharged through the emergency ash
1)
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removing pipe of material returning device; 5) The preparation of taking load again should be done well; if it cannot be recovered for a long time, should apply for shutdown the boiler. XV J valve material returning device is blocked. 1. Phenomenon: The level of medium in cyclone barrel goes up, and the differential pressure and density of J valve raise; 2) The temperature of the bed of boiler raises and the pressure of bed goes down; 3) The temperature of material returning reduces; the air flow of air room reduces; the pressure of air raises; and the temperature of the flue gas at the outlet of cyclone barrel raises.
1)

2. Reason: The air flow and air pressure of the air room of material returning device is not enough; The insulation and wearing material of cyclone fall off; 3) The blast cap of A and B air room of material returning device are blocked, the loose air month is blocked; 4) Slag appears in bin leg; 5) The particle is too small.
1) 2)

3. Treatment: Turn down the overflow valve, increase the air flow to the air room of material returning device; 2) Blow out by compressed air; 3) Reduce the load of boiler properly and reduce the fluidized air flow of primary air, improve the size of coal particle; 4) When serious, the emergency ash discharging valve should be open; and the level of medium of J valve should be paid attention to in ash removing; 5) If the measures are not effect, apply for shutdown.
1)

The auxiliary power is broken down. 1 Phenomenon: The current of all rotating equipment goes back to zero, and visual and audible alarm is sending; 2) The MFT of boiler acts; 3) The pressure of steam increases and the safety valve acts; 4) The temperature of steam reduces, and the water level reduces.
1)

2 Treatment
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1) Close the damper at the inlet and outlet of every air fan manually; 2) Parallel off the desuperheating water and the continuous blowdown; 3) Close the general valve of feed water; 4) Close the intake oil valve and back oil valve of fuel oil; 5) Reset every tripped rotating machine and put them at manual operation position; 6) If the power source cannot be recovered in short time, the boiler should be shutdown; 7) After the power source is recovered, the feeding water of boiler should be approved by general technical superintendent. Others The trips of IDF, HP fluidized air fan, primary air fan, secondary air fan and main fuel of boiler occur, the boiler should be shutdown.

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Section Boiling Out and Chemical Cleaning of CFB Boiler Chapter I Boiling out and drying out of CFB boiler

. The aims of boiling out and drying out The aim of boiling out is clean the oil and grease inside of boiler. The cleaning medium is usually alkali solution. A very thin layer of oil, grease, grease membrane and its re-solvent on the heating surface of boiler will resistant the heating transferring seriously. The adiabatic membrane blocks the fast transfer of heat energy from metal to medium, and make the temperature of metal wall raise caused the pipes of boiler superheat and bag even explode when serious. The aim of drying out is removing the water content in fire-resistive material after the installation of circulating fluidized bed boiler. Generally speaking, boiling out, and drying out can be done at the same time. . The preparation of boiling out and drying out

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Drying out should be done after the following conditions are met: The assembly of boiler and its auxiliary equipment have been finished and the cold state trial operation has been finished; various electric device, I&C instruments, and auto adjusting device have been installed; and some of them have been commissioned and they can met the requirement of drying out; the boiler wall, flue duct and air way have been installed well, and the insulation of the pipes of boiler has been fixed. All valves and holes on the boiler wall should be open to dry naturally for certain time to prepare for drying out. The maintenance time of the fire resistant, wearing, and insulating materials have been get the natural maintenance time required by the supplier of material. Before drying out, it should be isolated with other operating boilers, and the impurities and ash deposits inside of the furnace, flue duct, and air way should be removed completely. The soft water after treatment should be add in boiler to the low water level of water level indicator; and then the water level indicator should be washed according to the normal procedure. Check whether the economizer is filled with soft water fully. Set the operation procedure of drying out and draw the curve of drying out. . Attention points in boiling out and drying out Before boiling out and drying out, the preparation and organization of boiling out and drying out should be done well. The drying out procedure should be made well and the curve of drying out should be drawn well that should be obeyed in the whole process of drying out with the requirements of drying out according to the different type of boiler and the different structure of the boiler wall. The operation procedure of drying out and boiling out should be carried out strictly, the velocity of temperature increasing cannot be too fast that should be done as even as possible to prevent the boiler wall from breaking and out of shape caused by the too fast temperature increasing velocity. When the high temperature cyclone is sued, the influence of the temperature increasing rate to the stability of the expansion of fire resistant material should be paid attention to. 2) In the procedure of drying out, should check whether there is broken or slump phenomenon. The temperature of drying out should be controlled strictly. All valves and holes of the boiler wall that needs drying out should be open to make it is dried naturally before drying out. 3) In the drying out procedure, the checks should be done strictly, and it should be adjusted in time to prevent from rising too fast of the temperature at partial part of boiler wall. The dead area which the flue gas cannot reach should be paid more attention to in drying out. 4) In the whole drying out procedure, the temperature of every part should be recorded on the special tables and these tables should be kept well. After mending the fireresistant material at the partial part of boiler; to do drying out or not should be taken into consideration according to the mended area and the drying out plan should be made. 5) In the procedure of boiling out, the double color water level indicator may change color seriously and may be permanent erosion. After boiling out and chemical clean, all broken components should be replaced before next supplying water to unit. 6) The chemical medicines should be dissolved in water before dosing into boiler, and
1)
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they cannot be dosed into boiler with solid state; when deal with the corrosive material, the operation should be carefully to prevent from splashing eyes, skin, or clothes. The operators should use protective goggles, rubber gloves, and cotton clothes to protect themselves while mixing these materials. 7) The chemical reagents should not be added to boiler by dosing system with high concentration, because the solution with high concentration may block the dosing pipes and valves. 8) If the chemical medicines used for boiling out have to be filled into the drum of boiler by the dosing system, before the chemical medicine are supplied to pump, the concentration of the solution in mixing container should be diluted to 5%; after the filling is finished, the pump and the dosing pipes should be washed thoroughly. 9) When there is high chemical concentration water inside of boiler, the safety valve cannot be tuning until the chemical concentration of boiler water is near to normal value at the initial startup stage. . The chemical medicines used in boiling out The alkali chemical medicines are usually used in boiling out of unit such as soda and sodium hydroxide, because these reagents have the saponification ability of oil and grease and produce soap compounds; these compounds are easy to remove by high pressure blowdown in the procedure washing by cold water by high pressure soft pipe after the boiling out of boiler is finished. Phosphate also can be used to clean the furnace of boiler thoroughly (i.e. trisodium phosphate and disodium phosphate adding some soda or sodium hydroxide); at this time, some brittle suppressant and economic humid agent should be added to the boiling out solution. Caustic embrittlement is caused by sodium hydroxide in relative short boiling out period. The concentration of alkaline in the boiler water is higher than the concentration in the standard feed water of boiler, so, it is necessary safety protection measures adding to enough brittle suppressants in the water of boiler, and sodium nitrate is better than other reagent. In order to remove the oil dirt on the surface of the metal of boiler effectively, humid agent should be blended into the admixture of boiling out. These reagents can increase the humectation ability of water by reducing the surface tension, so that the adherence of oil and grease can be reduced to the lowest condition. The admixture of humid agent and the common boiling out chemical material will destroy the adherence of oil dirt so that the oil and grease on the surface of metal can be removed. The agents of boiling out are as follows: Trisodium phosphate 5.25 g/1kg water (crystalline state) Soda powder Sodium nitrate Moistening agent 1.0 g/1kg water 0.15 g/1kg water 0.10 g/1kg water

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If there is no trisodium phosphate, it is allowed to use disodium phosphate (without water) to instead of it. The weight of this kind of chemical medicine should take 2.5g/1kg water as etalon. The procedure of boiling out 1. Preparation of boiling out The following procedures is worked out supposes using trisodium phosphate solution (Na3PO4-12H2O). The drying out and boiling out are doing at the same time. In order to remove all metal fritter, borings, wood flour, tools, fuzz, and other impurities, the inner and outer surfaces of boiler and the auxiliary equipment should be cleaned and checked carefully. The removing of these impurities before boiling out is very important, or they may influent the operation of blowdown valve or the operation of boiler. 2) The startup bed material can be added before boiling out or after boiling out. 3) Insulate the low reading water level indicator, pressure connecting components, transmitters, and anything that may be broken in the period of boiling out. The water filling should be finished used the feed water pump and pipes system that will be used in normal operation so that the washing for the pipes and auxiliary equipment in front of boiler can be done. 4) Except the connecting valves and air vent valves of instrument, all other valves of drum should be closed. 5) Utilize the drain water pipe of main feed water pipe or the drain water pipe of economizer to fill the chemical agent of boiler into the feed water pipes behind the main feed water pump and in front of economizer. The filling of chemical agent just can be done when there is main feed water flow, and the filling is better to be finished before the water level of drum reaches the required level in order the chemical agent in the feed water pipes of boiler can be washed clearly at the last stage of water filling circulation of boiler. 6) Raise the water level to the lowest position that can be shown in the water level indicator. 7) When water level in drum reaches the required water level, the bypass valve of the feed water operating plate of boiler should be closed.
1)

2. The procedure of boiling out 1) The sequence of procedure is startup the IDF and FDF, and then blow out the boiler. 2) Fix the combustion air damper to maintain enough air flow to the high speed diesel burner under bed. 3) When the operation of high speed diesel oil igniter under bed is stable with low load, the combustion rate can be increased according to demand to boost the pressure. 4) In order to prevent the drum from suffering too large heat stress, in the startup and normal operation, the differential temperature of the wall between the top of drum
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MPa)

and the bottom should be controlled in 50. 5) When the pressure of boiler reaches 0.1Mpa, the air vent valve of drum should be closed. 6) The combustion of the high speed diesel burner under bed cannot be stopped until the boiling out pressure is same with the designed pressure of this unit. Figure 9 is the boiling out pressure recommended under differential designed pressure.
4 3 .5

3 Boil ing 2 .5 out pres 2 sure 1 .5 0 .5 0 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 Designed pressure 2 5 Ma P) 1

Figure 9 The recommended boiling out pressure under different designed pressure 7) The operating feed water pump of boiler can guarantee that it can supply water to boiler at any time. 8) The high speed diesel burner under bed should be operated intermittent according to the requirement to maintain the pressure of boiling out of drum at least for 8 hours. 9) The water level should be raised to about 51mm from the top of double color water level indicator. 10) When the water level reaches the high water level and the pressure is the boiling out pressure of boiler, the high speed diesel oil igniter under bed should be closed. 11) Open the blowdown valve of boiler and the drain water valve of the lower header of water wall to blowdown. When the blowdown pipes is using to blowdown, the valve nearest to boiler should be open first and close last. The second valve on pipes should be used to control the flow. The effect blowdown can be finished by open and close these valves. The time of blowdown should be about 10 seconds. 12) Check the phosphate, PH value, silica, and total alkalinity of the sample of the boiler water taken from drum and record its chemical concentration. 13) When the water level of drum goes down to the range within 51mm above the bottom of double color water level indicator, make up water into the drum and ignite the high speed diesel oil igniter under bed to maintain the boiling out pressure of boiler. 14) Repeat the 11th clause and 12th clause at every four hours in 24 hours till there is no oil appears in the sample of boiler water. If the water is needed to make up, it should be done according to the 13th clause. 15) After boiling out, the drum should be checked and the deposits should be removed
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after the boiler is cooled and the water is discharged. In order to remove the deposits further, the header should be checked. When there is no hand-hole supplied for check on header, the end of the junction of feed water pipes or ascension pipes and bend it to the other side. If there is no any impurity in header, it can be cleaned by hand or washed by high pressure water by soft pipe. The inner surface of metal also should be checked to confirm there is no oil adhering on it. 16) After the drum and headers have been cleaned and checked completely, the unit can be closed, and the new manhole gasket can be fixed on drum. The hand-hole pipe cover on header or the tube cutoff used for cleaning and check should be replaced. Soft water or condensate water should be filled into unit and its pressure should be boosted to near to the pressure of hydraulic test to do hydraulic test; and then the water of this unit should be drained to normal water level of drum.

Chapter Chemical washing of economizer and evaporation system

. Treatment of feed water and the water in boiler The samples of feed water and boiler water have to be tested to satisfy the demands of water quality. The quality of feed water should satisfy the regulation of the qualities of HP water in GB/T12145-1999 Quality Standard of Water and Steam of Fossil Fired Generating Unit and Steam Driven Equipment. The manufactory of boiler does not have the responsibility for the corrosion, water scale, and explosion of pipes of boiler caused by unqualified quality of feed water. The scale in the pipes of boiler will also influent the heat transferring and influent the performance of boiler directly. . The aim of chemical cleaning It is a very effective method that using chemical solvent to clean the modern parameter boiler unit. The new unit can be cleaned before initial operation, or in order to remove rolling fritter, the cleaning can be done in the very short time after initial operation. A very thin layer of uniform ferric oxide protective layer will be formed on the surface of heating surface after cleaning. It is better to clean the new unit after operating for a short time, because a large amount of air scale and silicon oxide material will go into boiler from feed water system and condensate water system at the course of initial operation unless the chemical cleaning has been done for front boiler system. The requirement of different power plant for whether it is necessary to clean the operation deposit of the unit that has been put into operation is different. It depends on the composition of feed water system, and the history and quality of make-up water. Because the material of operation fouling is very much, its cleaning is more complex than the cleaning of rolling fritter. If scale appears on heating surface, the boiler cannot be operated reliably.
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Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project . Make sure the chemical cleaning is necessary

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The cleaning before operation is necessary or not depends on the estimation of the rusty condition of all circulating components in the course of installation. The factors influencing the rusty condition have the measures of storage and the weather of power plant. Rust, loose rolling fritter and the siliceous dioxide material will be removed from boiler in the period of alkaline boiling out. Alkaline boiling out should be done for every unit. If other parts of circulating loop are not cleaned completely, the impurities will be taken into the boiler, so it maybe needs cleaning. The deposit formed in operation is various and it is difficult to identify. Pipe cutting sample should be done once at every year or every two years; and the weight of deposit should be measured. Generally, the difference of the component of deposit is not taken into consideration. If the deposit at working medium side in furnace of unit gets 20~40mg/cm 2; the chemical cleaning should be taken into consideration in the next maintenance. . Agent system of chemical cleaning Two aspects should be taken into consideration in the chose of solvent: firstly, the compatibility for the material should be taken into consideration; secondly, whether it is suitable for removing the deposit should be taken into consideration. And these two aspects are not separated from each one, because the dissolve of solvent to deposit may corrode the pipe, but this phenomenon does not exist when there is no deposit. Inorganic acid such as hydrogen chloride is usually taken as the solvent of cleaning residue and scraps or the deposit in operation. If there is copper in deposit, the compound agent must be used at the same time because copper will deposit on the surface of metal in acid solution. The intensity is decided by the analysis, weight, and structure of deposit. When hydrogen chloride is used in the cleaning before operation, the following conditions should be satisfied:
Concentration of hydrogen chloride Temperature of metal and solvent Contacting time of solvent Concentration of anticorrosive agent Max. value 5% (calculated with weight) 68 6 times Decide according to the conditions

. The operation of chemical cleaning


1)

The chemical cleaning cannot be done by the operator without experience. If the condition is out of control or the material used here is not comfortable, it will be very dangerous. So deliberate plan must be made for it to guarantee getting the
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2)

3)

4) 5)

6)

7)

8)

required chemical working condition and prevent from producing the dangers for person and property. In order to get the temperature of cleaning, condensate water or soft water can be filled into unit and heated according to appointed method. Drum thermocouple (if it is necessary, should use temporary thermocouple) is used for monitoring the temperature to guarantee no temperature of any area exceeding the limitation of temperature of solvent system and all anticorrosive agents. These limitations must be specified by the supplier of solvent system. After the temperature is satisfied, the water can be discharged into storage tank. Before add the solvent into pump, should check whether the anticorrosive agent is right or not; when the water is filled into boiler again, if the temperature of water must be adjusted, the steam should be filled before the filling of solvent to avoid corrosion for the mixed equipment. It is forbidden to ignite when there is acid in unit, because that will make the anticorrosive agent loss effect. When there is solvent in unit, the intensity of acid, concentration of iron, temperature and any condition or content needed for the controlling of special solvent system should be monitored and surveyed regularly. When it is confirmed that the cleaning is finished according to the indication the concentration of iron, the solvent should be discharged out of the unit under the condition of filling nitrogen. The solvent in the cleaned area can be cleaning once or many time by the feed water and drain water of unit; iron composite agent should be added in cleaning water to prevent from iron depositing on the cleaned surface. When cleaning has been finished, alkaline solution should be filled into unit to neutralize the residual solvent and passivate the surface to prevent from getting rusty. The alkaline solution should be heated before filling. Once passivation is finished, the drain water of unit should be checked and all temporary pipes should be demolished.

. Chemical cleaning of superheater 1) Generally, chemical cleaning is not necessary for superheater system. 2) Under the following conditions, the chemical cleaning of superheater should be done: the demand of special circulation; the cleaning before the operation of power plant; or the cleaning to remove the deposits produced in abnormal operating condition. 3) The cleaning should obey the general law of the compatibility of solvent and the compatibility between solvent and structure material, i.e. it is same with the demands of evaporation system.

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Section Air Test of Boiler System


After the installation of new boiler is finished, the air test has to be done for it to check the air and flue gas leaking condition of boiler system. These leakages should be mended in time to guarantee the air tightness and safe operation. The procedures are as follows:
1) 2)

3) 4)
5)

7)
8)

9)
11)

One blind should be installed at the inlet of IDF Close all man-holes and observation holes. Block all connecting places of all instruments. Open all passage ways that are waiting for measure. Operate the FDF to increase the pressure of system to 76.2mmH2O 6) Use proper visual and audible equipment to check the whole system. Soap membrane, smoke bomb, and sound tester are very usable. These methods can be used together. Check and confirm all leakage. Reduce pressure of system. Mend all leakage. 10) If any leakage is found, after repairing it well, the air test should be done again. Demolish all blind and blocked cover.

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Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project

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Section Appendix Attached list Gas filling amount of J valve air nozzle
Temperature Air flow of down-comer (Nm3/h) NA A17~A20 A13~A16 A1~A4 A5~A8 Blast cap Air filling hole Air filling hole Air filling hole Air filling hole Subtotal: Air flow of riser pipe (Nm3/hr) NB A9~A12 Blast cap Air filling hole Subtotal: Total: 233.63 32.22 265.85 821.72 84.6 13.22 97.82 283.35 290.02 64.45 64.45 104.73 32.22 555.87 132.18 39.66 39.66 60.81 13.22 285.53 93 843

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Attached list Thermal calculation summary table of designed coal of boiler


1. 100%B-MCR working condition of designed coal Characteristic of fuel Carbon Car % 29.82 Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Sulfur Water Ash Volatile matter Low heating value Grindability index Har Oar Nar Sar Mar Aar Vdaf % % % % % % % 2.41 10.69 0.41 2.06 50 4.61 27.13 10292 Parameter of boiler Flow of superheat steam D t/h Temperature of t superheat steam Pressure of the outlet of Pgr MPa.a superheat Temperature of feed tw water Air-intake temperature ta of air preheater Performance parameter Loss of smoke emission q2 % Loss of chemical q3 % incomplete combustion Loss of physical q4 % incomplete combustion Radiation and q5 % convection loss Physical heat loss of q6 % slag Thermal efficiency of % boiler (low heat value) Combustion of fuel Molar ratio of calcium and sulfur B Ca/s t/h / 130 540 9.91 210 30 Volume of furnace Thermal parameter Vt m3 Ft H Qv Qf t Pa m2 m2 kw/m3 kw/m2 % MPa.a 969.3 33.54 497.8 106.3 3071.9 90.4 11.09

Area of section of furnace Radiant heating area of furnace Heating load of the volume of furnace Heating load of the area of section of furnace Efficiency of desulphurization Working pressure of ddrum Tempering method Pressure of desuperheating water supply Amount of primary desuperheating water Amount of secondary desuperheating water Air amount of the inlet of boiler Flue gas flow of the outlet of boiler Temperature of bed

7.44 0.05 2.61 0.6 0.6 88.51 36.94 2.64

Secondary spray water desuperheat P D1 D2 Qa Qg a MPa.a t/h t/h Nm3/h Nm3/h 11.53 5.915 3.185 130941.9 169577.6 867

LHV kJ/kg HGI /

Characteristic of limestone CaCO3 MgCO3 H2 O % % % 75 3 2

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Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project


Other % 20 Consumption of limestone t/h 9.07

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/ / 7:3

Bottom ash ratio of fly ash

Name Temperature of flue gas at inlet Temperature of flue gas at outlet Temperature of working medium at inlet Temperature of working medium at outlet Excess steam index

Platen Symbol Unit Furnace Separator superheater ' " / 853 / / / /

Up Up Down Down High Low Convection Turning secondary primary secondary primary temperature temperature economizer tube bunch room air air air air superheater superheater preheater preheater preheater preheater 853 841 841 812 812 681 673 508 508 257 257 238 238 199 199 162 162 137

t'

317

414

317

321

446

354

210

147

91

30

30

t"

317 1.2

468 1.2

/ 1.2

321 1.2

/ 1.2

540 1.2

452 1.2

313 1.22

198 1.235

192 1.235

147 1.25

91 1.25

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Attached drawingCurve of the grain size of as-fired coal


Granularity distribution of coal

Designed graininess distribution

Allowable range of variation

Screen percentage (%)

Grain-size (m)

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Grain-size (m)

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Attached drawing Curve of the grain size of as-fired limestone

Screen percentage (%)

Granularity limestone
Designed graininess distribution

distribution

of

Allowable range of variation


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Grain-size (m)

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Attached drawing Side view of boiler

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Attached drawing Top view of boiler


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Attached drawing Diagram of steam and water system of boiler

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Attached drawing Diagram of air and gas system

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Attached drawing Equipment inside of drum


2 1 3 4

14 13 12 11 10

5 6

9 7

(1) Uniform steam orifice (3) Louver separator (5) Wire mesh separator (7) Anti-rotating device (9) Jacketed space

(2) Steam receiving room (4) Horizontal separator (6) Ascension pipe (8) Down comer

(10) The lowest water level (low water level trip) (11) The lowest safe water level (low alarming water level) (12) Normal water level
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Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project (13) The highest safe water level (high alarming water level) (14) The highest water level (high water level trip)

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Attached drawing Layout diagram of centralized down comer & draining connected pipe

Lower steam header of left side water wall

Low er stea m head er of front water wall

Lower steam header of right side water wall

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Low er stea m head er of back water wall

Training Material for VC 2x23MW Thermal Power Project

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Attached drawing Recommended boiling out pressure under different design pressure

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MPa)

4 3. 5 3 2. 5 2 1. 5 1 0. 5 0 0 5 10 20 25 Designed pressure M Pa) 15

Attached drawing Relation curves among flue gas wet volume %, oxygen amount and load %

Boiling out pressure

7
Oxygen amount

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 20 40 60 80 100
Load of boiler % MCR

% CR M

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Attached drawing Relation between the air amount of fluidized bed and fluidized speed

3 3 mn /h10

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Fluidized air speed in furnace (m/s) ms /

Air amou nt to botto m air room

600 750 900 1000

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Attached drawing Cold startup curve


Cold startup curve of boiler
Temperature

Pressure

Load

Flow

Pressure of main steam Pgr Temperature of main steam Tgr Flow of main steam Ggr Electric power of unit Ne Thermal power of ignition burner Ni Thermal power of fuel Nf Temperature of bed Tb

Initial condition of ignition

Rolling up parameter of turbine

Time (hour)

Ignition

Rolling up

Synchronization

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Attached drawing J valve jointing pipe

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Attached drawing XIV Relation between the height of static bed material and differential pressure of bed material

Heig ht of static bed mate rial on air plate mm Differential pressure of bed material Pa

Attached drawing XV Min. value of steam temperature after reducing temperature by sprayed water
390 380 370 360 350 340 330 320 310 300 290 280 270 260

Saturated steam temperature The lowest steam temperature after reducing temperature Ts+ 11 by spraying water Ts+11 Pressure of drum Pa 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112131415161718192021M MPa

Ste am tem pera ture

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